Page  81 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 81 FLORA AND VEGETATION OF THE GRAND TRAVERSE ISLANDS (LAKE MICHIGAN), WISCONSIN AND MICHIGAN Emmet J. Judziewicz Senior Conservation Biologist Bureau of Endangered Resources Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Madison, WI 53707-7921 ABSTRACT The results of a rare plant, floristic, and plant community survey of the Grand Traverse Islands archipelago are presented. Stretching from Wisconsin's Door Peninsula to Michigan's Garden Peninsula, these Lake Michigan and Green Bay islands are largely underlain by Silurian dolomite that outcrops along shorelines as high, white cedar-dominated cliffs (on west coasts), low wave-washed shelves (east coasts), and, occasionally, interior escarpments. Most islands experienced intensive human use in the 19th century (fishing, concomitant logging and farming) but have now recovered to second- and third-growth forests. An exception is Washington Island, the largest in the archipelago, which has a permanent human population and much cultivated or formerly cultivated land. Islands larger than about 100 ha have interiors dominated by beech (Fagus grandifolia)-sugar maple (Acer saccharum) forests that may have rich spring ephemeral displays, including, on Washington and Rock Islands, the rare disjunct broad-leaved wood sedge (Carexplatyphylla). These mesic forests are best developed on the western and northern sides of islands, where glacial till overlies dolomite. The eastern shores often have boreal conifer-dominated beach ridge and swale complexes (best developed at Jackson Harbor on Washington Island) with regional endemic calciphiles such as dwarf lake iris (Iris lacustris) and boreal disjuncts like northern comandra (Geocaulon lividum). Small dune complexes may have regional endemics such as Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) and Lake Huron tansy (Tanacetum huronense), but these appear to be declining due to intensive human use of Great Lakes beaches. Dolomitic shoreline bedrock communities-now known as Great Lakes alkaline rockshores-are present on eastern and southeastern coasts of islands and are best developed on Summer, Poverty, Washington, Detroit, and possibly St. Martin Islands. On Poverty and Summer Islands, such communities grade inland into alvar, a globally rare community. Chambers Island is low and sandy and has extensive second-growth hemlock-hardwood forests and small remnant Great Lakes barrens communities with southern sand prairie or pine barrens species that are rare or absent elsewhere along the shores of northern Lake Michigan. Washington Island has a number of interesting interior wetlands including boreal fens at Little Lake, Coffee Swamp, and Big Marsh. The plants and communities of all of the islands are experiencing a "crunch" of negative factors including: Deer herbivory on large islands, which is affecting tree regeneration and the survival of understory herbs such as those in the lily and orchid families; and, invading colonial waterbirds on small (less than about 10 ha) islands-the birds have nearly killed all arboreal vegetation. Some 797 vascular plant species are recorded from the islands, including two federally listed species, 59 species listed as endangered, threatened, or special concern by the state of Wisconsin, and nine listed by endangered, threatened, or special concern by the state of Michigan. Current address: Biology Department, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, Stevens Point, WI 54481; emmet.judziewicz@uwsp.edu

Page  82 ï~~82 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION.................................................................82 History of Botanical Exploration...........................................84 Scope of Present Study.....................................................93 PLANT COMMUNITIES........................................................93 Mesic Forest..................................................................93 Boreal Forest.................................................................93 Forested Ridge and Swale Complexes....................................99 Interior Wetlands...........................................................100 Dunescapes (Open Dunes and Beaches).................................101 Great Lake Pine Barrens...................................................103 Great Lakes Alkaline Rockshore and Alvar............................105 Coastal Dry Cliffs..........................................................108 Interior Moist Cliffs........................................................108 "Bird Islands................................................................110 Anthropogenic Communities and Threatening Exotic Species.....110 FLORISTICS AND BIOGEOGRAPHY.......................................113 ISLAND-BY-ISLAND SUMMARIES.........................................117 Snake........................................................................117 Green........................................................................118 Cana.........................................................................120 Hat...........................................................................120 Chambers...................................................................120 Adventure...................................................................124 Little Strawberry...........................................................124 Jack..........................................................................125 Horseshoe...................................................................125 Sister........................................................................125 Spider........................................................................125 Gravel.......................................................................126 Plum.........................................................................126 Detroit.......................................................................128 Pilot..........................................................................129 Washington.................................................................130 Hog..........................................................................136 Rock.........................................................................136 Fish and Fishermen's Shoal...............................................139 St. Martin...................................................................139 Gravelly.....................................................................140 Little Gull...................................................................140 Gull..........................................................................140 Poverty......................................................................141 Summer.....................................................................142 Little Summer..............................................................146 CHECKLIST OF VASCULAR PLANTS......................................147 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.......................................................206 LITERATURE CITED...........................................................206 INTRODUCTION The island chain that stretches from Green Bay and the tip of Wisconsin' s Door Peninsula to the tip of Michigan's Garden Peninsula is here recognized as the- "Grand! Traverse Islands.(Fig. 1). " This isnota- wl-known,-.term,.-in ei -ther

Page  83 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 83 2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 83 Small islands 1 - Gravelly 2 - Gull 3 - Little Gull 4- Jack 5- Little Strawberry 6 - Adventure 7 - Horseshoe Little (3 Summer GREEN BAY 1 lv " 2 0 Poverty St. (' 3 Martin -'J SFishermen's Poverty 1 MenomineeK Marinette WISCONSIN Spider LAKE MICHIGAN 15km FIGURE 1. Map of the Grand Traverse Islands, Wisconsin and Michigan. Wisconsin or Michigan. But, it aptly describes the physiographic context of this island chain and its biological role as a series of stepping stones from the Door to the Garden Peninsulas. The term was most recently used in the 1970s by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) in an unsuccessful attempt to create a "chain-of-islands" park spanning the Badger and Wolverine States (Huntoon 1977). Geologically, the islands, with the exception of Green and Chambers Islands

Page  84 ï~~84 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 in Green Bay, are underlain by middle Silurian dolomites that dip east down into Lake Michigan, resulting in high cliffs on the west and northwest sides of some islands, and broad pavements to low shelves on the east and southeast coasts (Schrock 1940, Dorr & Eschman 1984, Palmquist et al 1991, Albert et al. 1997). Several types of dolomites are present: the Engadine Group close to Lake Michigan, including, for example, the southeast one-half of St. Martin Island, all of Poverty Island, and the southeast one-half of Summer Island, Michigan; the Manistique Group (the northwest half of Summer Island), and the Burnt Bluff Group (part of Little Summer Island). All of these formations are part of the Niagara escarpment which runs from eastern Wisconsin to Ontario and New York. The vegetation of the Grand Traverse Islands is principally second-growth mixed although mainly deciduous forests, with an admixture of more conifers, natural wetland and shoreline feaures, and general diversity near the coasts. Although many of the islands hosted fishing villages and subsistence farming during the middle of the 19th century, only Washington was (and to some degree still is) extensively cultivated for agriculture. The islands' plants and plant communities face a number of challenges. White-tailed deer are probably now as widespread, numerous, and damaging as they have ever been in the archipelago; the vegetation of the smaller islands has been devastated by colonial waterbirds in the past decade; and human development is proceeding on Chambers, Washington, and Little Summer Islands. One reads accounts of what these islands were like only 25 or 75 years ago with disbelief. Plum Island had old-growth hardwoods with a luxuriant Canada yew understory as recently as 1974; Spider Island was a veritable garden of Indian paint-brush, blue flag, and wood lily under tamaracks and cedars; now-deserted bird islands like Pilot had bustling human mini-communities based on lighthouse-tending; and on Washington Island, butternut was a common forest tree, and calypso orchids were so common that they were used to decorate gravestones on Memorial Day. The one thing that struck me in researching and writing this paper, is how quickly changes can occur on these small, relatively open systems called islands. And substantial, largely negative changes are in the offing in the coming decades, such as the threat of the destruction of the wonderful spring ephemeral displays on Rock Island by invading garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata)-a species that, ironically, may have been inadvertently introduced to the island by hikers and tent campers. Here I provide a snapshot of a significant part of the natural history of the Grand Traverse Islands as they appear at the end of the 20th century (Table 1). History of Biological Exploration (Table 2) In spite of their relative proximity to urban areas, the history of biological surveys of the Grand Traverse Islands began rather late-in fact over 50 years later than that of the more remote Apostle Islands (Judziewicz & Koch 1993). The first known plant collections are a few made by J.H. Schuette on Washington Island from 12-14 and 23 September 1889. Next, E. Bruncken of the Milwaukee Public Museum (MIL) made collections on "Strawberry" (now Adventure) Island on 17 July 1897. Over the next 35 years, MIL sent various collectors to ex

Page  85 ï~~TABLE 1. Summary of the Grand Traverse Islands Docu- Docu- WI Height mented Predicted mented/ Thorough- WI MI and/or Above No. No. Predicted ness Listed Listed MI White- Colonial Area Lake Plant Plant No. of Plant Plant Listed tailed Canada water- Interior ISLAND County State (ha) (m) Species Species Species Survey Spp. Spp. Spp. Deer? yew? birds? welands? Snake Door WI 11 2 Green Marinette WI 32 7 Cana Door WI 3.5 3 Hat Door WI 1.5 2 Chambers Door WI 1050 17 Adventure Door WI 8 5 Little Strawberry Door WI 2.5 4 Jack Door WI 2 5 Horseshoe Door WI 10.5 10 Sister Door WI 2.5 1 Spider Door WI 7 3 Gravel Door WI 0.7 1 Plum Door WI 108 13 Detroit Door WI 260 25 Pilot Door WI 1.2 3 Washington Door WI 5801 53 Hog Door WI 0.8 2 Rock Door WI 325 65 Fish Door WI 0.5 2 St. Martin Delta MI 523 35 Gravelly Delta MI 1 2 Little Gull Delta MI 2 2 Gull Delta MI 5.5 3 Poverty Delta MI 78 18 Summer Delta MI 891 41 Little Summer Delta MI 225 12 156 92 111 22 358 58 44 28 49 6 42 0 259 340 40 626 34 333 0 183 24 43 42 203 376 Excellent 0 156 0.59 Excellent 0 92 1.16 Excellent 1 Good 0 398 0.89 Excellent 4 Fair 0 Good 1 Good 2 Fair 1 Poor 0 70 0.6 Fair 0 Good 0 226 1.15 Good 4 281 1.18 Good 11 Excellent 1 611 1.02 Excellent 44 Excellent 0 297 1.12 Excellent 16 Good 0 335 0.55 Fair Good Good Good 208 0.97 Excellent 382 0.98 Excellent? No Light Yes 0 No Common Moderate No 1 Yes No No No 0 No No Heavy No 4 Past Rare No Large 0 No Common No No 1 No No Moderate No 2 No No Heavy No 1 Yes No No No 0 No No Heavy No 0 No No Heavy No 0 No No Heavy No 4 Yes No No Moderate 11 Yes Rare No No 1 No No Heavy No 47 Yes Rare No Moderate 0 No Rare Heavy No 18 Yes Rare No No 0 No No Heavy No 12 Yes(?) Uncommon? No Small 1 No No Heavy No 2 No No Heavy No 1 No No Heavy No 15 Yes Common No No 28 Yes Rare No Small n z 0 z H 180 271 0.65 Fair 2 4 Yes No No No TOTALS 9342 797 59 9 63 TOTALS 9342 797 59 9 63 00

Page  86 ï~~TABLE 2. ISLAND Snake Green Plant collectors of the Grand Traverse Islands County State Collector(s) Door WI Emmet J. Judziewicz Marinette WI Emmet J. Judziewicz, John Huff Affiliation WDNR WDNR WDNR Numbers few 13189-13276 14023-14034, 14100-14112 Date(s) 5 May, 19 July 2000 8-Jun-1998 9-Aug-1999 Deposition WIS WIS WIS Cana Door WI Theodore S. Cochrane, Barbara UW-Madison few in vicinity of 10459 10 Sept. 1984 WIS A. Cochrane Door WI E.J. Judziewicz WDNR 13277-13278 16-Jun-1998 WIS Hat Door WI E.J. Judziewicz, Joel A. Trick WDNR, USFWS 12693, sight records 6-May-1998 WIS Chambers Door WI Norman C. Fassett WIS few in 17373 range 15-Jun-1935 WIS Donald Ugent UW-Madison 1000-1268 2, 11, 16 July WIS and 27 Aug. 1961 E.J. Judziewicz WDNR 12702-12759 8-9 May 1998 WIS E.J. Judziewicz & David Kopitzke WDNR 13719-13776 25-Jun-1998 WIS E.J. Judziewicz WDNR 13899-13992 18-19 Sept 1998 WIS Adventure Door WI E. Bruncken Milwaukee Public 9 collections 17 July 1897 MIL (Strawberry) Museum E.J. Judziewicz, J.A. Trick WNDR, USFWS sight records 6-May-1998 J.W. Seaquist few 30 May, 17 June 1947 WIS Little Door WI J.W. Seaquist few 30 May, 17 June 1947 Strawberry Door WI E.J. Judziewicz, J.A. Trick WDNR, USFWS 12697-12700, sight records 6-May-1998 WIS Jack Door WI N.C. Fassett UW-Madison few in 17300 range 15-Jun-1935 WIS E.J. Judziewicz, J.A. Trick WDNR, USFWS sight records 6-May-1998 Horseshoe Door WI E.J. Judziewicz, J.A. Trick WDNR, USFWS 12694-12696, 12701, sight 6-May-1998 WIS records 00 ON z 0 z

Page  87 ï~~Sister Door WI William E. Tans WDNR sight records 1977 Spider Door WI Milwaukee Public Museum Milwaukee Public 12 collections 1-Jul-05 MIL Expedition (E. Bruncken?) Museum Gary Fewless, James Moore UW-Green Bay about 15 collections in 1983 UWGB 3100 range Plum Door WI E. Bruncken Milwaukee Public few 9-Jul-1905 MIL Museum W.E. Tans WDNR few in 790-810 range 22-Jul-1974 MIL, WIS S.P. Voice et al. USFWS few 6-Jun-1982 WIS E.J. Judziewicz WDNR 12667-12692 5-May-1998 WIS WDNR 13279-13429 17-Jul-1998 WIS E.J. Judziewicz & Andrew Galvin WDNR 14038-14095 22-Jul-1999 WIS Detroit Door WI Anna Threlfall UW-Green Bay one collection July- 1971 UWGB William S. Alverson WDNR few in 1240-1310 range 26-Jul-1979 WIS E.J. Judziewicz WDNR 12657-12666 4-May-1998 WIS WDNR 12771-12797 14-May-1998 WIS WDNR 13431-13602 18-Jun-1998 WIS WDNR 13840-13895 16-Sep-1998 WIS Pilot Door WI S.P. Voice, S.W. Milan, Ecological Research few 5-Jun-1982 WIS J.P. Ludwig Services, Inc. E.J. Judziewicz, J. Trick, A. Galvin WDNR, USFWS 14037, sight records 22-Jul-1999 WIS Washington Door WI J.H. Schuette 30 July 1887, WIS, US n z 0 z HZ John J. Davis UW-Madison few 12-14, 23 Sept. 1889 26 July 1913, 2 July 1931 WIS (Continued) 00

Page  88 ï~~TABLE 2. Plant collectors of the Grand Traverse Islands (Continued) ISLAND County State Collector(s) Affiliation Numbers Date(s) Deposition Charles Goessl Albert M. Fuller Herbert Moussa A.M. Fuller S.C. Wadmond Richard W. Pohl Emil P. Kruschke Neil A. Harriman A. Threlfall Theodore S. Cochrane, Barbara A. Cochrane Virginia Rose W.E. Tans Nancy Schutz T.S. & B.A. Cochrane James H. Zimmerman G. Fewless, often with J. Moore E.J. Judziewicz Milwaukee Public Museum Milwaukee Public Museum Milwaukee Public Museum Milwaukee Public Museum Milwaukee Public Museum UW-Oshkosh UW-Green Bay UW-Madison UW-Green Bay WDNR UW-Green Bay UW-Madison UW-Madison UW-Green Bay WDNR WDNR WDNR WDNR 3908-3993 about 261, in 1356-1615, 1670-1680 few 3660-3670 few few few; mostly Crataegus several in 4530 range about 100 5233-5279 less than 100 in 1-402 range few in 800 range about 125 in 1-175 range 11038-11138 sight records 5148-5208, 5483-5570, 5926-5960, 6935 ranges 12647-12656 12670-12770 13006-13093 13180-13188 15-16 June 1916 21-26 July 1926 2 June 1927 25 Aug. 1928 01-Jun-1930 8 Sept. 1934 11-12 June 1935 6 June 1949, 4 Sept. 1951 14-Jun-1969 around 24 July 1971 23-Jul-1972 1972-1982 22-Jul-1974 28-May-1905 11-12 June 1985 1988 1989-1991 30-Apr-1998 13-May-1998 1-2 June 1998 4-Jun-1998 MIL, WIS MIL MIL MIL MIL MIL MIL OSH UWGB WIS UWGB MIL, WIS UWGB WIS UWGB WIS WIS WIS WIS 00 00 z 0 z H

Page  89 ï~~WDNR WDNR WDNR WDNR WDNR WDNR 13603 -13694 -13777 -13838 -13896 -14001 - 13636 13718 13811 13839 13898 14019 23-Jun-1998 8-Jul-1998 9-10 Sept. 1998 15-Sept. 1998 17 Sept. 1998 10-Jun-1999 WIS WIS WIS WIS WIS WIS Hog Door WI E.J. Judziewicz, J.A. Trick, WDNR, USFWS 14035-14036, sight records 22-Jul-1999 WIS A. Galvin Rock Door WI W.E. Tans WDNR few Oct. 1969 WIS G.J. Knudson WDNR sight records June, Sept. 1964 WIS A. Threlfall UW-Green Bay 14 collections 1971 UWGB T.S. & B.A. Cochrane UW-Madison 5175-5232 22-Jul-1972 WIS W.E. Tans WDNR few in 800-820 range 22-Jul-1974 MIL, WIS E.J. Judziewicz WDNR 12480-12553 5-7 Sept. 1997 WIS, MIL WDNR 12697-12646 29-30 Apr 1998 WIS WDNR 13095-13179 03-Jun-1998 WIS WDNR 13637-13693 24-Jun-1998 WIS WDNR 13812-13838 15 Sept. 1998 WIS E.J. Judziewicz, T.S. Cochrane, WDNR, UW- sight records 15-May-1999 R. Freckmann Madison, Steven Point St. Martin Delta MI A.M. Fuller Milwaukee about 15 in 1600 range 26-Jul-1926 MIL Public Museum n z 0 z HZ Eric Bourdo, Jr. James Wells, Paul Thompson, Kathleen Forzley, Phyllis Higman, Fons, Empson Ford Forestry Center Cranbook Institute of Science, Oakland University few in 20000 range over 100 in "89-" series 9-11 Aug. 1969 6-11 July 1989 MSC BLH (Continued) 00

Page  90 ï~~TABLE 2. Plant collectors of the Grand Traverse Islands (Continued) ISLAND County State Collector(s) Affiliation Numbers Date(s) Deposition J. Wells, P. Thompson, Cranbook Institute over 100 in "90-" series 9-12 July 1989 BLH K. Forzley, P. Higman, of Science, Oakland Fons, Empson University Gravelly Delta MI Sylvia Taylor Michigan State few 24-Jul-1978 MSC University J. Wells, P. Thompson, Cranbook Institute several dozen 1989 BLH K. Forzley, P. Higman, of Science, Fons, Empson Oakland University Little Gull Delta MI J. Wells, P. Thompson, Cranbook Institute several dozen 1989 BLH K. Forzley, P. Higman, of Science Fons, Empson Oakland University Gull Delta MI J. Wells, P. Thompson, Cranbook Institute few 1989 BLH K. Forzley, P. Higman, of Science, Fons, Empson Oakland University Poverty Delta MI S.P. Voice et al. USFWS few 7-Jun-1982 MICH J. Wells, P. Thompson, Cranbook Institute about 150 1989-1990 BLH K. Forzley, P. Higman, of Science, Fons, Empson Oakland University Michael R. Penskar & Michigan Natural sight records Patrick Comer Features Inventory (ecological surveys) ca. 1995 E.J. Judziewicz Michigan Natural 12799-12841 26-May-1998 WIS, Features Inventory MICH n z 0 z H 0

Page  91 ï~~Summer Delta MI Melvin Tessene Dale Hagenah Edward G. Voss Eric Bourdo, Jr. E.G. Voss Charles A. Long Robert W. Freckmann J. Wells, P. Thompson, K. Forzley, P. Higman, Fons, Empson J. Wells, P. Thompson, K. Forzley, P. Higman, Fons, Empson M.R. Penskar & P.J. Comer E.J. Judziewicz 1-275 few in 6650-6750 range 12604-12653 University of Michigan Ford Forestry Center few in 20000 range University of Michigan UW-Stevens Point UW-Stevens Point UW-Stevens Point Cranbook Institute of Science, Oakland University Cranbook Institute of Science, Oakland University Michigan Natural Features Inventory Michigan Natural Features Inventory 13363-13403 several dozen 13103-13140 13152-13289 several hundred several hundred sight records (ecological surveys) 12842-12915 30 May-Aug. 1968 MICH 31-May-1968 BLH 30-May- MICH 1 June 1968 9-11 Aug. 1969 MSC 4-Jul-1970 MICH 27-Jul-1974 UWSP 1 Aug. 1976 UWSP 24 Aug. 1976 UWSP 6-11 July 1989 BLH 9-12 July 1990 BLH ca. 1995 n z 0 z -H 27-28 May 1998 WIS, MICH Little Delta MI R.W. Freckmann UW-Stevens Point 13141-13151 26 Aug. 1976 UWSP Summer E.J. Judziewicz Michigan Natural 12916-13005 29 Aug. 1998 WIS, Features Inventory MICH

Page  92 ï~~92 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 plore the archipelago including trips to Spider and Plum Islands in 1905, Charles Goessl's (1866-1941) trip to Washington and Hog Islands in 1916, and the surveys of Albert M. Fuller (1899-1981) on Washington Island in 1926, 1927 (Fuller 1927), and 1930. With one exception, from 1931 to 1967 virtually no collections were made in the archipelago. Then, a flurry of collecting occurred on various islands from 1968-1976. Summer Island, starting in 1968, was visited by a number of botanists associated with Michigan institutions (University of Michigan, Ford Forestry Center, Michigan State University), who worked out of Dan Stevens' Summer Science, Inc. camp at Summer Harbor on Summer Island: Melvin Tessene, Dale Hagenah, Edward G. Voss, and Eric Bourdo, Jr. Bryologists Norton G. Miller and Richard L. Halbert collected mosses and liverworts in July 1968 and published an annotated list of 130 species for Summer Island (Miller & Halbert 1971), including several boreal disjuncts and species new to Michigan. And, for a brief period (two volumes), there was even a Summer Science Journal that published the results of student surveys of the island's fauna and flora (Domke 1970, Larson 1969, Rhodes 1970)! In the 1970s, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point (UWSP) mammologist Charles A. Long presented the results of a survey of the mammals of the Grand Traverse Islands in a series of papers (Long 1978, Long & Long 1976, Long et al. 1978). Long also facilitated the plant collecting visits of UWSP botanist Robert W. Freckmann (Fig. 54) to Summer and Little Summer Islands in 1976. Meanwhile, on the Wisconsin islands, botanical activity was intensifying. Anna Threlfall (University of Wisconsin-Green Bay, UWGB) became the first botanist to collect on Detroit and Rock Islands, and she made quite a few collections on Washington Island, too. Theodore S. (Fig. 54) and Barbara A. Cochrane (WIS) made significant contributions to the flora of Washington and Rock Islands in 1972 and 1985, collecting at Jackson Harbor, Mountain Park, and Boyer Bluff on the former island, and all over Rock Island. In 1974, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) botanist William E. Tans made brief reconnaissances of Plum, Washington, and Rock Islands, surveying their rare floras and communities; William S. (Bil) Alverson supplemented this with visits to Rock and Detroit Islands in 1979. From 1989-1991, Gary Fewless (UWGB) made meticulous surveys of the flora and vegetation of Jackson Harbor Ridges on Washington Island; today there are more than 500 collections from the archipelago housed at UWGB. Chambers Island was briefly visited by WIS herbarium director Norman C. Fassett (1900-1954) in 1935, and collected extensively by Donald Ugent in 1961. A U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service survey of federally listed rare plants (such as dwarf lake iris, Iris lacustris) on the islands was made in 1982. S.P. Voice headed this survey, which visited Poverty, Pilot and Plum Islands. A major expedition was the joint Cranbrook Institute of Science-Oakland University team that visited all of the Michigan islands (except Little Summer) in 1989 and 1990. The results of this survey, which was facilitated by transportation provided by the U.S. Coast Guard, are detailed by Forzley et al. (1993),

Page  93 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 93 and the specimens (1,000-1,500 collections) are housed in the Cranbrook Institute of Science herbarium (BLH). It should be noted that this expedition also visited and collected plants on several small islands in Big Bay de Noc on the west side of the Garden Peninsula (Round Island, St. Vital Island, and Little Guss Island). These islands are not treated in the 1993 paper or the present paper, but a considerable number of specimens from these islets are housed at BLH. In 1995, Michael R. Penskar, Patrick J. Comer, and David L. Cuthrell of the Michigan Natural Features Inventory visited Summer and Poverty Islands to characterize alvar and other selected natural communities, and conduct rare plant and insect surveys (Albert et al. 1997). Scope of the Present Study From September 1997 through August 1999, 15 collecting trips were made to the Grand Traverse Islands (Kopitzke 1999a, 1999b), and about 1,550 collections were made in my collecting number range of 12,480-14,112. The majority of these collections are deposited at WIS, with the few Delta County, Michigan county voucher records deposited at MICH. It was desirable to visit the lesser known islands several times during the field season (Table 2). Visits were also made to the following herbaria in Wisconsin and Michigan to search for and verify GTI collections: University of Wisconsin-Madison (WIS), University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point (UWSP), University of Wisconsin-Green Bay (UWGB), Milwaukee Public Museum (MIL), University of Michigan (MICH), Michigan State University (MSC), and Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan (BLH). It is believed that over 95% of GTI collections are housed in these seven institutions, which have over 4,000 total GTI specimens (excluding duplicates). Literature pertinent to the botanical exploration of the islands was also consulted (Fuller 1927; Forzley et al 1993; Voss 1972, 1985, 1996; Wetter et al. 1999), plus the databased records from both the Wisconsin Natural Heritage Program and the Michigan Natural Features Inventory. In summary, it appears that the following islands (Table 1) have excellent floristic coverage, with at least 90% of their species known: Green, Cana, Chambers, Pilot, Washington, Hog, Rock, Poverty and Summer. Islands that require much more extensive surveys include St. Martin and Little Summer, and many of the smaller "bird" islands that have been visited only once, often either early or late in the year. PLANT COMMUNITIES Mesic Forest (Tables 4, 5) The majority of the pre-settlement upland forests of the Grand Traverse Islands were dominated by forests of beech (Fagus grandifolia) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum). Other important tree species-in rank order of their importance values in the General Land Office survey notes of the 1830s and 1840s

Page  94 ï~~TABLE 3. Importance values of pre-settlement trees of the Grand Traverse Islands (based on general land office survey, 19th century). Surveyor's Chambers Plum Detroit Washington Rock Weighted average name Scientific name Island Island Island Island Island all islands Beech "Sugar" "Pine" Cedar "Birch" "Spruce" Oak, "Black Oak" "Aspen" Hemlock "Lynn" Ironwood Tamarack Black ash Willow White ash Red maple Elm Mesic Hardwoods Xeric Hardwoods Upland Conifers Swamp Conifers Fagus grandifolia Acer saccharum Probably mostly Pinus strobus, some P. resinosa on Chambers Island as "black pine" Thuja occidentalis Betula alleghaniensis and B. papyrifera Picea glauca, P. mariana, and probably Abies balsamea Quercus rubra Populus tremuloides and P. grandidentata Tsuga canadensis Tilia americana Ostrya virginiana Larix laricina Fraxinus nigra Salix spp. Fraxinus americana Acer rubrum Ulmus americana Beech, sugar maple, birch Oak Pines, Hemlock Cedar, spruce, tamarack 7.1 7.1 0 70 6.7 0 35 0 1.5 1 25 3.7 12 3.2 1 0 0 0.7 0 1.5 1 100 28 25 47 1 0 15 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 70 0 0 30 0 34 13.3 20.5 0 17.4 0 0 2.4 3.6 0 2.1 0 0 0 100 42 0 0 58 25.1 19.1 8.5 10.5 9 7.1 3.5 5.6 4.6 2.3 2.6 0.9 0.3 0.1 0.2 0 0 100 65 3.5 13.1 18.5 27 20.9 0 16 7.1 10.3 3.3 15.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 70 3.3 0 26.3 21.7 17.6 11.4 10.1 7.9 6.8 6.3 5.9 5.2 2.2 2.1 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 100 59.4 6.3 16.6 17.7 n z 0 z H 0

Page  95 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 95 TABLE 4. Southern mesic forest species at or near their northern range limits in the Grand Traverse Islands. Agastache scrophulariaefolia (Washington Island) Carex albursina (Washington Island) C. blanda (Washington Island) C. hirtifolia (Rock Island) C. hitchcockiana (Little Summer Island) C. prasina (Rock Island) C. sparganioides (Washington and Rock Islands) C. sprengelii (Little Summer Island) Cryptotaenia canadensis (St. Martin Island) Elymus villosus (Rock Island) Galium lanceolatum (Chambers, Washington, and Rock Islands) Hamamelis virginiana (Washington Island) Hydrophyllum virginianum (Snake and Rock Islands) Juglans cinerea (Washington Island) Phlox divaricata subsp. laphamii (St. Martin Island) Podophyllum peltatum (Chambers Island) Viburnum acerifolium (Washington and Rock Islands) TABLE 5. Eastern North American species at or near their western range limits in the Grand Traverse Islands (*-presumed extipated in the archipelago). Acer pensylvanicum (Summer Island) Carex platyphylla (Washington and Rock Islands) Galium brevipes (Summer Island) Medeola virginiana (Washington Island)* Trisetum melicoides (Summer Island) Viola rostrata (Washington Island) (Table 3) were aspen (Populus spp.), birch (Betula spp.), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), basswood (Tilia americana), and hop-hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana). Presumably there were also large individuals of white pine (Pinus strobus) scattered throughout all but the wettest sites. Butternut (Juglans cinerea) was recorded to have been an important forest tree at least through the 1920s on Washington Island (Fuller 1927), but has declined since there because of logging and disease. Logging, agriculture, and fishing activities starting in about the 1840s had profound effects on the original vegetation, and these mesic forests of the islands were heavily impacted by settlement. The richest sites on Washington Island were cut and converted to agriculture, and most other stands were logged, sometimes repeatedly. The best mesic forest stand extant today is the old-growth beech-sugar maple woods that occupies the majority of the upland areas on Rock Island (Figs. 2, 52). It is classified by the Wisconsin DNR as a southern mesic forest, since hemlock is absent. Apparently, old-growth mesic stands also existed on St. Martin Island until at least 1926 (Fuller 1927). Today mesic forests may be found in the interiors of all islands greater than 100 ha in size. Many are impacted by deer herbivory and have scant regeneration of any tree species except beech, which is unpalatable to deer. The numerous private woodlots extant on Washington Island are of interest in that many contain populations of the disjunct broad-leaved wood sedge (Carex platyphylla).

Page  96 ï~~96 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 96 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 FIGURE 2. Old-growth sugar maple (Acer saccharum) forest on Rock Island. Note beech (Fagus grandifolia) saplings and wild leeks (Allium tricoccum) in the understory, 29 April 1999. There is no sugar maple regeneration in this stand because of deer herbivory. Understory shrubs are not important components of these mesic forests, although disturbed stands have beaked hazelnut (Corylus cornuta), red raspberry (Rubus idaeus var. strigosus), and species of gooseberries (Ribes spp.). The composition of the groundlayer varies greatly from island to island. Some have outstanding spring ephemeral displays (Rock, Detroit, and parts of Washington and Little Summer Islands), while others have poor displays (Chambers and Summer Islands). If ephemerals are present, the most common ones are Carolina springbeauty (Claytonia caroliniana), wild leek (Allium tricoccum), dutchman'sbreeches (Dicentra cucullaria), and hepaticas (Anemone acutiloba and A. americana), along with mesophytic grasses such as wood millet (Milium effusum) and nodding fescue (Festuca subverticillata). Woodland sedges of Carex Section Laxiflorae, often species with broad leaf blades, are characteristic of these forests: C. laxiflora is frequent, and C. albursina, C. blanda, C. ormostachya, C. plantaginea and the eastern disjunct C. platyphylla are also present. A number of southern disjunct species are found in the richest, least disturbed, often highest elevation stands on Washington and Rock Islands (Tables 4 and 5); these are discussed in the "Floristics and Biogeography" section of this paper. Interior springs and streams of any type are rare on the islands because of their porous dolomite substrate. However, hardwood seeps are a small specialized wetland community type that may occur within mesic forests. Seeps are best developed in the interior of the Rock Island, where a small opening in an interior basin that slopes down to the north is dominated by ostrich fern (Matteuc

Page  97 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 97 2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 97 FIGURE 3. Second-growth sugar maple (Acer saccharum) forests in the interior of Summer Island, Michigan, 27 May 1998. Stands on this island are currently selectively cut, suffer from high deer densities, and have a past history of burning. Spring ephemerals are few. cia struthiopteris), spring ephemeral herbs, meadow horsetail (Equisetum pratense), and the rare drooping sedge (Carex prasina). This particular type of community (Fig. 39) has no real analog anywhere else in Wisconsin. Summer Island also has a small interior seep (Fig. 4) dominated by bulblet fern (Cystopteris bulbifera). Vernal mesic woodland ponds that are inundated in the spring, but dry by late summer, also occur in a few places in the archipelago. On Chambers Island there is one a short distance south of Mackaysee Lake, and Summer Island has two, one about 1 km north of the southwest bay, and another near the north tip of the island with northern manna grass (Glyceria borealis) dominant (Fig. 9). Chambers Island, with its sandy-clayey, more acidic soils and recurrent fires, had a much different upland forest composition at the time of European settlement than the other major islands. Red oak (Quercus rubra) and pines (white pine and red pine, Pinus resinosa) were the dominants on the majority of the island, with hemlock, beech, and sugar maple of lesser importance. Today four tree species are roughly co-dominant: sugar maple, beech, hemlock, and red oak. They occur in well-mixed to nearly pure single-species stands (Figs. 20, 41, 46, 47). The herbaceous understories of the Chambers Island forests are floristically depauperate, with only Canada mayflower (Maianthemum canadense), wood anemone (Anemone quinquefolia), and a few violet species (Viola spp.) common. Several of the smaller islands have mesic forests remnants. One of the most

Page  98 ï~~98 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 98 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 FIGURE 4. Seeping area in hardwood forest in interior of Summer Island, Michigan. This is an uncommon "sub-community" on the islands. Bulblet fern (Cystopteris bulbifera) is common in the understory, 28 May 1998. unusual is that of 3 ha Little Strawberry Island in Green Bay, which is covered with a nearly pure, pole-sized basswood stand growing on very thin soil on dolomite cobbles (Fig. 56). Boreal Forest (Table 6 in part) The lower, more poorly drained parts of the Grand Traverse Islands roughly below elevations of 625-650 feet above sea level-have conifer-dominated forests with white cedar (Thuja occidentalis), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), white birch (Betula papyrifera), and white pine as the dominant trees. White spruce (Picea glauca) and showy mountain-ash (Sorbus decora) are also frequent. This boreal forest type is best-developed along the east coasts of Washington, Rock, and Summer Islands, and all over Poverty Island (Fig. 5). These moist, mossy forests are often associated with ancient stablized sand dunes and gravel beaches and have rich and aesthetically pleasing groundlayer floras. On their lakeward margins, they grade into forested ridge and swale complexes, alkaline rockshore communities, and, on the Michigan Islands, alvar. Frequent species include big-leaved aster (Aster macrophyllus), wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis), sedges (Carex eburnea, C. peckii), bunchberry (Cornus canadensis), wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens), clubmosses (especially Diphasiastrum digitatum and Lycopodium clavatum), twinflower (Linnaea borealis subsp. longiflora), red honeysuckle (Lonicera dioica), cowwheat (Melampyrum lineare), fringed polygala (Polygala pauciflora), buf

Page  99 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 99 TABLE 6. Northern/boreal species at or near their southern range limits in the Grand Traverse Islands (*-presumed extirpated in the archipelago). Calypso bulbosa (Washington and St. Martin Islands)* Carex capillaris (Poverty Island) C. concinna (Washington and Summer Islands) Corallorhiza striata (Washington, Rock, Poverty, Summer, and Little Summer Islands). Draba arabisans (Detroit, Washington, and Rock Islands) D. cana (St. Martin Island) Dryopteris expansa (Rock Island) Geocaulon lividum (Washington Island) Osmorhiza berteroi (Rock Island) Parnassia parviflora (Washington and St. Martin Islands)* Scirpus cespitosus (Washington Island) faloberry (Shepherdia canadensis), starry false Solomon's-seal (Smilacina stellata), and starflower (Trientalis borealis). Forested Ridge and Swale Complexes (Table 6 in part) This community type, consisting of a series of old sandy or gravelly beaches ridges and intervening wet swales, is characteristic of the eastern (Lake Michigan) shorelines of the Door and Garden Peninsulas. Typically, the ridges are forested with boreal conifer species with a mossy understory containing many rare plant species, while the swales vary from open boreal fen to closed canopy FIGURE 5. Boreal forest of white cedar (Thuja occidentalis), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), and white spruce (Picea glauca) along the interior trail on Poverty Island, Michigan, 26 May 1998.

Page  100 ï~~100 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 white cedar or tamarack forests, also with rare species in the understory. The Ridges Sanctuary, near Baileys Harbor in Door County, is the best-known and highest quality example of this "composite" community type (Palmquist et al. 1991). Jackson Harbor Ridges on Washington Island is another high quality example of the "Forested ridge and swale" community, and is the only welldeveloped example of its type in the archipelago. This system is a preserve of The Nature Conservancy as well as a Wisconsin State Natural Area, and has been intensively surveyed by many botanists, particularly Gary Fewless (University of Wisconsin-Green Bay), William E. Tans (Wisconsin DNR), and Theodore S. Cochrane (University of Wisconsin-Madison). Proceeding inwards towards Lake Michigan, one first encounters a series of white cedar-covered beach ridges with white spruce, balsam fir, and white pine also present, and dwarf lake iris (Iris lacustris), ebony sedge (Carex eburnea), and even the northern disjunct species northern comandra (Geocaulon lividum) locally common in the understory. Closer to the shore-approximately 30-100 meters from the water's edge-is a "savannah" of scattered cedars in partly open sand dunes. This woodland has a dense shrublayer of junipers (Juniperus communis var. depressa and J. horizontalis), associated with creeping shrubs such as bearberry (Arctostaphylos uvaursi) and wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens). Common herbs include beach grass (Ammophila breviligulata), white camass (Zigadenus elegans subsp. glaucus), starry false Solomon-seal, little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), beach wormwood (Artemisia campestris subsp. caudata), sand cress (Arabis lyrata), and Rocky Mountain fescue (Festuca saximontana). Several uncommon to rare species are characteristic of this habitat as well as habitats closer to the actual lake beach. These include dune goldenrod (Solidago simplex subsp. randii var. gillmanii), northern rock sandwort (Arenaria stricta subsp. dawsonensis), wood lily (Lilium philadelphicum), and lance-leaved tickseed (Coreopsis lanceolata subsp. lanceolata). As the dunescapes open up, temporary swales and ponds (best developed on Carlin Point) support an interesting flora around their margins, with species such as bird's-eye primrose (Primula mistassinica), false asphodel (Tofieldia glutinosa), indian paint-brush (Castilleja coccinea), elliptic spikerush (Eleocharis elliptica), Buxbaum's sedge (Carex buxbaumii), little green sedge (Carex viridula), and three inconspicuous sedges (C. aurea, C. garberi, and C. crawei). In wet years, bladderworts (Utricularia spp.) may be present in the ponds. Wet sand flats along the beach boast many of the swale/pond species plus Ohio goldenrod (Solidago ohioensis), low calamint (Calamintha arkansana), variegated scouring-rush (Equisetum variegatum), Baltic rush (Juncus arcticus subsp. littoralis), and silverweed (Argentina anserina). Interior Wetlands Several significant interior wetlands occur in the Grand Traverse Islands. On Chambers Island, 150 ha Mackaysee Lake is associated with a series of minor swales on its western shore that harbor species such as white cedar that are not found elsewhere on the island. The lake itself has a diverse aquatic macrophyte flora, based on fragments seen washed up on its beaches. Washington Island has three major interior wetlands: Little Lake, Coffee Swamp, and the Big Marsh

Page  101 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 101 2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 101 FIGURE 6. Dunes on south shore of Washington Island, Wisconsin, at Dunes Park. Beach grass (Ammophila breviligulata) is common here, but declining because of trampling by beachgoers. Just below center is a single fruiting plant of Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri), here at its only archipelago site, 1 June 1998. Little Marsh-Percy Johnson County Park complex, all described in detail in the "Island-by-island" summary for that island. All have rich boreal fen components, but are quite distinct from one another in physiognomy. Little Lake is a 5 ha body of water near the northwest tip of the island. It is a shallow, marlbottomed pond and its 1 ha boreal fen somewhat resembles those of the estuaries of Lake Superior such as the mouth of the Sand River in Bayfield County, Wisconsin. Coffee Swamp (Fig. 26) bears some resemblance to fens on the Door County mainland such as Thorpe Pond. And Big Marsh is sui generis-when dry in late summer it features a striking white marl and dolomite gravel flat that resembles a feature of the Great Plains rather than Wisconsin (Fig. 25). Dunescapes (Open Dunes and Beaches) (Table 7) Dunescapes are not well-developed on the Grand Traverse Islands. The most extensive examples are the semi-stabilized 1-2 m high dunes that extend about 1 km parallel to and 100 m inland from Jackson Harbor. Here the dominants are white cedar, white pine, common juniper (Juniperus communis var. depressa), and beach grass, but a whole suite of characteristic species is also present, including regionally rare specialties. Other important dune systems on Washington Island are along the south shore extending about 1 km eastward from Dunes Park, and on the east shore extending about 1 km northward from Percy Johnson County Park. In both cases, the majority of the dunescapes are in private owner

Page  102 ï~~102 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 TABLE 7. Great Lakes dune endemics or specialties (*-extirpated). Arenaria stricta (Washington Island) Cakile edentula (Chambers and Washington Islands) Chamaescyce polygonifolia (Chambers, Washington, and Rock Islands). Cirsium pitcheri (Washington) Coreopsis lanceolata subsp. lanceolata (Washington Island) Festuca occidentalis (Plum, Washington, and Summer Islands) Iris lacustris (Plum, Detroit, Washington, Rock, St. Martin, Poverty, Summer, and Little Summer Islands) Solidago simplex subsp. randii var. gillmannii (Plum, Detroit, Washington, Rock, Poverty, and Summer Islands) Tanacetum huronense (Rock and Summer Islands)* ship and show less damage from human usage than adjacent parks. The dominant plants of dunescapes are beach grass, Canada wild rye (Elymus canadensis), and thickspike wheatgrass (Elytrigia dasystachya subsp. psammophila), and junipers. Smaller dunescapes occur on Chambers Island (Sand Point, south tip, and along the north bay), Rock Island (south beach), and Summer Island (Summer Harbor). The Rock Island dunes have been seriously degraded by beachgoers over the decades, while the Chambers Island dunes and beaches, particularly those on Sand Point and the south tip, are in relatively good shape because of difficulty of access and private ownership. The globally and regionally rare FIGURE 7. Great Lakes pine barrens on north bay of Chambers Island, Wisconsin. The dominant trees are white and red pines (Pinus strobus and P. resinosa), the dominant shrubs, species of juniper (Juniperus communis var. depressa and J. horizontalis). Many sand barrens and dry prairie species occur here and nowhere else in the archipelago, 9 May 1998.

Page  103 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 103 TABLE 8. Species of southern dry forests and Great Lakes pine barrens on Chambers Island (and other islands). Amphicarpaea bracteata Andropogon gerardii Asclepias tuberosa subsp. interior Aster ericoides A. laevis (also Jackson Harbor Ridges, Washington Island) Carex brevior C. muhlenbergii (also Green Island) Carya cordiformis Ceanothus americanus C. herbaceus Gaylussacia baccata Heliopsis helianthoides Liatris aspera Lithospermum caroliniense subsp. croceum Monarda punctata Panicum latifolium Potentilla arguta (a historical site, only at Jackson Harbor Ridges, Washington Island) Quercus macrocarpa Schizachyrium scoparium (also Jackson Harbor Ridges, Washington Island) Smilax ecirrhata Sorghastrum nutans Sporobolus cryptandrus (only at Jackson Harbor Ridges, Washington Island) Stipa spartea Taenidia integerrima Vicia caroliniana species Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) and Lake Huron tansy (Tanacetum huronense) grow (or grew) on dunescapes within the archipelago, but the thistle is now just barely hanging on, and the tansy has apparently been extirpated, because of trampling by beachgoers. Beaches represent a narrow subset of dune communities. Characteristic species of beaches include American sea-rocket (Cakile edentula), seaside spurge (Chamaescyce polygonifolia), cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium), evening-primrose (Oenothera oakesiana), and branched knotweed (Polygonum ramosissimum). Great Lakes Pine Barrens (Table 8) This community type is very rare in Wisconsin (there is a fair amount in Michigan in the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore). Prior to this study it was known only from Stockton Island in the Apostle Islands of Lake Superior (Judziewicz & Koch 1993), where a picturesque stand of red and white pines overtops common juniper, beach grass, blueberries, bracken fern, and various foliose lichens. A second exmple may now be described: the Sand Point and north bay dunes on Chambers Island in Green Bay. It is described in more detail in the "Island-by-island summaries" and "Floristics and biogeography" sections of this paper. This community is maintained by fires with frequencies of several decades between occurrences.

Page  104 ï~~104 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 104 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 FIGURE 8. Drying marly pond (with yellow water lily, Nuphar variegata) in center of Coffee Swamp, a boreal rich fen on Washington Island, Wisconsin. Note abundant giant reed (Phragmites australis) in the foreground, and tamaracks (Larix laricina) and white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) in the background, 9 September 1998. FIGURE 9. Vernal pond in mixed conifer-hardwood stand near north tip of Summer Island, Michigan. Northern manna grass (Glyceria borealis) is common in the pond, 28 May 1998.

Page  105 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 105 Great Lakes Alkaline Rockshore and Alvar (Table 9) Creviced, coastal, horizontal exposures of dolomite feature some of the richest, most floristically distinct, and aesthetically pleasing plant communities in the Grand Traverse Islands. These Great Lakes alkaline rockshores (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources 1999) are influenced by wave-splash, icepush, and the fluctuating levels of Lake Michigan. White cedar is almost always the dominant shoreline tree, and common associated shrubs are ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius), red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), shrubby St. John'sTABLE 9. Characteristic species of Great Lakes alkaline rockshores and alvars on the Grand Traverse Islands (*-found only on the Michigan islands). Agalinis purpurea Anemone virginiana Aquilegia canadensis Arabis hirsuta Argentina anserina Aster ciliolatus A. pilosus var. pringlei Calamagrostis inexpansa subsp. stricta Calamintha arkansana Campanula rotundifolia Carex aquatilis C. aurea C. buxbaumii C. capillaris* C. castanea C. concinna C. crawei C. eburnea C. flava C. garberi C. granularis C. hystericina C. richardsonii * C. sterilis C. viridula Castilleja coccinea Cicuta bulbifera Comandra umbellata Cornus stolonifera Deschampsia cespitosa Eleocharis elliptica E. quinqueflora Equisetum arvense E. variegatum Eupatorium perfoliatum Euthamia graminifolia Fragaria virginiana Gentianopsis procera Geum aleppicum Hieracium kalmii Houstonia longifolia* Hypericum kalmianum Iris lacustris Juncus alpinoarticultus J. arcticus subsp. littoralis J. brevicaudatus Juniperus communis var. depressa J. horizontalis Larix laricina Lathyrus palustris Lilium philadelphicum Lobelia kalmii Lycopus americanus Lysimachia quadriflora Osmuda regalis var. spectabilis Packera paupercula Panicum acuminatum (and varieties) Parnassia parviflora Pentaphylloides floribunda Physocarpus opulifolius Polygala senega Populus balsamifera Primula mistassinica Prunella vulgaris Rhynchospora capillacea Rosa acicularis subsp. sayi Rudbeckia hirta Selaginella eclipes Shepherdia canadensis Sisyrinchium montanum Smilacina stellata Solidago juncea S. ohioensis Sphenopholis intermedia Symphoricarpos albus Thalictrum dioicum Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Thuja occidentalis Tofieldia glutinosa Triglochin palustre Vicia americana Viola adunca V nephrophylla Zigadenus elegans subsp. glaucus

Page  106 ï~~106 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 106 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 FIGURE 10. Great Lakes alkaline rockshore on east coast of Summer Island, Michigan. Common shrubs are ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius) and shrubby cinquefoil (Pentaphylloidesfloribunda), 27 May 1998. wort (Hypericum kalmianum), and shrubby cinquefoil (Pentaphylloides floribunda). Table 9 presents the long list of species that are characteristic of this community. Most noteworthy are dwarf lake iris, bird's-eye primrose, low calamint, Ohio goldenrod, silverweed, frost aster (Aster pilosus var. pringlei), tufted hairgrass (Deschampsia cespitosa), lesser fringed gentian (Gentianopsis procera), narrow-leaved loosestrife (Lysimachia quadriflora), meadow spikemoss (Selaginella eclipes), and northern bog (or alvar) violet (Viola nephrophylla). Examples of this community may be found along the extreme southeast coast of Washington Island and the south tip of Detroit Island. Based on collections made in 1905, it is likely that Spider Island once had this community (it has now been lost to colonial waterbirds). The Michigan islands have this community in those places where true alvar (see the following paragraph) is not present, including Little Summer and St. Martin Islands. Alvar is a globally rare plant community (Soule 1993; Albert et al. 1995, 1997; Penskar et al. 1999; Reschke et al. 1999) that occurs only in Scandinavia and the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada. This community has been described as having the following characteristics (Reschke et al. 1999): It occurs on horizontal limestone or dolomite with thin soils; is a naturally open, treeless landscape; is subject to seasonal drought and flooding; is beyond the reach of Great Lakes waves and ice; and has a distinctive set of plant species and vegetational patterns. Based on 1995 field work by Michael R. Penskar and Patrick J. Comer of the Michigan Natural Features Inventory, it appears that a

Page  107 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 107 2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 107 FIGURE 11. Creeping juniper-shrubby cinquefoil alvar pavement on east coast of Summer Island, Michigan. The common trees are white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea), 27 May 1998. subtype known as "Creeping Juniper-Shrubby Cinquefoil Alvar Pavement" (Reschke et al. 1999: 26-29) occurs on the eastern coasts of both Poverty and Summer Islands, Michigan, as well as much more extensively on the Garden Peninsula to the north. This subtype, as represented on the Grand Traverse Islands, is less diverse than elsewhere in the Great Lakes region such as on Manitoulin Island and the Bruce Peninsula of Ontario, lacking such species as northern singlespike sedge (Carex scirpoidea Michx.), upland white aster (Solidago ptarmicoides (Torr. & A. Gray) Boivin), and lakeside daisy (Hymenoxys herbacea (Greene) Cusick). However, the Poverty and Summer Islands alvars do have Richardson's sedge (Carex richardsonii), which is rare in Door County, Wisconsin. The alvars have nearly all of the same species as the more widespread Great Lakes alkaline rockshore. On the north coast of Summer Island about 1 km northwest of Summer Harbor there is an additional small area of very wet alvar with seepage, small rocks pools, and tamarack (Larix laricina) present along with the cedars. It is also possible that the southeast coast of St. Martin Island may harbor an alvar community; surveys are needed there. A peculiar type of alkaline lakeshore is present in the Grand Traverse Islands for which I will coin the term "Great Lakes sparse marshes." This wetland type occurs wherever there are very sheltered bays or coves with shallow water and an accumulation of calcareous mud, gravel, or cobbles. These meadows are dominated by discontinuous combinations of the following species: water sedge (Carex aquatilis), Baltic rush, silverweed, softstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus

Page  108 ï~~108 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 tabernaemontani), and variegated scouring-rush (Equisetum variegatum). As the name implies, there is much bare marl or gravel between individual plants. The best examples of this type in the archipelago are on the east coast of Little Summer Island (Figs. 37, 50), the southwest bay of Summer Island (Fig. 36), the north bay between Richter and Rabbitt Points on Detroit Island, "Carp Lake" on Plum Island (Fig. 22), and in some of the shallow bays on Washington Island (West Harbor, Figenscaus Harbor, and Detroit Harbor). "Cedar cobble glades" (Fig. 40) are uncommon community subtypes consisting of piles and "windrows" of dolomite gravel and cobbles among which grow scattered trees of white cedar, with little other vegetation (Albert et al. 1997). In the Grand Traverse Islands, this association is found on the west coast of Little Summer Island, and along the north coast of Washington Island west of the "outlet" of Coffee Swamp. Coastal Dry Cliffs High (to 40 meters or more), sheer, white, essentially dry coastal dolomite bluffs occur on the west coasts of three of the Grand Traverse Islands: Washington (from Boyer Bluff south), Rock (most of the western and northern coasts), and St. Martin (west coast; Fig. 12). Here, white cedar is the dominant and oftentimes the only tree species present, although balsam fir may also occur, and there may be an understory of mountain maple (Acer spicatum). Understory associates that grow on the lip of the cliff include ebony sedge, white camass, buffaloberry, rock whitlow-grass (Draba arabisans), climbing fumitory (Adlumia fungosa), hairly rock-cress (Arabis hirsuta), rough goldenrod (Solidago hispida), big-leaved aster, wild sarsaparilla, and the feathery moss Hylocomium splendens. All of these can be viewed along the steps leading down to the beach at Potawatomi Lighthouse on Rock Island. These high cliffs often occur as a series of stepped shelves or terraces, that were carved by a varying series of postglacial lake levels. Interior Moist Cliffs (Table 10) A much different type of dolomite cliff is found in the interiors of Washington Island (Boyer Bluff and Mountain Tower Park, the latter site a good place to view this community), and especially Rock Islands. Here, the actual "cliff" is relatively low, only several meters high, but it is eroding/dissolving because of lateral seepage of ground water, and a large dolomite scree apron has developed at its base. The forest overstory is one of white cedar, sugar maple, and balsam fir, often with a dense mountain maple (Acer spicatum) subcanopy. The scree apron is often lushly vegetated with ferns of the genera Cystopteris and Dryopteris, especially bulblet fern (C. bulbifera) and marginal wood fern (D. marginalis). Rank-smelling herb-Robert (Geranium robertianum) and climbing fumitory are characteristic of this habitat. Large, detached, fallen dolomite boulders may be covered with mosses and walking fern (Asplenium rhizophyllum), and, in crevices or in shelves of the cliff, may be found Canada yew, slender cliff brake (Cryptogramma stelleri), and green spleenwort (Asplenium

Page  109 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 109 2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 109 FIGURE 12. Dolomite cliff (topped with white cedar) on west coast of St. Martin Island, Michigan, 24 July 1990. Similar cliffs are found on the northeast sides of Washington and Rock Islands. Photograph courtesy of Thaddeus A. Grudzien, Oakland University.

Page  110 ï~~110 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 TABLE 10. Special plants of moist cliffs of the Grand Traverse Islands. Adlumiafungosa (Little Strawberry, Horseshoe, Plum, Detroit, Pilot, Washington, Rock, St. Martin, Little Gull, Gull, Summer, and Little Summer Islands) Asplenium rhizophyllum (Rock Island) A. trichomanes (Washington Island) A. trichomanes-ramosum (Washington Island) Cryptogramma stelleri (Washington, Rock, St. Martin, and Summer Islands) Cystopteris bulbifera (Detroit, Washington, Rock, and Summer Islands) C. laurentiana (St. Martin and Summer Islands) C. tenuis (many islands) Dryopteris expansa (Rock Island) Dryopteris marginalis (Plum, Detroit, Washington, and Rock Islands) Gymnocarpium dryopteris (many islands) Pellaea glabella (St. Martin and Summer Islands) Polypodium virginianum (many islands) Taxus canadensis (cliffs only: Washington, Rock, and Summer Islands). trichomanes-ramosum). In areas with a more deciduous tree canopy that allows sunlight to reach the forest floor during May, spring ephemerals such as dutchman's-breeches and bishop's-cap (Mitella diphylla) may be locally common on moist cliff shelves or in "grottos" where some soil has accumulated, such as on eastern Rock Island and on Detroit Island. "Bird Islands" (Figs. 13, 16-18, 24, 42, 55) These are small (less than 10 ha) islands in Green Bay and Lake Michigan that have recently (since 1980) been invaded by, and had their arboreal vegetation destroyed by, the urea of nesting colonial waterbirds, principally Herring and Ring-Billed Gulls and Double-crested Cormorants. Before avian invasion, these islands were typically forested with white cedar, white birch, balsam fir, and basswood. After the tree kill, berried, bird-dispersed shrubs became dominant: red-berried elder (Sambucus racemosa subsp. pubens), red raspberry, redosier dogwood, wild black currant (Ribes americanum), juneberries (Amelanchier spp.), and bittersweet nightshade (Solanrium dulcamara). The understory consists of rank native and exotic herbs such as catnip (Nepeta cataria), motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca), lamb's-quarters (Chenopodium album), cheeses (Malva neglecta), nettles (Urtica dioica subsp. gracilis), fringed bindweed (Polygonum cilinode), thistles (Cirsium spp.), and some grasses such as fowl meadow grass (Poa palustris). Anthropogenic Communities and Threatening Exotic Species (Table 11) Numerous old fields and pastures are found on Washington Island and represent the dominant anthropogenic or "human-created" plant communties on the islands. In such sites, exotic forage grasses such as timothy (Phleum pratense) and the bluegrasses (particularly Poa compressa and P pratensis) may be dominant, along with interesting exotic forbs such as viper's blugloss (Echium vulgare). If mowed infrequently or mowed after nesting season, such open areas may be important habitat for grassland birds.

Page  111 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 111 2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 111 FIGURE 13. "White-washed" dolomite ledges on east coast of Pilot Island, Wisconsin. Note Double-crested Cormorants and gulls, 22 July 1999. Island forests face a number of threats from exotic plant species. The European helleborine (Epipactis helleborine) is our only weedy orchid and appears to be becoming commoner in nearly all mesic and wet-mesic forest communities. A much greater threat is garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) which has appeared on both Washington and Rock Islands in recent years. This herb is a prolific producer of tiny, long-lived seeds and may take over and destroy the native herbaceous understory of rich mesic forests in the Midwest. For years it has been marching north and is now a dominant in woods in Peninsula State Park on the Door Peninsula. Its spread may be attributed to vehicle traffic (including logging TABLE 11. Pernicious exotic weeds of the Grand Traverse Islands. Alliaria petiolata (mesic forests: Horseshoe, Washington, and Rock Islands) Centaurea biebersteinii (dunes: Green, Chambers, Plum, Detroit, Washington, Rock, and Summer Islands) Cynoglossum officinale (dolomite cliffs, woods: Chambers, Cana, Horseshoe, Plum, Detroit, Washington, Rock, Poverty, Summer, and Little Summer Islands) Epipactis helleborine (mesic forests: Chambers, Plum, Detroit, Washington, Rock, and Little Summer Islands) Lythrum salicaria (rare, dune swale, Chambers Island) Rhamnusfrangula (spreading in Coffee Swamp, Washington Island) Sedum acre (shores: Cana, Chambers, Detroit, Washington, Rock, St. Martin, Gravelly, Gull, Poverty, Summer, and Little Summer Islands) Veronica anagallis-aquatica (shorelines: Cana, Hat, Plum, Detroit, Washington, Poverty, Summer, and Little Summer Islands)

Page  112 ï~~112 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 112 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 FIGURE 14. Old pasture on ancient dolomite gravel beach ridge along Lakeview Road, Washington Island, Wisconsin. The pasture is being invaded by common juniper (Juniperus communis var. depressa), shrubby St. Johnswort (Hypericum kalmianum), common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca). and Indian paint-brush (Castilleja coccinea). Note deer browse line on white cedars, 21 July 1999. equipment) and, ironically, otherwise environmentally aware hikers and campers who inadvertently introduce the seeds on boots and in tents from farther south. The next stop on a Door County holiday camping pilgrimage after Peninsula State Park is often Rock Island State Park, and indeed garlic mustard was first detected there on a tent pad in 1997. On dunescapes, spotted knapweed (Centaurea biebersteinii) may be a common and essentially ineradicable threat. It has become so over the last 40 years near the airstrip on Chambers Island in 1998 (it was not collected by Ugent in 1961). Dolomite cliff plant communities are threatened by the proliferation of common hound's-tongue (Cynoglossum officinale), a coarse herb with burlike fruits that are abundantly dispersed on clothing-or on the fur of deer. It is locally common on many dolomite cliffs, as well as in mesic woods that have been disturbed by heavy cutting or high deer populations. Great Lakes shoreline wetlands have two pernicious invaders of their own: Gold-moss stonecrop (Sedum acre) and water-speedwell (Veronica anagallisaquatica). Efforts towards eradication of the stonecrop are not helped by the fact that many people find it an attractive plant, much like purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). The latter species is fortunately as yet rare in the island chain. Another wetland plant that poses a threat is glossy buckthorn (Rhamnus

Page  113 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 113 frangula), which appears to be spreading in Coffee Swamp on Washington Island. FLORISTICS AND BIOGEOGRAPHY The Grand Traverse Islands (GTI) have a vascular flora of 797 species (in an area of 9340 ha), a figure that represents about one-third of Wisconsin's flora. Exotics account for 161 species or about 20% of the flora. The archipelago has almost exactly the same number of plant species as the 16,200 ha Apostle Islands archipelago (Judziewicz & Koch 1993, Judziewicz 1996), even though it is 40% smaller by area. It is interesting that there are no vascular plants found on the GTI that are found nowhere else in Wisconsin. By comparison, the Apostle Islands have eight such species. However, there are several GTI species known from only a few state sites: northern comandra (Geocaulon lividum), dune willow (Salix cordata), and flat-leaved wood sedge (Carex platyphylla). The first two are both present at Jackson Harbor on Washington Island, and each has only one other Wisconsin station, the comandra at The Ridges in mainland Door County, and the willow from Point Beach State Forest in Manitowoc County. The sedge is known from several sites on the peninsula south to Sturgeon Bay. Boreal elements (Table 6) are important in only a few places on the islands, most notably Jackson Harbor Ridges on Washington Island, where disjuncts such as the northern comandra are found. The Coffee Swamp and Big Marsh areas are also fen/conifer swamp complexes with a boreal element including such species as tufted bulrush (Scirpus cespitosus), false asphodel (Tofieldia glutinosa), alpine cotton-grass (Eriophorum alpinum), northern bog sedge (Carex gynocrates), and northern black currant (Ribes hudsonianum). Indeed, these inland calcareous wetlands often have more northern species than any coastal area. Following the list of Given & Soper (1981), the archipelago flora has six arctic-alpine species, namely slim-stemmed reed-grass (Calamagrostis stricta subsp. expansa), hairlike sedge (Carex capillaris), tufted bulrush, marsh ragwort (Senecio congestus, apparently extirpated), bird's-eye primrose (Primula mistassinica), and Lake Huron tansy (Tanacetum huronense, apparently extirpated); and four western disjunct Cordilleran species (Marquis & Voss 1981), namely western fescue (Festuca occidentalis), green-leaved rattlesnake-plantain (Goodyera oblongifolia), Chilean sweet-cicely (Osmorhiza berteroi), and thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus). The Apostle Islands are one species poorer in each of these two categories (Judziewicz & Koch 1993: Table 4) than the GTI. The moderating effects of Lake Michigan (cool summers, mild winters) favor the persistence of southern and eastern species in the islands' beech-sugar maple forests (Tables 4-5). The most noteworthy disjunct from the east is flat-leaved sedge (Carex platyphylla), overlooked until recently from several sites on Washington and Rock Islands. The species is also known from the Door Peninsula north of Sturgeon Bay, but not from the Garden Peninsula or elsewhere in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. It is tempting to think of this species and others

Page  114 ï~~114 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 such as butternut (Juglans cinerea), Virginia waterleaf (Hydrophyllum virginianum), hairy-leaved sedge (Carex hirtifolia), and wood phlox (Phlox divaricata subsp. laphamii) as relicts of the warm post-glacial "Xerothermic" period of about 3,500 years B.P. (Curtis 1971). A similar effect has been postulated for high Oak Island in the Apostles archipelago, which curiously has several slightly to greatly disjunct species in common with the GTI, namely witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana), wild licorice (Galium lanceolatum), and drooping sedge (Carex prasina). Certain southern mesic species do appear to "drop out" at the watery Wisconsin-Michigan state line north of Rock Island. Examples are (among others) blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides), black-seeded rice-grass (Oryzopsis racemosa), yellow trout-lily (Erythronium americanum), pagoda dogwood (Cornus alternifolia), larger enchanter's-nightshade (Circaea lutetiana subsp. canadensis), and lopseed (Phryma leptostachya). Their absence from the Michigan islands may be the result of simply the stochastic effects of island size and distance from source colonies, or there may be compounding factors such as poorer soil, a more severe fire history, and higher deer populations. Then, too, St. Martin Island has never been surveyed for its spring flora, which gives hints of being locally rich. Several wetland species are somewhat disjunct from farther south, in the interior wetlands of Washington and St. Martin Islands: false mermaid (Proserpinaca palustris var. crebra), yellow water buttercup (Ranunculus flabellaris), and running marsh sedge (Carex sartwellii). They often occur on the margins of fluctuating vernal ponds and swamps that are surrounded by black ash (Fraxinus nigra) and/or white cedar. The richness or rarity of the GTI flora should not be over-emphasized, however. Many of the islands in the Beaver, Manitou and Fox Island groups 75-100 km to the east and northeast in northern Lake Michigan harbor numerous northern, eastern, and southern species not known from the GTI, or, in some cases, anywhere in Wisconsin (Guire & Voss 1963; Marquis & Voss 1981; Hazlett 1991, 1993; Albert et al. 1997; Penskar et al. 1999). On these islands, hypermesophytes such as three species of holly ferns (Polystichum spp.), blue-stemmed goldenrod (Solidago caesia L.), great waterleaf (Hydrophyllum appendiculatum Michx.), and purple trillium (Trillium erectum L.) "rub elbows" (or at least occur on the same island) with northern species such as calypso orchid, northern comandra, butterwort (Pinguicula vulgaris L.), and Smith's melic grass (Melica smithii (A. Gray) Vasey), and prairie/dune species such as small green milkweed (Asclepias viridiflora Raf.), prairie dunewort (Botrychium campestre W.H. Wagner & Farrar), junegrass (Koeleria macrantha (Ledeb.) Schult.), and clustered cancer-root (Orobanche fasciculata Nutt.). There are probably two reasons for this: The more complex, higher, more extensive, and microhabitat-rich dune systems present in the Beaver-Manitou-Fox archipelago; and their more maritime climate given that they are much further from the mainland and thus more climatically buffered than the GTI. When more complete florulas are available for the Beaver-Garden-High-Hog Island chain in Michigan, we will be able to compare it with the GTI in more detail. Just to the north and northeast of the GTI is the Garden Peninsula and exten

Page  115 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 115 sive Great Lakes dune ridge-and-swale communities that stretch away east along the shoreline towards the Straits of Mackinac. The Garden Peninsula has much more extensive alvar than the GTI, an aggregate of over 100 ha (Albert et al. 1997), and high dolomite cliffs on the west coast such as Burnt Bluff. From Thompson and Manistique and east, the Michigan dune systems have relatively numerous, viable populations of Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) and Lake Huron tansy (Tanacetum huronense), as well as the Great Lakes endemic Houghton's goldenrod (Solidago houghtonii A. Gray), which does not occur in Wisconsin. Rare boreal species such as plains ragwort (Packera indecora (Green) A. Live & D. Live), intermediate poverty oatgrass (Danthonia intermedia Vasey), and veined meadow-rue (Thalictrum venulosum Trel.) are also found along this stretch of coast not too far from the GTI. To the south, the Door Peninsula proper boasts many communities that are much better developed than on the islands, and rare species that do not occur there. Newport State Park, the Mink River estuary, Toft Point, the Carlsville Bluffs, The Ridges, Toft Point, and Kangaroo Lake (Palmquist et al. 1991) are all complex, interesting sites, but their floristics fall outside the purview of this paper. Suffice it to say here that there are several northern and western disjunct plants that "skip over" the GTI and occur on the Door County mainland. Notable among these are giant pinedrops (Pterospora andromedea Nutt.), common moonwort (Botrychium lunaria L.), northern gooseberry (Ribes oxyacanthoides L.), coast sedge (Carex exilis L.), and white mandarin (Streptopus amplexifolius (L.) DC. The bird islands of Green Bay and Lake Michigan host a weedy flora of both native and exotic herbs and shrubs. Many of the shrubs are bird-dispersed (Hogg & Morton 1983), such as red-berried elder (Sambucus racemosa subsp. pubens) and wild black currant (Ribes americanum), while others are common rank exotic herbs that thrive in the nutrient-rich soils of such islets, for example motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca) and catnip (Nepeta cataria). It it curious to note, though, the presence of mesic herbs of the genera Dicentra and Erythronium on several of the smaller, remoter isles (Hat Island, Little Strawberry Island). Again, there is a parallel with the Apostle Islands, where D. cucullaria was recorded from tiny Gull Island (Judziewicz & Koch 1993), and not on any other island in that archipelago. Chambers Island in central Green Bay has a climate with warmer summers than the GTI proper, and a different physiognomy not based on the presence of dolomite near the surface. About two dozen species of prairie grasses, forbs, and even shrubs (Table 8) are found in the pine barrens and coastal dunes of the northern part of the island. Some of these taxa (for example needle grass, Stipa spartea) are rare elsewhere else along the shores of northern Lake Michigan. The Chambers Island barrens have strong sand prairie and pine barrens floristic affinities, and such communities occur or occurred not far from the western shore of Green Bay near the cities of Menominee, Michigan and Marinette, Wisconsin. Perhaps wind or waves dispersed many of these species about 20 miles northeast from there to Chambers Island. The only other spot in the archipelago with even a hint of a prairie flora is the Jackson Harbor Ridges dune complex, which has four prairie or barrens species: Little bluestem

Page  116 ï~~116 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 Washington * Z 500 - C -Summer Detroit C 300 - Chambers 0.Rock n 200 - Plum.. "St. Martin (incomplete data) Poverty Little Summer (incomplete data) 100 " Â~_ Cl). Green 50 10 30 100 300 1,000 3,000 10,000 Island size in hectares (ha) FIGURE 15. Vascular plant species/area curve for the Grand Traverse Islands, with least-squares fitted regression line. (Schizachyrium scoparium), sand drop seed (Sporobolus cryptandrus), smooth aster (Aster laevis), and a historical record of prairie cinquefoil (Potentilla arguta). The rich floras of certain interior shaded dolomite cliffs (Table 11), such as those on Washington Island (Boyer Bluff, Mountain Tower Park) and Rock Island (most interior scarps) have been discussed earlier in this paper. When a species/area curve (Fig 15) is plotted for the larger, well-surveyed GTI (Chambers, Plum, Detroit, Washington, Rock, Poverty, and Summer Islands), it will be seen that the slope of the curve is nearly identical to that of the Apostles Islands curve (Judziewicz & Koch 1993: 72), but the y-intercept is about 10% higher. (Therefore, an island of a given size in the GTI will have a flora 10% higher than one of similar size in the Apostles). An obvious main explanation for this greater richness suggests itself: The more nutrient-rich dolomite-derived soils of the GTI, as opposed to the acidic, sandstone-derived nutrient-poor soils of the Apostle Islands. Another diversity "edge" for the GTI may be their "bimodal" forest compositon. Pre-settlement survey notes show that the larger islands such as Washington had beech-maple dominated interiors, with about a one-half mile wide coastal fringe of mixed cedar, hemlock, spruce, and balsam fir forest. The forests in Mountain Tower Park, for example, are quite different from those along Jackson Harbor. In contrast, the forests of the

Page  117 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 117 Apostle Islands (with the notable exceptions of Long and Oak Islands) were pretty much homogeneous mixtures of hemlock, white pine, white cedar, sugar maple, balsam fir, and yellow birch, and there was not as much differentiation between edge and center of island as in the GTI. Another edge that the GTI have is their relative continentality. The chain is dominated by Washington Island, which accounts for 62% of the archipelago's area, versus Madeline Island in the Apostles which accounts for only 27% of that archipelago's area. Finally, the GTI occurs about 10 farther south than the Apostle Islands, and diversity is generally greater at lower latitudes (of course, this begs the question of why!). The Apostles would appear to have the edge on the GTI in two other diversitypromoting factors: The absence (except on Madeline Island) of large numbers of scenery-chomping white-tailed deer, which appear to have contributed to a dearth of lilies and orchids in the understories of all the larger GTIs; and the much better-developed sandscape/wetland complexes such as those on Stockton, Madeline, and Outer Islands (only Washington and Chambers Islands have analogously large wetlands in the GTI). ISLAND-BY-ISLAND SUMMARIES The following summaries attempt to give an impression of the flora, vegetation, and a bit of the human cultural context of each island. The General Land Office survey notes (1830s and 1840s) were consulted for each of the Wisconsin islands, as were the 1942-1944 Wisconsin Department of Agriculture land cover maps (also known as the "Bordner Survey"). Starting in the 1960s and 1970s, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) biologists began surveying these islands, and much of their data has been drawn upon. Finally, my WDNR surveys were conducted from September 1997 through August 1999. Arrangement of presentation of islands is from south to north. Snake Island, Wisconsin This small (11 ha), privately-owned island is located just of the Green Bay coastline a few miles south of the entrance to Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal. It has an almost "atoll"-like physiography and is also known as Basin Island. There is an "outer" rim of higher ground, cored by dolomite that outcrops as 2 m high ledges at the north end, forested with scattered trees of white cedar, basswood, balsampoplar, box-elder, and some white birch, quaking aspen, and green ash. Here, Dutchman's-breeches (Dicentra cucullaria) makes a showy understory display in the spring. The "rim" of the basin surrounds a sedge meadow/emergent aquatic marsh of sedges, bulrushes, blue vervain (Verbena hastata), orange jewelweed (Impatiens capensis), cattails, arrowhead (Sagittaria latifolia), and Canada bluejoint. In years of normal Lake Michigan water levels, this meadow is flooded (it was dry in 2000). It is interesting to note that although Snake Island is only 1/3 the size of Green Island, it has 50% more plant species, probably because of the greater diversity of wetland habitats on the former island.

Page  118 ï~~118 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 118 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 FIGURE 16. View west from east tip of Green Island, Wisconsin. Dominant shrub on dolomite gravel and cobbles is red-berried elder (Sambucus racemosa subsp. pubens). Note light tower at site of ruined lighthouse, and nesting gulls, 8 June 1998. Green Island, Wisconsin (Figs. 16-18) Green Island, the only island in northern Green Bay that is a part of Marinette County, is located about 7 km southeast of the city of Marinette. It is a partially wooded 32 ha sandbar that is 1.4 km long, 0.3 km wide, and rises to a maximum height of only 7 m above Lake Michigan. There are no wetlands, so the flora is poor, with less than 100 species recorded during two visits in 1998 and 1999. This was apparently the first botanical survey of the island. The vegetation has been highly modified by past human activities, and, to a lesser extent nesting gulls, Black-crowned Night-Herons, and Common Egrets. At the eastern tip are the remains of a lighthouse, abandoned decades ago and then, more recently, burned by vandals (Pleger 1992). The ruins are covered by rank growths of staghorn sumac (Rhus hirta) and poison-ivy (Toxicodendron rydbergii). Near the south coast are a series of brushy stabilized dunes dominated by quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), poison-ivy, staghorn sumac, starry false Solomon's-seal (Smilacina stellata), sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella), Canada bluegrass (Poa compressa) and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum var. glabratus); the barrens sedge Carex muhlenbergii is occasional. The western one-third of the island has a remnant boreal forest, with balsam fir dominant in the overstory and Canada yew in the understory. The presence of abundant yew is noteworthy and indicates that deer do not visit this island; Adventure Island (Wisconsin) and Poverty Island (Michigan) are the only other Grand Tra

Page  119 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 119 2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 119 FIGURE 17. View east from east tip of Green Island, with bluffs of Door Peninsula on the horizon, 8 June 1998. FIGURE 18. View east from west tip of Green Island, 8 June 1998. John Huff is on the left; on the right horizon is the light tower on the opposite end of the island.

Page  120 ï~~120 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 verse Islands to have healthy yew populations in the archipelago. Other tree species present are white birch, basswood, quaking aspen, and some white cedar, white spruce and white pine. Mesic forest herbs including great-flowered trillium (Trillium grandiflorum), hairy sweet cicely (Osmorhiza claytonii), and jack-in-the pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum) are common in the understory, and even herb-Robert (Geranium robertianum), a refugee from the dolomitic Door Peninsula, is present. Cana Island, Wisconsin Cana Island is located just off the coast of the Lake Michigan shoreline a few miles northeast of the village of Baileys Harbor. It is barely an island at all, because it is periodically connected to the mainland by a driveable causeway during periods of low lake levels. This 2-3 ha island is dominated by a white cedar forest, but there is a maintained clearing around the restored lighthouse (built in 1869-1870) at the southeast end. Many exotics are present, deer browsing is heavy, and the forest understory is somewhat disturbed. The shoreline consists of low dolomite shelves, and one rare plant species is present. Hat Island, Wisconsin (Fig. 55) Hat Island is a tiny (less than 1 ha) low island in Green Bay located 5 km from the mainland midway between Egg Harbor and Fish Creek. It is currently a breeding ground for gulls and Double-crested Cormorants, and was visited on 6 May 1998 with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service personnel (we also visited Adventure, Little Strawberry, Jack, and Horseshoe Island that day). Hat Island was recently forested, since there are a few eerily skeletal dead cottonwoods (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) still standing, and a small colony of dutchman'sbreeches (Dicentra cucullaria) at the highest point. Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus var. strigosus), wild black currant (Ribes americanum), chokecherry, and redberried elder (Sambucus racemosa subsp. pubens) are frequent shrubs, while weedy exotics such as motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca) and catnip (Nepeta cataria) dominate the groundlayer. Chambers Island, Wisconsin (Figs. 7, 19, 20, 41, 45-47; Table 8) The second-largest of Wisconsin's Lake Michigan Islands, Chambers Island is located about 8 km northwest of Fish Creek and 10 km from the Michigan shoreline. It is a low flat island composed of sand, clay and gravel, with a maximum elevation of only 17 m above Green Bay. The island has 11 km of town roads, a private airstrip, over 40 seasonal homes, a historic lighthouse (the only public land on the island), and the Holy Name Retreat House, operated by the Diocese of Green Bay. Although the underlying bedrock is mapped as Silurian dolomite, it is nowhere exposed on the island and the sandy-clayey soils give general indications of being nutrient-poor and somewhat acidic. In general the topography and flora of Chambers Island is more similar to that of Marinette County than the Door Peninsula, although a few calciphiles such as buffaloberry

Page  121 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Chambers Island 121 Retreat House Sand 1 0 1 Miles FIGURE 19. Map of Chambers Island, Wisconsin.

Page  122 ï~~122 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 122 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 FIGURE 20. Older second-growth forest of hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and beech (Fagus grandifolia) along Baseline Road on southeastern Chambers Island, Wisconsin, 9 May 1998. This is quite close to the spot on the road where a 12" d.b.h. red maple fell on the author several weeks later. (Shepherdia canadensis) and herb-robert do occur on the island where aprons of dolomite gravel from the Door Peninsula wash up. Although Norman C. Fassett apparently made a few collections near the lighthouse in 1935, the only other botanical visits prior to mine were those of Donald Ugent, who visited Chambers Island several times during the summer of 1961 and collected several hundred numbers. Don, now a professor of botany at Southern Illinois University, recalls that he worked at the agricultural experiment station on the mainland (researching potatoes, then as now), and hopped the then-public ferry to the island whenever he could. Several aspects of the natural history of Chambers Island are noteworthy: Its fine regrown hemlock-hardwood forests; current absence of white-tailed deer; remnant Great Lakes pine barrens communities with a strong prairie element; and relatively undisturbed Great Lakes beach flora. About 3A of Chambers Island is forested with a mix of 12-24" second- and third-growth beech, sugar maple, red oak, and hemlock. General Land Office (GLO) notes from the initial 1835 survey (Table 3) indicate that "pine" (mainly white pine) and "black oak" (presumably red oak, Quercus rubra) had a combined importance value of 60% on the island. These were followed by hemlock (12%), beech and sugar maple (both 7%) and basswood (3%). In 1998, in the southwest, beech is dominant (Fig. 46); along Baseline Road, there is a mix of hemlock, beech and sugar maple (Figs. 20, 41); and in the north,

Page  123 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 123 red oak is locally dominant, sometimes mixed with bitternut hickory (Carya cordiformis). The shrub and herb groundlayer in these forests is generally poor, with few ephemerals; violets (Viola spp.) and wood anemone (Anemone quinquefolia) are the commonest herbs in hemlock-hardwoods. The red oak woods, best developed on the road to Sand Point (Fig. 47), have a few characteristic species such as hog-peanut (Amphicarpaea bracteata), wide-leaved panic grass (Panicum latifolium), smooth aster (Aster laevis), and pale vetch (Lathyrus ochroleucus). The lighthouse (built in 1868) at the north end of the island has some of the finest spring wildflower displays on the island, with great-flowered trillium, great-flowered bellwort (Uvularia grandiflora), and other liliaceous herbs common. Along Baseline Road in the exact center of the island are a few trees of bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) and a clone of mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum). The island forests are unusual in a number of ways. They are selectively logged every 15 years (they were entered in 1999), and there are few exotic plants in the understory (about the only weed is helleborine orchid, Epipactis helleborine). Low-specification logging roads do not disrupt the continuous canopy with open corridors that would allow the entry of cowbirds which might parasitize less common forest birds. Deer had a devastating effect on plant survival and regeneration on the island from the 1940s through the 1980s; local residents said that you could see a half mile through the woods because the understory was so open. But they have now been absent for over ten years, resulting in fine regeneration of sugar maples and conifers. The sandscapes on Sand Point and the North Bay harbor remnants of a Great Lakes barrens community (Fig. 7) found nowhere else on Wisconsin's Lake Michigan coast, and may represent the best examples of this community of anywhere in the state-the barrens on Stockton Island in the Apostle Islands do not have a prairie component (Judziewicz & Koch 1993). GLO notes confirm a very open forest even in 1835 with scattered trees of pine. Along with juniper species (Juniperus communis var. depressa and J. horizontalis) and beachgrass (Ammophila breviligulata), and among scattered white and red pines (Pinus strobus and P resinosa), grow prairie elements such as big and little bluestem (Andropogon gerardii and Schizachyrium scoparium), Indian-grass (Sorghastrum nutans), needle-and-thread grass (Stipa spartea), Muhlenberg's sedge (Carex muhlenbergii), New Jersey tea (Ceanothus spp.), butterflyweed (Asclepias tuberosa subsp. interior), blazing-star (Liatris aspera), hoary puccoon (Lithospermum caroliniense subsp. croceum), and the abundant smooth aster. Many grow nowhere else in the Door Peninsula or the Grand Traverse Islands (Table 8). However, the aggressive exotic spotted knapweed (Centaurea biebersteinii)which was not collected by Ugent in 1960-is also common. These barrens clearly have affinities with sandy pine and oak barrens on the Wisconsin and Michigan mainland on the west side of Green Bay, such as, for example, the Ansul Dunes (now largely destroyed) that occurred on the outskirts of the city of Marinette. It seems reasonable to hypothesize that the prairie element on Chambers Island was dispersed there by water from these mainland areas. A related community, Great Lakes beaches, occurs on three parts of the island. The dominants in this habitat are cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium), an

Page  124 ï~~124 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 evening-primrose (Oenothera sp.), a knotweed (Polygonum ramossimum), and significant populations of the Wisconsin special concern species American searocket (Cakile edentula) and seaside spurge (Fig. 45; Chamaescyce polygonifolia). Elsewhere on Wisconsin's Lake Michigan shoreline, these species have apparently suffered steep declines since they are vulnerable to greatly increased levels of human vehicle and foot traffic. Even in parks and state natural areas, it is difficult to keep people from trampling on a plant as humble as seaside spurge; but on Chambers Island low usage and extensive private properties help to keep impacts low. Chambers Island has several wetlands. Large, shallow Mackaysee Lake has some aquatic macrophytes and a few modest ridges and swales on its western shore; it has not been well surveyed. Tiny Mud (or Lost) Lake is surrounded by acidic oak-pine-aspen woodlands with heaths such as huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata), early blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium), and trailing arbutus (Epigaea repens), and has adjoining wetlands with three-way sedge (Dulichium arundinaceum) and sweet flag (Acorus americanus). There is also a small leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata)-dominated muskeg about 1 km south of Mackaysee Lake-the only such example of this community in the GTI. Adventure (Big Strawberry or Strawberry) Island, Wisconsin This wooded, 8 ha island lies about 5 km northwest of the village of Fish Creek, in Green Bay. Cabins and a dock are located on the south shore. The island was popular in the 1920s and 1930s as a summer camp for boys who built their own "Viking" boats and staged "raids" of the village of Fish Creek as a graduation exercise. Perhaps as a result of intense human activity, the white cedar-basswood-quaking aspen forest of the island is reported to have a dense, shrubby understory dominated by red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), chokecherry, exotic honeysuckle (Lonicera sp.), red raspberry, and some Canada yew. There are few herbs and no rare plant species recorded. A Milwaukee Public Museum expedition made several collections here in July 1897. Little Strawberry Island (North Strawberry Island), Wisconsin (Fig. 56) In 1998, this small (2.5 ha) island in Green Bay was unique among those surveyed in that the "battle" between invading gulls and cormorants, and native forest trees, was still in doubt. The birds appear to be winning in spite of a determined effort by the owner to frighten them away using wind chimes hung in trees and the thunderous booming of an acetylene cannon that can be heard from Chambers Island to the Door County mainland. The cabin at the east end of the island is swarming with gulls and reminiscent of Bodega Bay, California as envisaged by Alfred Hitchcock in The Birds! Little Strawberry Island is forested with a nearly pure stand of basswood on shallow soils derived from dolomite beach cobbles, with cow-parsnip (Heracleum lanatum) locally dominant in the understory. In 1998 there were a few remnant mesic forest herbs such as the dicentras (Dicentra canadensis and D. cucullaria) and yellow trout-lily (Erythro

Page  125 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 125 nium americanum)-herbs which collector J.W. Seaquist noted in 1947 as "blooming profusely all over the island". Jack Island, Wisconsin This small (2 ha), low, brushy island in Green Bay was once forested and the site of a resort as recently as the 1930s, but is now a breeding site for gulls and Double-crested Cormorants. In 1998 only a few dead cottonwoods remained among the red-osier dogwoods and red-berried elders, along with abundant exotic herbs such as motherwort and catnip. Fassett's 1935 site for plains ragwort (Senecio congestus) could not be relocated. Jack Island is connected via sandbar to Little Strawberry Island, and one can wade between the two islands when lake levels are low, as well as to "Pirate Island," a shoal located a short distance to the northeast of Jack Island, and still appearing on the USGS topographic map Horseshoe Island (Eagle Island), Wisconsin A 15 ha island located within and about 1 km north of the mainland portion of Peninsula State Park, Horseshoe Island has some fine stands of white cedar and low dolomite cliffs on its north and west coasts. Younger balsam fir and white birch are also common. Climbing fumitory is locally abundant in the understory, as is the pernicious weed garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), which is abundant on the adjacent mainland in Peninsula Park. Sister Islands, Wisconsin These tiny, low bird islands were not visited in 1998. They lie about 4 km northwest of the village of Sister Bay, on Green Bay. William E. Tans of the WDNR reported box-elder (Acer negundo), orange jewelweed (Impatiens capensis), red-osier dogwood, bittersweet nightshade (Solanum dulcamara), and stinging nettles (Urtica dioica subsp. gracilis) were common in 1977. In 2000, during extremely low water levels, the islands appeared brushy from the mainland. Spider Island, Wisconsin Spider Island lies about 1 km offshore from the south tip of Newport State Park peninsula, on Lake Michigan. It was visited by Milwaukee Public Museum botanists on 1 July 1905. Based on their collections, at that time the island was dominated by white cedar, tamarack, and white birch, with boreal forest and Great Lakes shoreline understory species such as blueflag iris (Iris virginica), wood lily (Lilium philadelphicum), and Indian paintbrush (Castilleja coccinea). It must have been an idyllic spot. By 1966, invasion by waterbirds (Herring and Ring-billed Gulls) had commenced and the forest was recorded as a remnant one dominated by white birch, white cedar, white spruce, and abundant Canada yew, with the shrubs red-osier dogwood, red raspberry, and red-berried elder. Gary Fewless visited and collected plants in 1983 and found an even more degraded flora dominated by exotic herbs, with a few remnant shrubs like yew and wild

Page  126 ï~~126 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 black currant. The island was not visited in 1998-1999, but U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service personnel report that the forest is now entirely gone. Gravel Island, Wisconsin This 0.7 ha island just off the east side of the tip of the Door Peninsula, is owned by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. It was visited on 22 July 1999, and no vascular plants were seen. Plum Island, Wisconsin (Figs. 21-22) This 108 ha island is located in the channel between the tip of the Door Peninsula and Washington Island. It is administered by the U.S. Coast Guard and casual visits are not permitted; there is a U.S. Coast Guard station on the northeast coast, and a lighthouse on the southwest coast (Fig. 21). The interior of this low (maximum elevation, 13 m above Lake Michigan) island is dominated by sugar maple and basswood forests, while white cedar is dominant near the coasts, especially where dolomite is near the surface. William E. Tans (WDNR) visited on 22 July 1974 and reported wonderful old-growth sugar maple and basswood (Tilia americana) forests in the interior of this island, with a dense Canada yew understory and no deer (Huntoon 1977). These forests has been significantly impacted by heavy selective logging in the 1980s, and the introduction of deer. The heavy select cut left the canopy open FIGURE 21. Old lightkeeper's house and range light clearing in southwest coast of Plum Island, Wisconsin. Note deer browse line, 22 July 1999.

Page  127 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 127 2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 127 FIGURE 22. Calcareous meadow adjacent to "Carp Lake" on northwest side of Plum Island, Wisconsin, during a low water year of Lake Michigan. Brook lobelia (Lobelia kalmii) is abundant in this meadow, which is under water in most years, 22 July 1999. and in 1998-1999 red raspberry and the pernicious weed common hound'stongue (Cynoglossum officinale) are in many places dominant in the understory. Spring ephemerals are absent except near the cross-island trail, where many large trees were retained as a beauty strip. Deer are now abundant and fed by the locals, who also introduced pigs in 1999. The east and south coast have low, white cedar-clad dolomite bluffs with oneflowered cancer-root (Orobanche uniflora) and climbing fumitory fairly frequent in the understory. Sandy, disturbed areas occur near the station, lighthouse, and in range light clearing; in some of these, dune goldenrod (Solidago simplex subsp. randii var. gillmanii) is abundant. The northwestern part of the island is diverse, but also quite disturbed. There is a 2 ha, very shallow lagoon (over marl and dolomite) called "Carp Lake" by local people, and indeed many of these introduced fish were seen wallowing there during a June 1998 visit. In 1999 water levels in Lake Michigan were much lower and the lagoon was cut off from the lake and surrounded by a meadow (Fig. 22) dominated by brook lobelia (Lobelia kalmii), rushes (Juncus spp.), and St. John's-worts (Hypericum spp.). Southwest of the lagoon is a 4 ha sedge meadow dominated by bluejoint (Calamagrostis canadensis) and tussock sedge (Carex stricta), while between the lagoon and coast guard station there is a thin strip of disturbed boreal forest with dwarf lake iris, alvar violet (Viola nephrophylla), and white camas (Zigadenus elegans subsp. glaucus) present.

Page  128 ï~~128 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 128 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 FIGURE 23. Great Lakes alkaline rockshore on western side of the south tip of Detroit Island, Wisconsin. Baltic rush (Juncus arcticus subsp. littoralis) and silverweed (Argentina anserina) are common here, 16 September 1998. Detroit Island, Wisconsin (Figs. 23, 48) Detroit Island is an elongate (6 km long, 0.2-1 km wide) piece of land lying just a few hundred yards east of the Washington Island ferry dock. Occupying 260 ha and rising to a height of 25 m above Lake Michigan, it is underlain by Silurian dolomite that outcrops on the plateau (with many low interior escarpments) north of the isthmus, and near the south tip as low shelves and cobble beaches trailing off into Lake Michigan. Nearly all the island is privately owned; there are about 15 seasonal houses on the east and west coasts north of the isthmus. Deer populations are high and have been so for decades. The best forests on the north-central high plateau are dominated by sugar maple, white birch, red maple, basswood, red oak, and hop-hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana); beech and balsam fir are only occasional in the interior. These forests have been rather heavily selectively cut in the recent past, and shrubs such as red raspberry and chokecherry, as well as common hound's-tongue, are common. On and near the numerous low dolomite scarps, marginal shield fern (Dryopteris marginalis) and yellow lady's-slippers (Cypripedium pubescens) may be abundant, and there is a picturesque inland six meter high escarpment near the west coast associated with a few supercanopy white pines. Good spring ephemeral displays of dutchman's-breeches (Fig. 48), great-flowered trilliums, wild leeks (Allium tricoccum), and Canada and yellow violets (Viola canadensis and V pubescens) are present on the central hill. A small black

Page  129 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 129 ash (Fraxinus nigra) swamp with tag alder (Alnus incana subsp. rugosa) and lake sedge (Carex lacustris) as codominants is found near the northwest end of the island. White cedar fringes the coast on either side of the central plateau, and in swales just inland from the coast there are several colonies of dwarf lake iris. The most interesting plant community on Detroit Island is a Great Lakes alkaline rockshore on the west side of the south tip of the island (Fig. 23). Species present here include Baltic rush (Juncus arcticus subsp. littoralis), silverweed (Argentina anserina), bird's-eye primrose (Primula mistassinica), low calamint (Calamintha arkansana), white camas, indian paint-brush, Seneca snakeroot (Polygala senega), several sedges (Carex aurea, C. crawei, C. viridula, and Rhynchospora capillacea), marsh fern (Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens), tufted hairgrass (Deschampsia cespitosa), alvar violet (Viola nephrophylla), brook lobelia (Lobelia kalmii), frost aster (Aster pilosus var. pringlei), shrubby St. John's-wort (Hypericum kalmianum), and lesser fringed gentian (Gentianopsis procera). There are also inundated/dead white cedars stands on a small peninsula that juts out to the west from the south tip of the island. Pilot Island, Wisconsin (Figs. 13, 24, 42) This small (1 ha) remote island has a lighthouse that was built in 1851 and is now abandoned to the birds and elements. The photographs in Hyde (1987: 150-151) show the station, and the surrounding white cedar and white birch forest, to be in good condition during the 1970s. An unpublished WDNR report FIGURE 24. Abandoned lighthouse seen through bird-killed forest of white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) and white birch (Betula papyrifera) on Pilot Island, Wisconsin, 22 July 1999.

Page  130 ï~~130 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 (Huntoon 1977) noted that the vegetation was composed of red-osier dogwood, lilacs (Syringa vulgaris), Canada yew, "grass", orange jewelweed, sumac, white cedar, willow, birch, and poison-ivy. S. P. Voice visited on 5 June 1982 and found climbing fumitory (Adlumia fungosa), growing among dense sweet cicely (Osmorhiza claytonii) under a forest of white birch, balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera), and quaking aspen near a large gull colony. Subsequent neglect of the structures and the dock, and invasion by breeding cormorants, changed the vegetative composition drastically. The forest was skeletal during a visit on 22 July 1999. The island is now dominated by red-berried elder, red raspberry, chokecherry, motherwort, and catnip. Washington Island, Wisconsin (Figs. 6, 8, 14, 25-29, 44, 51, 53, 54) Township-sized Washington Island is by the far the largest island in the Grand Traverse archipelago (occupying 62% of the area of all of the islands), and is the only one that is permanently inhabited. The year-round population of 650 people swells to several thousand during the summer. The island is a checkerboard of operating farms, old fields (Fig. 14), woodlots, and coastal bluffs and wetlands. In all the island is perhaps one-half "open" land with little cultivation and late or irregular haying of fields, thus grassland birds such as Bobolink, Clay-colored Sparrow, and even Upland Sandpiper thrive here. The GLO survey shows that the interior of the island was dominated in the 1830s by beech and sugar maple forests. Within about 0.5 mile of the coast, es FIGURE 25. Dried open marly marsh with partial dolomite cobble pavement in back of barrier beach, Big Marsh, Washington Island, Wisconsin. The dominant plant (on the middle horizon) is softstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani), 17 September 1998.

Page  131 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 131 2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 131 FIGURE 26. Boreal rich fen at Coffee Swamp, Washington Island, Wisconsin. Visible under the severely browsed white cedars is alder buckthorn (Rhamnus alnifolius), tufted bulrush (Scirpus cespitosus), and dark-scale cotton-grass (Eriophorum viridi-carinatum), 4 June 1998. pecially the east coast, the forest was coniferous and dominated by hemlock, white cedar, and "spruce" (presumably both white spruce and balsam fir). The island boasts a flora of 625 species and has been studied by botanists since Charles Goessl of the Milwaukee Public Museum made collections in 1917. The more extensive explorations of Albert B. Fuller (1900-1981) and Herbert Moussa of the same institution in 1926 and 1931 are summarized in a charming account (Fuller 1927) that shows an island somewhat different than today's. For example butternut (Juglans cinerea) was cited as the third most common tree (after beech and sugar maple) in the island's hardwood forests! Due to logging and disease it is now rare and only one mature tree was seen in 1998, although seedlings and saplings occur near the east coast, Washington Harbor, and in Mountain Tower Park. From the 1970s through the 1990s, many botanists from the WDNR, University of Wisconsin-Madison, and U.W.-Green Bay made valuable contributions to knowledge of the island's flora. They concentrated particularly on the Jackson Harbor Ridges preserve in the northeast corner of the island. Jackson Harbor Ridges is a series of cedar-clad xeric sandy ridges and hydric swales paralleling the harbor, extending eastward to an ephemeral dune pond complex and boreal conifer copses on Carlin Point. The flora is exceedingly diverse and has numerous Wisconsin listed species. It is the richest single site in the archipelago. Dwarf lake iris, bird's-eye primrose (Fig. 54), and false asphodel literally carpet many acres of ground. Northern comandra (Geocaulon

Page  132 ï~~132 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 132 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 Washington Island N s 1 0 1 Miles FIGURE 27. Map of Washington Island, Wisconsin.

Page  133 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 133 lividum) is locally frequent under white cedar and balsam fir. One of the most striking finds in recent years was dune willow (Salix cordata), by Gary Fewless in 1989. The orchid flora was in the past diverse (Fuller 1927), but deer browsing has apparently eliminated several species; for example, Fuller called the calypso orchid (Calypso bulbosa) "locally abundant" here and in other places on the island, but it has not been relocated for decades. Coffee Swamp is another prominent wetland complex. Located about 1 km inland from the north coast, it can be loosely categorized as a boreal rich fen, with elements of white cedar swamp (Fig. 26). It was probably first visited in 1926 by Fuller (as his "swamp near Andrew Swenson's") and then by Tans in 1974. Cedar copses are mixed with open meadows dominated by giant reed (Phragmites australis), calciphilic sedges (Carex buxbaumii and C. livida var. radicaulis), tufted bulrush (Scirpus cespitosus; Fig. 44), and false asphodel (Tofieldia glutinosa). Shrubby cinquefoil (Pentaphylloides floribunda) and alder buckthorn (Rhamnus alnifolius) are common in the understory. Diversity is increased by the presence of small mounded acidic sphagnous pockets under some of the cedars that harbor snowberry (Gaultheria hispidula), round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia), pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea) and other acidophiles. At the center of the complex is a small shallow pond with a marl bottom nearly dried up in September 1998, with yellow pond lilies (Nuphar variegatum) growing in it (Fig. 8). Rare orchids may once have grown in this swamp but were not evident in 1998. There is a high deer browse line on the white cedars, and the exotic glossy buckthorn (Rhamnusfrangula) is present and may be spreading. Just north of the fen is a small but fine black ash swamp (Fig. 53) and abandoned cut channel leading north to Lake Michigan (Fig. 28). There are several other interesting, nutrient-rich wetlands on Washington Island. The north end of Little Lake has a small coastal fen dominated by bogbean, sweet gale, the wire-leaved sedge Carex lasiocarpa, the orchids rose pogonia (Pogonia ophioglossoides) and grass pink (Calopogon tuberosus), and several other calciphiles such as downy willow-herb (Epilobium strictum). Big Marsh is, during most times of the year, an emergent aquatic community with softstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani) and tall bog arrowgrass (Triglochin maritimum) dominant in shallow water over marl. By September it may dry up to expose extensive marl flats and a dolomite gravel pavement (Fig. 25); a disjunct from the south, false mermaid-weed (Proserpinaca palustris var. crebra) occurs in shallow puddles in this habitat. Adjacent boreal fenlike sedge meadows in conifer forest openings to the west of Big Marsh have the rare livid sedge and otherwise resemble Coffee Swamp, but are not quite as rich floristically. These grade into perhaps the best and wettest white cedar swamp in the archipelago, with northern black currant (Ribes hudsonianum) and northern bog sedge (Carex gynocrates) locally common in the understory. Little Marsh to the north is smaller and more closely ringed by a fringe of black ash swamp. Attractive Great Lakes alkaline rockshore communities are best developed along about 5 km of the southeast coast (Figs. 29, 51). These shelving dolomitic communities bear an attentuated resemblance to the more extensive alvarlike shorelines of Poverty and Summer Islands to the north. Dwarf lake iris, bird's-eye

Page  134 ï~~134 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 134 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 FIGURE 28. Artificially blasted outlet (through dolomite) from Coffee Swamp to Lake Michigan on Washington Island, Wisconsin. Common tree is white cedar, and beds of bulblet fern (Cystopteris bulbifera) are visible in the distance, 4 June 1998. primrose, low calamint, and tufted hairgrass are locally common, and other rare species present may include Ohio goldenrod (Solidago ohioensis), false asphodel, lesser fringed gentian, and slim-stemmed reed-grass (Calamagrostis stricta subsp. inexpansa). Most are privately owned small lots with houses well inland, and owners who wish to be good stewards to the rare plants that grow there. Lake dunes are present at two other places besides Jackson Harbor. At Dunes Park on the south coast (Fig. 6), beach grass is common and the rare species thickspike wheatgrass (Elytrigia dasystachya subsp. psammophilus), seaside spurge, and a dozen individuals of Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) barely survive the intense foot traffic. There is about 0.5 mile of less-impacted private beach and dunes to the east of the park. Another dune system extends north about 1 km north from Percy Johnson County Park on the east coast. Here beach grass and wild rye are common near the beach grading inland into common and spreading juniper thickets among scattered white pines. This is one of the most pleasant spots on the island. The flora includes dwarf lake iris, sandwort (Arenaria stricta subsp. dawsonensis), dune goldenrod (Solidago simplex subsp. randii var. gillmanii), wood lily (Lilium philadelphicum) and abundant lanceleaved coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata var. lanceolata). High coastal dolomite bluffs on the northeast coast culminate in Boyer's Bluff. These cedar-clad cliffs harbor significant populations of rock whitlowgrass (Draba arabisans), and there is also a bulblet fern-covered interior scarp.

Page  135 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 135 2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 135 FIGURE 29. Great Lakes alkaline rockshore on southeast coast of Washington Island, Wisconsin, 21 July 1999. This shoreline is owned by several private owners who exercise good stewardship of this community.

Page  136 ï~~136 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 The finest dolonite escarpment on the island occurs at Mountain Tower Park, where wooden stairs lead one past colonies of green spleenwort (Asplenium trichomanes-ramosum) to a wooden lookout tower from which there are spectacular views to the north. The beech-maple woods south of the tower harbors significant populations of the wonderful bluish-waxy broad-leaved sedge Carex platyphylla (Fig. 43), which is also found in several other woodlands on Washington Island. Deer populations are high. Hog Island, Wisconsin Tiny Hog Island is located about 1 km off the east coast of Washington Island. Low and brushy, it is a breeding site for red-breasted mergansers. Goessl (1916) and Fuller (1926) paid brief visits to this island. Huntoon (1977) records that in the 1970s Canada yew, red-osier dogwood, red-berried elder, red raspberry, and wild black currant formed a dense brush cover, but white cedar, white birch, and aspen were also present, and Canada yew abundant. Hog Island was surveyed on 22 July 1999, and numerous gulls (but no cormorants) were noted. The vegetation is mostly red-berried elder, red raspberry, and other weedy shrubs, but there are a few remnant trees of balsam fir and some Canada yew left. Rock Island, Wisconsin (Figs. 2, 30, 38, 43, 52) The highest island in the Grand Traverse archipelago (at 65 m above Lake Michigan), 325 ha Rock Island also has the distinction of being the most remote from the mainland. It is arguably the gem of the chain of islands stretching between the Door and Garden Peninsulas. The first European inhabitants were fishermen who settled on the southern east coast in the 1840s (Eaton 1979). When fish stocks declined after a few decades, human impacts diminished. In 1910, famed inventor and electrical engineer Hjortur Thordarson (1867-1945) purchased Rock Island and begin there a program of building and landscaping that continued for the rest of his life. Thordarson's crowning achievement was the construction of the magnificent "Viking" meeting hall/boathouse near the island's southwest tip. He was reputed to have been an excellent botanist who knew every plant on his island, but I have not been able to find any specimens collected by him. Perhaps there are botanical notes by him in his archive in the Wisconsin State Historical Society. At any rate, Thordarson was also a crotchety figure who often drove uninvited (and, sometimes, invited!) guests away (Eaton 1979). It is noteworthy that the genial Albert Fuller (1927) was able to finagle an invitation to collect on St. Martin Island, but not on the much closer and more interesting Rock Island. So perhaps it is no great surprise that the first known plant collections were not made there until 1969, by Bill Tans. Meanwhile, Rock Island had become a Wisconsin State Park in 1964. The majority of the interior of Rock Island is covered with impressive older growth southern mesic forest of beech and sugar maple forests on rolling terrain (Figs. 2, 52). GLO survey notes from the 1830s confirm that these species were the dominants at time of white settlement, with small amounts of white cedar, pine, and "spruce" from the southern fringe of the island below the interior

Page  137 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 137 dolomite escarpment. The Fernwood Trail traverses the most impressive areas of this forest. Hop-hornbeam is a frequent understory tree, but hemlocks and other conifers are virtually absent, and only a few yellow birches were noted. The spring ephemeral display features a luxuriant carpet of wild leeks interspersed with Virginia waterleaf (Hydrophyllum virginianum) and Carolina spring-beauty and dutchman's-breeches. Due to the long-time presence of deer, almost all seedlings in the forest are beech rather than sugar maple. Broad-leaved wood sedge (Fig. 43; Carex platyphylla) is found in scattered small to large colonies in the northern one-third of the island. An unusual "sport" form of the common great-flowered trillium (Trillium grandiflorum) with small, green-striped flowers is frequent along the Fernwood Trail. In the center of the island, along and on the west side of the Fernwood Trail, are hardwoods seeps that have no other counterpart in the archipelago-or perhaps the Door Peninsula, too. A small wet opening in the beech forest is covered with dense growths of ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris) and the state threatened drooping sedge (Carex prasina), here found in its only eastern Wisconsin station (Fig. 30). Associates include spring ephemerals such as wild leeks, dutchman's-breeches, and bishop's-cap (Mitella diphylla), as well as meadow horsetail (Equisetum pratense), hairy-leaved sedge (Carex hirtifolia), and black snakeroot (Sanicula gregaria). The interior forest is broken by numerous interior dolomite escarpments, these often with lushly fern-covered boulder and scree slopes. The overstory is white cedar, balsam fir, and sugar maple, often with a dense mountain maple (Acer spicatum) understory. Common ferns are bulblet and marginal ferns; less frequent are walking fern (Asplenium rhizophyllum), Steller's cliffbrake (Cryptogramma stelleri), and spreading woodfern (Dryopteris expansa); climbing fumitory also occurs in this habitat. Under beeches and maples on the tops of these escarpments, Carex platyphylla occurs, carpeting the ground on one steep slope. The western, northern and eastern shores of Rock Island have white cedarclad dolomite cliffs; these are highest at the northwestern tip, below the Potawatomi Lighthouse, built in 1836. The cliff margin cedar forests have a characteristic flora that includes buffaloberry, white camas, ebony sedge (Carex eburnea), rough goldenrod (Solidago hispida), and abundant rock whitlowgrass, often in mats of the moss Hylocomium splendens. Inland from the southern coast are a series of low, barely perceptible ancient beach ridges with a less nutrient-demanding flora that includes white pines, a white spruce, blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) and wintergreen. The beach itself has a remnant Great Lakes dune community dominated by beach grass, Canada wild-rye (Elymus canadensis), and beach-pea (Lathyrus japonicus var. maritimus), mixed with rare species (barely hanging on here) like thickspike wheatgrass, dune goldenrod, and seaside spurge. This dune system has been muchdegraded by human impacts during this century. photographs taken in the 1930s and displayed at the Viking Hall show wonderful dunescapes with white cedar seedlings and juniper heaths that do not exist in 1999. In 1964 WDNR naturalist George J. Knudson was still able to record bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) and wood lily from these dunes-both were gone by 1997. Lake Huron tansy (Tanacetum huronense) once occurred on the beach but has not been seen since

Page  138 ï~~138 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 138 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 Rock Island Tower Clearing Sand Spit N W E S 0.5 0 0.5 Miles FIGURE 30. Map of Rock Island, Wisconsin.

Page  139 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 139 1972- this was apparently its last station in Wisconsin, and it is presumed extirpated from here and the state. The only semblance of a wetland on the island is a small abandoned gravel pit about 100 meters east of the Viking Hall. Here dozens of wetland, often calciphilic species occur that are found nowhere else on the island: cattails, softstemmed bulrush, brook lobelia, Ohio goldenrod, purple false foxglove (Agalinis purpurea), and others. The flora of 359 species is surprisingly rich considering the near-total lack of wetlands. Exotics, on the other hand, are common in the lawns and clearing that mark the site of the old Thordarson estate. Even casual visitors comment on three striking naturalized exotics that are common here and do no harm: low, creeping or "Icelandic" thyme (Thymus praecox subsp. arcticus), saxifrage pink (Petrorhagia saxifraga), and the strikingly whitened foliage of snow-in-summer (Cerastium tomentosum). Fish Island and Fishermen's Shoal, Wisconsin These tiny 0.5 ha gravel bars are the farthest eastern points of land in Wisconsin. On 22 July 1999 both were visited, and what appeared from several miles off to be a dark line of vegetation, turned out to be a huge mass of roosting cormorants. Neither islet had any vascular plants. St. Martin Island, Michigan (Fig. 12) Except for the lighthouse grounds on the northeast coast, St. Martin Island is nearly all privately owned, and it is the only significant island I was not able to gain permission to visit during this survey. Reportedly there are a few dilapidated cabins in the South and Southwest Bays, and a transinsular road or trail to the lighthouse on the northeast coast, which is pictured by Hyde (1987: 152). The island has a long history of human habitation dating back to the 19th century when a fishing village was established (Fuller 1927, Coppess 1981, Forzley et al. 1993). This village grew to a population of about 100 people, but was abandoned by 1900. Fuller (1927) paid a brief visit on 26 July 1926 and noted that "In the uncut portions of the island are magnificent sugar maples, yellow birches, and white cedars. The floor of the woods are covered with the native yew [Taxus canadensis]..." Apparently there has been significant logging since that, implying that old-growth hardwoods such as occur on Rock Island do not occur here, because local residents report that the island is now dominated by a third-growth forest of sugar and red maple, beech, white birch, and other tree species. Thad Grudzien, a member of the Cranbrook InstituteOakland University expeditions of 1989-1990, remembers that there were still places along the transinsular trail where Canada yew was abundant, so there must not have been high populations (or any) white-tailed deer on the island at that time. White cedar and other conifers are commoner near the coasts, especially on the prominent dolomite bluffs present on the northwest coast and visible from Rock Island (Fig. 12). According to zoologist Grudzien, there is a vernal pond

Page  140 ï~~140 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 surrounded by "swamp hardwoods" (perhaps black ash?) about 1 km west of the lighthouse, which shows up as a wooded swamp on the topographic map. Less than 200 plant species have been documented from the island, most apparently collected in 1989-1990 by the Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University team (1993). Fuller made about 15 collections in 1926, and Eric Bourdo, Jr. a few in 1969. There are intriguing descriptions of communities and reports of rare plants from St. Martin Island. Fuller (1927) noted that "On the broad stony beach [presumably on the east coast south of the lighthouse, where he landed] the native primrose [Primula mistassinica] is abundant...," and he also collected climbing fumitory, golden corydalis (Corydalis aurea), dwarf lake iris, and smallflowered grass-of-Parnassus (Parnassia parviflora) from the island. His "broad stony beach" with primrose and dwarf lake iris, and later collections of Indian paintbrush, white camas, and sight records of smooth aster, suggest that an alvarlike component may be present along the east coast similar to that found on the eastern coasts of Poverty and Summer Islands. Forzley et al. (1993) report wild chives (Allium schoenoprasum). This would be, if verified, the only record of this boreal calciphile from the archipelago; however I could not locate a specimen at BLH or any other herbarium. This species is often cultivated and long-persistent near lighthouses and fishing camps on Isle Royale. There is also a mysterious record of calypso orchid (Calypso bulbosa) from the island, and both small yellow and showy lady's-slippers are known, too. Slender cliffbrake, bulblet fern, smooth cliff brake (Pellaea glabella), and hoary whitlow-grass (Draba cana) are also reported from the island, surely from the west coast dolomite cliffs; unlike Rock Island, interior escarpments do not appear to be prominent. Finally, Forzley et al. (1993) report several mesic forest herbs which would be disjunct by at least 100 km from their nearest stations to the south, namely woodland phlox (Phlox divaricata subsp. laphamii) and honewort (Cryptotaenia canadensis). Surely St. Martin Island should receive high priority for research in the future. Gravelly Island, Michigan Gravelly Island measures only 1.2 ha and was treeless in 1989 (Forzley et. al. 1993). The only woody plants recorded were red-berried elder, red-osier dogwood, and wild black currant. Exotics, especially from the mustard family, accounted for many of the two dozen reported species. Little Gull Island, Michigan Forzley et al. (1993) recorded the same trees on this 2 ha bird island as on Gull Island; climbing fumitory was also present. Gull Island, Michigan This is the largest (5.5 ha) of the trio of small, gravelly bird islands that occur between St. Martin Island and Poverty Island. Forzley et al. (1993) visited them

Page  141 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 141 2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 141 FIGURE 31. Alvar/Great Lakes alkaline rockshore on east coast of Poverty Island, Michigan, 26 May 1998. in 1989, but they were not revisited in 1998. Gull Island had the richest flora and apparently the remnants of a forest as indicated by the presence of white cedar, balsam fir, Canada yew, white birch, yellow birch, and quaking aspen. Poverty Island, Michigan (Figs. 5, 31-32) This small (78 ha) round island has no dock and is surrounded by dolomite shelves and cliffs. Forzley et al. (1993) reported 173 species based on surveys made in 1989-1990. Mike Penskar and Pat Comer visited and surveyed alvar communities (Fig. 31) on this island in 1995 (Albert et al. 1997: Plate 7a), and I was able to add about 30 more species during a reconnaisance on 26 May 1998. This is a lighthouse island; the tower and keeper's house on the southwest coast were built in 1875 but are now derelict ruins (Fig. 32; Hyde 1987: 152). The island is part of a Michigan State Forest but may be soon transferred to the federal government and administered as part of the Seney Wildlife Refuge. Presently it is used for hunting for, in spite of its tiny size and isolation, a herd of deer lives here! The forest is quite boreal near the transinsular trail, with white spruce and balsam fir common (Fig. 5). Elsewhere there is considerable white birch, quaking aspen, and white cedar; red and sugar maples, beech, and basswood are absent. In the understory, mountain maple and Canada yew are locally abundant. Yew is especially luxuriant in a treacherous "zone of death" near the

Page  142 ï~~142 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 142 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 FIGURE 32. Abandoned lighthouse on Poverty Island, Michigan, 26 May 1998. northwest coast that deer are apparently reluctant to venture into-a honeycombed network of narrow, 1-3 meter deep crevices in the dolomite bedrock that extend dozens of meters inland and are concealed by spreading yew branches. The most interesting natural communities on Poverty Island are the alvarlike Great Lakes alkaline rockshores of the east and south coasts. These narrow (10-25 m wide zones) boast a rich assemblage of calciphiles at the margins of white cedar thickets, including bird's-eye primrose, dwarf lake iris, rare sedges (Carex richardsonii, C. capillaris, C. concinna, C. crawei, and C. garberi), variegated scouring-rush (Equisetum variegatum), marsh fern, blue-eyed grass (Sisyrinchium montanum), false asphodel, white camas, frost aster, Ohio goldenrod, shrubby St. John's-wort, low calamint, Seneca snakeroot, silverweed, long-leaved bluets (Houstonia longifolia), indian paintbrush, and alvar violet. Summer Island, Michigan (Figs. 3-4, 9-11, 33-36, 39) This is the largest of Michigan's Grand Traverse Islands, and has received by far the most botanical attention over the last three decades. The flora of 376 species is fairly completely known. In human terms, Summer Island is a lonesome place, gone to seed; "Autumn Island" would have been a better name. Two or three seasonal homes on Summer Harbor and a hunting shack on the east coast are presently the only dwellings. For many years there was also a boys'

Page  143 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 143 2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 143 Gravel Point tamarack alvar Summer Harbor best alvar 1 km FIGURE 33. Map of Summer Island, Michigan.

Page  144 ï~~144 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 summer camp on the harbor, but those buildings are now delapidated. The island suffers from (or enjoys!) the lack of a dock, and is used by local people mostly for deer hunting, with numerous ATV trails leading inland to feeding stations, salt blocks, and blinds on Michigan State Forest land. The interior of Summer Island is composed of two types of forests. About one-third of the island (including elevations above about 650 feet) is dominated by pole-sized hardwoods. Sugar maple, beech, white and yellow birch, and hophornbeam, sometimes with an admixture of hemlock, are the commonest species here (Fig. 3). The groundlayer is poor, and there is essentially no spring ephemeral display anywhere on the island-members of the lily family are present but nowhere common. The forest has been repeatedly selectively cut, fire scars are common, and there is no evidence that farming was ever attempted here. Soils are thin and bedrock appears to be near the surface over most of the island. The other dominant forest type is a mixed white cedar, balsam fir, red maple, and white birch type found at lower elevations; it, too, has a poor groundlayer. A few rather depauperate seeps (Fig. 4) and vernal ponds are scattered throughout the island, for example in SEX of NE% of Sec. 33, and near the north tip of the island (Fig. 9), but none has any rare species. Two notable interior species are purple false oats (Trisetum melicoides) and striped maple (Acer pensylvanicum). The latter species is found over a dozen or so hectares of mixed forest on the southeast side of Summer Harbor. Here it is at its western range limit, and is not found on the Wisconsin islands. There is a dolomite escarpment that runs roughly north and south through shady white cedar woods along the borders of Sections 33 and 34, along the southwest bay. The fern flora of this scarp is poor, with some slender cliff brake (Fig. 39) and smooth cliff present but no walking fern, spleenworts (Asplenium spp.) or dense beds of bulblet or fragile ferns (Cystopteris spp.) as are present on the rich seeping interior scarps on Washington and Rock Islands. Climbing fumitory has been collected from Summer Island, but I did not see it there in 1998. The most significant and interesting plant communities on Summer Island are the coastal alvars and Great Lakes alkaline rockshores (Figs. 10-11, 34-36). These communities are well-developed all along the east coast from the navigation light south to the south tip of the island and occur in a zone from 10-75 m wide along the margins of a white cedar forest. The best alvar community is one designated as "Creeping juniper-shrubby cinquefoil alvar pavement" by Albert et al. (1997: Plate 8b) and consisting of a narrow, treefree "boulevard" or "bowling alley" paralleling the east coast among conifers (Fig. 35). All of the species listed for the Poverty Island alvars occur here, plus a few others such as the lesser fringed gentian and balsam ragwort (Packera paupercula). About 1 km northwest of Summer Harbor (in Sec. 22) is a flatter, wetter, alvarlike shoreline with splash pools or puddles, and tamarack co-dominant with white cedar.

Page  145 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 145 2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 145 FIGURE 34. Great Lakes alkaline rockshore with ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius), tufted hairgrass (Deschampsia cespitosa), and low calamint (Calamintha arkansana) on east coast of Summer Island, Michigan, 27 May 1998. FIGURE 35. Alvar on east coast of Summer Island, Michigan, 27 May 1998.

Page  146 ï~~146 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 146 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 FIGURE 36. Very shallow bay of Lake Michigan (with dolomite gravel and cobbles) on southwest coast of Summer Island, Michigan, 28 May 1998. Little Summer Island, Michigan (Figs. 37, 40, 49, 50) This low (12 m above Lake Michigan) 225 ha island was visited of 29 May 1998. I collected or saw 174 plant species, probably about two-thirds of the total flora. Most of the island is a mixed conifer-hardwood forest with white birch, balsam fir, red maple, and white cedar dominant, which is periodically heavily logged. Deer numbers are high. A small area of Michigan State Forest land in the center of the island has a rich sugar maple forest with numerous mesophytes not seen on nearby "Big" Summer Island, namely, Canada and yellow violets, Carolina spring-beauty, wood millet (Milium effusum), nodding fescue (Festuca subverticillata), Sprengel's sedge (Carex sprengelii), and Hitchcock's sedge (C. hitchcockiana). The western shore has low dolomite ledges clad with white cedar, a weird cedar cobble glade (Fig. 40), and a new perimeter road along that coast with abundant climbing fumitory springing from banked seeds in disturbed dolomitic gravel. The eastern shoreline has a marly sedge meadow (Figs. 37, 50) dominated by water sedge (Carex aquatilis), Baltic rush, and silverweed. Inland from this is a small alvarlike white cedar-fringed margin with Garber's sedge, Indian paintbrush, starry false Solomon's-seal, marsh fern, shrubby St. John'swort, low calamint, alvar violet, and dwarf lake iris (Fig. 49). Little Summer Island is presently being developed, with new docks at the north and northeast tips, and a large new airstrip. Just to the northwest of Little Summer Island is 3 ha Rocky Island, which was not visited during this survey. It had a low forest of aspen and white birch, many shrubs, and had many visiting waterbirds.

Page  147 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 147 2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 147 FIGURE 37. Wet calcareous meadow on east coast of Little Summer Island, Michigan, 29 May 1998. CHECKLIST OF VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE GRAND TRAVERSE ISLANDS The checklist is arranged in alphabetical order by family, genera, and species under three main headings: Pteridophytes (ferns and fern-allies), Gymnosperms (conifers), and Angiosperms (flowering plants). The nomenclature follows that of the recent checklist of the flora of Wisconsin (Wetter et al. 1999). *-indicates that the species is not native to the Grand Traverse Islands. Voucher specimens of nearly all species were collected. If no collector's name is given and the number range is from 12,480-14,112, then these are my collections and are deposited at either WIS (the vast majority) or MICH (those few that serve as records for Delta County, Michigan). If the number is preceded by a "89-" or "90-" prefix, then these were collected by the Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University Expedition of 1989-1990 and are deposited at BLH. The collectors for that expedition included James Wells, Paul Thompson, Kathleen Forzley, Thaddeus Grudzien, Phyllis Higman, and several other people. Other main collectors, and the herbaria in which their collections are deposited, are abbreviated as follows: Goessl = Charles Goessl (MIL, WIS and others); Fuller = Albert M. Fuller (MIL); Tans = William E. Tans (MIL, WIS); Tessene = Melvin Tessene (MICH); Ugent = Donald Ugent (WIS); Voss = Edward G. Voss (MICH); Freckmann = Robert W. Freckmann (UWSP); Cochrane = Theodore S. and Barbara A. Cochrane (WIS); Fewless = Gary Fewless (UWGB, University of Wisconsin-Green Bay).

Page  148 ï~~148 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 Within each species, the islands are listed from south to north. The list includes 111 families and 797 species, including 41 pteridophytes, 11 conifers, 228 monocots, and 517 dicots. The largest familes are the Cyperaceae (86 species), Asteraceae (76), Poaceae (62), and Rosaceae (43). Carex is by far the largest genus, with 62 species. 162 species, or 21% of the flora, are considered as alien exotics. PTERIDOPHYTES FERNS ASPLENIACEAE (Spleenwort Family) Asplenium rhizophyllum L., walking fern. THREATENED (MI). Walking fern is rare but locally common on large, mossy dolomite boulders on the interior escarpments of Rock Island (12537). It has not been found on the Michigan islands. A. trichomanes L., maidenhair spleenwort. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). Small populations were discovered on shaded dolomite bluffs along Old Mill Road on Washington Island (12766). There are no other island reports. A. trichomanes-ramosum L., green spleenwort. ENDANGERED (WI). A population has long been known, and still exists, on north-facing shaded dolomite cliffs at Mountain Tower Park on Washington Island (Fuller 1605). DENNSTAEDTIACEAE (Bracken Family) Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var. latiusculum (Desv.) A. Heller, bracken fern. Occasional in dry to moist woods, locally common in stabilized dunes. GREEN (13320). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1103). DETROIT (13541). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1381). ROCK (13107). ST. MARTIN (90-331). DRYOPTERIDACEAE (Wood Fern Family) Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Mert. var angustum (Willd.) Lawson, lady fern. Common, upland woods. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1099). DETROIT (abundant). PLUM (13346). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1589). ROCK (12495). ST. MARTIN (90-599). POVERTY (89-272). SUMMER (90-688). LITTLE SUMMER (12988). Cystopteris bulbifera (L.) Bernh., bulblet fern. Fig. 4. Locally common, cool shaded dolomite scree slopes; on Washington Island, forming large beds in areas where old channels had been blasted into dolomite (Coffee Swamp, Big Marsh). DETROIT (13537). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1590). ROCK (Threlfall s.n., UWGB). SUMMER (uncommon, forested seep). C. laurentiana (Weath.) Blasdell, Laurentian bladder fern. no status (WI), SPECIAL CONCERN (MI). This is a fern of shaded dolomite cliffs. There are collections on St. Martin (89-188) and Summer Islands (90-666) that require verification. It was not seen in 1998. C. tenuis (Michx.) Desv., MacKay's brittle fern. Moist woods, banks, cliffs, bases of trees. CHAMBERS (12754). PLUM (rare). DETROIT (uncommon). WASHINGTON (Cochrane 11069). ST. MARTIN (89-077). POVERTY (12838). SUMMER (Tessene 53). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill.) H.P Fuchs, spinulose wood fern. Fairly common, woods. GREEN (13225). CANA (occasional). CHAMBERS (13967). DETROIT (13500). WASHINGTON (Fewless & Moore 5955). ROCK (12494). POVERTY (89-288). SUMMER (12905). LITTLE SUMMER (12987). D. cristata (L.) A. Gray, crested wood fern. Occasional, swamps. CHAMBERS (13966). DETROIT (13867). WASHINGTON (13086). ROCK (13127). SUMMER (12902). D. expansa (C. Presl) Fraser-Jenkins & Jermy, spreading wood fern. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). A single specimen was collected in 1997 at the base of a forested dolomite escarpment on Rock Island (12507), and verified by W. Carl Tyalor. This represents the first record for this species from along the shores of Lake Michigan.

Page  149 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 149 2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 149 FIGURE 38. Unique seep in old-growth beech (Fagus grandifolia) forest in interior of Rock Island, Wisconsin. The seep is dominated by ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris) and drooping sedge (Carex prasina). Other common species are wild leeks (Allium tricoccum), dutchman's-breeches (Dicentra cucullaria), and nettles (Urtica dioica subsp. gracilis), 15 May 1999. D. intermedia (Willd.) A. Gray, intermediate wood fern. Common, woods. GREEN (13217). CHAMBERS (13952). PLUM (13328). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1492). ROCK (13834). ST. MARTIN (90-512). LITTLE GULL (90-614). GULL (89-182). POVERTY (89-278). SUMMER (90-667). LITTLE SUMMER (Freckmann 13144). D. marginalis (L.) A. Gray, marginal wood fern. Locally dominant on cool, shaded dolomite scree slopes as on the interior escarpments on Rock Island. PLUM (12692). DETROIT (12657). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1600). ROCK (12501). Gymnocarpium dryopteris (L.) Newman, common oak fern. Occasional, moist woods and cliffs. CANA (occasional). CHAMBERS (12749). PLUM (uncommon). DETROIT (13549). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1479). ROCK (13896). POVERTY (12837). SUMMER (12867). LITTLE SUMMER (12986). Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Todaro, ostrich fern. Fig. 38. Occasional to locally common in swamps. CHAMBERS (13943). PLUM (13423). DETROIT (13526). WASHINGTON (Threlfall s.n., UWGB). ROCK (13815). SUMMER (12888, Freckmann 13171). Onoclea sensibilis L., sensitive fern. Occasional, wet places. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1104). PLUM (13419). DETROIT (13545). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1563). ROCK (13122). LITTLE GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (90-254). SUMMER (90-630). LITTLE SUMMER (12987.5). OPHIOGLOSSACEAE (Grape-Fern Family) Botrychium multifidum (S.G. Gmel.) Rupr., leathery grape-fern. Rare, woods or clearings. SUMMER (Tessene 34). B. virginianum (L.) Sw., rattlesnake fern. Common, woods. CHAMBERS (12706). PLUM (13421). DETROIT (13525). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1423). ROCK (12612). ST. MAR

Page  150 ï~~150 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 TIN (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (occasional). SUMMER (Freckmann 13170). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). OSMUNDACEAE (Flowering-Fern Family) Osmunda cinnamomea L., cinnamon fern. Uncommon, moist to wet woods. CHAMBERS (13968). DETROIT (13479). WASHINGTON (James H. Zimmerman sight record, 3 Oct. 1998). SUMMER (Freckmann sight record, 1976). O. claytoniana L., interrupted fern. Not seen in present survey. WASHINGTON (listed for the island in James Peck's notecard file at MIL). O. regalis L. var. spectabilis (Willd.) A. Gray, royal fern. Uncommon, swamps and dolomite shoreline pools. DETROIT (13465). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1549). SUMMER (12903). POLYPODIACEAE (Polypody Family) Polypodium virginianum L., common polypody. Occasional to fairly common, dolomite cliffs. DETROIT (13589). WASHINGTON (Schutz 176, UWGB). ROCK (12639). ST. MARTIN (90-500). POVERTY (12834). SUMMER (Voss 12614). PTERIDACEAE (Maidenhair Fern Family) Adiantum pedatum L., maidenhair fern. Occasional, rich moist woods. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1102). DETROIT (13847). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1459). ROCK (13170). ST. MARTIN (90-318). SUMMER (Voss 12653). LITTLE SUMMER (12949). Cryptogramma stelleri (S.G. Gmel.) Prantl, slender cliff brake. Fig. 39. No status (WI), SPECIAL CONCERN (MI). In 1998, this fern of shaded dolomite cliffs was rare on Washington (Mountain Tower Park, Fuller 1604, MIL) and Rock (interior escarpment near the lighthouse; 12518) Islands in Wisconsin, and on escarpments on St. Martin (90-687) and Summer (12870) Islands, Michigan. Pellaea glabella Mett. ex Kuhn, smooth cliff brake. Rare, dolomite cliffs. ST. MARTIN (Sec. 16; 90-503). SUMMER (Voss 12647). FIGURE 39. Slender cliff brake (Cryptogramma stelleri) on shaded dolomite escarpment along southwest bay of Summer Island, Michigan, 27 May 1998.

Page  151 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 151 THELYPTERIDACEAE (March Fern Family) Thelypteris palustris Schott var. pubescens (Lawson) Fernald, marsh fern. Locally common in swamps, fens, and shoreline dolomite crevices and rock pools. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1105). DETROIT (13462). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1448). ROCK (13107). POVERTY (90-270). SUMMER (12876). LITTLE SUMMER (12934). FERN ALLIES EQUISETACEAE (Horsetail Family) Equisetum arvense L., field horsetail. Common, moist disturbed areas and shores. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1106). PLUM (rare). DETROIT (13460). WASHINGTON (Fewless & Moore 5942). ROCK (13132). POVERTY (12807). SUMMER (Tessene 38). LITTLE SUMMER (fairly common). E. fluviatile L., river horsetail. Rare, in a black ash swamp on DETROIT (13475) and on a beach on SUMMER (Freckmann 13156). E. hyemale L. subsp. affine (Engelm.) Calder & Roy L. Taylor, common scouring rush. Occasional to fairly common, wet areas. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1107). DETROIT (12784). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5946). ROCK (13195). ST. MARTIN (89-129). LITTLE SUMMER (12928). E. palustre L., marsh horsetail. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). There is an old record from an interior swamp (Little Marsh) on Washington Island (Goessl 3983). The species was not seen in the GTA in 1998. E. pratense Ehrh., meadow horsetail. Rare, known only from a hardwood seep in the interior of Rock Island (12497). E. scirpoides Michx., dwarf scouring rush. Occasional, moist, often coniferous woods. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1109). DETROIT (13602). WASHINGTON (Goessl 3953). POVERTY (12829). SUMMER (12854). E. variegatum F. Weber & D. Mohr, variegated scouring rush. No status (MI); SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). This species is scattered but never common on Great Lakes alkaline rockshore/alvar/wet sand. It is found on Chambers Island (Sand Point swale, 13728), Plum Island (Carp Lake, 14067), Detroit Island (south end, 13572; north bay, Alverson 1257 [WIS] in 1979), Washington Island (Jackson Harbor Ridges, also on a roadside near Big Marsh, Fuller 1567), Rock Island (borrow pit, 12612), and on alvars on Poverty (89-192) and Summer (Freckmann 13158) Islands, Michigan. E. Xferrissii Clute, Ferriss' horsetail. Rare. WASHINGTON (Fuller 1399). LYCOPODIACEAE (Clubmoss Family) Diphasiastrum complanatum (L.) Holub, northern running-pine. Uncommon. WASHINGTON (Fuller 1485). D. digitatum (A. Braun) Holub, southern running-pine. Occasional, especially in cedar-fir thickets near the coast. WASHINGTON (Schutz 106, UWGB). POVERTY (12805). SUMMER (90-775). Huperzia lucidula (Michx.) Trevis, shining clubmoss. Occasional, woods. CHAMBERS (rare, 12736). WASHINGTON (Goessl 3919). ROCK (12636). ST. MARTIN (90-587). GULL (89-177). POVERTY (90-269). SUMMER (Hagenah et al. 6715, MSC). Lycopodium annotinum L., bristly clubmoss. Uncommon, woods. WASHINGTON (Fuller 1486). POVERTY (89-270). SUMMER (90-660). L. clavatum L., running clubmoss. Occasional, often under cedars near cliff edges. CHAMBERS (12746). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5512). ROCK (12638). POVERTY (12827). SUMMER (12911). LITTLE SUMMER (12983). L. dendroideum Michx., northern tree clubmoss. Uncommon, upland woods. WASHINGTON (Fuller 1484). ST. MARTIN (90-553). SUMMER (Tessene 50, Freckmann 13108). SELAGINELLACEAE (Spikemoss Family) Selaginella eclipes W.R. Buck, northern meadow spikemoss. Occasional, moist crevices in shoreline dolomites. PLUM (14068). DETROIT (13568). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5214). POVERTY (89-201). SUMMER (90-624).

Page  152 ï~~152 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 152 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 FIGURE 40. Strange cobble glade community (trees are deer-browsed white cedar, Thuja occidentalis) on west coast of Little Summer Island, Michigan, 29 May 1998. The understory shrub is buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis). A similar community occurs along the north coast of Washington Island, Wisconsin northwest of Coffee Swamp. GYMNOSPERMS CUPRESSACEAE (Cypress family) Juniperus communis L. var. depressa Pursh, common juniper. Figs. 7, 14. Common, coastal dunes; inland mostly in old fields. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1096). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (uncommon). PLUM (13295). DETROIT (13501). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1391). ROCK (Cochrane 5206). ST. MARTIN (89-116). SUMMER (Tessene 18). LITTLE SUMMER (uncommon). J. horizontalis Moench, creeping juniper. Occasional, restricted to coastal dunes. CHAMBERS (12727). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1515). ST. MARTIN (89-112). POVERTY (89 -290). SUMMER (Voss 12624). Thuja occidentalis L., northern white cedar. Figs. 12, 28, 40. Common tree; dominant on cliff edges; declining on small islands. SNAKE (fairly common). GREEN (13211). CANA (abundant). CHAMBERS (rare, Ugent 1095). ADVENTURE (abundant). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (rare). HORSESHOE (abundant). SPIDER (collected in 1905, MIL; extirpated). PLUM (13357). DETROIT (13891). PILOT (rare in 1999, one 3 m tall tree seen). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1398). ROCK (13099). LITTLE GULL (Cranbrook InstituteOakland University sight record). GULL (89-183). POVERTY (common). SUMMER (Freckmann 13117). LITTLE SUMMER (abundant). PINACEAE (Pine Family) Abies balsamea (L.) Mill., balsam fir. Fig. 11. Fairly common, coastal woods. GREEN (13242). CANA (abundant). ADVENTURE (occasional). HORSESHOE (fairly common). PLUM (14055). DETROIT (occasional). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1507). HOG (uncommon). ST. MARTIN (89-071). LITTLE GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University

Page  153 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 153 sight record). GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (90-272). SUMMER (Tessene 14). LITTLE SUMMER (abundant). Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch, tamarack. Occasional, swamps and coastal dolomite rock pool margins. SPIDER (1905 collection, MIL; now extirpated). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1466). SUMMER (Tessene 14). LITTLE SUMMER (uncommon). Picea glauca (Moench) Voss, white spruce. Occasional near coasts. GREEN (rare). CANA (occasional). SPIDER (recorded in 1966). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1513). ROCK (12642). POVERTY (89-079). SUMMER (Tessene 16). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). P. mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb., black spruce. Uncommon, mostly interior swamps and bogs. WASHINGTON (Jackson Harbor Ridges, Fewless 6936). Pinus resinosa Aiton, red pine. Uncommon, dune forests. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1093). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1396). SUMMER (rare, only one seen in 1998; 12912). P. strobus L., white pine. Fig. 7. Occasional in forests; locally common on forested dunes and barrens. GREEN (rare). CHAMBERS (fairly common, Ugent 1098). PLUM (rare coastal tree). DETROIT (large trees near west coast interior bluffs). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1561a). ROCK (13664). ST. MARTIN (90-330). SUMMER (90-685). Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carri6re, eastern hemlock. Fig. 20. Occasional in the interiors of the larger islands. CHAMBERS (fairly common; Ugent 1094). PLUM (uncommon). DETROIT (uncommon on interior cliffs). WASHINGTON (occasional; Fuller 1397). ROCK (rare; 12633). SUMMER (uncommon; Tessene 58). TAXACEAE (Yew Family) Taxus canadensis Marshall, Canada yew. "TRACKED" (WI). Dense colonies occur only on Green (13239) and Adventure Islands in Wisconsin, and on Poverty (locally abundant in 1998) and St. Martin (89-037; Thaddeus Grudzien, pers. comm.) Islands, Michigan. Fuller (1927) reported it as very abundant on the latter island in 1926. Other large islands have remnant populations, mostly on dolomite cliffs that deer cannot reach. CHAMBERS (rare, 12704). PLUM (abundant in 1974; absent in 1999). DETROIT (rare, 12788). SPIDER (Fewless 3167). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1438). ROCK (rare, 12519). LITTLE GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Tessene 56). ANGIOSPERMS ACORACEAE (Sweet-Flag Family) Acorus americanus (Raf.) Raf., sweet flag. Rare, known only from a marsh on Mud Lake, Chambers Island (13931). ACERACEAE (Maple Family) Acer negundo L., box-elder. Occasional, shores. SNAKE (fairly common). GREEN (13209). CHAMBERS (13770). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (rare). SISTER (common in 1977). PLUM (13404). A. nigrum F. Michx., black maple. Rare, Jackson Harbor on Washington Island (Fewless 5178). A. pensylvanicum L., striped maple, moosewood. No status yet in Wisconsin; none in Michigan. This small tree is common in a mixed conifer-hardwood forest understory on northeastern Summer Island, Michigan (Voss 13400), under sugar maple, white birch, white cedar, and balsam fir, and with juneberry, hop-hornbeam, and mountain maple. It was recently (1997) found on the Door County mainland in Newport State Park by Mike Grimm, the first record for Wisconsin. *A. platanoides L., Norway maple. Only from a shoreline on Green Island (13206). A. rubrum L., red maple. Common. GREEN (13220). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1211). DETROIT (uncommon). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5180). ROCK (13657). ST. MARTIN (89-138). SUMMER (Voss 13394). A. saccharinum L., silver maple. Rare; only a sight record (1998) from a shoreline on Chambers Island.

Page  154 ï~~154 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 154 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 FIGURE 41. Second-growth forest of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) in the interior of Chambers Island, Wisconsin. The understories of the forests of this island are poor in herbs, because of either poor soils or the effects of past high deer densities, 9 May 1998. A. saccharum Marshall, sugar maple. Figs. 2, 41. Common. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1216). PLUM (13345). DETROIT (common). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1374). ROCK (13125). ST. MARTIN (89-069). SUMMER (Voss 13393). LITTLE SUMMER (abundant). A. spicatum Lam., mountain maple. Common, especially in shade of dolomite bluffs. CANA (common). HORSESHOE (uncommon). PLUM (13312). DETROIT (13459). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1505). ROCK (13675). ST. MARTIN (89-062). LITTLE GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (90-215). SUMMER (Tessene 55). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). ALISMATACEAE (Water-Plantain Family) Alisma triviale Pursh, northern water-plantain. Rare, marshes. CHAMBERS (13748). Sagittaria latifolia Willd., broad-leaved arrowhead. Rare, marshes. SNAKE (fairly common). WASHINGTON (Schutz 42, UWGB). AMARANTHACEAE (Amaranth Family) Amaranthus albus L., tumbleweed. Rare weed of old fields. ROCK (12486). Amaranthus hypochondriacus L., prince's-feather. Rare escape from cultivation. WASHINGTON (Schuette s.n., 13 Sept. 1989, WIS). A. powellii S. Watson, Powell's amaranth. Uncommon shoreline weed. HOG (uncommon). DETROIT (13889). PILOT (uncommon). WASHINGTON (13838). ANACARDIACEAE (Cashew or Sumac Family) *Rhus aromatica Aiton, fragrant sumac. Long persisting and spreading at site of old fishing village on east coast of Rock Island (12627). R. hirta (L.) Sudw., staghorn sumac. Occasional weedy species of fields and bird islands. SNAKE (uncommon). GREEN (common, 13270). CANA (rare). ADVENTURE (occa

Page  155 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 155 sional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1209). DETROIT (13441). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1430). ST. MARTIN (89-010). Toxicodendron rydbergii (Rydb.) Greene., western poison-ivy. Common on dunes, sandy and gravelly old fields and pastures. SNAKE (rare). GREEN (abundant, 13256). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1208). PLUM (fairly common). DETROIT (fairly common). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1429). ROCK (common on sand spit). ST. MARTIN (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (occasional). SUMMER (uncommon). APIACEAE (Carrot Family) *Carum carvi L., caraway. Rare weed in 1926. WASHINGTON (Fuller 1496). Cicuta bulbifera L., bulblet water-hemlock. Occasional, swamps and alkaline shores. CHAMBERS (13969). PLUM (14064). DETROIT (rare). WASHINGTON (Schutz 116, UWGB). SUMMER (12853). C. maculata L., common water-hemlock. Rare, wetlands. WASHINGTON (Fewless & Moore 5912). Cryptotaenia canadensis (L.) DC., honewort. Rare, presumably from rich upland woods. ST. MARTIN (89-043). *Daucus carota L., Queen Anne's-lace, wild carrot. Common weed. DETROIT (13945). PLUM (14047). DETROIT (13884). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5533). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Freckmann 13224). Heracleum lanatum Michx., cow-parsnip. Fig. 56. Common meadow and woods edge species; locally common on gull islands. SNAKE (rare). GREEN (13214). HAT (rare). CHAMBERS (locally common in woods near Retreat House). ADVENTURE (occasional). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (Seaquist s.n., 21 July 1947, WIS; common in 1998). JACK (occasional). HORSESHOE (uncommon). SPIDER (1905 collection, MIL). PLUM (rare). DETROIT (13536). PILOT (occasional). WASHINGTON (uncommon). ROCK (Cochrane 5231). ST. MARTIN (89-076). SUMMER (only at north tip, 12851). LITTLE SUMMER (12982a). Osmorhiza berteroi DC., Chilean sweet-cicely. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI) as Osmorhiza chilensis. Rare, collected once in a white cedar forest on Rock Island in 1972 (Cochrane 5222), and not relocated in 1998. There are several recent collections from the Door Peninsula. O. claytonii (Michx.) C.B. Clarke, hairy sweet-cicely. Common, woods. SNAKE (uncommon). GREEN (13236). CHAMBERS (13980). HORSESHOE (occasional). PLUM (13417). DETROIT (13486). PILOT (S.P. Voice sight record in 1982, recorded as "dense"). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1460). ROCK (13157). ST. MARTIN (89-061). SUMMER (90-724). LITTLE SUMMER (12957). O. longistylis (Torr.) DC., smooth sweet-cicely. Occasional, woods. PLUM (13348). DETROIT (rare). WASHINGTON (Goessl 3930). ROCK (13155). SUMMER (Freckmann 13141). *Pastinaca sativa L., wild parsnip. Uncommon weed. ST. MARTIN (89-046). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (90-719). LITTLE SUMMER (12992). Sanicula gregaria E.P. Bicknell, clustered black snakeroot. Occasional, rich woods. HORSESHOE (rare). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1592). ROCK (12499). S. marilandica L., black snakeroot. Uncommon, woods. DETROIT (13524). Sium suave Walter, water-parsnip. Occasional, marshes, swamps, and shoreline pools. CHAMBERS (13970). DETROIT (uncommon, black ash swamp). WASHINGTON (Schuette s.n., 12 Sept. 1889, WIS). ST. MARTIN (90-310). SUMMER (90-759). Taenidia integerrima (L.) Drude, yellow-pimpernel. Rare, known only from "bluffs of Lake Michigan" on Chambers Island in 1961 (Ugent 1199). Not noted in 1998. Zizia aurea (L.) W.D.J. Koch, golden alexanders. Rare, known only from Washington Island in 1916 (Goess1 3987). Not noted in 1998-1999. APOCYNACEAE (Dogbane Family) Apocynum androsaemifolium L., spreading dogbane. Common, old fields. SNAKE (rare). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1206). PLUM (13339). DETROIT (13502). WASHINGTON (Fuller

Page  156 ï~~156 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 1574). ROCK (Threlfall s.n., UWGB). POVERTY (12801). SUMMER (Tessene 46). LITTLE SUMMER (12996). A. cannabinum L., Indian-hemp. Occasional, mostly on lake beaches. GREEN (13193). WASHINGTON (Threlfall s.n., UWGB). A. sibiricum Jacq., clasping dogbane. Rare, known only from Chambers Island in 1961 (Ugent 1178). Vinca minor L. periwinkie. Rare escape. SNAKE (rare). AQUIFOLIACEAE (Holly Family) Ilex verticillata (L.) A. Gray, winterberry holly. Uncommon, swamps. DETROIT (13469). WASHINGTON (Coffee Swamp black ash swamp, Fuller 1544; 13071). Nemopanthus mucronatus (L.) Loes., mountain holly. Known only from a sight record made by James H. Zimmerman in Coffee Swamp, Washington Island, on 3 October 1988. ARACEAE (Arum Family) Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott, jack-in-the-pulpit. Occasional, rich woods. GREEN (13223). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1075). ADVENTURE (uncommon). PLUM (12684). DETROIT (fairly common). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1524). ROCK (12626). SUMMER (Voss 12644). LITTLE SUMMER (12952). ARALIACEAE (Ginseng Family) Aralia nudicaulis L., wild sarsaparilla. Common to abundant in woods. SNAKE (uncommon). GREEN (13197). PLUM (13310). DETROIT (fairly common). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1376). ROCK (Cochrane 5200). ST. MARTIN (89-058). POVERTY (fairly common). SUMMER (Voss 13402). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). A. racemosa L., spikenard. Occasional in rich woods. CHAMBERS (13742). PLUM (13420). DETROIT (13498). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1562). ROCK (13119). ST. MARTIN (90 -314). SUMMER (Tessene 116). ASCLEPIADACEAE (Milkweed Family) Asclepias incarnata L., swamp milkweed. Uncommon, open wetlands. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1176). WASHINGTON (Schutz 129, UWGB). SUMMER (Tessene 33). A. syriaca L., common milkweed. Fairly common, dunes and old fields. SNAKE SNAKE (occasional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1177). PLUM (13280). DETROIT (fairly common, north field). WASHINGTON (fairly common). ROCK (13646). ST. MARTIN (90-573). SUMMER (Tessene s.n.). LITTLE SUMMER (uncommon). A. tuberosa L. subsp. interior Woodson, butterfly-weed. Rare, known only from small populations in Great Lakes pine barrens on Sand Point and on the north bay of Chambers Island (13760). ASTERACEAE (Aster Family) Achillea millefolium L., yarrow. Common in a variety of disturbed and shoreline habitats. SNAKE (fairly common). GREEN (13258). CANA (fairly common). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1126). PLUM (13289). DETROIT (fairly common). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1358). HOG (occasional). ROCK (13100). ST. MARTIN (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). GRAVELLY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (occasional). SUMMER (Freckmann 13250). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). *A. ptamica L., sneezeweed. Rare escape on Washington Island (Threlfall s.n. UWGB). Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., common ragweed. Occasional weedy species. SNAKE (occasional). HAT (occasional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1149). WASHINGTON (13781). SUMMER (Freckmann sight record, 1976). A. psilostachya DC. western ragweed. Uncommon on dunes and barrens. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1147). DETROIT (13895). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1616). ST. MARTIN (89-028). Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Benth. & Hook. f., pearly everlasting. Fairly common, old fields. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1145). PLUM (14045). DETROIT (uncommon, north field). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1468). ROCK (Tans 811). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oak

Page  157 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 157 land University sight record). SUMMER (Long s.n., 27 July 1974, UWSP). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). Antennaria howellii Greene subsp. neodioica (Greene) R.J. Bayer, field pussy-toes. Common, old fields and dunes. CHAMBERS (12722). PLUM (12678). DETROIT (occasional). WASHINGTON (Cochrane 11103). ROCK (13151). POVERTY (12812). SUMMER (12885). LITTLE SUMMER (12944). *Arctium minus Bernh., common burdock. Occasional weed near buildings; locally common on bird islands. SNAKE (uncommon). GREEN (uncommon). HAT (occasional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1122). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (uncommon). JACK (common). PLUM (uncommon). DETROIT (fairly common). WASHINGTON (Rose 306, UWGB). ROCK (13686). ST. MARTIN (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). GRAVELLY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). *Artemisia absinthium L., absinthe wormwood. Rare weed in open sandy places in 1926 on Washington Island (Fuller 1357); also from that island in 1889 by Schuette (WIS). *A. biennis Willd., biennial wormwood. Rare weed. WASHINGTON (Fewless & Moore 5936). HOG (rare, 14035). A. campestris L. subsp. caudata (Michx.) H.M. Hall & Clem., beach wormwood. Locally common on Great Lakes sand dunes. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1146). WASHINGTON (Fewless & Moore 5939). SUMMER (Freckmann sight record, 1976). Aster ciliolatus Lindl., Lindley's aster. Occasional; commonest in calcareous cedar-fir thickets near the coast. CANA (uncommon). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1166). PLUM (14048). DETROIT (uncommon, south tip). WASHINGTON (13798). ROCK (13827). ST. MARTIN (90-566). POVERTY (12804). SUMMER (Freckmann 13252). A. ericoides L., heath aster. Rare, only in Great Lakes pine barrens on north bay of Chambers Island (13988). A. laevis L., smooth aster. Locally common, sandy areas on Chambers Island (Ugent 1162); Jackson Harbor Ridges on Washington Island (Fewless & Moore 5956); reported from St. Martin Island (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). A. lanceolatus Willd., panicled aster. Frequent, swamps and shorelines. SNAKE (occasional). CANA (rare). CHAMBERS (13962). DETROIT (13876). WASHINGTON (Fewless & Moore 5938). SUMMER (Freckmann 13128). LITTLE SUMMER (rare). A. lateriflorus (L.) Britton, calico aster. Frequent, fields and woods edges. CHAMBERS (13921). DETROIT (13868). WASHINGTON (13790). ROCK (rare). SUMMER (Freckmann 13256). A. macrophyllus L., big-leaved aster. Common, woods. SNAKE (uncommon). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1164). PLUM (uncommon). DETROIT (common). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1377). ROCK (13813). ST. MARTIN (90-530). POVERTY (12839). SUMMER (Tessene 80). LITTLE SUMMER (Freckmann 13143). A. novae-angliae L., New England aster. Rare near east coast and in interior, Washington Island, perhaps an escape from cultivation (13787, 13791). A. pilosus Willd. var. pringlei (A. Gray) S.F. Blake, Pringle's frost aster. Common and characteristic of dolomitic Lake Michigan shorelines. PLUM (14041). DETROIT (13856). PILOT (14037). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1408). ROCK (13812.5, borrow pit). POVERTY (common). SUMMER (Freckmann 13254). A. puniceus L., purple-stemmed aster. Uncommon, swamps and marshes. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1167). WASHINGTON (13787). POVERTY (89-209). SUMMER (Tessene 82). A. sagittifolius Willd., arrow-leaved aster. Uncommon, fields and woods. WASHINGTON (Threlfall s.n., UWGB). ROCK (12509). A. umbellatus Mill., flat-topped aster. Uncommon, wetlands. WASHINGTON (13803). *Bellis perennis L., English daisy. Locally common in a lawn near the south shore of Washington Island (12765). Bidens cernuus L., nodding beggar-ticks. Occasional, wetlands. CANA (uncommon). CHAMBERS (13918). PLUM (14042). DETROIT (13853). WASHINGTON (Fewless & Moore 5925). HOG (rare).

Page  158 ï~~158 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 B. connatus Willd., purple-stemmed beggar-ticks. Rare, wetlands, Washington Island (Fewless & Moore 5937). B. frondosus L., common beggar-ticks. Only from wetlands on Snake Island (rare) and Chambers Island (Ugent 1144, 13908). *Centaurea biebersteinii DC., spotted knapweed. Common weed of dunes and dry gravel. SNAKE (uncommon). GREEN (13199). CHAMBERS (13924). PLUM (14053). DETROIT (locally common near dock). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5554). ROCK (13650). SUMMER (Freckmann 13257). *C. montana L., mountain-bluet. Rare weed, Washington Island (13037). *Cichorium intybus L., chicory. Uncommon weed. PLUM (13429). DETROIT (rare). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1597). *Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Canada thistle. Common weed. SNAKE (occasional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1135). PLUM (14050). DETROIT (uncommon). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1365). ROCK (13674). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Freckmann 13151). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). *C. palustre (L.) Scop., European swamp thistle. Occasional weed, mostly on Lake Michigan shorelines. SNAKE (rare). PLUM (13390). DETROIT (13519). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1405). ROCK (13656). POVERTY (89-283). SUMMER (Voss 13368). LITTLE SUMMER (rare). C. pitcheri (Eaton) Torr. & A. Gray, dune or Pitcher's thistle. Fig. 6. THREATENED (WI and MI). FEDERALLY LISTED. A Great Lakes dune species that has been adversely affected by development and vehicular and foot traffic, it was seen in the GTI in 1998-1999 only at Dunes Park on Washington Island, where known since 1916 (Goessl 3993, MIL). There only a few plants remain, but more might be found on less disturbed, privately-owned dunes to the east. *C. vulgare (Savi) Ten., bull thistle. Occasional weed. SNAKE (occasional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1264). ADVENTURE (uncommon). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (uncommon). HORSESHOE (uncommon). PLUM (14061). DETROIT (uncommon). PILOT (occasional). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1580). GRAVELLY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). LITTLE GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (12800). SUMMER (Freckmann 13258). LITTLE SUMMER (uncommon). Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist, horseweed. Occasional weedy species of disturbed areas, especially pastures. SNAKE (occasional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1141). PLUM (14057). DETROIT (13841). WASHINGTON (Fewless & Moore 5931). ROCK (12545). Q (13260). Coreopsis lanceolata var. lanceolata, lance-leaf tickseed. Local, found only on coniferousforested dunes on Washington Island at Jackson Harbor (Fuller 1520) and Percy Johnson County Park. *Crepis tectorum L., hawk's-beard. Rare shoreline weed on Plum Island (13430). Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) DC., burnweed. Uncommon weedy species. CHAMBERS (1123). WASHINGTON (13795). ROCK (12547). Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers., annual fleabane. Occasional weedy species. SNAKE (occasional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1143). DETROIT (13594). WASHINGTON (13626). ST. MARTIN (90-583). E. philadelphicus L., marsh fleabane. Frequent species of fields and woods edges. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1140). ADVENTURE (occasional). PLUM (13316). DETROIT (13590). WASHINGTON (13012). ROCK (13120). ST. MARTIN (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (90-214). SUMMER (90-649). LITTLE SUMMER (12939). E. strigosus Willd., daisy fleabane. Fairly common species of weedy, often dry habitats. SNAKE (occasional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1139). PLUM (13292). DETROIT (13491). WASHINGTON (Threlfall s.n., UWGB). ST. MARTIN (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Tessene 10). Eupatorium maculatum L., Joe-Pye-weed. Uncommon, wetlands. SNAKE (occasional). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5528). LITTLE SUMMER (rare).

Page  159 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 159 E. perfoliatum L., boneset. Occasional, wetlands and alkaline rockshores. SNAKE (occasional). CHAMBERS (13981). PLUM (14059). DETROIT (13859). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5560). SUMMER (Tessene 94). E. rugosum Houtt., white snakeroot. Uncommon, upland woods. SNAKE (occasional). DETROIT (13849). WASHINGTON (13783). Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt., grass-leaved goldenrod. Occasional, wetlands and alkaline rockshores. CHAMBERS (13919). PLUM (14083). DETROIT (uncommon, dock). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1582). POVERTY (12833). SUMMER (Freckmann 13268). Gnaphalium obtusifolium L., rabbit-tobacco. Uncommon, dry open areas. CHAMBERS (13927). DETROIT (13875). SUMMER (Freckmann 13262). Helianthus sp., sunflower. Rare, dry areas. WASHINGTON (Rose 311, UWGB). Heliopsis helianthoides (L.) Sweet ox-eye. Restricted to Great Lakes pine barrens on Chambers Island (13942). *Hieracium aurantiacum L., orange hawkweed. Common weed, often abundant in lawns, fields, and dunes. GREEN (13248). CANA (common). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1268). PLUM (13334). DETROIT (13515). WASHINGTON (Rose 402, UWGB). ROCK (Cochrane 5181). ST. MARTIN (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (occasional). SUMMER (fairly common). LITTLE SUMMER (12943). *H. caespitosum Dumort., yellow king-devil. Occasional weed. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1137). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5211). SUMMER (Freckmann 13264). H. kalmii L., Canada hawkweed. Occasional, often in cedar-fir thickets near coasts. CHAMBERS (13774). PLUM (13318). DETROIT (rare, south tip). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5522). ROCK (13823). SUMMER (12894). *H. piloselloides Vill., glaucous king-devil. Common weed. SNAKE (uncommon). GREEN (13255). CANA (uncommon). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1136). HORSESHOE (occasional). PLUM (13314). DETROIT (13599). WASHINGTON (Schutz 22, UWGB). ROCK (Cochrane 5180). ST. MARTIN (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (90-260a). SUMMER (12855). LITTLE SUMMER (12999). Lactuca canadensis L., Canada lettuce. Occasional, fields and woods. GREEN (rare). CANA (uncommon). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1267). PLUM (14080). DETROIT (uncommon). WASHINGTON (Fewless & Moore 5940). ROCK (uncommon). SUMMER (Freckmann 13173). *Leucanthemum vulgare Lam., ox-eye daisy. Common weed. CANA (occasional). CHAMBERS (uncommon). ADVENTURE (uncommon). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (rare). PLUM (13333). DETROIT (13527). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1401). ROCK (Cochrane 5179). ST. MARTIN (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (90-232). SUMMER (Tessene 39). LITTLE SUMMER (fairly common). Liatris aspera Michx., rough blazing-star. Only on Great Lakes pine barrens on Chambers Island (13904). *Matricaria discoidea DC., pineapple-weed. Occasional weed. SNAKE (uncommon). GREEN (13189). HOG (uncommon). WASHINGTON (12529). Packera aurea (L.) A. Love & D. Live, golden ragwort. Rare, known only from a "small opening" on Summer Island (Freckmann 13107). P. paupercula (Michx.) A. Love & D. Live, balsam ragwort. Uncommon, alkaline rockshores. WASHINGTON (Fuller, 1926 sight record). POVERTY (12824). SUMMER (Freckmann 13267). Petasites frigidus (L.) Fr. var. palmatus (Aiton) Cronquist, northern sweet colt's-foot. Uncommon in cool, often coniferous woods. ROCK (13088). SUMMER (90-709). LITTLE SUMMER (rare). Prenanthes alba L., rattlesnake-root. Occasional, shores, edges, and woods. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1124). HORSESHOE (uncommon). DETROIT (rare). WASHINGTON (Fuller sight record, 1926). ROCK (13814). Rudbeckia hirta L. var. pulcherrima Farw., black-eyed susan. Common, fields and shores. SNAKE (uncommon). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1132). ADVENTURE (Bruncken s.n., 16 July 1897, MIL). PLUM (13332). DETROIT (occasional). WASHINGTON (Rose 277, UWGB). ROCK (13643). ST. MARTIN (89-036). POVERTY (90-202a). SUMMER (Tessene 29). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional).

Page  160 ï~~160 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 Senecio congestus (R. Br.) DC., marsh ragwort. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI), EXTIRPATED (MI). There is a 15 June 1935 collection by Norman C. Fassett (s.n., WIS) from Jack Island in Green Bay; this site was searched unsuccessfully on 8 June 1998. Marsh ragwort may be extirpated in both Wisconsin and Michigan (Judziewicz & Nekola 1999). *S. vulgaris L., common groundsel. Occasional on bird islands. SNAKE (occasional). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (occasional). JACK (uncommon). Solidago canadensis L., Canada goldenrod. Common, fields and shores. GREEN (occasional). CANA (common). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1155). PLUM (14044). DETROIT (13870). PILOT (uncommon). WASHINGTON (Fewless & Moore 5949). ROCK (13832). ST. MARTIN (89-083). SUMMER (Freckmann 13269). S. flexicaulis L., zigzag goldenrod. Locally common, rich woods. SNAKE (fairly common). CHAMBERS (13944). HORSESHOE (occasional). PLUM (rare). DETROIT (fairly common). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1379). ROCK (13816). ST. MARTIN (89-083). SUMMER (rare, 12907). LITTLE SUMMER (12945). S. gigantea Aiton, late goldenrod. Rare, only from Summer Island (Freckmann 13271). S. hispida Willd., hairy goldenrod. Locally common on dry to moist dolomite cliffs, often under white cedar. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1158). HORSESHOE (uncommon). PLUM (occasional). DETROIT (Alverson 1254, WIS). WASHINGTON (Schuette s.n., 14 Sept. 1889, WIS; Fewless & Moore 5910). ROCK (13819). ST. MARTIN (90-322). POVERTY (occasional). SUMMER (Freckmann 13270). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). S. juncea Aiton, early goldenrod. Occasional, sandy or gravelly old fields, and cedar-fir thickets near the coast. WASHINGTON (13697). POVERTY (89-287). SUMMER (Tessene 151). S. nemoralis Aiton, gray goldenrod. Uncommon, dry old fields. WASHINGTON (Threlfall s.n., UWGB). ROCK (12534). S. ohioensis Riddell, Ohio goldenrod. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). This is another characteristic species of Great Lakes alkaline rockshore, alvar, and forested ridge and swale communities. It is locally common on Washington Island (Fuller 1575; southeast coast and Jackson Harbor Ridges), rare on Rock Island (12553), and common on the east coasts of Poverty (89-220) and Summer (Bourdo s.n., 11 Aug. 1969, MSC) Islands, Michigan. Its close relative, the regional endemic Solidago houghtonii A. Gray (Houghton's goldenrod), was searched for unsuccessfully in the GTA in 1998; its closest station is near Thompson, Michigan, just northeast of the Garden Peninsula. S. simplex Kunth subsp. randii (Porter) G.S. Ringius var. gillmanii (A. Gray) G.S. Ringius, dune goldenrod. THREATENED (WI), as Solidago simplex var. gillmanii. Another Great Lakes alkaline rockshore/alvar/lake dune species, populations are known from Detroit (rare, west coast, 13845), Washington ("dry hills, Little Lake", Schuette s.n., 30 July 1887, WIS) southeast coast and Jackson Harbor Ridges; Wadmond s.n., 7 Sept. 1934, MIL), Plum (locally common on the Light Station grounds, 14088) and Rock (south beach, 12484) Islands, and from the eastern coasts of Little Gull (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record), Poverty (89-256), and Summer (Tessene 81) Islands, Michigan. S. uliginosa Nutt., bog goldenrod. Rare, known only from Coffee Swamp on Washington Island (Moussa s.n., 25 Aug. 1928, MIL). *Sonchus arvensis L., perennial sow-thistle. Common weed or roadsides and shores. SNAKE (occasional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1154). CANA (occasional). DETROIT (13883). ROCK (13822). SUMMER (Freckmann 13124). *S. oleraceus L., common sow-thistle. Uncommon weed. WASHINGTON (Schutz 118, UWGB). Tanacetum huronense Nutt., Lake Huron tansy. ENDANGERED (WI), THREATENED (MI). This regional lake dune endemic appears to be declining because of increased development and vehicular and foot traffic. The Rock Island (south beach) station was last noted in 1971 (Threlfall s.n., UWGB) and 1972 (Cochrane 5203, WIS) as locally common in sand with Elymus canadensis. It was not relocated in 1979 (by W.S. Alverson) or in 1997-1999. There was also a site on the Summer Harbor dunes on Summer Island, Michigan; collections were made in 1968 by Tessene (s.n.), and on 24 Aug. 1976 by Freckmann (13274). This site was not relocated in 1998 and is presumed extirpated in Wisconsin and on the GTI. *T vulgare L., common tansy. Occasional weed. PLUM (14051). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1434). ROCK (13818). ST. MARTIN (90-542).

Page  161 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 161 *Taraxacum officinale Weber, common dandelion. Common to abundant weed. SNAKE (fairly common). GREEN (13204). CANA (common). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1128). ADVENTURE (uncommon). HORSESHOE (uncommon). PLUM (uncommon). DETROIT (occasional). WASHINGTON (Goessl 3934). ROCK (12620). POVERTY (uncommon). SUMMER (Tessene 68). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). *Tragopogon dubius Scop., goat's-beard. Fairly common weed. GREEN (13266). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1125). PLUM (13402). DETROIT (13490). WASHINGTON (occasional). ROCK (13639). ST. MARTIN (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Freckmann 13275). *Xanthium strumarium L., cocklebur. Locally common, sandy beaches (such as Sand Point) on Chambers Island (13907). BALSAMINACEAE (Jewelweed Family) Impatiens capensis Meerb., orange jewelweed or touch-me-not. Common, wetlands. SNAKE (abundant). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1218). ADVENTURE (uncommon). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (uncommon). SISTER (common, 1977). PLUM (14043). DETROIT (fairly common). W (Rose 287, UWGB). ROCK (13833). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Tessene 120). LITTLE SUMMER (fairly common). BERBERIDACEAE (Barberry Family) *Berberis thunbergii DC., Japanese barberry. Occasional escape from cultivation. CHAMBERS (13985). HORSESHOE (rare). PLUM (13410). DETROIT (13539). WASHINGTON (13185). Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) Michx., blue cohosh. Rich upland woods; absent from the Michigan islands. SNAKE (uncommon). PLUM (13355). DETROIT (13528). W (12648). ROCK (Cochrane 5230). Podophyllum peltatum L., May-apple. Rare, one clone known from rich woods in the center of Chambers Island (12716). BETULACEAE (Birch Family) Alnus incana (L.) Moench subsp. rugosa (Du Roi) R.T. Clausen, speckled alder. Fairly common, wetlands; apparently rare or absent on the Michigan islands. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1050). PLUM (rare). DETROIT (13457). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1467). Betula alleghaniensis Britton, yellow birch. Locally common upland tree on the larger islands. CHAMBERS (uncommon, 13961). DETROIT (uncommon). WASHINGTON (Goessl 3961). ROCK (rare, only a few trees on the Fernwood Trail). ST. MARTIN (apparently once common as large trees, Fuller 1632). GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (12873). B. papyrifera Marshall, white or paper birch. Common to abundant tree. SNAKE (occasional). GREEN (13213). CANA (occasional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1053). ADVENTURE (fairly common). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (rare). HORSESHOE (fairly common). SPIDER (present in 1966). PLUM (13294). PILOT (once common, but all trees dead in 1999). DETROIT (13446). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1375). HOG (all dead in 1999). ROCK (13131). LITTLE GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). GULL (89-171). POVERTY (occasional). SUMMER (Voss 13399). LITTLE SUMMER (abundant). Corylus cornuta Marshall, beaked hazelnut. Fairly common understory shrub. GREEN (13259). DETROIT (13458). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1380). ROCK (13158). ST. MARTIN (90-524). SUMMER (Voss 13395). LITTLE SUMMER (fairly common). Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch, eastern hop-hornbeam. Fairly common tree of rich upland woods. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1051). PLUM (13342). DETROIT (common). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1553). ROCK (13153). ST. MARTIN (89-120). SUMMER (Freckmann 13284). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). BORAGINACEAE (Borage Family) Cynoglossum boreale Fernald, northern wild comfrey. Uncommon in cool coniferous woods. WASHINGTON (Fuller 1679). ROCK (13177).

Page  162 ï~~162 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 *C. officinale L., common hound's-tongue. An abundant weed on dolomite cliffs, heavily logged woods, scree slopes, and bird islands. SNAKE (fairly common). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1183). CANA (uncommon). HORSESHOE (occasional). PLUM (13304). DETROIT (13529). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1364). ROCK (13154). POVERTY (90-233). SUMMER (Tessene 86). LITTLE SUMMER (abundant). *Echium vulgare L., viper's-bugloss. Locally common on roadsides in the interior of Washington Island (Rose 304, UWGB). Hackelia deflexa (Wahlenb.) Opiz var. americana (A. Gray) Fernald & I.M. Johnst., American stickseed. Occasional, dryish woods, perhaps increasing because of dispersal of the seeds by deer. CHAMBERS (13951). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1529). ROCK (Cochrane 5182). SUMMER (Voss 13368a). Lithospermum caroliniense (J.F. Gmel.) MacMill. subsp. croceum (Fernald) Cusick, hairy puccoon. Rare, only in Great Lakes pine barrens on Chambers Island (13761). *L. officinale L., European gromwell. Occasional weed. ROCK (12481). POVERTY (89 -231). SUMMER (Tessene 27). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). *Myosotis arvensis (L.) Hill., field forget-me-not. Rare, known only from Boyer Bluff, Washington Island (Cochrane 11054). *M. scorpioides L., common forget-me-not. Occasional weed of wet areas. HORSESHOE (rare). PLUM (13353). DETROIT (uncommon). WASHINGTON (Rose 400, UWGB). LITTLE SUMMER (12965). BRASSICACEAE (Mustard Family) *Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara & Grande, garlic-mustard. A pernicious weed of rich upland woods. Locally established on Washington Island (Cochrane 11083) and Rock Island (12515). Active measures are ongoing to control it on the latter island. Abundant on Horseshoe Island in 1998, and on the adjacent mainland in Peninsula State Park. Arabis divaricarpa A. Nelson, spreading-pod rock-cress. Occasional, shores and dunes. SNAKE (fairly common). GREEN (13252). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1039). PLUM (13321). DETROIT (13578). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1567). ROCK (Cochrane 5188). ST. MARTIN (89-026). LITTLE GULL (90-611). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Freckmann 13279). A. glabra (L.) Bernh., tower mustard. Occasional, shores. ADVENTURE (uncommon). DETROIT (13578). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1432). ROCK (13665). GULL (89-169). SUMMER (Bourdo 20059, MSC). A. hirsuta (L.) Scop., hairy rock-cress. Occasional but characteristic of alkaline rockshores and cliffs. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1032). PLUM (13374). DETROIT (12773). ROCK (12522). ST. MARTIN (89-102). POVERTY (90-260b). SUMMER (Tessene 21). LITTLE SUMMER (12962). A. lyrata L., sand cress. Locally common on dunes and in barrens. CHAMBERS (12726). PLUM (12679). DETROIT (12772). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1425). ROCK (12629). ST. MARTIN (89-115). POVERTY (89-297). SUMMER (Voss 12611). *Armoracia rusticana P. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb., horseradish. Rare persisting escape in a ditch on Washington Island (14007). Barbarea orthoceras Ledeb., winter-cress. Uncommon. POVERTY (89-271). SUMMER (90-728). *Barbarea vulgaris R. Br., winter-cress. Fairly common weed. CANA (occasional). ADVENTURE (uncommon). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (uncommon). JACK (common). PLUM (rare). DETROIT (uncommon). WASHINGTON (Goessl 3977). ROCK (13142). GRAVELLY (Taylor s.n., MSC). SUMMER (90-699). *Berteroa incana (L.) DC., hoary-alyssum. Occasional weed. SNAKE (occasional). CHAMBERS (13937). PLUM (13425). DETROIT (13444). WASHINGTON (Schutz 98, UWGB). HOG (uncommon). ROCK (13648). GRAVELLY (89-149). Cakile edentula (Bigelow) Hook., American sea-rocket. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). First recorded on Chambers Island in 1961 (Ugent 1033), in 1998 large populations were found on lake beaches there at Sand Point and on the south tip of the island. On Washington Island it is known from the Michigan Road beaches, Dunes Park (Cochrane 11087), and from Jackson Harbor.

Page  163 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 163 *Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., shepherd's-purse. Common weed, including on bird islands. SNAKE (uncommon). HAT (rare). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1040). JACK (rare). SISTER (Seaquist 101, 102, WIS). PLUM (13283). DETROIT (12793). HOG (uncommon). WASHINGTON (12770). ROCK (12528). GRAVELLY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). LITTLE GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). GULL (89-148). LITTLE SUMMER (12976). Cardamine concatenata (Michx.) O. Schwarz., cut-leaved toothwort. Occasional in rich woods. WASHINGTON (12054). ROCK (12622). LITTLE SUMMER (12948). C. diphylla (Michx.) A.W. Wood, broad-leaved toothwort. Locally common in rich woods. PLUM (12681). DETROIT (uncommon, rich woods near cliffs). ROCK (12621). C. pensylvanica Willd., bitter-cress. Uncommon, wet areas. DETROIT (12776). SUMMER (Tessene 152). C. pratensis L. var. palustris Wimm. & Grab., cuckoo-flower. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). There is a 1917 record from "wet open places" on Washington Island (Goess1 3969, WIS), where it was recorded as "rare". It has not been relocated since in the GTA. *Descurainia pinnata (Walter) Britton subsp. brachycarpa (Richardson) Detling, green tansy mustard. Occasional weed. GREEN (13190). ADVENTURE (Bruncken s.n., 11 July 1905, MIL). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (Seaquist s.n., 21 June 1947, WIS). DETROIT (12795). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1599). ROCK (13687). ST. MARTIN (89-009). GRAVELLY (89 -146). LITTLE GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (89-295). Draba arabisans Michx., rock whitlow-grass. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI), THREATENED (MI). Locally abundant in white cedar forests on coastal cliffs on Washington Island (Boyer Bluff and for several miles to the south; Fuller 1591) and Rock Island (along all but the south coast; Tans 815); rare on Detroit Island (12782). Not known from the Michigan Islands. D. cana Rydb., hoary whitlow-grass. ENDANGERED (WI), THREATENED (MI). There are recent records (1989-1990) from dolomite bluffs on the west coast of St. Martin Island, Michigan (89-103, 90-502). *Draba verna L., spring whitlow-grass. Rare; only along gravelly trails on Rock Island (12598). *Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz, dog-mustard. Rare weed. SNAKE (uncommon). SPIDER (Fewless 3168, UWGB). WASHINGTON (13634, WIS). *Erysimum cheiranthoides L., wormseed mustard. Frequent weed, especially on bird islands. SNAKE (uncommon). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1034). ). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (Seaquist s.n., 21 June 1947, WIS). PLUM (14038). WASHINGTON (Schutz 94, UWGB). HOG (occasional). ST. MARTIN (90-570). GRAVELLY (89-153). LITTLE GULL (90-602). GULL (89-180). POVERTY (12803). *Hesperis matronalis L., dame's-rocket. Uncommon weed. CANA (common). PLUM (13341). LITTLE SUMMER (12963). *Lepidium campestre (L.) R. Br., fieldcress. Uncommon weed. CANA (uncommon). DETROIT (12794). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5167). L. densiflorum Schrad., pepper-weed. Fairly common weed. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1041). DETROIT (13843). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1568). ROCK (13658). SUMMER (Freckmann 13276). L. virginicum L. Virginia pepper-weed. Rare weed. SUMMER (Long s.n., 27 July 1974, UWSP). Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser, yellow-cress. Occasional, wetlands and alkaline rockshores. SNAKE (fairly common). CANA (rare). PLUM (14070). DETROIT (13575). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5526). GRAVELLY (Taylor s.n., 24 July 1978, MSC). SUMMER (12877). *Sinapis arvensis L., charlock mustard. Rare weed. WASHINGTON (Fuller 1358). *Sisymbrium altissimum L., tall tumble mustard. Occasional weed in gravel, especially on bird islands. There has been a population on Hog Island since at least 1905. GREEN (occasional). HAT (uncommon). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1037). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (rare). WASHINGTON (13006). HOG (Goess1 3941, Fuller s.n., also present 1999). GULL (89-178). *S. officinale (L.) Scop., hedge-mustard. Uncommon weed. ROCK (12540). LITTLE GULL (89-157).

Page  164 ï~~164 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 *Thlaspi arvense L., field pennycress. Occasional weed. LITTLE STRAWBERRY (uncommon). PLUM (13392). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1629). LITTLE SUMMER (13005). CAMPANULACEAE (Bellflower Family) Campanula aparinoides Pursh, marsh bellflower. Occasional, marshes. CHAMBERS (13933). PLUM (14091). DETROIT (rare, south tip). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1546). LITTLE SUMMER (rare). *C. rapunculoides L., creeping bellflower. Rarely spreading and persisting from cultivation. CHAMBERS (13769). WASHINGTON (rare). C. rotundifolia L., harebell. Fairly common, dolomite rockshores and cliffs, dunes, and bird islands. SNAKE (uncommon). GREEN (13205). CANA (uncommon). HAT (uncommon). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1175). PLUM (13411). DETROIT (13434). PILOT (rare). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1458). HOG (rare). ROCK (Cochrane 5176). ST. MARTIN (89-099). POVERTY (uncommon). SUMMER (Tessene 72). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). CANNABACEAE (Indian Hemp Family) Humulus lupulus L., common hops. Rare, Summer Island in 1969 (Bourdo 22565, MSC). CAPRIFOLIACEAE (Honeysuckle Family) Diervilla lonicera Mill., northern bush-honeysuckle. Common, woods and wooded dunes. CHAMBERS (13744). SPIDER (1905 collection, MIL). PLUM (uncommon). DETROIT (13509). WASHINGTON (Threlfall s.n., UWGB). ROCK (13652). ST. MARTIN (89 -044). POVERTY (90-209). SUMMER (Voss 13383). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). Linnaea borealis L. subsp. longiflora (Torr.) Hult6n, twinflower. Frequent, cedar-fir thickets near Lake Michigan. PLUM (13297). DETROIT (13551). WASHINGTON (Pohl 27, MIL). ST. MARTIN (89-040). POVERTY (uncommon). SUMMER (Tessene 8). LITTLE SUMMER (12929). Lonicera canadensis Marshall, Canada fly honeysuckle. Occasional, woods. CANA (uncommon). PLUM (rare). DETROIT (13553). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1478). ROCK (13174). ST. MARTIN (89-004). SUMMER (12913). L. dioica L., red honeysuckle. Occasional, especially in cedar-fir thickets near the coast. GREEN (13203). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1172). PLUM (13363). DETROIT (rare). WASHINGTON (Fewless & Moore 5916). ROCK (13172). ST. MARTIN (89-081). POVERTY (90-230). SUMMER (12895). LITTLE SUMMER (rare). L. hirsuta Eaton, hairy honeysuckle. Occasional, woods. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1171). PLUM (rare). DETROIT (13544). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1385). ROCK (12523). ST. MARTIN (89-139). SUMMER (Voss 13384). LITTLE SUMMER (13003). L. oblongifolia (Goldie) Hook., swamp fly honeysuckle. Rare, known only from the cedar swamp at Big Marsh on Washington Island (13067). *L. X bella Zabel, Bell's honeysuckle. Fairly common weedy species of woods and woods edges; not on the Michigan islands. SNAKE (common). GREEN (13247). CANA (occasional). CHAMBERS (13757). ADVENTURE (abundant). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (occasional). HORSESHOE (common). PLUM (13340). DETROIT (occasional). WASHINGTON (13013). ROCK (Cochrane 5186). Sambucus canadensis L., American elder. Uncommon, bird islands. JACK (uncommon). LITTLE GULL (90-605). GULL (89-173). S. racemosa L. subsp. pubens (Michx.) House, red-berried elder. Fig. 42. Common, woods; often abundant on bird islands. SNAKE (fairly common). GREEN (13222). CANA (occasional). HAT (occasional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1174). ADVENTURE (common). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (fairly common). JACK (common). HORSESHOE (fairly common). SPIDER (reported in 1966). SISTER (common in 1977). PLUM (13428). DETROIT (common). PILOT (abundant). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1382). HOG (abundant). ROCK (Cochrane 5228). ST. MARTIN (89-073). GRAVELLY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). LITTLE GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (90 -208). SUMMER (Voss 12643). LITTLE SUMMER (fairly common). Symphoricarpos albus (L.) S.F. Blake, snowberry. Occasional, wooded dunes, cedar-fir thickets, and dolomite rockshores. CANA (occasional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1169). PLUM

Page  165 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 165 2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 165 FIGURE 42. West coast of Pilot Island, Wisconsin, which was invaded by colonial waterbirds in the 1980s and 1990s. The dead white cedar forest overtops a dense shrublayer of redberried elder (Sambucus racemosa subsp. pubens) and red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), 22 July 1999. (13361). DETROIT (fairly common). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1409). ROCK (13178). POVERTY (89-276). SUMMER (Tessene 45). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). Viburnum acerifolium L., maple-leaved viburnum. Uncommon, rich woods on the larger islands. WASHINGTON (Fuller 1557). ROCK (13162). V lentago L., nannyberry. Uncommon, swamps. SNAKE (occasional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1244). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1536). V opulus L., highbush-cranberry. Occasional, edges and shores; locally common on bird islands. SNAKE (fairly common). GREEN (13241). CANA (occasional). ADVENTURE (fairly common). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (uncommon). SPIDER (1905 collection, MIL). WASHINGTON (Fewless 1502). ROCK (13110). ST. MARTIN (90-003). CARYOPHYLLACEAE (Pink Family) *Arenaria serpyllifolia L., thyme-leaved sandwort. A common small weed of dry sandy and gravelly trails and roadsides. CANA (rare). CHAMBERS (13729). PLUM (12674). DETROIT (13494). WASHINGTON (Fewless & Moore 5958). ST. MARTIN (90-515). GRAVELLY (89-145). POVERTY (90-240). SUMMER (Bourdo 22567, MSC). LITTLE SUMMER (12968). A. stricta Michx. subsp. dawsonensis (Britton) Maguire, northern rock sandwort. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI), as Minuartia dawsonensis. Found in 1998 on dunes on Washington Island at Jackson Harbor (Fuller 1571) and at Percy Johnson County Park on the east coast. *Cerastium fontanum Baumg. subsp. vulgare (Hartm.) Greuter & Burdet, mouse-ear chickweed. Common weed. CANA (rare). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1015). SPIDER (1905 collection, MIL). PLUM (13405). DETROIT (13583). WASHINGTON (12651). ROCK (Cochrane 5175). ST. MARTIN (89-064). POVERTY (12802). SUMMER (Tessene 165). LITTLE SUMMER (12942).

Page  166 ï~~166 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 C. nutans Raf., nodding chickweed. Occasional weed, especially on bird islands. SNAKE (occasional). CHAMBERS (13958). DETROIT (12796). PILOT (uncommon). WASHINGTON (12764). HOG (uncommon). ROCK (Cochrane 5192). GULL (89-185). *C. tomentosum L., snow-in-the-summer. Locally common and long-persisting escape from cultivation on Rock Island (13020); also a small patch on adjacent Washington Island at Jackson Harbor (12525). *Dianthus armeria L., Deptford pink. Rare escape. SNAKE (uncommon). WASHINGTON (Threlfall s.n., UWGB). *D. barbatus L., sweet-William. Uncommon escape from cultivation. ROCK (Tans 801). POVERTY (90-268). *D. deltoides L., maiden pink. Rare escape from cultivation. DETROIT (13454). *Lychnis coronaria (L.) Desr., maiden-pink. Rare escape from cultivation. Reported by Fuller (1927) from St. Martin Island. *Petrorhagia saxifraga (L.) Link, saxifrage pink. Locally common and long-persisting escape from cultivation on Rock Island (12492). *Saponaria officinalis L., bouncing-bet. Occasional weed of roadsides. CANA (occasional). PLUM (14046). PILOT (occasional). WASHINGTON (Schutz 157, UWGB). ROCK (Griswold s.n., 2 Sept. 1974, WIS). *Silene antirrhina L., sleepy-catchfly. Occasional weed, mostly of dry roadside gravel and dunes. CHAMBERS (13725). PLUM (14039). ROCK (13661). POVERTY (89-244). *S. armeria L., sweet-William catchfly. Rare weed. POVERTY (89-233b). *S. cserei Baumg., Balkan catchfly. Rare weed, Washington Island (Cochrane s.n., 1985). *S. latifolia Poir. subsp. alba (Mill.) Greuter & Burdet, evening lychnis. Common weed. SNAKE (uncommon). GREEN (13271). CANA (occasional). HAT (occasional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1262). ADVENTURE (rare). JACK (oaccasional). DETROIT (13554). PILOT (occasional). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1392). HOG (occasional). ROCK (13685). LITTLE GULL (90-618). GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (90-249). SUMMER (Tessene 69). *S. vulgaris (Moench) Garcke, bladder-campion. Fairly common weed. CHAMBERS (13762). PLUM (13408). DETROIT (13520). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1407). ROCK (13678). Stellaria calycantha (Ledeb.) Bong., northern starwort. Rare, wetlands, only from Summer Island (Voss 13370). S. graminea L., common stitchwort. Rare, reported only from Poverty Island (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). *S. media (L.) Vill., common chickweed. Fairly common weed. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1018). WASHINGTON (Cochrane 11062). ROCK (Cochrane 5227). LITTLE GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). CELASTRACEAE (Bittersweet Family) Celastrus scandens L., climbing bittersweet. Occasional, woods and shoreline thickets. GREEN (13264). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1210). JACK (rare). PLUM (13291). DETROIT (13893). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1594). HOG (rare). ROCK (13114). SUMMER (Summer Harbor dunes, 12858). *Euonymus alata (Thunb.) Siebold, winged euonymus. Rare escape from cultivation. WASHINGTON (Rose s.n., 1972, UWGB). CHENOPODIACEAE (Goosefoot Family) *Chenopodium album L., lamb's-quarters. Common weed, especially on bird islands. GREEN (occasional). HAT (occasional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1014). JACK (fairly common). DETROIT (occasional). PILOT (occasional). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1362). HOG (occasional). LITTLE GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Taylor s.n., 1978, MSC). C. capitatum (L.) Asch., strawberry-blite. Rare. WASHINGTON (road in heavily logged woods, 13701). HOG (Fuller 1508). SUMMER (Tessene 171).

Page  167 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 167 C. simplex (Torr.) Raf., maple-leaved goosefoot. Uncommon weedy species of rich soil. SNAKE (uncommon). CHAMBERS (13938). WASHINGTON (13811). Cycloloma atriplicifolium (Spreng.) J.M. Coult., winged pigweed. Rare in sand, Chambers Island in 1961 (Ugent 1180). *Salsola tragus L., Russian thistle. Locally common weed on sandy beaches, Chambers Island (13909). CONVOLVULACEAE (Morning-Glory Family) Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br., hedge bindweed. Fairly common, fields and dunes. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1179). DETROIT (13885). PILOT (occasional). WASHINGTON (13605). HOG (occasional). ROCK (occasional). *Convolvulus arvensis L., field bindweed. Uncommon weed. SNAKE (occasional). CHAMBERS (13775). GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (89-241). CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family) Cornus alternifolia L.f., pagoda dogwood. Occasional in rich woods, mostly on the larger islands. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1179). DETROIT (13885). WASHINGTON (13605). ROCK (rare). C. amomum Mill. var. schuetzeana (C.A. Mey.) Rickett, silky dogwood. Rare, Washington Island (Threlfall s.n., UWGB). C. canadensis L., bunchberry. Occasional, mostly in coniferous woods. WASHINGTON (Fewless 5510). ROCK (uncommon). POVERTY (89-240). SUMMER (Tessene 87). C. rugosa Lam., round-leaved dogwood. Occasional to fairly common, woods, sometimes (as on Rock Island) a dominant large understory shrub in boreal forests; also on bird islands. GREEN (13235). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1201). PLUM (13311). DETROIT (13522). PILOT (occasional). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1506). ROCK (13121). ST. MARTIN (89 -020). POVERTY (90-251). SUMMER (Voss 13364). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). C. stolonifera Michx., red-osier dogwood. Common, wetlands, dolomite rockshores, and bird islands. SNAKE (fairly common). GREEN (13260). CANA (abundant). HAT (occasional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1200). ADVENTURE (common). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (occasional). JACK (common). HORSESHOE (uncommon). SISTER (common in 1970). SPIDER (1905 collection, MIL). PLUM (occasional). DETROIT (occasional). PILOT (abundant). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1444). HOG (fairly common). ROCK (13098). ST. MARTIN (89-131). GRAVELLY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). LITTLE GULL (90-607). GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (occasional). SUMMER (Tessene 48). LITTLE SUMMER (fairly common). CRASSULACEAE (Stonecrop Family) *Sedum acre L., gold-moss stonecrop. Becoming a troublesome weed on wet dolomite shorelines of several islands (the worst infestations appear to be at the south tips of islands). On Rock Island, becoming established on dolomite ledges up to seven meters above the lake (presumably dispersed there by waves or ice). CANA (common). CHAMBERS (13764). DETROIT (13557). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5516). ROCK (13676). ST. MARTIN (89 -034). GRAVELLY (89-155). GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (90-285). SUMMER (fairly common, south tip). LITTLE SUMMER (fairly common). CYPERACEAE (Sedge Family) Carex albursina E. Sheld., white bear sedge. Rare, known only from rich hardwoods on Boyer Bluff, Washington Island (Cochrane 11044). C. aquatilis Wahlenb., water sedge. Common, shallow marshes near the coast or even on sheltered shores of Lake Michigan (as on the west side of Little Summer Island). PLUM (13386). DETROIT (occasional, north bay). WASHINGTON (7 July 1905 collection, MIL). ROCK (Cochrane 5185). POVERTY (89-266). SUMMER (12863). LITTLE SUMMER (12973). C. arctata Hook., drooping woodland sedge. Common, woods, including coastal conifer thickets. CHAMBERS (12738). PLUM (12685). DETROIT (occasional). WASHINGTON

Page  168 ï~~168 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 (Fewless 5186). ROCK (Cochrane 5214). ST. MARTIN (near cemetery, 90-529). SUMMER (12881). LITTLE SUMMER (12950). C. atherodes Spreng., slough sedge. WASHINGTON (13083). C. aurea Nutt., golden sedge. Occasional, alkaline rockshores and ditches, sometimes with C. garberi. CANA (uncommon). WASHINGTON (Cochrane 11038). ST. MARTIN (90-523). SUMMER (Voss 13366). C. backii W. Boott, Rocky Mountain sedge. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). Recent records from a hardwood forest on Boyer Bluff, Washington Island (Cochrane 11056), were not relocated (but not intensively looked for). C. bebbii (L.H. Bailey) Fernald, Bebb's sedge. Occasional, moist areas. DETROIT (13546) WASHINGTON (Fewless 5562). ROCK (12535). ST. MARTIN (90-311). SUMMER (Tessene 156). C. blanda Dewey, common wood sedge. Rare, rich hardwoods, known only from Mountain Park, Washington Island (Cochrane 11125). C. brevior (Dewey) Lunell, fescue sedge. Local, known only from Great Lakes pine barrens on Chambers Island (Ugent 1251, Judziewicz 13776). C. brunnescens (Pers.) Poir., brownish sedge. Uncommon, coniferous thickets. POVERTY (89-269). SUMMER (90-691). C. buxbaumii Wahlenb., Buxbaum's sedge. Occasional, boreal fens and wet alkaline rockshores. WASHINGTON (Fewless 5170). POVERTY (12815). SUMMER (12892). C. canescens L., silvery sedge. Rare; only noted in the cedar swamp at Big Marsh, Washington Island in 1999. C. capillaris L., hairlike sedge. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). Although not known from the Wisconsin islands, there is a recent record from coastal alvar on Poverty Island (90-252), Michigan. It was not seen there in 1998. C. castanea Wahlenb., chestnut sedge. Occasional in cedar-fir thickets and swamps near the coast. WASHINGTON (12760). ROCK (13105). C. chordorrhiza L.f., cord-root sedge. Rare, boreal fen on north end of Little Lake, Washington Island (13716). C. communis L.H. Bailey, fibrous-root sedge. Frequent, upland woods. DETROIT (13598). WASHINGTON (Goess1 3907). ROCK (13129). ST. MARTIN (90-526). SUMMER (Voss 12641). LITTLE SUMMER (12981). C. concinna R.Br., beautiful sedge. THREATENED (WI). This sedge was recently discovered from forested ridges and swales on Washington Island (Jackson Harbor Ridges) by Gary Fewless (5570). This species is rare in Wisconsin (Tans 1983, Judziewicz & Koch 1993), while in Michigan, this species is uncommon on alvar on Summer Island (mostly on the east coast; Voss 12636). C. crawei Torr., Crawe's edge. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). This sedge is fairly widespread in coastal alvar and Great Lakes alkaline rockshore communities. It is found on Detroit Island (south end, 12775), Washington Island (several places near the ferry dock; southeast coast; Jackson Harbor, Fewless 5555), Rock Island (borrow pit, 13138), and is frequent on Poverty (12823), Summer (Voss 12615), and Little Summer Islands (12917). C. crinita Lam., fringed sedge. Uncommon, moist woods. WASHINGTON (14003). ROCK (Tans 822). C. deflexa Hornem., northern oak sedge. Rare, conifer woods on Plum Island (13375). C. deweyana Schwein., Dewey's sedge. Fairly common, woods. GREEN (13233). CHAMBERS (uncommon). PLUM (12676). DETROIT (13579). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5185). ROCK (12521). ST. MARTIN (90-761). POVERTY (12841). SUMMER (Voss 13363). LITTLE SUMMER (12967). C. diandra Schrank, bog panicled sedge. Rare, boreal fens. WASHINGTON (Little Lake, 13027). SUMMER (shore of Southwest Bay, 12869). C. disperma Dewey, two-seeded bog sedge. Uncommon, cedar or hardwood swamps. DETROIT (13463). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5208). SUMMER (12875). C. eburnea Boott, ebony sedge. Abundant on dolomite bluffs under cedar; frequent just beyond the splash zone on alkaline rockshores. CHAMBERS (12719). HORSESHOE (uncommon). PLUM (12672). DETROIT (locally common). WASHINGTON (Fewless

Page  169 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 169 5160). ROCK (12630). ST. MARTIN (89-051). POVERTY (89-254). SUMMER (Tessene 125). LITTLE SUMMER (12932). C. flava L., yellow sedge. Uncommon, wet shores and wet borrow pits. WASHINGTON (Fuller 1548). ROCK (12536). C. garberi Fernald, elk sedge. THREATENED (WI). This sedge is fairly widespread in coastal alvar and Great Lakes alkaline rockshore communities. There is a 15 June 1935 collection from "Jack Island Shoal" (Fassett & Thorpe 17759, WIS). It is found on Detroit Island (south end, 13565), Washington Island (several places near ferry dock; southeast coast; Jackson Harbor, Cochrane 11102), and Rock Island (borrow pit, 13137). It is frequent on the Michigan Islands (Poverty [12822], Summer [Voss 13387], Little Summer [12917a]). C. granularis Willd., limestone meadow sedge. Occasional, calcareous meadows and rockshores. WASHINGTON (13008). POVERTY (89-268). SUMMER (12862). C. gynocrates Drejer, northern bog sedge. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). A large colony of this species was found in a cedar swamp near Big Marsh on Washington Island in 1999 (14001). Here it was locally the dominant groundcover, and all plants were female. C. hirtifolia Mack., hairy sedge. Rare, rich, seeping old-growth beech-maple forest in the interior of Rock Island (12613). C. hitchcockiana Dewey, Hitchcock's sedge. Rare, rich sugar maple woods on Little Summer Island (12961). C. houghtoniana Torr., Houghton's sedge. Rare, old campfire ring near cabin on Summer Island (12886). C. hystericina Willd., bottlebrush sedge. Common, ditches and alkaline rockshores. SNAKE (rare). CHAMBERS (13972). JACK (Fassett & Thorpe s.n., 15 June 1935, WIS). PLUM (13391). DETROIT (13574). WASHINGTON (Cochrane 11119). ROCK (12533). POVERTY (89-204). SUMMER (Tessene 167). C. intumescens Rudge, bladder sedge. Occasional, mostly moist spots in hardwood forests. SNAKE (rare). CHAMBERS (13963). DETROIT (13483). WASHINGTON (13087). SUMMER (12904). C. lacustris Willd., lake sedge. Uncommon, moist to inundated depressions. DETROIT (13474). WASHINGTON (13083). C. lasiocarpa Ehrh. subsp. americana (Fernald) D. Love & Bernard, narrow-leaved woolly sedge. Reported from Jackson Harbor Ridges dune ponds, Washington Island, by Gary Fewless. C. laxiflora Lam., beech woods sedge. A common and characteristic species of beech-maple forests. CHAMBERS (12733). PLUM (13356). DETROIT (12785). WASHINGTON (Cochrane 11048). ROCK (13167). ST. MARTIN (89-045). POVERTY (12836). SUMMER (12879). C. leptalea Wahlenb., bristle-stalked sedge. Uncommon, cedar swamps and alder thickets. DETROIT (13476). WASHINGTON (13060). SUMMER (12878). C. limosa L., muck sedge. Rare, only from the boreal rich fen on the north side of Little Lake, Washington Island (13026). C. livida (Wahlenb.) Willd. var. radicaulis Paine, livid sedge. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). Fairly common in two boreal fen communities on Washington Island (Coffee Swamp and Big Marsh, 13062). C. lupulina Willd., hop sedge. Local in open vernal ponds/sedge meadows. WASHINGTON (13808). ST. MARTIN (90-321). C. magellanica Lam., boreal bog sedge. Rare, boreal rich fen, Coffee Swamp, Washington Island (13084). C. muhlenbergii Willd., Muhlenberg's sedge. Stabilized dunes on Green (13262) and Chambers (Ugent 1252) Islands. C. ormostachya Wiegand, necklace-spike sedge. Uncommon in rich hardwoods. DETROIT (13576). WASHINGTON (14014). SUMMER (13177). LITTLE SUMMER (12958). C. Sect. Ovales. PLUM (14086). C. peckii Howe, Peck's sedge. Occasional, often in moist coniferous woods. SNAKE (uncommon). HORSESHOE (12695). PLUM (13309). DETROIT (12659, 12789). WASH

Page  170 ï~~170 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 170 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 FIGURE 43. Broad-leaved wood sedge (Carex platyphylla) in beech woods on Rock Island, Wisconsin, 10 June 1998. This mesophytic species of the eastern U.S. reaches its western range limit and is disjunct in Door County, Wisconsin. INGTON (Goessl 3993). ROCK (13171). SUMMER (Voss 12642). LITTLE SUMMER (13000). C. pedunculata Willd., long-stalked sedge. Fairly common, mixed or more commonly coniferous woods. CHAMBERS (12709). PLUM (uncommon). DETROIT (13556). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5188). POVERTY (89-261). SUMMER (uncommon). LITTLE SUMMER (uncommon). C. pellita Willd., broad-leaved woolly sedge. Locally common in marshes and shallow ponds. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1254, 13749). DETROIT (13585). WASHINGTON (13029, 13627). ROCK (13141). LITTLE SUMMER (12633). C. pensylvanica Lam., Penn sedge. Locally dominant, forming sods in hardwood forest understories, especially on Chambers Island. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1253). PLUM (12680). DETROIT (fairly common). WASHINGTON (12650). C. plantaginea Lam., plantain-leaved sedge. Rare, rich old-growth hardwoods. ROCK (13897). SUMMER (Freckmann sight record, 1976). C. platyphylla J. Carey, broad-leaved wood sedge. Fig. 43. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI), THREATENED (MI). This eastern disjunct is found in small to large, dense colonies in old-growth to second-growth beech-sugar maple forests, often on tip-up mounds, where dolomite is near the surface (on the lip of small escarpments), or where leaf litter is thin (Cochrane 2000). All ten GTA sites were discovered during this inventory. On Washington Island (13049) it occurs in Mountain Tower Park and several private woodlots in the interior of the island. A large population of 500 plants occurs along the "prayer trail" to the beautiful wooden Norwegian church in the Stavkirke woods just northeast of "downtown". There are also several colonies on Rock Island (12640), the largest with over 1,000 plants. It is not known from the Michigan islands or anywhere in the Upper Peninsula, but is to be expected on the Garden Peninsula. C. prasina Wahlenb., drooping sedge. Fig. 38. THREATENED (WI), no status (MI). This eastern woodland species was newly discovered in an ostrich fern-dominated seep in an

Page  171 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 171 old-growth beech-sugar maple forest on Rock Island (12498). It is not known from the Michigan islands or elsewhere in the Upper Peninsula. C. pseudocyperus L., cypresslike sedge. Rare, vernal woodland pond on Summer Island (12872). C. radiata (Wahlenb.) Small, eastern star sedge. Fairly common, rich woods. CHAMBERS (13931). PLUM (13303). DETROIT (13593). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5514). ST. MARTIN (90-593). SUMMER (12899). LITTLE SUMMER (12959). C. retrorsa Schwein., retrorse sedge. Occasional, wetlands. SPIDER (Fewless 3173). DETROIT (13548). ST. MARTIN (90-302). SUMMER (Tessene 133). C. richardsonii R. Br., Richardson's sedge. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI and MI). This prairiebarrens-alvar species is occasional in coastal alvar communities on Poverty (Voice et al. 82-007, MSC) and Summer (12860) Islands, Michigan. Locally a major dominant on alvars on the east coast of the Garden Peninsula (Albert et al. 1997). C. rosea Willd., rosy sedge. Frequent in hardwood forests. CHAMBERS (13931). PLUM (13422). DETROIT (13533). WASHINGTON (Cochrane 11045). ROCK (13159). POVERTY (89-293). SUMMER (12899). LITTLE SUMMER (12959). C. sartwellii Dewey, running marsh sedge. Local, marshes and sedge meadows. PLUM (13393, 13409). WASHINGTON (13628). C. sparganioides Willd., bur-reed sedge. Rare in beech-maple forests. DETROIT (13533). WASHINGTON (Island Campground woods, 14015). ROCK (Cochrane 5215). *C. spicata Huds., spiked bracted sedge. Rare, known from a sandy clearing ("Rutabaga Field") on Rock Island (12487). One of only a handful of Wisconsin sites for this species; in Michigan, it is known only from the "thumb" of the Lower Peninsula (Voss 1972). C. sprengelii Spreng., Sprengel's sedge. Rare, rich sugar maple stand on Little Summer Island (12938). C. sterilis Willd., fen star sedge. Locally common in fens, bogs, and wet alkaline rockshores. WASHINGTON (13030, 13066, Goess13973). SUMMER (12868, Voss 13373) C. stipata Willd., common fox sedge. Occasional, wetlands. CANA (uncommon). JACK (Fassett & Thorpe 17740, WIS). DETROIT (13481). WASHINGTON (Coffee Swamp, 13053). LITTLE SUMMER (12989). C. stricta Lam., tussock sedge. Occasional, marshes. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1265). WASHINGTON (Goess13935). C. tribuloides Wahlenb., awl-fruited oval sedge. Rare, Summer Island (Freckmann 13180). C. trisperma Dewey, three-fruited sedge. Rare, conifer swamp (Coffee Swamp), Washington Island (13078). C. tuckermanii Dewey, Tuckerman's sedge. Rare, black ash swamp (Coffee Swamp), Washington Island (13056). C. umbellata Willd., hidden sedge. Uncommon, dry sandy ground. CHAMBERS (12755). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5161, Cochrane 11100, 11089). ROCK (13659). SUMMER (12890). LITTLE SUMMER (12925). C. utriculata Boott, bladder sedge. Rare, wetlands. SUMMER (Freckmann 13176). C. vesicaria L., blister sedge. Rare, Coffee Swamp, Washington Island (13183). C. viridula Michx., little green sedge. Frequent and characteristic species of wet alkaline shores and ditches. CHAMBERS (13720). JACK (Fassett s.n., 1935, WIS). PLUM (14065). DETROIT (13566). WASHINGTON (Fuller 3908). ROCK (12493). POVERTY (89-293). SUMMER (13378). C. vulpinoidea Michx., brown fox sedge. Rare, disturbed ground near Detroit Harbor, Washington Island (13630). Cladium mariscoides (Muhl.) Torr., twig-rush. Known only from dune ponds at Jackson Harbor Ridges (Fewless 5501) and Big Marsh (13615) on Washington Island. Cyperus bipartitus Torr., slender flat sedge. Rare, Washington Island (Schutz 142, UWGB). C. odoratus L., fragrant cyperus. Rare, Jackson Harbor Ridges, Washington Island (Fewless & Moore 5914). Dulichium arundinaceum (L.) Britton, three-way sedge. Marsh at Mud Lake, Chambers Island (13930). Eleocharis acicularis (L.) Roem. & Schult., needle spikerush. Rare, alkaline rockshores. DETROIT (13865). WASHINGTON (13011). SUMMER (C.A. Long sight record, 1974).

Page  172 ï~~172 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 E. elliptica Kunth, elliptic spikerush. Occasional, fens and wet alkaline rockshores. PLUM (14066). DETROIT (12777). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1420). ROCK (13133). POVERTY (12828). SUMMER (Voss 13375). LITTLE SUMMER (12920). E. erythropoda Steud., bald spikerush. Rare, Chambers Island (13917). E. palustris (L.) Roem. & Schult., common spikerush. Local in large puddles or shallow ponds and marshes. SNAKE (occasional). PLUM (14078). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5206). ST. MARTIN (pond near lighthouse, 90-306). SUMMER (Voss 13386). E. quinqueflora (Hartman) Schwarz, few-flowered spikerush. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). There are records from Great Lakes alkaline rockshores on Washington Island (Jackson Harbor Ridges, Fuller 3926; Percy Johnson County Park, Fewless et al. 5966, UWGB) and from alvars on Summer Island (Voss 13374), Michigan. Eriophorum alpinum L., alpine cotton-grass. Occasional in Coffee Swamp boreal rich fen, Washington Island (13079). E. viridi-carinatum (Englem.) Fernald, dark-scale cotton-grass. Fig. 26. Frequent in Coffee Swamp boreal rich fen, Washington Island (13063). Eriophorum virginicum L., rusty cotton-grass. Rare, Coffee Swamp on Washington Island (13068). Rhynchospora capillacea Torr., hairlike beakrush. Rare in dune pools and wet alkaline rockshores. DETROIT (13854). WASHINGTON (Jackson Harbor Ridges, Fewless 5564). Schoenoplectus acutus (Bigelow) A. Love & D. Live, hardstem bulrush. Uncommon, marshes. WASHINGTON (Threlfall s.n., UWGB). SUMMER (90-750). S. pungens (Vahl) Palla, common three-square bulrush. Occasional, shallow water of inland lakes, wet alkaline shorelines. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1134). PLUM (14074). DETROIT (13879). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1585). ROCK (12491). S. tabernaemontani (C.C. Gmel.) Palla, softstem bulrush. Fig. 25. Locally common in marshes. SNAKE (fairly common). CHAMBERS (13914). PLUM (13377). DETROIT (13492). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5559). ROCK (13644). Scirpus cespitosus L., tufted bulrush. Figs. 26, 44. THREATENED (WI). The only GTA occurrence is at Coffee Swamp on Washington Island, where the species is locally common in a boreal fen mat (13082). S. cyperinus (L.) Kunth, wool-grass. Uncommon. WASHINGTON (Schutz 139, UWGB). DROSERACEAE (Sundew Family) Drosera rotundifolia L., round-leaved sundew. Rare, known only from sphagnous pockets under cedars in Coffee Swamp, Washington Island (Fuller 1449). ELAEAGNACEAE (Oleaster Family) *Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb., autumn-olive. Rare, a large shrub on a cedary dolomite shoreline on Cana Island (13277). Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt., buffalo-berry. Fig. 40. Occasional to frequent, gravelly shores, dolomite bluffs, and conifer thickets. SNAKE (rare). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1195). CANA (uncommon). PLUM (13400). DETROIT (13543). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1356). ROCK (Tans 814). ST. MARTIN (89-014). POVERTY (89-291). SUMMER (Tessene 4). LITTLE SUMMER (12994). ERIACEAE (Heath Family) Andromeda glaucophylla Link, bog-rosemary. Rare, wetlands, Washington Island (Schutz 77, UWGB). Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spring., bearberry. Occasional to locally common, stabilized dunes. CHAMBERS (12723). PLUM (13338). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1410). ROCK (G.J. Knudson sight record, 10-14 June 1964; not noted in 1997-1999). ST. MARTIN (89 -012). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Voss 12620). LITTLE SUMMER (12997). Chamaedaphne calyculata (L.) Moench var. angustifolia (Aiton) Rehder, leatherleaf. Known only from a pothole muskeg south of Mackaysee Lake, Chambers Island (12752). Epigaea repens L., trailing-arbutus. Pine-oak woods near Mud Lake, Chambers Island (12731).

Page  173 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 173 2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 173 FIGURE 44. Tufted bulrush (Scirpus cespitosus), a species of cold alkaline rockshores and boreal fens, here in Coffee Swamp, Washington Island, Wisconsin, 4 June 1998. Gaultheria hispidula (L.) Bigelow, creeping-snowberry. Rare, cedar swamps. WASHINGTON (Coffee Swamp, 13076). SUMMER (Tessene 106). G. procumbens L., wintergreen. Infrequent in acid, sandy upland woods. CHAMBERS (12730). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1559). ROCK (12551). Gaylussacia baccata (Wangenh.) K. Koch, huckleberry. Rare, acid sandy pine-oak woods near Mud Lake, Chambers Island (13737). Ledum groenlandicum Oeder, Labrador-tea. Rare, wetlands. WASHINGTON (Schutz 84, UWGB). ROCK (G.J. Knudson sight record, 1964; not noted in 1997-1999). Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton, early blueberry. Uncommon, dry upland woods and dunes. CHAMBERS (13738). DETROIT (13484). ROCK (12548). V myrtilloides Michx., velvetleaf blueberry. Uncommon, upland woods and dunes. DETROIT (13468). WASHINGTON (13713). ROCK (12550). SUMMER (12914). V oxycoccos L., small cranberry. Rare, observed only from sphagnous hummocks under cedars in Coffee Swamp, Washington Island. EUPHORBIACEAE (Spurge Family) Chamaescyce maculata (L.) Small, wartweed. Uncommon weed of dry ground. CHAMBERS (13984). ROCK (12485). C. polygonifolia (L.) Small, seaside spurge. Fig. 45. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI), as Euphorbia polygonifolia. This beach species appears to be declining because of development and increasing human disturbance. While locally common on Chambers Island (Sand Point, east coast dock, and south point, 13905, 13987), it is rare and barely persisting on both Washington Island (Dunes Park and Percy Johnson County Park, Fewless & Moore 5948) and Rock Island (south beach, Fewless 9983, UWGB). *Euphorbia cyparissias L., cypress spurge. Uncommon weed. SNAKE (fairly common). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1606). *E. esula L., leafy spurge. Uncommon weed. ADVENTURE (occasional). ST. MARTIN (89 -006).

Page  174 ï~~174 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 174 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 FIGURE 45. Mat of seaside spurge (Chamaescyce polygonifolia) on beach at south tip of Chambers Island, Wisconsin, 18 September 1998. This is the largest patch of this species I've seen in Door County! It is vulnerable to human foot and vehicular traffic. FABACEAE (Bean or Pea Family) Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Fernald, hog-peanut. Locally common in red oak woods near Sand Point, Chambers Island (Ugent 1227). Lathyrus japonicus Willd. var. maritimus (L.) Kartesz & Gandhi, beach pea. Occasional, beaches; not on the Michigan Islands. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1237). SPIDER (1905 collection, MIL). PLUM (13285). DETROIT (13436). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1552). ROCK (Cochrane 5198). *L. sylvestris L., everlasting pea. Uncommon escape from cultivation. WASHINGTON (Fuller 1371). L. ochroleucus Hook., pale vetchling. Occasional, dry (oak) to moist (cedar) woods. CHAMBERS (13920). WASHINGTON (Goess1 3946). ROCK (13175). L. palustris L., marsh vetchling. Occasional, wet alkaline rockshores. PLUM (13378, 13330). DETROIT (13485, 13570). WASHINGTON (Goess1 3923). SUMMER (12845). LITTLE SUMMER (12921, 12930). *Lotus corniculata L., bird's-foot trefoil. Sight record by T.S. Cochrane on Washington Island. *Medicago lupulina L., black medick. Fairly common weed. SNAKE (rare). CANA (uncommon). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1229). PLUM (13413). DETROIT (13512). PILOT (rare). WASHINGTON (Fewless & Moore 5951). ROCK (12634). ST. MARTIN (89-141). GRAVELLY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Tessene 162). LITTLE SUMMER (12993). *M. sativa L., alfalfa. Rare weed. WASHINGTON (Schutz 62, UWGB). *Melilotus alba Medik., white sweet-clover. Fairly common weed. SNAKE (uncommon). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1233). PLUM (occasional). DETROIT (uncommon). PILOT (uncommon). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1366). HOG (uncommon). ROCK (rare). SUMMER

Page  175 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 175 (Freckmann sight record, 1976). Sight records (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University) from Little Gull and Gull Islands may refer to this species. *M. officinalis (L.) Lam., yellow sweet-clover. Occasional weed. WASHINGTON (Fuller 1498). ROCK (13649). *Robinia pseudoacacia L., black locust. There is a well-established but senescent grove (1998) near the main dock on Chambers Island (Ugent 1236). *Trifolium aureum Pollich, yellow hop clover. Uncommon weed. WASHINGTON (Rose 307). *T hybridum L., Alsike clover. Fairly common weed. PLUM (13415). WASHINGTON (13629). ROCK (13683). SUMMER (Tessene 70). *T pratense L., red clover. Common weed. CANA (uncommon). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1228). SPIDER (1905 collection, MIL). PLUM (13412). DETROIT (occasional). WASHINGTON (13015). ROCK (13144). ST. MARTIN (89-007). LITTLE GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Freckmann sight record, 1976). *T repens L. white clover. Common weed. CANA (uncommon). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1230). SPIDER (1905 collection, MIL). PLUM (13406). DETROIT (13513). WASHINGTON (Schutz 179, UWGB). ROCK (13149). ST. MARTIN (90-540). LITTLE GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Freckmann sight record, 1976). LITTLE SUMMER (12990). Vicia americana Willd., American vetch. Fairly common, woods, fields, and alkaline rockshores. PLUM (13330, 14087). DETROIT (uncommon). WASHINGTON (Goess1 3948). ROCK (13176). POVERTY (87-197). SUMMER (Voss 13390). V caroliniana Walter, Carolina vetch. Rare, known only from a 15 June 1935 collection from a beech woods on Chambers Island (Fassett 17373, WIS). *V sativa L., common vetch. Uncommon weed. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1234). SUMMER (Freckmann sight record, 1976). *V villosa Roth, hairy vetch. Uncommon weed of old fields. PLUM (13426). WASHINGTON (Schutz 18, UWGB). FAGACEAE (Beech Family) Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., beech. Fig. 46. Common to dominant upland tree on the larger islands. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1045). DETROIT (rare). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1495). ROCK (13161). ST. MARTIN (89-070). POVERTY (rare, 12806). SUMMER (occasional, 12630). LITTLE SUMMER (fairly common). Quercus macrocarpa Michx., bur oak. Rare, only one large tree noted in a swamp along Baseline Road in the interior of Chambers Island (13960). Q. rubra L., red oak. Fig. 47. Occasional to common on the larger islands. CHAMBERS (locally common, Ugent 1046). PLUM (rare). DETROIT (occasional). WASHINGTON (locally common, Fuller 1525). ROCK (occasional, 13147). ST. MARTIN (cliff area, 90 -506). SUMMER (occasional, Tessene 180). FUMARIACEAE (Fumitory Family) Adlumiafungosa (Aiton) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb., Allegheny-vine or climbing fumitory. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI and MI). This biennial herbaceous vine is found in upland woods, usually with dolomite bedrock or gravel at or near the surface. The seeds remain in the seedbank for many years and populations may appear suddenly after burning or excavation. It was found on several small islands: Little Strawberry (rare), Horseshoe (locally common). A population from Pilot Island (Voice et al, 1982, MSC) was not relocated. It is occasional in coastal clifftop white cedar forests on Plum Island (13354); rare on a dolomite escarpment on Detroit Island (13872); uncommon on Washington Island, where it was found on Lobdells Point and along the east and north coasts (13603); and fairly common at the base of dolomite escarpments on Rock Island (13165). On the Michigan islands, climbing fumitory has been reported from St. Martin Island (Fuller 1635, MIL, plus several Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University collections), Summer Island (Bourdo s.n., 9 Aug. 1968, MSC), and Gull and Little Gull Islands (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). In 1998 it was not relocated on Summer Island, and I did not visit the

Page  176 ï~~176 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 176 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 FIGURE 46. Nearly pure stand of second-growth beech (Fagus grandifolia) near the west coast of Chambers Island (south of Sand Point), Wisconsin, 9 May 1998. FIGURE 47. Second-growth red oak (Quercus rubra) stand near Sand Point on Chambers Island, Wisconsin. Hog-peanut (Amphicarpaea bracteata), smooth aster (Aster laevis), and wide-leaved panic-grass (Panicum latifolium) are found in the understory, 18 September 1998.

Page  177 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 177 Gull Islands. Large new populations were located on Little Summer Island (12966), where they covered a graded, gravelly forest lane. Corydalis aurea Willd., golden corydalis. Locally common and characteristic of gravelly sunny shorelines. SNAKE (uncommon). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (Seaquist s.n., 21 June 1947, WIS). PLUM (12987). DETROIT (12791). ST. MARTIN (Fuller 1622). GULL (89 -175). LITTLE SUMMER (12977). C. sempervirens (L.) Pers., pale corydalis. Uncommon, dolomite cliffs and gravel. ST. MARTIN (Fuller 1623). LITTLE SUMMER (12678). Dicentra canadensis (Goldie) Walp., squirrel-corn. Uncommon in rich woods. LITTLE STRAWBERRY (a few plants in basswood forest on dolomite cobbles, 1998). ROCK (local in rich hardwoods along the Fernwood Trail, 12606). D. cucullaria (L.) Bernh., dutchman's-breeches. Fig. 48. Locally common in rich mesic hardwoods. SNAKE (abundant). HAT (rare). LITTLE STRAWBERRY ("growing profusely all over," Seaquist s.n., 30 May 1947, WIS; uncommon in 1998). DETROIT (locally abundant, 12664). ROCK (occasional, 12625). LITTLE SUMMER (12956). GENTIANACEAE (Gentian Family) Gentianopsis procera (Holm) Ma, lesser fringed gentian. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). This gentian is occasional but never abundant in Great Lakes alkaline rockshores and/or alvar. CANA (A. Jackson s.n., 27 Aug. 1945, WIS; not noted in 1998-1999). DETROIT (rare, south end, 13862). WASHINGTON (east coast and Jackson Harbor, Tans 252, MIL). SUMMER (Tessene 13). Halenia deflexa (Sm.) Griseb., spurred-gentian. Uncommon, mostly in moist cedar-fir thickets near the coast. PLUM (Tans 791). WASHINGTON (7 July 1905 collection, MIL). POVERTY (89-248). SUMMER (Tessene 155). LITTLE SUMMER (fairly common). GERANIACEAE (Geranium Family) Geranium robertianum L., herb-Robert. A locally common and characteristic herb of dolomitic cedar forest understories, often on ledges or at the base of cliffs; but in many habitats, including bird islands. SNAKE (fairly common). GREEN (13231). CANA (rare). CHAMBERS (12759). ADVENTURE (occasional). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (occasional). JACK (uncommon). HORSESHOE (occasional). SPIDER (Fewless 3176). PLUM (13323). DETROIT (13510). PILOT (uncommon). WASHINGTON (fairly common), HOG (occasional). ROCK (Cochrane 5205). ST. MARTIN (89-111). GRAVELLY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). LITTLE GULL (Cranbrook InstituteOakland University sight record). GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (12825). SUMMER (Tessene 148). LITTLE SUMMER (12975). GROSSULARIACEAE (Gooseberry Family) Ribes americanum Mill., American black currant. Fairly common, moist woods. Frequent on many bird islands. SNAKE (rare). GREEN (13232). CANA (Cochrane 10459, WIS). HAT (occasional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1044). ADVENTURE (uncommon). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (Seaquist s.n., 21 June 1947, WIS). SPIDER (Fewless 3170). PLUM (occasional). DETROIT (13518). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1493). HOG (occasional). ST. MARTIN (89 -093). GRAVELLY (89-159). LITTLE GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). R. cynosbati L., prickly wild gooseberry. Occasional, woods and fields. SNAKE (occasional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1043). PLUM (fairly common). DETROIT (13518). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1435). ROCK (12617). SUMMER (Freckmann 13166). R. glandulosum Grauer, skunk currant. Uncommon, swamps and conifer thickets. ADVENTURE (rare). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1494). POVERTY (rare in shaded rock crevices). SUMMER (Voss 12633). R. hirtellum Michx., hairy-stemmed gooseberry. Rare. WASHINGTON (Goess1 3917). R. hudsonianum Richardson, northern black currant. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). This handsome shrub was found in a cedar swamp near Big Marsh on Washington Island in 1999 (14006). R. lacustre (Pers.) Poir., bristly black currant. Uncommon; characteristic of moist, shaded cedar forests at the base of dolomite escarpments and scree slopes. CANA (rare). DE

Page  178 ï~~178 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 178 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 FIGURE 48. Abundant dutchman's-breeches (Dicentra cucullaria) in the understory of managed sugar maple (Acer saccharum) woods on central hill of Detroit Island, Wisconsin, 4 May 1998.

Page  179 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 179 TROIT (12771). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1572). ROCK (12637). ST. MARTIN (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Voss 12634). LITTLE SUMMER (rare). HALORAGACEAE (Water-Milfoil Family) Myriophyllum sibiricum Kom., common water-milfoil. This genus has been collected in the archipelago only by Gary Fewless (5575), on Washington Island. Proserpinaca palustris L. var. crebra Fernald & Griscom, common mermaid-weed. Rare, shallow marly marshes (Coffee Swamp, Big Marsh) on Washington Island (13714). HAMAMELIDACEAE (Witch-Hazel Family) Hamamelis virginiana L., witch-hazel. Rare, known only from rich upland woods on Washington Island (Schutz 113, UWGB). HYDROCHARITACEAE (Frog's-Bit Family) Elodea canadensis Michx., common waterweed. In waters of Lake Michigan. POVERTY (90-212). SUMMER (Tessene 178). E. nuttallii (Planch.) H. St. John, slender waterweed. Presumably from Lake Michigan. WASHINGTON (Schutz 59, UWGB). Vallisneria americana Michx., eelgrass, water-celery. Shallow water. CHAMBERS (Lake Mackaysee, 13976). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5576). HYDROPHYLLACEAE (Waterleaf Family) Hydrophyllum virginianum L., Virginia waterleaf. Locally common in rich, older growth beech-maple woods in the interior of Rock Island (13169). Also occasional on Snake Island. HYPERICACEAE (St. John's-wort Family) Hypericum kalmianum L., Kalm or shrubby St. John's-wort. Fig. 51. Locally common and characteristic of calcareous swamps and wet alkaline rockshores; also in calcareous dry gravelly old fields and pastures. PLUM (14052). DETROIT (13511). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1472). POVERTY (89-199). SUMMER (Bourdo s.n., MSC). LITTLE SUMMER (12924). H. majus (A. Gray) Britt., small St. John's-wort. Rare, meadow at Carp Lake on Plum Island (14060). Also uncommon on Snake Island. *H. perforatum L., common St. John's-wort or prozac-weed. Fairly common weed. CANA (occasional). ADVENTURE (uncommon). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1225). PLUM (13414). DETROIT (occasional). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1431). ROCK (13691). SUMMER (Tessene 144). Triadenumfraseri (Spach) Gleason, marsh St. John's-wort. Rare, marshes and bogs. CHAMBERS (Mud Lake, 13934). WASHINGTON (Threlfall s.n., UWGB). IRIDACEAE (Iris Family) Iris lacustris Nutt., dwarf lake iris. Fig. 49. THREATENED (WI and MI). FEDERALLY LISTED. Locally common in white cedar-dominated swales near coasts: Plum Island (north coast, 13360), Detroit (west coast, 12787), Washington (southeast coast; abundant at Jackson Harbor, Fuller 1680), St. Martin (reported from near the lighthouse on the northeast coast by Fuller [1927]); Poverty (89-187) and Summer Islands (common on east and south coasts, Hagenah et al. 6691, MSC), and Little Summer Island (rare, east coast, 12927). *I. pseudacorus L., yellow flag. Rare escape from cultivation. WASHINGTON (Threlfall s.n., UWGB). I. versicolor L., northern blue flag. Common, wetlands. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1064). PLUM (13387). DETROIT (13473). WASHINGTON (Fewless & Moore 5960). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Tessene 9). LITTLE SUMMER (rare).

Page  180 ï~~180 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 180 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 FIGURE 49. Dwarf lake iris (Iris lacustris) on Great Lakes alkaline rockshore on the east coast of Little Summer Island, Michigan, 29 May 1998. Sisyrinchium montanum Greene, mountain blue-eyed grass. Locally common, wet alkaline rockshores; also old fields, calcareous gravelly dunes. PLUM (13331). DETROIT (13435). WASHINGTON (Goess1 3940). ROCK (13103). POVERTY (12813). SUMMER (12865). JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family) Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K. Koch, bitternut or yellowbud hickory. Uncommon in oak woods near the lighthouse and in the northeast part of Chambers Island (Ugent 1054). Juglans cinerea L., butternut. "TRACKED" (WI). Listed as common on Washington Island by Fuller (1927), it is now uncommon to rare on that island, found mostly in the Little Lake, Mountain Tower and Washington Harbor areas (13793). Only one mature tree was seen, and it was diseased. JUNCACEAE (Rush Family) Juncus alpinoarticulatus Chaix subsp. nodulosus (Wahlenb.) Hamet-Ahti, northern green rush. Occasional, wet alkaline rockshores. DETROIT (13882). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1419). POVERTY (89-273). SUMMER (Voss 13377). J. arcticus Willd. subsp. littoralis (Engelm.) Hult6n, baltic rush. Fig. 50. Common on wet alkaline rockshores. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1077). PLUM (13281). DETROIT (common, south tip). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1427). ROCK (13139). ST. MARTIN (90-590). POVERTY (89-280). SUMMER (Tessene 71). LITTLE SUMMER (abundant in shallow water, west coast, in 1998). *J. articulatus L., jointed rush. Rare, wet areas on beach of Summer Island (Freckmann 13186). J. brachycephalus (Engelm.) Buchenau, short-headed rush. Rare. WASHINGTON (Fewless & Moore 5944, UWGB). J. brevicaudatus (Engelm.) Fernald, narrow-panicled rush. Fairly common, shorelines. CHAMBERS (13721, 13982). DETROIT (13851). WASHINGTON (Little Lake, 13033). ROCK (12490, 13101). J. bufonius L., toad rush. Rare. Detroit Harbor, Washington Island (13631).

Page  181 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 181 2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 181 FIGURE 50. Muddy, marly shore of Lake Michigan on sheltered east coast of Little Summer Island. The dominant plant here is Baltic rush (Juncus arcticus subsp. littoralis); silverweed (Argentina anserina) is also common, 29 May 1998. J. canadensis LaHarpe, Canadian rush. Rare. Detroit Harbor, Washington Island (13033). J. dudleyi Wiegand, Dudley's rush. Occasional, wetlands and shores. SNAKE (uncommon). CHAMBERS (13947). DETROIT (13567). WASHINGTON (Fuller 5558). ROCK (12531). POVERTY (89-225). SUMMER (Tessene 157). J. effusus L., common rush. Rare, wetlands. SNAKE (uncommon). J. nodosus L., joint rush. Uncommon, wetlands. SNAKE (rare). DETROIT (13881). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1426). J. tenuis Willd., path rush. Occasional, trails and shores. CANA (uncommon). SUMMER (Freckmann 13183). JUNCAGINACEAE (Arrow-Grass Family) Triglochin maritimum L., common bog-arrow grass. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). Apparently the first site for the GTA was found in 1998 on Washington Island at Big Marsh, where it is frequent in an emergent bulrush commnity at the margin of a shallow marly pond. T palustre L., marsh bog-arrow grass. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). This arrow-grass is found in the swales of "forested ridge and swale" communities (Jackson Harbor Ridges, Washington Island, Fuller 1428), and also in shallow pools in shoreline dolomite communities (Summer Island, Michigan, Tessene 172). LAMIACEAE (Mint Family) *Acinos arvensis (Lam.) Dandy, basil-thyme. Occasional weed. PLUM (13284). DETROIT (13443). WASHINGTON (field near Coffee Swamp in 1974, Tans s.n.; Jackson Harbor, Fewless 5217). Agastache scrophulariaefolia (Willd.) Kuntze, figwort giant hyssop. Rare, hardwood forest on Lobdells Point, Washington Island (13705). Calamintha arkansana (Nutt.) Shinners, low calamint; summer savory [local name on Washington Island]. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). Significant populations occur on Great Lakes alkaline rockshore communities on Detroit Island (south end; 13852, Alverson 1260) and

Page  182 ï~~182 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 182 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 FIGURE 51. Water snake (Nerodia sipedon sipedon) "guarding" a plant of shrubby St. John's-wort (Hypericum kalmianum) on a dolomite ledge on southeast coast of Washington Island, Wisconsin, 21 July 1999. Washington Island (southeast coast and Jackson Harbor Ridges, Fuller 1470). In Michigan the species is common in similar habitats on Poverty Island (12828a), Summer Island (Voss 13376), and Little Summer Island (occasional), mostly on eastern coast alvars. Clinopodium vulgare L., wild-basil. Fairly common weed. GREEN (13246). CANA (uncommon). PLUM (14054). DETROIT (13514). WASHINGTON (Rose 279, UWGB). ROCK (Cochrane 5191). ST. MARTIN (89-048). POVERTY (uncommon). SUMMER (Tessene 28). LITTLE SUMMER (rare). *Galeopsis ladanum L. var. angustifolia (Hoffm.) Wallr., hemp-nettle. Uncommon weed. DETROIT (Threlfall s.n., UWGB). WASHINGTON (13042). *G. tetrahit L., common hemp-nettle. Uncommon weed. CANA (uncommon). LITTLE SUMMER (13001). *Glechoma hederacea L., gill-over-the-ground. Occasional weed, especially in lawns. SNAKE (abundant). CHAMBERS (12739). WASHINGTON (Goess13939). ST. MARTIN (90-537). POVERTY (89-292). SUMMER (12915). *Leonurus cardiaca L., motherwort. Occasional weed; can be abundant on bird islands. CANA (abundant). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (uncommon). HORSESHOE (common). DETROIT (13451). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1595). HOG (occasional). Lycopus americanus W.P.C. Barton, common water-horehound. Fairly common, swamps and wet alkaline rockshores. SNAKE (uncommon). CANA (uncommon). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1150). PLUM (Ugent 14073). DETROIT (13504). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1412). ROCK (12542). POVERTY (89-196). SUMMER (Tessene 43). LITTLE SUMMER (uncommon). L. uniflorus Michx., northern bugleweed. Fairly common, wetlands and shores. SNAKE (uncommon). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1163). DETROIT (13878). WASHINGTON (13075). POVERTY (uncommon). SUMMER (Tessene 42). Mentha arvensis L. var. canadensis (L.) Kuntze, wild mint. Occasional, swamps and shores. SNAKE (uncommon). CANA (uncommon). CHAMBERS (13722). DETROIT (13477).

Page  183 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 183 WASHINGTON (Fuller 1537). POVERTY (12818). SUMMER (Tessene 66). LITTLE SUMMER (uncommon). *M. Xpiperita L., peppermint. Rare weed. WASHINGTON (13800). *Monarda didyma L., scarlet bee balm. Rare escape from cultivation; noted by Fuller in 1926 on Washington Island. M. fistulosa L., bee balm. Fairly common, old fields and roadsides. SNAKE (occasional). GREEN (13257). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1193). HORSESHOE (uncommon). DETROIT (uncommon, Rabbit Point). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1617). ROCK (13824). SUMMER (Tessene 142). LITTLE SUMMER (12995). M. punctata L., horsemint. Only from Great Lakes pine barrens on north bay of Chambers Island (Ugent 1190). *Nepeta cataria L., catnip. Fairly common weed, abundant on some bird islands. SNAKE (fairly common). GREEN (13201). HAT (abundant), CHAMBERS (Ugent 1188). ADVENTURE (uncommon). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (uncommon). JACK (common). HORSESHOE (uncommon). PLUM (13407). DETROIT (occasional). PILOT (abundant). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1501). HOG (common). ROCK (rare). GRAVELLY (Taylor s.n., MSC). LITTLE GULL (89-147). GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (12840). SUMMER (12849). LITTLE SUMMER (uncommon). Prunella vulgaris L., heal-all. Fairly common, fields, roadsides, shorelines. CHAMBERS (13772). DETROIT (13560). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1387). ROCK (13563). ST. MARTIN (89-029). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Tessene 11). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). *Salvia aurea Lam. var. grandiflora Benth., azure sage. Rare weed. CHAMBERS (13991). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1370). Scutellaria galericulata L., common skullcap. Uncommon, wetlands. CHAMBERS (13965). PLUM (14090). DETROIT (uncommon). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1450). S. lateriflora L., mad-dog skullcap. Uncommon, wetlands. CHAMBERS (13957). WASHINGTON (Schutz 134, UWGB). SUMMER (Tessene 92). Stachys palustris L., marsh hedge-nettle. Uncommon, wetlands. PLUM (13395). DETROIT (13496). WASHINGTON (Fewless & Moore 5933). S. tenuifolia Willd., smooth hedge-nettle. Uncommon, wetlands. SNAKE (uncommon). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1138). WASHINGTON (Schutz 90, UWGB). Teucrium canadense L., germander. Rare, wetlands on Detroit Island (13857). *Thymus praecox Opiz subsp. arcticus (Durand) Jalas, creeping thyme. A locally common escape on Rock Island, where it is known locally as "Icelandic thyme" (12524). LEMNACEAE (Duckweed Family) Lemna minor L., common duckweed. Occasional floating aquatic. SNAKE (occasional). CHAMBERS (Mackaysee Lake, 13954). SUMMER (12976.5). LENTIBULARIACEAE (Bladderwort Family) Utricularia cornuta Michx., horned bladderwort. Rare, ponds. WASHINGTON (probably from Jackson Harbor Ridges, Fuller 1491). U. geminiscapa Benj., hidden-fruited bladderwort. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). There is a 1972 sight record by Ted Cochrane from an ephemeral dune pond on Carlin Point, Jackson Harbor Ridges, Washington Island. It has not been relocated since. LILIACEAE (Lily Family) Allium tricoccum Aiton, wild leek. Figs. 2, 52. Locally common in rich mesic upland hardwood forests. SNAKE (occasional). PLUM (rare). DETROIT (common, 13521). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1608). ROCK (abundant, 12601). ST. MARTIN (90-595). SUMMER (Voss 12638). LITTLE SUMMER (12946). *Asparagus officinalis L., asparagus. Occasional escape from cultivation. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1074). PLUM (13296). WASHINGTON (Schutz 6, UWGB). ROCK (13651). Clintonia borealis (Aiton) Raf., bluebead, corn-lily. Occasional, mostly in cool coniferous woods. CHAMBERS (12744). PLUM (13320). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1474). ROCK (13116). ST. MARTIN (89-075).

Page  184 ï~~184 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 184 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 FIGURE 52. John Kubisiak on the Fernwood Trail through the old-growth beech (Fagus grandifolia) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) stand in the interior of Rock Island, Wisconsin. Wild leeks (Allium tricoccum), Carolina spring-beauty (Claytonia caroliniana), Virginia waterleaf (Hydrophyllum virginianum), and dutchman's-breeches (Dicentra cucullaria) are common in the understory, 15 May 1999. *Convallaria majalis L., European wild lily-of-the-valley. Occasionally spreading from cultivation, often near lighthouses. CANA (occasional). PLUM (13344). WASHINGTON (Cochrane 11078). Erythronium americanum Ker Gawl., yellow trout-lily. Locally common in rich upland hardwood forests. CHAMBERS (12734). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (rare). PLUM (12682). DETROIT (fairly common). WASHINGTON (12655). ROCK (12607). *Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L., orange day-lily. Persisting and spreading from cultivation. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1073). PLUM (local). PILOT (local). Lilium philadelphicum L., wood lily. Uncommon; a characteristic species of coastal cedar-fir thickets, dune forests, and alkaline rockshores that may be declining. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1076). ADVENTURE (Bruncken s.n., 16 July 1897, MIL). SPIDER (1 July 1905 collection, MIL). PLUM (9 July 1905 collection, MIL). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1394). ROCK (G.J. Knudson sight record, 10-14 June 1964; not noted in 1997-1999). ST. MARTIN (89 -022). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Tessene 160). Maianthemum canadense Desf., Canada mayflower. Common, woods. SNAKE (occasional). GREEN (13275). CANA (fairly common). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1071). ADVENTURE (uncommon). HORSESHOE (fairly common). SPIDER (1905 collection, MIL). PLUM (13371). DETROIT (13555). WASHINGTON (13017). ROCK (13163). ST. MARTIN (90-514b). LITTLE GULL (90-609). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). LITTLE SUMMER (abundant). Medeola virginiana L., Indian cucumber-root. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). Collected from somewhere on Washington Island on 2 July 1931 by John J. Davis (WIS), and not seen

Page  185 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 185 since. This species may be adversely affected by deer herbivory. There are no recent records from any of the Wisconsin counties bordering Lake Michigan proper. *Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill., grape-hyacinth. Long-persisting and slightly spreading from cultivation. DETROIT (locally common in north tip field). WASHINGTON (Rose 321, UWGB). Polygonatum pubescens (Willd.) Pursh, Solomon's-seal. Fairly common, woods. SNAKE (uncommon). GREEN (13276). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1069). SPIDER (1905 collection, MIL). PLUM (13307). DETROIT (13595). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1383). ROCK (13164). ST. MARTIN (90-072). GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (12883). LITTLE SUMMER (12951). Smilacina racemosa (L.) Desf., false Solomon's-seal. Occasional, upland woods. SNAKE (occasional). GREEN (13234). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1066). ADVENTURE (Bruncken s.n., 11 July 1905, MIL). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (rare). HORSESHOE (uncommon). SPIDER (1 July 1905 collection, MIL). PLUM (13349). DETROIT (13530). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1378). HOG (rare). ROCK (13112). ST. MARTIN (89-121). S. stellata (L.) Desf., starry false Solomon's-seal. Fairly common, cedar-fir thickets, wooded dunes, and alkaline rockshores. GREEN (13263). CANA (occasional). HAT (rare). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1068). ADVENTURE (uncommon). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (uncommon). PLUM (13362). DETROIT (13587). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1403). ROCK (Cochrane 5194). ST. MARTIN (90-025). POVERTY (occasional). SUMMER (12859). LITTLE SUMMER (rare). S. trifolia (L.) Desf., swamp false Solomon's-seal. Rare, wetlands. WASHINGTON (Schutz 80, UWGB). Streptopus roseus Michx. var. longipes (Fernald) Fassett, rosy twisted-stalk. Occasional, woods. CHAMBERS (12745). PLUM (rare). DETROIT (13596). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1503). ROCK (Cochrane 5223). ST. MARTIN (89-067). SUMMER (rare, 12901). LITTLE SUMMER (12982). Tofieldia glutinosa (Michx.) Pers., false asphodel. THREATENED (WI). False-asphodels prefer fens, the swales in forested ridge and swale communities, and creviced dolomite shorelines. This species was abundant in 1998 at long-known sites on Washington Island (Coffee Swamp and Jackson Harbor, Fuller 1541); a small new population was also found on southeastern coast Great Lakes alkaline rockshore. It is also present on east coast alvars on Poverty Island (89-161) and is rare on Summer Island, Michigan. Trillium cernuum L., nodding trillium. Uncommon, mostly in conifer swamps. SNAKE (rare). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1504). POVERTY (89-234). SUMMER (rare, 12900). LITTLE SUMMER (12979). T grandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb., great-flowered trillium. Fairly common, upland woods. GREEN (13238). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1072). HORSESHOE (uncommon). PLUM (12667). DETROIT (13538). WASHINGTON (Rose 315, UWGB). ROCK (12616). ST. MARTIN (89-057). Uvularia grandiflora Sm., great-flowered bellwort. Local and uncommon, rich upland hardwoods. CHAMBERS (near lighthouse, Ugent 1065). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1528). ROCK (G.J. Knudson sight record, 10-14 June 1964; not noted in 1997-1999). Zigadenus elegans Pursh subsp. glaucus (Nutt.) Hult6n, death camas, white camas. Locally common on wooded dunes, alkaline rockshores, and on the lips of dolomite bluffs under white cedar. DETROIT (13563). PLUM (Tans 795). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1512). ROCK (12506). GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (fairly common). SUMMER (Bourdo 20060, MSC). LITTLE SUMMER (uncommon). LINACEAE (Flax Family) *Linum perenne L., wild blue flax. Escaped in a field near "downtown" Washington Island (13036). LOBELIACEAE (Lobelia Family) Lobelia inflata L., Indian-tobacco. Rare, logging lane on Chambers Island (13948).

Page  186 ï~~186 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 L. kalmii L., brook lobelia. Fig. 22. Locally common and characteristic of alkaline shorelines. CANA (uncommon). PLUM (14058). DETROIT (13855). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1584). ROCK (12488). SUMMER (Tessene 26). L. siphilitica L., great blue lobelia. Uncommon, moist woods edges and shorelines. SNAKE (rare). DETROIT (13880). WASHINGTON (Rose 302, WIS). L. spicata Lam., pale-spike lobelia. Rare. ADVENTURE (Bruncken s.n., 16 July 1897). WASHINGTON (Schutz 47, UWGB). LYTHRACEAE (Loosestrife Family) *Lythrum salicaria L., purple loosestrife. As yet rare in 1998, only a few plants seen at Sand Point on Chambers Island (13910). MALVACEAE (Mallow Family) *Malva moschata L., musk mallow. Rare weed. WASHINGTON (Threlfall s.n., UWGB). *M. neglecta Wallr., common mallow or cheeses. Occasional weed, sometimes fairly common on bird islands. HAT (common). JACK (occasional). SPIDER (Fewless 3166). PILOT (occasional). WASHINGTON (Schutz 125, UWGB). HOG (occasional). GRAVELLY (Taylor s.n., 1978, MSC). MENYANTHACEAE (Buckbean Family) Menyanthes trifoliata L., bogbean or buckbean. Uncommon in ponds and bogs. DETROIT (black ash swamp near north end, 13472). WASHINGTON (Little Lake fen; seen there in 1926 and 1998); SUMMER (north end, in wetlands, 90-772). MOLLUGINACEAE (Carpetweed Family) *Mollugo verticillata L., carpetweed. Weed in old sandy clearing (Rutabaga Field) on Rock Island (12549). MONOTROPACEAE (Indian-pipe Family) Monotropa hypopithys L., pinesap. Rare, woods. SUMMER (Tessene 163). M. uniflora L., Indian-pipes. Occasional, woods. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1203). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1406). ROCK (12631). SUMMER (Tessene 22). MYRICACEAE (Bayberry Family) Myrica gale L., sweet gale. Rare in boreal fens and on wet alkaline shorelines. WASHINGTON (Fuller 1550). POVERTY (89-198). NAJADACEAE (Naiad Family) Najas flexilis (Willd.) Rostk. & W.L.E. Schmidt, slender naiad. Aquatic in Mackaysee Lake, Chambers Island (13973). NYMPHAEACEAE (Water-Lily Family) Nuphar variegata Durand, bullhead pond-lily. Fig. 8. Locally common in ponds. SNAKE (rare). CHAMBERS (Mud Lake, 13932). PLUM (common in Carp Lake in 1999). WASHINGTON (common in pond in Coffee Swamp in 1998; Fuller 1437). OLEACEAE (Olive Family) Fraxinus americana L., white ash. Rare forest tree on Washington Island (Goessl 3912 in 1916); not seen in 1998-1999. E nigra Marshall, black ash. Fig. 53. Occasionally forming interior hardwood swamps, as at Coffee Swamp, Little Marsh, and Big Marsh on Washington Island. SNAKE (uncommon). DETROIT (13456). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5200). SUMMER (Voss 12631). E pennsylvanica Marshall, green ash. Common tree, often present on shores as a seedling or sapling. GREEN (13200). CANA (uncommon). HAT (uncommon). CHAMBERS (13986). ADVENTURE (uncommon), LITTLE STRAWBERRY (uncommon), JACK (occasional). HORSESHOE (occasional). PLUM (14040). DETROIT (uncommon). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1465). ROCK (12672). ST. MARTIN (90-531). POVERTY (12826). SUMMER (Voss 13372). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional).

Page  187 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 187 2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 187 FIGURE 53. Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) swamp on north side of Coffee Swamp, Washington Island, Wisconsin, 4 June 1998. *Syringa vulgaris L., common lilac. Often persisting near lighthouses. GREEN (local, east tip).CANA (occasional). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (rare). PLUM (local). PILOT (local). WASHINGTON (Schutz 178, UWGB). ROCK (local). ST. MARTIN (90-534). POVERTY (local). ONAGRACEAE (Evening-Primrose Family) Circaea alpina L., small enchanter's-nightshade. Occasional, moist often coniferous woods. CANA (occasional). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1433). ROCK (Threlfall s.n., UWGB). POVERTY (90-210). SUMMER (Tessene 100). LITTLE SUMMER (fairly common). C. lutetiana L. subsp. canadensis (L.) Asch. & Magnus, broad-leaved enchanter's-nightshade. Fairly common in rich upland woods; not on the Michigan Islands. SNAKE (fairly common). GREEN (13219). CANA (rare). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1197). ADVENTURE (uncommon). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (uncommon). PLUM (13347). DETROIT (13592). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1527). Epilobium angustifolium L., subsp. circumvagum Mosquin, fireweed. Occasional, fields. CANA (occasional). DETROIT (uncommon). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1393). ROCK (uncommon). LITTLE GULL (89-167). E. ciliatum Raf., willow-herb. Occasional, wetlands. SNAKE (occasional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1196). PLUM (14071). WASHINGTON (Fewless & Moore 5927). POVERTY (12817). SUMMER (Tessene 85). E. coloratum Biehler, willow-herb. Uncommon, wetlands. CANA (rare). ROCK (12527). E. leptophyllum Raf., marsh willow-herb. Rare, wetlands. WASHINGTON (Schutz 54, UWGB). E. structum Spreng., downy willow-herb. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). There is a 22 July 1926 Fuller collection (1447) from the fen on the north side of Little Lake, Washington Island. It was not seen in 1998. Qenothera biennis L., common evening primrose. Occasional, fields and shores. WASHINGTON (Fewless 5517).

Page  188 ï~~188 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 0. oakesiana (A. Gray) S. Watson & Coult., Oakes' evening-primrose. The common evening-primrose of dunes and shores. SNAKE (rare). GREEN (occasional). CANA (uncommon). CHAMBERS (13768). ADVENTURE (uncommon). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (uncommon). PLUM (13282). DETROIT (uncommon). PILOT (uncommon). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1411). ST. MARTIN (90-581). GRAVELLY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). LITTLE GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Tessene 19). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). O. parviflora L., small-flowered evening primrose. Occasional. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1198). ROCK (Cochrane 5196). OROBANCHACEAE (Broom-Rape Family) Conopholis americana (L.) Wallr., Squawroot. Rare, woods. A parasite on oak roots. WASHINGTON (Boyer Bluff, Tans 256, WIS; Schutz 107, UWGB). Epifagus virginiana (L.) W.P.C. Barton, beech-drops. Occasional parasite on the roots of beech trees. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1116). DETROIT (13873). WASHINGTON (Schuette 38638, 23 Sept. 1889, WIS; Schutz 132, UWGB). ROCK (13837). Orobanche uniflora L., cancer-root. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). Locally common in white cedar forest on dolomite clifftops on Plum Island (Tans 800) in 1998; rerported from Detroit Island (Huntoon 1977); rare in similar habitats on Washington (as at Percy Johnson County Park, Cochrane 11099), Rock (several sight records by Cochrane or Tans), and Poverty Islands (89-236). ORCHIDACEAE (Orchid Family) Calopogon tuberosus (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb., grass pink. Known only from the boreal fen at the north end of Little Lake, Washington Island (Fuller 1439). Calypso bulbosa (L.) Oakes, calypso orchid. THREATENED (WI and MI). There were several records for Washington Island in the 1920's and 1930's (Fuller 1666), with Fuller (1927) calling it "abundant on various parts of the island"; in another paper he notes that this orchid was was so common that it was used to decorate graves on Memorial Day! It was not seen in the present survey and there have been no sightings for several decades. Possibly deer herbivory is responsible for its decline. There is also a 1926 Fuller record from St. Martin Island, Michigan. Coeloglossum viride (L.) Hartm., long-bracted green orchid. Uncommon, upland woods. WASHINGTON (Fuller 3670). ROCK (13216). ST. MARTIN (old village site, 90-543). Corallorhiza maculata (Raf.) Raf., spotted coralroot. Occasional, woods. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1057). WASHINGTON (mapped in atlas of Wisconsin plants). POVERTY (90 -239). SUMMER (Tessene 51). C. striata Lindl., striped coralroot. Occasional, mostly cool coniferous woods. WASHINGTON (3663). ROCK (13179). POVERTY (89-239). SUMMER (Hagenah et al., 6911, BLH). LITTLE SUMMER (12940). C. trifida Chatel., early coralroot. Occasional, woods, often in cedar swamps. WASHINGTON (Fuller 3664). ST. MARTIN (90-554). SUMMER (Hagenah et al. 6701.5). LITTLE SUMMER (12916). Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb., small yellow lady's-slipper. SPECIAL CONCERN (MI), no status (MI). This conifer swamp species is known from a 1931 collection from Washington Island, probably from Jackson Harbor Ridges (Fuller 3662). There is also a historical collection from St. Martin Island, Michigan. It was not relocated in 1998-1999, although its larger cousin C. pubescens is thriving on many parts of Washington Island. C. pubescens Willd., large yellow lady's-slipper. Occasional to locally frequent in rich deciduous woods to conifer stands. PLUM (rare, 13397). DETROIT (occasional, 13532). WASHINGTON (fairly common, 13025). ROCK (uncommon, 13179). ST. MARTIN (near pond, 90-328). C. reginae Walter, showy lady's-slipper. SPECIAL CONCERN (MI), no status (MI). This conifer swamp species is known from a 1926 collection from Washington Island, probably from Coffee Swamp (Fuller 1543). There is also a 1989 collection from St. Martin Island, Michigan (89-049). It was not relocated in 1998-1999 and may be declining because of deer herbivory.

Page  189 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 189 *Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz, helleborine orchid. Becoming a common weed in woods. CHAMBERS (13740). PLUM (13306). DETROIT (13508). WASHINGTON (Fuller 13619). ROCK (12508). LITTLE SUMMER (12980). Goodyera oblongifolia Raf., green-leaved rattlesnake-plantain. Rare, woods. SUMMER (12857). G. repens (L.) R. Br. var. ophioides Fernald, creeping rattlesnake-plantain. Uncommon, coniferous woods. WASHINGTON (uncommon, Jackson Harbor Ridges). ROCK (12635). G. tesselata Lodd., checkered rattlesnake-plantain. Uncommon, woods. WASHINGTON (13807). ST. MARTIN (near cliff faces, 90-514). Liparis loeselii (L.) Rich., green twayblade. Reported by Fuller (1927) from Washington Island. Malaxis monophyllos (L.) Sw. var. brachypoda (A. Gray) F.J.A. Morris & Eames, white adder's-mouth. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). Rare, one plant noted on 8 July 1998 in a cedar swamp in the Big Marsh area of Washington Island. Platanthera dilatata (Pursh) Beck, white bog orchid. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). Known in the GTA only from a 1926 collection from somewhere on Washington Island (Fuller 1463). This is a species of fens and open minerotrophic conifer swamps, and most likely was found at Little Lake fen or in Coffee Swamp. It was not relocated in 1998. P. hookeri (A. Gray) Lindl., Hooker's orchid. Rare, Washington Island, a 9 June 1927 photograph by Fuller at MIL. P. hyperborea (L.) Lindl. var. huronensis (Nutt.) Luer, tall northern green orchid. Occasional in moist woods and swamps. DETROIT (uncommon). WASHINGTON (Goessl 3970). ROCK (Cochrane 89-117). ST. MARTIN (four collections; 89-117). SUMMER (Freckmann 13206). P. obtusata (Pursh) Lindl., blunt-leaved orchid. Rare, Summer Island (cedar swamp, 12852). P. orbiculata (Pursh) Lindl., large round-leaved orchid. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). There is a 1975 sight record by Bill Tans from hardwoods near Coffee Swamp, Washington Island, and also a 1968 Summer Island, Michigan collection (Tessene 76). This orchid of cool woods was not relocated in 1998-1999. P. psycodes (L.) Lindl., purple fringed orchid. Rare, Summer Island in 1969 (Bourdo 22566, MSC). Pogonia ophioglossoides (L.) Ker Gawl., rose pogonia. Known only from the boreal fen at the north end of Little Lake, Washington Island (Fuller 1440). Spiranthes cernua (L.) Rich., nodding lady's-tresses. Uncommon, wet areas. WASHINGTON (Jackson Harbor Ridges, Fewless & Moore 5945). ROCK (G.J. Knudson sight record, Sept. 1964). S. romanzoffiana Cham., hooded lady's-tresses. Uncommon, wet areas. WASHINGTON (Threlfall s.n., UWGB). OXALIDACEAE (Wood-Sorrel Family) O. stricta L., common yellow oxalis. Frequent weedy species. CANA (uncommon). CHAMBERS (13765). DETROIT (uncommon). WASHINGTON (13784). ROCK (12526). ST. MARTIN (90-569). PAPAVERACEAE (Poppy Family) *Papaver rhoeas L., corn poppy. Weed in gravelly lane, Little Summer Island (12964). Sanguinaria canadensis L., bloodroot. Fairly common, rich woods. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1031). DETROIT (occasional). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1463). ROCK (12608). ST. MARTIN (90-560). LITTLE SUMMER (rare). PLANTAGINACEAE (Plantain Family) *Plantago lanceolata L., English plantain. Occasional weed. CHAMBERS (13763). DETROIT (13439). WASHINGTON (13018). ROCK (12539). *P. major L., common plantain. Common weed. SNAKE (uncommon). CANA (occasional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1117). HORSESHOE (rare). DETROIT (occasional). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1510). ROCK (13817). SUMMER (Freckmann 13207). LITTLE SUMMER (uncommon). P. rugelii Decne., Rugel's plantain. Rare. WASHINGTON (Schutz 131, UWGB).

Page  190 ï~~190 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 POACEAE (Grass Family) *Agrostis gigantea Roth, redtop. Occasional weed. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1092). SUMMER (Long s.n., 27 July 1974, UWSP). A. hyemalis (Walter) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. var. scabra (Willd.) Blomq., ticklegrass. Occasional, dunes and dry dolomite ledges. SNAKE (occasional). CANA (uncommon). PLUM (14062). DETROIT (13431). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5536). SUMMER (Tessene 170). *A. stolonifera L. var. palustris (Huds.) Farw., creeping bent grass. Occasional, shores. CANA (occasional). DETROIT (13453). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5481). ROCK (13641). Alopecurus aequalis Sobol, short-awned foxtail. Rare, near pond and dump on St. Martin Island (90-307). Ammophila breviligulata Fernald, beach grass. Fig. 6. Locally abundant on dunes. CHAMBERS (Sand Point, north bay, and south tip of island, Ugent 1078). WASHINGTON (Jackson Harbor, Dunes Park, Percy Johnson County Park, Fewless 5494). ROCK (13679). SUMMER (Summer Harbor, Voss 13385). Andropogon gerardii Vitman, big bluestem. Locally common, Great Lakes pine barrens on Chambers Island (Ugent 1078). Bromus ciliatus L., fringed brome. Occasional, woods and wet alkaline rockshores. DETROIT (13874). ST. MARTIN (old village site, 90-522). *B. inermis Leyss., smooth brome. Occasional to frequent weed. CHAMBERS (13726). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5544). ROCK (13115). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). B. kalmii A. Gray, Kalm's brome. Occasional, woods and wet alkaline rockshores. SNAKE (uncommon). WASHINGTON (13804). SUMMER (Freckmann 13149). *B. tectorum L. var. glabratus Spenn., cheat grass. Locally common weed on dunes. GREEN (common, 13254). ROCK (Cochrane 5199). Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) P. Beauv., Canada bluejoint. Common wetland grass. CANA (occasional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1084). PLUM (13373). DETROIT (13516). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5563). SUMMER (occasional). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). C. stricta (Timm) Koeler subsp. inexpansa (A. Gray) C.W Greene, slim-stemmed reed grass. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI), as just Calamagrostis stricta. This species is known from several populations on Great Lakes alkaline rockshores on Washington (Fewless & Moore 5480), Plum (14094), Poverty (89-207) and Summer Islands (Tessene 161). It was also found in a marly bulrush wetland at Big Marsh on Washington Island. Cinna latifolia (Gopp.) Griseb., drooping wood-reed. Uncommon, rich woods. CHAMBERS (13953). DETROIT (occasional). WASHINGTON (13700). ROCK (13836). *Dactylis glomerata L., orchard grass. Fairly common weed of old fields and pastures. CANA (common). CHAMBERS (13773). SPIDER (1905 collection, MIL). PLUM (13335). DETROIT (occasional). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1497). ROCK (13146). LITTLE SUMMER (12998). Danthonia spicata (L.) Roem. & Schult., poverty oat grass. Occasional, dunes and dry coniferous dune forests. WASHINGTON (Fewless 5541). ROCK (uncommon). SUMMER (Freckmann 13203). Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) P. Beauv., tufted hair grass. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). Locally abundant on Great Lakes alkaline rockshore and alvar on Detroit Island (south end, 13589, Alverson 1252, WIS), Washington Island (southeast coast and Jackson Harbor, Fewless 5209), Cana Island (uncommon), and Poverty (90-275) and Summer (Tessene 73) Islands, Michigan. Known from an historical site on Spider Island (1905 collection, MIL). D. flexuosa (L.) Trin., wavy hair grass. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). Local on stabilized wooded dunes with pine and oak on Chambers Island (near Mud Lake, 13739) and Rock Island (near the south coast, 13655). *Digitaria ischaemum (Schweigg.) Muhl., common crabgrass. Uncommon weed, mostly on sandy roadsides. CHAMBERS (13992). WASHINGTON (13779). Elymus canadensis L., Canada wild-rye. Locally common, dunes or shoreline gravel. SNAKE (occasional). CANA (uncommon). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1081). PLUM (14085).

Page  191 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 191 DETROIT (13894). WASHINGTON (Schutz 59, UWGB). HOG (rare). ROCK (Cochrane 5197). SUMMER (Tessene 139). LITTLE SUMMER (uncommon). E. hystrix L., bottlebrush grass. Uncommon, rich upland deciduous woods. WASHINGTON (13702). ROCK (Cochrane 5226). E. trachycaulus (Link) Shinners, slender wheat grass. Fairly common, dunes and shores. GREEN (13196). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1085). PLUM (occasional). DETROIT (13455, 13866). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5492). ROCK (Cochrane 5218). ST. MARTIN (90 -326). SUMMER (Tessene 166). LITTLE SUMMER (Freckmann 13145). E. villosus Willd., hairy wild-rye. Rare, rich upland beech-maple woods on Rock Island (12599). E. virginicus L., Virginia wild-rye. Rare, Little Summer Island (Freckmann 13146). Elytrigia dasystachya (Hook.) A. Love & D. Love subsp. psammophila (J.M. Gillett & Senn) Dewey, thickspike wheatgrass. THREATENED (WI), as Elymus lanceolatus subsp. psammophilus. This dune grass is found (1998) on Washington Island (Dunes Park; Davis s.n., 2 July 1931, WIS and Cochrane 11088) and Rock Island (south beach, 13680). In both places it is threatened by heavy foot traffic. *E. repens (L.) B.D. Jacks., quack grass. Common weed. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1083). PLUM (14092). DETROIT (fairly common). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1367). ROCK (Cochrane 5193). POVERTY (90-217). SUMMER (12896). Festuca occidentalis Hook., western fescue. THREATENED (WI). There are old to recent records from Plum (Voice et al. 82004, MSC), Washington ("not common", Goess1 3968) and Summer Islands (interior of island, 90-748; local along trail through cedar-fir woods near shore in Sec. 27, Voss 13391). It was not relocated from any of these islands in 1998 -1999. *F pratensis Huds., meadow fescue. Occasional weed of fields and roadsides. PLUM (13298). DETROIT (13517). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5543). ROCK (13666). ST. MARTIN (interior, 90-576). SUMMER (12887). *F rubra L., red fescue. Locally common weed. CANA (common in lawn). CHAMBERS (12702). WASHINGTON (1971 sight record by Cochrane). ROCK (common in lawn by Viking Hall, 12648). POVERTY (12811). SUMMER (12908). LITTLE SUMMER (13004). F saximontana Rydb., Rocky Mountain fescue. Occasional, dunes. CHAMBERS (13754). WASHINGTON (Jackson Harbor Ridges, Cochrane 5264). ROCK (13109). F subverticillata (Pers.) E.B. Alexeev, nodding fescue. Occasional, rich upland hardwoods. PLUM (13350). DETROIT (13577). WASHINGTON (13703). ROCK (Cochrane 5203). LITTLE SUMMER (12960). *F trachyphylla (Hack.) Krajina, sheep fescue. Occasional. PLUM (13424). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5216). ROCK (12109). Glyceria borealis (Nash) Batch., northern manna grass. Fig. 9. Uncommon, wetlands. WASHINGTON (Big Marsh, 13708). SUMMER (Freckmann 13205). G. striata (Lam.) Hitchc., fowl manna grass. Fairly common, wetlands. CHAMBERS (13971). DETROIT (13480). WASHINGTON (Goess1 3937). ROCK (13670). SUMMER (Tessene 126). LITTLE SUMMER (12919). Hierochloe hirta (Schrank) Borbas subsp. arctica (J. Presl) G. Weim., sweet grass. Uncommon, moist sandy areas. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1082). DETROIT (12780). WASHINGTON (Goess1 3931). Hordeumjubatum L., foxtail barley. Rare exotic. SNAKE (rare). Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw., rice cut grass. Uncommon, wetlands. SNAKE (fairly common). CHAMBERS (13916). WASHINGTON (13778). *Lolium perenne L., rye grass. Rare weed. WASHINGTON (13187, Goess1 3951). Milium effusum L., wood millet. Occasional to common in rich upland hardwoods; appears to increase under deer herbivory; perhaps not a preferred browse. PLUM (13329). DETROIT (13505). WASHINGTON (13046). ROCK (Cochrane 5210). ST. MARTIN (90-547). LITTLE SUMMER (12947). Muhlenbergia glomerata (Willd.) Trin., marsh timothy. Rare, only in boreal fen at Coffee Swamp, Washington Island (13802).

Page  192 ï~~192 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 M. mexicana (L.) Trin., Mexican muhly. Uncommon, moist edges. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1091). DETROIT (13848). Oryzopsis asperifolia Michx., rough-leaved rice grass. Fairly common, mostly in cedar-fir thickets and dune forests. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1088). DETROIT (occasional). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5158). ROCK (12641). SUMMER (12850). O. pungens (Spreng.) Hitchc., mountain rice grass. Rare, dune forests at Jackson Harbor Ridges, Washington Island (Fewless 5215). O. racemosa (Sm.) Hitchc., black-seeded rice grass. Occasional, rich upland hardwoods, often where dolomite is near or at the surface; not on the Michigan Islands. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1086). DETROIT (rare). WASHINGTON (13625). ROCK (12512). Panicum acuminatum Sw., western panic grass. Includes both vars. fasciculatum (Torr.) Lelong and var. lindheimeri (Nash) Lelong. Fairly common, old fields, ditches, and alkaline rockshores. PLUM (14082). DETROIT (13652). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5484). ROCK (13640). SUMMER (Tessene 117). LITTLE SUMMER (12923). P. capillare L., witch grass. Occasional in weedy disturbed ground, cultivated fields. SNAKE (uncommon). CHAMBERS (13959). PLUM (14075). WASHINGTON (Fewless & Moore 5913). ST. MARTIN (Fuller 1627). SUMMER (Freckmann 13202). P. columbianum Scribn., hemlock panic grass. Rare, only from Summer Harbor, Summer Island (Freckmann 13191). P. latifolium L., broad-leaved panic grass. Rare, only from a red oak stand near Sand Point on Chambers Island (13922). *Phalaris arundinacea L., reed canary grass. Common wetland weed. SNAKE (fairly common). CANA (rare). CHAMBERS (13723). HORSESHOE (uncommon). PLUM (14077). DETROIT (13558). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1556). ROCK (13669). POVERTY (90-265). SUMMER (Tessene 141). LITTLE SUMMER (uncommon). *Phleum pratense L., timothy. Common weed of old fields. CHAMBERS (Ugent 10679). PLUM (13367). DETROIT (13581). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5542). ROCK (Cochrane 5178). ST. MARTIN (89-032). POVERTY (90-236). SUMMER (Tessene 145). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). Phragmites australis (Cay.) Steud., giant reed. Fig. 8. Occasional wetland grass; sometimes washing up on beaches and persisting, as on Rock Island from 1997-1999. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1080). DETROIT (rare, north bay). WASHINGTON (13061). ROCK (13829). SUMMER (12864). *Poa annua L., annual bluegrass. Common weed, often along trails; also on bird islands. SNAKE (occasional). CANA (occasional). CHAMBERS (12743). DETROIT (13493). PILOT (occasional). WASHINGTON (12652). ROCK (12552). ST. MARTIN (90-572). POVERTY (uncommon). SUMMER (12848). *P. compressa L., Canada bluegrass. Common, dry old fields, pastures, and dunes. SNAKE (occasional). GREEN (13244). CANA (common). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1089). SPIDER (1905 collection, MIL). PLUM (13359). DETROIT (fairly common, north tip field). PILOT (occasional). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5921). ROCK (13654). ST. MARTIN (90 -501). GULL (90-610). POVERTY (occasional). SUMMER (Freckmann 13138). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). *P. nemoralis L., wood bluegrass. Occasional in dry places, dolomite rockshore crevices. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1090). ST. MARTIN (90-511). SUMMER (Voss 13373a). P. palustris L., fowl meadow grass. Fairly common, wetlands and bird islands. SNAKE (occasional). GREEN (13191). CANA (uncommon). HAT (rare). ADVENTURE (Bruncken s.n., 11 June 1897, WIS). JACK (rare). SPIDER (1905 collection, MIL). PLUM (13366). PILOT (uncommon). WASHINGTON (occasional). ST. MARTIN (89-098). POVERTY (12831). SUMMER (Freckmann 13199). *P. pratensis L., Kentucky bluegrass. Common lawn and field grass. SNAKE (occasional). GREEN (13195). CANA (abundant). ADVENTURE (occasional). HORSESHOE (occasional). SPIDER (Fewless 3175). DETROIT (13580). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5545). ROCK (Cochrane 5204). ST. MARTIN (89-100). GULL (89-181). POVERTY (90-234). SUMMER (12882). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). Poa saltuensis Fernald & Wiegand, woodland bluegrass. Uncommon, rich upland hardwood forests. WASHINGTON (Boyer Bluff, Cochrane 11050; hardwoods near Coffee Swamp,

Page  193 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 193 13050; hardwoods near Little Marsh, 14012). SUMMER (interior trail through hardwoods, 90-704). Schizachne purpurascens (Torr.) Swallen, false melic grass. Occasional in moist deciduous to dry coniferous forests. CHAMBERS (12747). DETROIT (13550). WASHINGTON (Cochrane 11077). ROCK (12514). Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, little bluestem. Locally common on dunes and barrens. CHAMBERS (13903). WASHINGTON (Jackson Harbor Ridges, Schutz 141, UWGB). *Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv., green foxtail. Occasional weed. CHAMBERS (13941). WASHINGTON (13782). Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash, Indian grass. Locally common in Great Lakes pine barrens at Sand Point and north bay, Chambers Island (13899). Sphenopholis intermedia (Rydb.) Rydb., slender wedge grass. Occasional, gravelly to dolomitic alkaline shores. SNAKE (uncommon). PLUM (Carp Lake, 14081). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5535). POVERTY (90-261). SUMMER (Tessene 64, Freckmann 13197). Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) A. Gray, sand dropseed. Occasional, dunes and pine barrens. CHAMBERS (13912). WASHINGTON (Jackson Harbor Ridges, Fewless & Moore 5929). Stipa spartea Trin., needle grass. Locally common on Great Lakes pine barrens at Sand Point and north bay on Chambers Island (13759). Trisetum melicoides (Michx.) Scribn., purple false oats. ENDANGERED (WI), no status (MI). This rare eastern grass is usually found in cold coniferous or mixed woods. There are no records for the Wisconsin islands, but there are 1968 (Sec. 34, Tessene 169) and 1976 (Freckmann 13198) collections from Summer Island, Michigan. It was not relocated in 1998. POLEMONIACEAE (Phlox Family) Phlox divaricata L. subsp. laphamii (A.W. Wood) Wherry, blue phlox. Known only from St. Martin Island (89-126, 90-598). Slightly disjunct from farther south. POLYGALACEAE (Milkwort Family) Polygala paucifolia Willd., fringed polygala. Locally common in moist cedar-fir thickets and coniferous dune forests. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1207). PLUM (13380). DETROIT (12786). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1577). ST. MARTIN (89-140). POVERTY (12808). SUMMER (Voss 12627). P. senega L., Seneca snakeroot. Uncommon, alvars, Great Lakes alkaline rockshores, and pine barrens. CHAMBERS (13758). DETROIT (13571). WASHINGTON (T34N-R30E, Sec. 28, Threlfall s.n., UWGB). POVERTY (89-190). SUMMER (Tessene 5). POLYGONACEAE (Smartweed Family) Polygonum achoreum S.F. Blake, leathery knotweed. Rare weed. CHAMBERS (13940). P. amphibium L., water smartweed. Frequent, ponds and marshes. CANA (rare). CHAMBERS (13928). PLUM (uncommon, Carp Lake). WASHINGTON (Goessl 3966). ST. MARTIN (pond, 90-313). SUMMER (swamp, Tessene 95). *P. aviculare L., common knotweed. Occasional roadside and dooryard weed. CANA (uncommon). CHAMBERS (13939). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1530). SUMMER (Freckmann sight record, 1976). P. cilinode Michx., fringed bindweed. Common weedy species, often on bird islands. GREEN (13226). ADVENTURE (Bruncken s.n., 11 July 1905). PLUM (13351). DETROIT (13506). HOG (occasional). ROCK (Cochrane 5205). LITTLE GULL (89-166). GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). P. convolvulus L., black bindweed. Occasional weedy species. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1007). DETROIT (13886). GRAVELLY (Taylor s.n., 1978, MSC). SUMMER (Freckmann 13209). P. erectum L., erect knotweed. Rare weedy species on Spider Island (Fewless 3172). P. lapathifolium L., curly-top knotweed. Occasional, moist areas. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1005). PILOT (uncommon). HOG (Fuller 1511). SUMMER (Tessene 31). *P. orientale L., prince's-feather. Rare escape from cultivation in 1926. WASHINGTON (Fuller 1551).

Page  194 ï~~194 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 P. pensylvanicum L., Pennsylvania knotweed. Rare weedy species. SNAKE (locally common). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1012). P. persicaria L., lady's-thumb. Occasional weedy species. CANA (uncommon). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1011). DETROIT (13861). WASHINGTON (13786). P. punctatum L., dotted smartweed. Uncommon, wetlands. SNAKE (common). CHAMBERS (13956). SUMMER (Tessene 34). P. ramosissimum Michx., bushy knotweed. Uncommon, dunes and shores. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1004). DETROIT (13864). WASHINGTON (Fewless & Moore 5947). P. scandens L., climbing false buckwheat. Rare. WASHINGTON (Threlfall s.n., UWGB). Rumex acetosella L., sheep sorrel. Common weed of sandy and gravelly old fields and dunes. GREEN (13253). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1013). PLUM (13337). WASHINGTON (13715). ROCK (13660). SUMMER (Long s.n., 27 July 1974, UWSP). *R. crispus L., curly dock. Fairly common weed. CHAMBERS (13766). HORSESHOE (rare). PLUM (13396). DETROIT (13440). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1514). HOG (occasional). ROCK (rare). GRAVELLY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). GULL (89-170). SUMMER (Tessene 44). *R. obtusifolius L., bitter dock. Uncommon weed. CANA (rare). WASHINGTON (13706). R. orbiculatus A. Gray, great water dock. Uncommon in swamps and marshes. DETROIT (13470). PLUM (rare). SUMMER (vernal woodland pond, rare). R. salicifolius Weinm. var. mexicanus (Meisn.) C.L. Hitchc., willow dock. This is Rumex triangulivalvis (Danser) Rech. Of Voss (1984). Known only from Gravelly Island (89-144, 90-617). PORTULACEAE (Purslane Family) Claytonia caroliniana Michx., Carolina spring-beauty. Locally common in rich upland hardwood forests. PLUM (12686). DETROIT (12665). WASHINGTON (12656). ROCK (12603). SUMMER (rare). LITTLE SUMMER (12955). *Portulaca oleracea L., purslane. Uncommon garden weed. WASHINGTON (13785). LITTLE GULL (89-168). SUMMER (Voss 12639). POTAMOGETONACEAE (Pondweed Family) *Potamogeton crispus L., curly pondweed. Occasional in Lake Michigan. WASHINGTON (Fewless 5573). ROCK (13671). SUMMER (Sec. 22, Tessene 175-177). P. gramineus L., grass-leaved pondweed. Uncommon aquatic. SUMMER (Freckmann 13182). P. illinoensis Morong, Illinois pondweed. Mackaysee Lake, Chambers Island (13978.5). P. natans L., common pondweed. Occasional aquatic of ponds and lakes. CHAMBERS (Lake Mackaysee, occasional). WASHINGTON (occasional). P. praelongus Wulfen, white-stemmed pondweed. Mackaysee Lake, Chambers Island (13978). Stuckenia filiformis (Pers.) Borner, thread-leaved pondweed. Occasional aquatic. WASHINGTON (Fewless 5572). SUMMER (Freckmann 13181). PRIMULACEAE (Primrose Family) Lysimachia ciliata L., fringed loosestrife. Uncommon, wetlands. WASHINGTON (Threlfall s.n., UWGB). POVERTY (89-265). *L. nummularia L., moneywort. Rare weed. WASHINGTON (Threlfall s.n., UWGB). L. quadriflora Sims, narrow-leaved loosestrife. Occasional, wet alkaline marshes and rockshores. PLUM (14079). DETROIT (13863). WASHINGTON (Fiegenscaus Harbor, southeast coast rockshore, Jackson Harbor Ridges, Big Marsh, West Harbor; Fuller 1488). SUMMER (Tessene 90). L. terrestris (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb., swamp candles. Uncommon, swamps. WASHINGTON (Fuller 1452). L. thyrsiflora L., swamp loosestrife. Fairly common, swamps and marshes. CANA (rare). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1204). PLUM (9 July 1905 collection, MIL). DETROIT (13482). WASHINGTON (13055). POVERTY (12820). SUMMER (Voss 13371). Primula mistassinica Michx., bird's-eye primrose. Fig. 54. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). Bird's-eye primrose is one of the most characteristic species of Great Lakes alkaline rock

Page  195 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 195 2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 195 FIGURE 54. Members of the Botanical Club of Wisconsin admiring a "fairy ring" of bird's-eye primrose (Primula mistassinica) growing in a mown lawn at Jackson Harbor Ridges, Washington Island, Wisconsin. Note Theodore S. Cochrane (at rear in wide-brimmed hat) and Robert W. Freckmann (in white coat with camera below and to the right of Ted), two important Grand Traverse Islands collectors, 15 May 1999. shore, forested ridge and swale, and alvar communities. It was locally common on Detroit (south end, 12660, Alverson 1258, WIS) and Washington (southeast coast and Jackson Harbor Ridges, Goess1 3991) Islands in Wisconsin, and on Poverty (89-286) and Summer Islands (Voss 13371) in Michigan. It is also reported from St. Martin Island, Michigan by Fuller (1927), and there were a few plants on Cana Island in 1998. Trientalis borealis Raf., starflower. Common, woods. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1205). PLUM (occasional). DETROIT (13540). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1422). ROCK (Cochrane 5183). ST. MARTIN (89-074). GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (common). SUMMER (Voss 12650). LITTLE SUMMER (abundant). PYROLACEAE (Shinleaf Family) Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W.P.C. Barton susbp. cisatlantica (S.F. Blake) Hult6n, pipsissewa. Uncommon, mostly in dryish coniferous woods. WASHINGTON (Fuller 1490). ROCK (12632). ST. MARTIN (90-513). Moneses uniflora (L.) A. Gray, one-flowered wood-nymph. Uncommon in cool coniferous woods. POVERTY (90-204). SUMMER (Tessene 107). Orthilia secunda (L.) House, one-sided shinleaf. Uncommon in coniferous woods, including cedar swamps. CHAMBERS (13731). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1424). ST. MARTIN (89 -079). POVERTY (89-215). SUMMER (12856). Pyrola asarifolia Michx., pink shinleaf. Uncommon, mostly in cool coniferous woods. PLUM (9 July 1905 collection, MIL). WASHINGTON (13074). SUMMER (12889). P. chlorantha Sw., green-flowered wintergreen. Uncommon, coniferous woods, often in cedar-fir thickets. CHAMBERS (uncommon, pine forest on north bay). SPIDER (1905 collection, MIL). WASHINGTON (13616). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Tessene 168).

Page  196 ï~~196 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 P. elliptica Nutt., large-leaved shinleaf. Fairly common, woods. CHAMBERS (13732). DETROIT (13541). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1554). ROCK (Cochrane 5217). POVERTY (89-238). SUMMER (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). RANUNCULACEAE (Buttercup Family) Actaea pachypoda Elliott, white baneberry. Fairly common, woods. CHAMBERS (13735). PLUM (13418). DETROIT (13535). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1461). ROCK (Threlfall s.n., UWGB). ST. MARTIN (89-119). POVERTY (90-244). SUMMER (Tessene s.n.). LITTLE SUMMER (Freckmann 13150). A. rubra (Aiton) Willd., red baneberry. Fairly common, woods, usually in cooler or more coniferous sites than the previous species. SNAKE (uncommon). GREEN (13224). CANA (rare). CHAMBERS (13736). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (rare). PLUM (13403). DETROIT (13495). WASHINGTON (Rose 319). ROCK (Cochrane 5208). ST. MARTIN (89-137). POVERTY (89-252). SUMMER (Tessene 41). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). Anemone acutiloba (DC.) G. Lawson, sharp-lobed hepatica. Fairly common, woods. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1028). PLUM (uncommon). DETROIT (rare). WASHINGTON (Goessl 3960). ROCK (12611). ST. MARTIN (90-538). SUMMER (Tessene 127). A. americana (DC.) H. Hara, round-lobed hepatica. Fairly common, woods. CHAMBERS (12711). PLUM (12668). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1570). ROCK (12600). SUMMER (occasional). A. canadensis L., Canada anemone. Fairly common, fields and moist meadows. GREEN (13208). CANA (uncommon). HORSESHOE (uncommon). SPIDER (1905 collection, MIL). PLUM (13383). DETROIT (13489). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1418). ROCK (13097). ST. MARTIN (89-130). POVERTY (89-262). SUMMER (Tessene 12). A. cylindrica A. Gray, thimbleweed. Occasional weedy species. GREEN (13267). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1025). SUMMER (Tessene 134). A. quinquefolia L., wood anemone. Occasional, moist upland woods. CHAMBERS (common; Ugent 1021). WASHINGTON (Rose 328, UWGB). ROCK (12645). A. virginiana L., thimbleweed. Occasional, moist open areas, alkaline rockshores. PLUM (13358). DETROIT (13531). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1404). ROCK (13145). ST. MARTIN (90-580). SUMMER (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). LITTLE SUMMER (13002). Aquilegia canadensis L., columbine. Fairly common, old fields, dolomite ledges, and cedarfir thickets. SNAKE (common). GREEN (13249). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1027). ADVENTURE (occasional). HORSESHOE (uncommon). SPIDER (1905 collection, MIL). PLUM (13368). DETROIT (13523). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1452). ROCK (Cochrane 5190). ST. MARTIN (89-024). LITTLE GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Tessene 174). LITTLE SUMMER (12991). Caltha palustris L., marsh-marigold. Occasional in wet ash and cedar swamps. SPIDER (1905 collection, MIL). DETROIT (local, black ash swamp). WASHINGTON (Rose 329, UWGB). SUMMER (Voss 12649). Clematis virginiana L., virgin's-bower. Uncommon, thickets. GREEN (13228). WASHINGTON (13057). Coptis trifolia (L.) Salisb., goldthread. Uncommon, cedar swamps. DETROIT (13467). WASHINGTON (Coffee Swamp, Fuller 1540). SUMMER (Voss 12651). Ranunculus abortivus L., small-flowered buttercup. Common, woods, especially along trails and on tip-up mounds. SNAKE (common). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1020). PLUM (12689), DETROIT (13499). WASHINGTON (occasional). ROCK (Threlfall s.n., UWGB). ST. MARTIN (89-059). SUMMER (Voss 12652). LITTLE SUMMER (uncommon). *R. acris L., common buttercup. Fairly common weed, often along trails in woods. PLUM (13322). DETROIT (13497). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1414). ROCK (13150). POVERTY (90-229). SUMMER (90-736). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). R. aquatilis L. var. diffusus With., white water crowfoot. Rare in shallow water. WASHINGTON (Jackson Harbor Ridges, Fewless & Moore 5574).

Page  197 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 197 R. flabellaris Raf., yellow water buttercup. Rare in a puddle in a cedar swamp at Big Marsh, Washington Island (14008), and in a woodland pond on St. Martin Island (90-305). R. flammula L., creeping spearwort. Rare, sandy shore, probably from Jackson Harbor. WASHINGTON (Fuller 1538). R. hispidus Michx., bristly buttercup. Uncommon, wetlands. SNAKE (uncommon). CHAMBERS (rare). LITTLE SUMMER (12937). R. pensylvanics L.f., bristly buttercup. Rare, observed on Snake Island. R. recurvatus Poir., hooked buttercup. Occasional, wetlands, often in cedar swamps. CHAMBERS (rare). PLUM (rare). WASHINGTON (Goessl 3949). ROCK (13124). SUMMER (Voss 12637). LITTLE SUMMER (12984). R. scleratus L., cursed crowfoot. Uncommon weedy species of wet areas and fields. CHAMBERS (13915). DETROIT (13573, 13860). WASHINGTON (Davis s.n., 2 July 1931, WIS). SUMMER (90-695). Thalictrum dasycarpum Fisch. & Ave-Lall., tall meadow-rue. Occasional, wetlands. SNAKE (occasional). CHAMBERS (13746). DETROIT (uncommon). SUMMER (Tessene 114). T dioicum L., early meadow-rue. Fairly common, wetlands and alkaline rockshores. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1023). HORSESHOE (uncommon). SPIDER (1905 collection, MIL). PLUM (13399). DETROIT (uncommon). WASHINGTON (Goessl 3927). ROCK (Cochrane 5189). RHAMNACEAE (Buckthorn Family) Ceanothus americanus L., New Jersey tea. Local, Great Lakes pine barrens on Chambers Island (13767, 13935). C. herbaceus Raf., New Jersey tea. Local, Great Lakes pine barrens on Chambers Island (13989). Rhamnus alnifolia (L.) L'Her., alder buckthorn. Fig. 26. Locally common shrub of swamps and boreal fens. DETROIT (local in inland swamp near south tip, 13588). WASHINGTON (Coffee Swamp, Big Marsh, Fuller 1552). *R. frangula L., glossy buckthorn. A weedy shrub of wetlands, fortunately not yet common on the islands. SNAKE (uncommon). GREEN (13207). PLUM (13302). WASHINGTON (Coffee Swamp, 13065). ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr., smooth agrimony. Occasional, woods. Possibly more frequent now because of dispersal by deer. CHAMBERS (13733). PLUM (uncommon). DETROIT (13892). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1565). ROCK (12532). Amelanchier arborea (F. Michx.) Fernald, downy juneberry. Occasional, woods. SNAKE (uncommon). SUMMER (Voss 13381). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). A. interior Nielsen, inland juneberry. Uncommon small tree, Chambers Island (12718). A. laevis Wiegand, smooth serviceberry. Occasional small tree, especially near edges. WASHINGTON (Fuller 1452). ST. MARTIN (90-533). POVERTY (90-226). SUMMER (Voss 12619). A. sanguinea (Pursh) DC., low shadblow. Fairly common small tree, rich upland woods and bird islands. GREEN (13269). CANA (occasional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1247). ADVENTURE (uncommon). HORSESHOE (uncommon). PLUM (13327). DETROIT (12790). PILOT (fairly common). WASHINGTON (Goessl 3986). ROCK (Cochrane 6187). ST. MARTIN (90-324). Argentina anserina (L.) Rydb., silverweed. Common and characteristic of wet alkaline shores (sand, gravel, or dolomite), both on the coast and in the interior. SNAKE (occasional). CANA (fairly common). CHAMBERS (13751). ADVENTURE (rare). HORSESHOE (rare). PLUM (13376). DETROIT (13547). PILOT (rare). WASHINGTON (Rose 280, UWGB). ROCK (13140). ST. MARTIN (89-091). GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Tessene s.n.). LITTLE SUMMER ISLAND (fairly common). Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott, chokeberry. Rare, acid swamps. DETROIT (13466). WASHINGTON (Coffee Swamp, 13071).

Page  198 ï~~198 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 Comarum palustre L., marsh cinquefoil. Uncommon, marshes. PLUM (9 July 1905 collection, MIL). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1443). Crataegus chrysocarpa Ashe, fireberry hawthorn. Occasional, old fields. DETROIT (north tip old field). WASHINGTON (Cochrane 11079, Kruschke 49-162). ROCK (uncommon). C. macracantha Loudon, hawthorn. Rare. WASHINGTON (Kruschke 49-164). C. macrosperma Ashe, large-fruited hawthorn. Rare. WASHINGTON (Kruschke 49-161). C. punctata Jacq., dotted hawthorn. Rare. WASHINGTON (Kruschke 49-163). Fragaria vesca L. subsp. americana (Porter) Staudt, hillside strawberry. Fairly common, dunes and shorelines. ADVENTURE (uncommon). HORSESHOE (uncommon). PLUM (13305). DETROIT (13582). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1421b). ST. MARTIN (89-096). GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (89-251). SUMMER (Voss 13397). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). E virginiana Duchesne, wild strawberry. Common, fields, dunes, and shores. SNAKE (occasional). GREEN (13261). CANA (occasional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1241). ADVENTURE (uncommon). SPIDER (1905 collection, MIL). PLUM (13290). DETROIT (fairly common). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5157). ROCK (12628). ST. MARTIN (89-089). POVERTY (occasional). SUMMER (Voss 13401). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). Geum aleppicum Jacq., yellow avens. Common, fields, dunes, wetlands, shores. CHAMBERS (13949). ADVENTURE (Bruncken s.n., 11 July 1905, MIL). PLUM (13365). DETROIT (uncommon). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1369). ST. MARTIN (90-525). POVERTY (90-218). SUMMER (Tessene 30). LITTLE SUMMER (Freckmann 13148). G. canadense Jacq., white avens. Occasional in same habitats as the previous species. CANA (uncommon). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (uncommon). PLUM (13308). DETROIT (13507). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1599). ROCK (13684). SUMMER (Freckmann sight record, 1976). G. rivale L., water avens. Rare, swamps. WASHINGTON (Goess1 3979). SUMMER (Long s.n., 27 July 1974, UWSP). *Malus pumila L., apple. Long-persisting and sometimes spontaneous in old fields and woodlands. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1243). PLUM (local). DETROIT (local, north tip field). WASHINGTON (Rose 4, UWGB). ST. MARTIN (90-563). POVERTY (89-246). SUMMER (Freckmann 13215). Pentaphylloides floribunda (Pursh) A. Live, shrubby cinquefoil or McDonald's bush. A characteristic species of alkaline rockshores. WASHINGTON (Rose 297, UWGB). POVERTY (89-216). SUMMER (Bourdo 20053, MSC). Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim., ninebark. Fig. 10. Common, gravelly to dolomitic shores. SNAKE (occasional). CANA (common). CHAMBERS (rare). ADVENTURE (Bruncken s.n., 11 July 1897, MIL). PLUM (Tans 797). DETROIT (13432). PILOT (occasional). WASHINGTON (Rose 56, UWGB). HOG (fairly common). POVERTY (89-195). SUMMER (Tessene 20). LITTLE SUMMER (fairly common). *Potentilla argentea L., silvery cinquefoil. Occasional weed in gravelly soil. CHAMBERS (13983). WASHINGTON (13181). ROCK (13826, 13637). ST. MARTIN (lighthouse, 89 -011). SUMMER (Freckmann 13218). P. arguta Pursh, prairie cinquefoil. Rare, collected only by Fuller (1618) in 1926, presumably from Jackson Harbor Ridges. Not noted since. P. norvegica L., rough cinquefoil. Common weedy species. SNAKE (rare). CANA (occasional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1240). SPIDER (Fewless 3178). PLUM (13324). DETROIT (13524). PILOT (occasional). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1363). HOG (occasional). ROCK (13095). GRAVELLY (89-154). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Tessene 37). *P. recta L., rough-fruited cinquefoil. Uncommon, old fields and pastures. CHAMBERS (13990). PLUM (13293). DETROIT (13488). WASHINGTON (Schutz 11, UWGB). ROCK (Threlfall s.n., UWGB). P. simplex Michx., old-field cinquefoil. Uncommon weedy species. ST. MARTIN (90-567). Prunus pensylvanica L.f., fire or pin cherry. Fairly common, old fields, woodlands. GREEN (13245). CHAMBERS (13902). PLUM (13428). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1373). ROCK (13667).ST. MARTIN (90-561). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (89-245).

Page  199 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 199 P. pumila L., sand cherry. Local on dunes. CHAMBERS (13756). PLUM (13279). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1518). P. serotina Ehrh., black cherry. Occasional rich upland forest tree. GREEN (rare). CHAMBERS (13743). ADVENTURE (rare). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1386). ROCK (13102). SUMMER (Freckmann 13221). P. virginiana L., chokecherry. Common upland shrub; often abundant on bird islands. SNAKE (abundant). GREEN (13272). CANA (common). HAT (uncommon). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1245). ADVENTURE (common). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (fairly common). JACK (uncommon). HORSESHOE (fairly common). PLUM (13343). DETROIT (13452). PILOT (fairly common). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1372). HOG (fairly common). ROCK (13152). ST. MARTIN (89-013). LITTLE GULL (90-612). GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (89-232). SUMMER (Voss 13398). LITTLE SUMMER (fairly common). Rosa acicularis Lindl. subsp. sayi (Schwein.) W.H. Lewis, prickly rose. Fairly common in many habitats including alkaline rockshores; also on bird islands. ADVENTURE (uncommon). SPIDER (1905 collection, MIL). WASHINGTON (13024). LITTLE GULL (89 -164). GULL (89-179). POVERTY (90-253). SUMMER (90-636). *R. arkansana Porter var. suffulta (Greene) Cockerell, Arkansas rose. Rare escape. ROCK (Cochrane 5195). R. blanda Aiton, smooth rose. Occasional. GREEN (13265). PLUM (13372). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1560). ST. MARTIN (89-038). R. eglanteria L., eglantine. Occasional weed. PLUM (several large shrubs, range light clearing, 1999). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1531). POVERTY (90-219). SUMMER (Freckmann 13217). ROCK (common near sand spit in 1999). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). *R. multiflora Murray, multiflora rose. Rare weed on Chambers Island (Ugent 1257). Rosa palustris L., swamp rose. Noted only on Snake Island. Rubus allegheniensis L.H. Bailey, Allegheny blackberry. Occasional. WASHINGTON (Pohl 30, MIL). ROCK (uncommon). R. frondosus Bigelow, Yankee blackberry. Rare. DETROIT (13600). R. idaeus L. var. strigosus (Michx.) Maxim., red raspberry. Fig. 55. Common, often on shores, bird islands, or increasing in heavily cut or deer-browsed woods. SNAKE (common). GREEN (13221). CANA (common). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1259). ADVENTURE (common). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (occasional). JACK (uncommon). SPIDER (1 July 1905 collection, MIL). PLUM (13326). DETROIT (common). PILOT (fairly common). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1389). HOG (fairly common). ROCK (13831). ST. MARTIN (89 -090). LITTLE GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (occasional). SUMMER (fairly common). LITTLE SUMMER (Freckmann 13142). R. occidentalis L., black raspberry. Occasional. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1258). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1462). LITTLE GULL (89-162). SUMMER (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). R. parviflorus Nutt., thimbleberry. Locally common in thickets near coasts, especially on the edges of boreal forests and stabilized dunes. It is interesting that this species is declining on the outer islands of three northern Great Lakes islands archipelagoes. On Outer Island, the remotest of the Apostles Islands, Wisconsin, it was noted in 1978 but was gone by 1990 (Judziewicz & Koch 1993); on Passage Island, the remotest island of the Isle Royale archipelago, Michigan, it was present in 1984 but gone by 1994 (Judziewicz 1999), and on Rock Island, remotest of the Grand Traverse islands, it was present in 1972 but gone by 1997. CANA (occasional). SPIDER (1905 collection, MIL). DETROIT (occasional). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1395). ROCK (sight record by G.J. Knudson in 1964; Cochrane 5184 in 1972 as a "12 x 15 yard colony"; but not noted in 1997-1999). ST. MARTIN (89 -015). SUMMER (Voss 13382; occasional in 1998). R. pubescens Raf., dwarf red raspberry. Occasional, cedar swamps. DETROIT (13478). WASHINGTON (Goess1 3972). SUMMER (Tessene 118). *Sorbus aucuparia L., European mountain-ash. Rare escape from cultivation. WASHINGTON (Rose 61, UWGB).

Page  200 ï~~200 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 S. decora (Sarg.) C.K. Schneid., showy mountain-ash. Widespread (but not common) tree, mostly in coniferous areas near coasts. CANA (occasional). ADVENTURE (rare). PLUM (13310). DETROIT (13448). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1535). ROCK (Tans 816). ST. MARTIN (89-023). GULL (89-172). POVERTY (occasional). SUMMER (Voss 13392). LITTLE SUMMER (uncommon). Spiraea alba Du Roi, meadowsweet. Uncommon, wetlands. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1242). WASHINGTON (Coffee Swamp, 13077). RUBIACEAE (Bedstraw Family) G. aparine L., cleavers. Locally common in deciduous woods, perhaps increasing because of deer dispersal. SNAKE (occasional). GREEN (13215). CHAMBERS (12705). HORSESHOE (rare). PLUM (12671). DETROIT (12658). WASHINGTON (Cochrane 11080). SUMMER (Voss 13369). LITTLE SUMMER (12971). G. brevipes Fernald & Wiegand, limestone swamp bedstraw. Rare; Summer Island. On overturned Fraxinus in dried [woodland] pond, Sec. 28, Tessene 65. G. lanceolatum Torr., wild licorice. Uncommon, rich upland hardwoods. CHAMBERS (12710). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1612; Island Campgound woods, 14018). ROCK (12511). G. tinctorium L., stiff bedstraw. Uncommon, wetlands. CHAMBERS (Fassett s.n., 15 June 1935, WIS). WASHINGTON (13604). G. trifidum L., small bedstraw. Uncommon, wetlands. WASHINGTON (Fewless & Moore 5950). GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (90-674). G. triflorum Michx., sweet-scented bedstraw. Common, woods. SNAKE (uncommon). GREEN (13237). CANA (uncommon). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1119). ADVENTURE (uncommon). HORSESHOE (rare). PLUM (13398). DETROIT (13597). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1473). ROCK (13168). ST. MARTIN (89-060). LITTLE GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (89-227). SUMMER (90-665). LITTLE SUMMER (fairly common). Houstonia longifolia Gaertn., long-leaved bluets. Local on alvar and alkaline rockshores, only on the Michigan islands. POVERTY (12819). SUMMER (90-680c). LITTLE SUMMER (12926). Mitchella repens L., partridgeberry. Occasional, woods, mostly coniferous ones. CHAMBERS (12707). WASHINGTON (Goess1l3958). ROCK (12549). SUMMER (Tessene 123). SALICACEAE (Willow Family) *Populus alba L., white poplar. Rare escape. WASHINGTON (uncommon). ST. MARTIN (interior, 90-589). P. balsamifera L., balsam-poplar. Occasional tree; often on shores. SNAKE (fairly common). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1048). PLUM (13287). DETROIT (13438). PILOT (S. P. Voice 1982 sight record). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1499). ROCK (13668). ST. MARTIN (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). LITTLE GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Tessene 135). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). P. deltoides L. subsp. monilifera (Aiton) Eckenw., plains cottonwood. Fig. 55. Occasional tree, most often of sheltered bays on Lake Michigan; also bird islands. HAT (dead trees in 1998). CHAMBERS (13911). ADVENTURE (rare). JACK (dead trees in 1998). DETROIT (13437). WASHINGTON (Fewless 6934). ROCK (13689). ST. MARTIN (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). LITTLE GULL (Cranbrook InstituteOakland University sight record). SUMMER (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). P. grandidentata Michx., big-toothed aspen. Occasional second-growth upland forest tree. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1055). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1400). ROCK (13123). SUMMER (Freckmann sight record, 1976). P. tremuloides Michx., quaking aspen. Common second-growth forest tree. SNAKE (occasional). GREEN (13212). CANA (uncommon). CHAMBERS (12756). ADVENTURE (occasional). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (rare). HORSESHOE (uncommon). PLUM

Page  201 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 201 2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 201 FIGURE 55. Hat Island, a two acre bird island in Green Bay several miles south of Chambers Island. To the right, Joel A. Trick of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service fends off gulls under a dead cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera). In the left foreground is bush of American black currant (Ribes americanum), 6 May 1998. (14093). DETROIT (13445). PILOT (uncommon). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1402). HOG (uncommon). ROCK (13113). LITTLE GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). GULL (89-176). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Voss 13396). LITTLE SUMMER (fairly common). Salix amygdaloides Andersson, peached-leaved willow. Occasional shoreline tree. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1061). PLUM (13381). ROCK (13830). ST. MARTIN (Cranbrook InstituteOakland University sight record). S. bebbiana Sarg., beaked willow. Common small tree of wetlands and shores. CANA (uncommon). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1062). PLUM (13382). DETROIT (13433). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5173). ROCK (12530). POVERTY (90-258). SUMMER (Voss 12623). S. candida Flugge, hoary willow. Local, boreal fens and calcareous swamps. CANA (rare). DETROIT (12778). WASHINGTON (Coffee Swamp and Big Marsh, Fuller 1445). S. cordata Michx., dune willow. ENDANGERED (WI). This Great Lakes dunes willow has recently discovered at Jackson Harbor Ridges, Washington Island by Gary Fewless (collection at UWGB). Also possibly 13696 (identification needs to be verified). S. discolor Muhl., pussy willow. Common small tree of wetlands. SNAKE (occasional). GREEN (13202). CANA (uncommon). SPIDER (1905 collection, MIL). DETROIT (13433). PILOT (rare). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5556). POVERTY (89-226). S. eriocephala Michx., diamond willow. Local, dunes and rockshores. WASHINGTON (Jackson Harbor Ridges, Fewless 5174). POVERTY (89-259). SUMMER (90-638). S. exigua Nutt. subsp. interior (Rowlee) Cronquist, sandbar willow. Occasional, sheltered sandy shores along Lake Michigan. SNAKE (occasional). CANA (uncommon). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (uncommon). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1060). PLUM (14084). DETROIT (13449). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5525). ROCK (12537). POVERTY (89-210). SUMMER (Tessene 150).

Page  202 ï~~202 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 S. lucida Muhl., shining willow. Occasional tree of shorelines. SNAKE (occasional). GREEN (13198). CANA (uncommon). SPIDER (1905 collection, MIL). WASHINGTON (Fewless 5524). ROCK (12538). SUMMER (Voss 12622). S. myricoides Muhl., bayberry willow. Rare. POVERTY (90-264). S. pedicellaris Pursh, bog willow. Rare, known only from Little Lake fen, Washington Island (Fuller 1441). S. petiolaris Sm., slender willow. Uncommon shrub or small tree of wetlands. ROCK (13688). ST. MARTIN (90-301). POVERTY (90-255). SANTALACEAE (Sandalwood Family) Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt., bastard-toadflax. Fairly common, dunes and cedar-fir thickets. SNAKE (rare). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1000). PLUM (13370). DETROIT (13552). WASHINGTON (Goessl 3945). ROCK (Cochrane 5202). ST. MARTIN (90-575). POVERTY (12814). SUMMER (Voss 13403). LITTLE SUMMER (12922). Geocaulon lividum (Richardson) Fernald, northern comandra. ENDANGERED (WI). Found only in conifer forests (cedar, fir) at Jackson Harbor Ridges, Washington Island (Fewless 5567). SARRACENIACEAE (Pitcher-Plant Family) Sarracenia purpurea L., pitcher-plant. Rare, acid sphagnous patches under cedars in Coffee Swamp, Washington Island (13069). SAXIFRAGACEAE (Saxifrage Family) Mitella diphylla L., bishop's-cap. Uncommon in rich upland hardwoods. WASHINGTON (12647). ROCK (13118). ST. MARTIN (Fuller 1633). M. nuda L., naked mitrewort. Occasional, swamp (mainly conifer) forests. CHAMBERS (13964). DETROIT (13464). WASHINGTON (Goessl 3976). SUMMER (Voss 12362). LITTLE SUMMER (common). Parnassia parviflora DC., small-flowered grass-of-parnassus. ENDANGERED (WI), no status (MI). In the GTA, it is known only from a 26 July 1913 collection from Detroit Harbor, Washington Island (Davis s.n., WIS) and from 1926 collection from St. Martin Island (Fuller 1631), Michigan. It was not seen in 1998-1999, and may be extirpated in Wisconsin (James Meeker, pers. comm.). SCROPHULARIACEAE (Figwort Family) Agalinis purpurea (L.) Pennell, purple false foxglove. Fairly common and characteristic of wet alkaline shores. PLUM (Carp Lake meadow, 14072). DETROIT (uncommon, south tip). WASHINGTON (Fewless & Moore 5911). ROCK (12489). SUMMER (Tessene 158). Castilleja coccinea (L.) Spreng., Indian paintbrush. Fairly common, gravelly calcareous old fields and pastures, and alkaline rockshores. ADVENTURE (Bruncken s.n., 11 July 1905, MIL). SPIDER (1 July 1905 collection, MIL). DETROIT (12779). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1569). ROCK (13690). ST. MARTIN (90-582). POVERTY (89-219). SUMMER (12606). LITTLE SUMMER (12918). *Linaria spartea (L.) Chaz. Rare weed in dolomite gravel of lane on Little Summer Island in 1998 (12972). The only other Michigan or Wisconsin site for this slender plant with pale blue, yellow-paletted flowers is from Menominee County, Michigan across Green Bay, where it was collected in a vacant lot by Don Henson in 1984 (Voss 1996). *L. vulgaris Mill., butter-and-eggs. Occasional weed. CANA (occasional). PLUM (13286). DETROIT (13888). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1587). Melampyrum lineare Desr., cow-wheat. Occasional in conifer forests, most often on dolomite bluffs under white cedars. CHAMBERS (13730). PLUM (13401). DETROIT (13503). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1571). ROCK (Cochrane 5201). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Tessene 25). Mimulus ringens L., monkey-flower. Noted only from wetlands on Snake Island, where it is occasional. Pedicularis canadensis L., wood-betony. Rare, known only from mixed hardwood-conifers on stabilized dunes on Rock Island (12643).

Page  203 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 203 Scrophularia lanceolata Pusrh, early figwort. Occasional, clearings, fields, bird islands. SNAKE (rare). GREEN (13216). CANA (uncommon). ADVENTURE (rare). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (rare). JACK (occasional). DETROIT (uncommon). WASHINGTON (Goess1 3928). POVERTY (89-222). SUMMER (90-730). *Verbascum thapsus L., common mullein. Common weed; fields, disturbed dolomite cliffs. SNAKE (uncommon). GREEN (occasional). CANA (occasional). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1114). PLUM (14089). DETROIT (fairly common). PILOT (occasional). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1360). ROCK (13812). ST. MARTIN (89-008). LITTLE GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (90-237). SUMMER (Tessene 143). LITTLE SUMMER (fairly common). *Veronica anagallis-aquatica L., water-speedwell. Common Lake Michigan shoreline weed. CANA (occasional). HAT (rare). PLUM (13389). DETROIT (13561). WASHINGTON (Fewless & Moore 5930). POVERTY (89-212). SUMMER (90-675). LITTLE SUMMER (12974). *V arvensis L., corn speedwell. Widespread but nondescript weed. CANA (rare). CHAMBERS (12703). ADVENTURE (rare). HORSESHOE (rare). PLUM (12673). DETROIT (12792). WASHINGTON (13010). ROCK (Cochrane 5232). SUMMER (12909). LITTLE SUMMER (12941). *V beccabunga L., European speedwell. Uncommon, wetlands. WASHINGTON (Schutz 130, UWGB). SUMMER (90-755). LITTLE SUMMER (12936). *V longifolia L., long-leaved speedwell. Rare escape from cultivation. WASHINGTON (Threlfall s.n., UWGB). *V officinalis L., common speedwell.Occasional weed of woods, often in dense shade. CANA (rare). HORSESHOE (rare). PLUM (12688). DETROIT (13584). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1482). ROCK (Cochrane 5229). ST. MARTIN (89-122). V peregrina L., purslane speedwell. Rare weed. WASHINGTON (13632). *V serpyllifolia L., thyme-leaved speedwell. Uncommon weed, typically along shaded muddy paths, forest lanes, and lawns. WASHINGTON (Goessl 3950). ROCK (13117). POVERTY (90-273). SUMMER (90-700). SMILACACEAE (Catbrier Family) Smilax ecirrhata (Kunth) S. Watson, upright carrion-flower. Occasional in sandy pine and oak woods on northern Chambers Island (13734). Also seen on Snake Island, where uncommon. SOLANACEAE (Nightshade Family) Physalis heterophylla Nees, clammy ground-cherry. Occasional weedy species of fields, pastures, and dunes. CHAMBERS (Ugent 1110). DETROIT (13442). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1500). ROCK (12546). *Solanum dulcamara L., bittersweet nightshade. Occasional weed of wetland edges; can be frequent on bird islands. SNAKE (occasional). GREEN (13268). CANA (uncommon). HAT (uncommon). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1113). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (occasional). JACK (occasional). SISTER (common in 1970). PLUM (13388). DETROIT (13461). PILOT (occasional). WASHINGTON (13793). HOG (occasional). ROCK (13681). POVERTY (89-281). SUMMER (Tessene 113). LITTLE SUMMER (occasional). S. ptycanthum Dunal, black nightshade. Occasional weed, often on bird islands. SNAKE (rare). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1111). DETROIT (13890). LITTLE GULL (89-165). GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (Cranbrook InstituteOakland University sight record). SPARGANIACEAE (Bur-Reed Family) Sparganium emersum Rehmann, narrow-leaved bur-reed. Uncommon aquatic. CHAMBERS (Lake Mackaysee, 13955). WASHINGTON (Rose 285, UWGB). S. eurycarpum A. Gray, giant bur-reed. Uncommon aquatic. WASHINGTON (Rose 286, UWGB).

Page  204 ï~~204 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 204 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 FIGURE 56. Little Strawberry Island, an eight acre island between Chambers Island and the Door Peninsula that is being invaded by colonial waterbirds (gulls and Double-crested Cormorants). The forest is nearly pure basswood (Tilia americana) growing on dolomite cobbles. Cow-parsnip (Heracleum lanatum) is dominant in the understory. Here, the island's caretaker "reloads" an acetylene cannon used in an attempt to scare off the birds, 6 May 1998. THYMELAEACEAE (Mezereum Family) Dirca palustris L., leatherwood. Rare shrub of rich upland woods on Washington Island (Fuller 1534). In 1998, only one plant was noted only on the Mountain Tower outcrop (12767). TILIACEAE (Basswood Family) Tilia americana L., basswood. Fairly common, rich upland woods. Fig. 56. SNAKE (abundant, co-dominant with white cedar). GREEN (13243). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1221). ADVENTURE (common). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (abundant). JACK (rare). HORSESHOE (fairly common). PLUM (13416). DETROIT (13447). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1533). ROCK (13156). ST. MARTIN (89-118). SUMMER (Voss 13367). TYPHACEAE (Cat-tail Family) Typha latifolia L., common cat-tail. Locally common aquatic. SNAKE (occasional). CHAMBERS (Lake Mackaysee, 13926). WASHINGTON (uncommon, Coffee Swamp). *T X glauca Godron, hybrid cat-tail. Rare; wet borrow pit near Viking Hall on Rock Island (13646). ULMACEAE (Elm Family) Ulmus americana L., American elm. Uncommon tree, most now killed by disease. CHAMBERS (13900). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1532). ROCK (13820). URTICACEAE (Nettle Family) Parietaria pensylvanica Willd., pellitory. SNAKE (fairly common). CHAMBERS (rare, shaded woods, Ugent 1002). ROCK (locally common on sunny dolomite scree of abandoned quarry, 12513).

Page  205 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 205 Pilea pumila (L.) A. Gray, clearweed. Uncommon, wet edges and shores. SNAKE (uncommon). CHAMBERS (13950). DETROIT (13591). Urtica dioica L. subsp. gracilis (Aiton) Selander, stinging nettle. Common in swamps and on bird islands. SNAKE (abundant). GREEN (13227). HAT (fairly common). CHAMBERS (13719). ADVENTURE (uncommon). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (occasional). JACK (occasional). SISTER (common in 1970). PLUM (13325). DETROIT (13887). PILOT (occasional). WASHINGTON (Fewless & Moore 5922). HOG (occasional). ROCK (13825). GRAVELLY (89-152). GULL (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). POVERTY (Cranbrook Institute-Oakland University sight record). SUMMER (Tessene 130). LITTLE SUMMER (fairly common). VALERIANACEAE (Valerian Family) *Valeriana officinalis L., garden valerian. Rare weed on Plum Island in range light clearing (13336). VERBENACEAE (Vervain Family) Phryma leptostachya L., lopseed. Occasional in rich upland woods, but not on the Michigan Islands. SNAKE (occasional). CHAMBERS (13727). DETROIT (13840). WASHINGTON (13806). ROCK (Threlfall s.n., UWGB). Verbena hastata L., blue vervain. Uncommon, swamps and marshes. SNAKE (fairly common). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1184). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1593). ROCK (13821). VIOLACEAE (Violet Family) Viola adunca Sm., hook-spur violet. Occasional, dry fields, cedar-fir thickets, and alkaline rockshores. CHAMBERS (12724). PLUM (12677). DETROIT (uncommon near dock). WASHINGTON (Goessl 3981). ROCK (12597). POVERTY (12832). SUMMER (Voss 12625; in lawn of pine-shaded cabin in Summer Harbor, 1998). V blanda Willd., sweet white violet. Rare, Poverty Island (12835). V canadensis L., Canada white violet. Locally frequent in rich upland hardwoods. PLUM (12669). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1602). ROCK (12624). LITTLE SUMMER (12954). V labradorica Schrank, dog violet. Common, woods and fields. SNAKE (rare). CHAMBERS (12713). ADVENTURE (uncommon). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (rare). PLUM (12675, 13317). DETROIT (12669). WASHINGTON (12649). ROCK (13108). SUMMER (Voss 12609). LITTLE SUMMER (12931). V macloskeyi F.E. Lloyd susbp. pallens (Ging.) M.S. Baker, small white violet. Occasional, often in cedar-fir thickets and coniferous swamps. WASHINGTON (Goess1 3978). ROCK (12610). POVERTY (12839). SUMMER (12874). V nephrophylla Greene, northern bog violet. This is the common deep blue "alvar" violet of Great Lakes alkaline rockshores. DETROIT (12661). WASHINGTON (Goessl 3989). POVERTY (89-224). SUMMER (Voss 12618). V pubescens Aiton, yellow violet. Common, woods. GREEN (13230). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1194). PLUM (12670). DETROIT (uncommon, central hill). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1384). ROCK (12619). ST. MARTIN (89-052). SUMMER (Voss 12640). LITTLE SUMMER (12970). V renifolia A. Gray, kidney-leaved violet. Uncommon, woods. CHAMBERS (12715). WASHINGTON (Fuller 1489). SUMMER (Voss 12602). V rostrata Pursh, long-spurred violet. SPECIAL CONCERN (WI). This violet of beechsugar maple woods in known only from Washington Island, where it was collected from an unspecified locality in 1916 (Bruncken s.n., 6 June 1916, MIL). It was recorded in 1998 from a mesic forest east of Coffee Swamp. V selkirkii Goldie, Selkirk's violet. Rare, woods. ROCK (12644). V sororia Willd., common blue violet. Rare, woods. SNAKE (common). POVERTY (90 -277). VISCACEAE (Christmas-Mistletoe Family) Arceuthobium pusillum Peck, eastern dwarf mistletoe. Rare, parasitic on black spruce at Jackson Harbor Ridges, Washington Island (Fewless 5163).

Page  206 ï~~206 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 VITACEAE (Grape Family) Parthenocissus vitacea (Knerr) Hitchc., grape woodbine. Local woody climber of shores. SNAKE (occasional). GREEN (13273). LITTLE STRAWBERRY (uncommon). Vitis riparia Michx., riverbank grape. Occasional, shores and bird islands. SNAKE (uncommon). GREEN (13274). CHAMBERS (Ugent 1220). JACK (occasional). HORSESHOE (uncommon). DETROIT (rare). WASHINGTON (Little Marsh and Big Marsh, 13794). ROCK (13111). ST. MARTIN (near pond, 90-320). SUMMER (Tessene 149). *V vulpina L., fox grape. Escaped from cultivation in the 1930s. WASHINGTON (Pohl 32, MIL). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Coastal Zone Management Program, Wisconsin Department of Administration, provided financial support (Grant #NA870Z0012) without which this survey would not have been possible; thanks are due to Oscar Herrera, Mary Frazier, Gerri Parrish, and Diana Toledo of that program. I would like to thank three people in particular for help with this project. First, Eric J. Epstein, Wisconsin Heritage Ecologist, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) for advocating this study as a complement to my Apostles Islands work; David Kopitzke, former Landowner Contact Specialist, WDNR (now at the University of Wisconsin-Richland Center), for his help in obtaining permission to visit many privately-owned tracts on the Wisconsin islands, and his aid when I was injured on Chambers Island (Kopitzke 1999a, 1999b); And, Paul E. Berry, Director of the UW-Madison Herbarium, for use of herbarium facilities. His help and encouragement gave me a new lease on my botanical career. I also give great thanks to all of the private landowners who gave their permissions for this survey; Betty Les (Section Chief, Bureau of Endangered Resources, WDNR) for her constant support; Andy Galvin and Julie Bleser for help in report preparation; and Michael R. Penskar (Heritage Botanist, Michigan Natural Features Inventory) for his help in funding surveys of the Michigan islands. Other biologists who generously shared critical advice, access to specimen databases and personal collection notebooks, specimen confirmations, and recollections were Theodore S. Cochrane, June M. Dobberpuhl, Gary Fewless, Robert W. Freckmann, Mike Grimm, Phyllis Higman, Neil Luebke, Carl W. Taylor, Donald Ugent, and Edward G. Voss. For logistical support during visits to individual islands, I thank the following people. Green Island: John Huff and Mike Kitt (Wisconsin DNR, Peshtigo Office). Chambers Island: Reinhardt Krause, Mike Cherff, and the Diocese of Green Bay for transportation to the island and medical assistance after my accident; Joel and Mary Ann Blahnik for their warm hospitality during a visit to the lighthouse, which they have lovingly restored; Carolyn and John Farwell, for use of their cabin. "Bird" islands in Green Bay and Lake Michigan: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service personnel Ken Stromberg and Joel A. Trick for boat transportation. Snake Island: Survey invitation by Bob and Sally Guger. Plum Island: The U.S. Coast Guard for transportation, and Andy Galvin (WDNR) for field assistance. Detroit Island: The generous cooperation of the Detroit Island Landowners Association. Washington Island: The loan of a canoe by Jim and Marilyn Gau to explore Little Lake. Rock Island: The enthusiastic support of Superintendent Mark Eggleson and park personnel. The Michigan islands: Boat transportation by Pat Ranguette of Fairport, Michigan. Finally, I am most grateful to Neil Harriman, editor extraordinaire of The Michigan Botanist, for his patience in editing this paper. LITERATURE CITED Albert, D. A., P. J. Comer, R. A. Corner, D. L. Cuthrell, M. R. Penskar, & M. L. Rabe. 1995. Bedrock shoreline survey of the Niagaran escarpment in Michigan's Upper Peninsula: Mackinac County to Delta County. Report prepared by Michigan Natural Features Inventory for Michigan Department of Natural Resources. 51 pp. Albert, D. A., P. J. Comer, R. A. Corner, C. Reschke. 1994. Bedrock shoreline survey of the Keweenaw Peninsula and Drummond Island in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. Report prepared by Michigan Natural Features Inventory for Michigan Department of Natural Resources. 94 pp. Albert, D. A., P. J. Comer, D. L. Cuthrell, D. Hyde, W. MacKinnon, M. R. Penskar, & M. L. Rabe.

Page  207 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 207 1997. Great Lakes bedrock shores of Michigan. Report prepared by Michigan Natural Features Inventory. ii + 58 pp. Albert, D. A. & P. J. Comer. 1998. Pre-Settlement Vegetation Map of Michigan. Michigan Natural Features Inventory. Cochrane, T.S. 2000 (as 1998). The distribution of Carex platyphylla (Cyperaceae: Sec. Careyanae) with emphasis on the western Great Lakes region. Michigan Botanist 37: 3-11. Coppess, M. 1981. Island Story: The History of Michigan's St. Martin Island. Mid-Peninsula Cooperative, Iron Mountain, MI. 64 pp. Curtis, J. T. 1971. The Vegetation of Wisconsin. 2nd ed. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 657 pp. Domke, D. 1970. A study of the deer population of Summer Island. Summer Science Journal 2: 24-27. Dorr, J. A., Jr., & D. F. Eschman. 1984. Geology of Michigan. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. 470 pp. Eaton, C. B. 1979. Rock Island, a part of the history of Washington township. Published by the author, Washington Island, Wisconsin. 64 pp. Forzley, K. C., T. A. Grudzien, & J. R. Wells. 1993. Comparative floristics of seven islands in northwestern Lake Michigan. Michigan Botanist 32: 3-21. Fuller, A. M. 1927. A botanist afield on Washington Island. Milwaukee Public Mus. Year Book 6: 66-78. Given, D. R., & J. H. Soper. 1981. The arctic-alpine element of the vascular flora at Lake Superior. National Museum of Canada, National Museum of Natural Sciences Publications in Botany 10: 1-70. Guire, K. E., & E. G. Voss. 1963. Distributions of distinctive shoreline plants in the Great Lakes region. Michigan Botanist 2: 99-114. Hazlett, B. T. 1991. The flora of Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Benzie and Leelanau Counties, Michigan. Michigan Botanist 30: 139-201. Hazlett, B. T. 1993. The vascular flora of North and South Fox Islands, Northern Lake Michigan. Michigan Botanist 32: 239-264. Hogg, E. H. and J. K. Morton. 1983. The effects of nesting gulls on the vegetation and soil of islands in the Great Lakes. Canadian Journal of Botany 61: 3240-3254. Huntoon, J. R. 1977. Preliminary environmental report for proposed acquisition, development and management of Grand Traverse Islands State Park, Door County, Wisconsin. Unpublished report prepared by Bureau of Environmental Impact, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Judziewicz, E. J. 1999 [as 1997]. Vegetation and flora of Passage Island, Isle Royale National Park, Michigan. Michigan Botanist 36: 35-62. Judziewicz, E. J. & R. G. Koch. 1993. Flora and vegetation of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore and Madeline Island, Ashland and Bayfield Counties, Wisconsin. Michigan Botanist 32: 43-189. Judziewicz, E. J. & J. C. Nekola. 1999 [as 1997]. Recent Wisconsin records for some interesting vascular plants in the western Great Lakes region. Michigan Botanist 36: 91-118. Kopitzke, D. 1999a. Lake Michigan islands surveyed. The Niche (Newsletter of the Wisconsin Bureau of Endangered Resources) 11: 1-5. Kopitzke, D. 1999b. Green treasures in a sea of blue. Wisconsin Natural Resources October 1999: 5-9. Larson, E. 1969. Summer Island hardwood-softwood survey. Summer Science Journal 2: 61-68. Long, C. A. 1978. Mammals of the islands of Green Bay, Lake Michigan. Jack-Pine Warbler 56: 59-82. Long, C. Alan & C. A. Long. 1976. Some amphibians and reptiles collected on islands in Green Bay, Lake Michigan. Jack-Pine Warbler 54: 54-58. Long, C. Alan, Long, J. E. & C. A. Long. 1978. Some amphibians and reptiles from Chambers Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan. Jack-Pine Warbler 56: 46-47. Marquis, R. J., & E. G. Voss. 1981. Distribution of some western North American plants disjunct in the Great Lakes region. Michigan Botanist 20: 53-82. Miller, N. G & R. L. Halbert. 1971. A collection of bryophytes from Summer Island, Delta County, Michigan. Michigan Botanist 10: 3-13. Palmquist, J. C. ed. No date [ca. 1991]. Wisconsin's Door Peninsula, A Natural History. Perin Press, Appleton. 196 pp.

Page  208 ï~~208 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 Penskar, M. R., P. J. Higman, D. A. Hyde, D. L. Cuthrell, R. A. Corner, M. A. Kost & E. J. Judziewicz. 1999. Biological inventory for conservation of Great Lakes islands: 1998 progress report. Report prepared by Michigan Natural Features Inventory for the Michigan Coastal Management Program. 38 pp. Pleger, T. C. 1992. Green Island light-station, Wisconsin: A synthesis of related historical and archeological data. Unpublished paper, Department of Anthropology, University of WisconsinMadison. 37 pp. Reschke, C., R. Reid, J. Jones, T. Feeney, & H. Potter. 1999. Conserving Great Lakes alvars. Final technical report of the International Alvar Conservation Initiative. The Nature Conservancy, Chicago. 230 pp. Rhodes, J. 1970. Notes on a grassland-forest transition area, Summer Island. Summer Science Journal 2: 74-75. Schrock. R. R. 1940. Geology of Washington Island and its neighbors, Door County, Wisconsin. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts and Letters 32: 199-227. Soule, J. D. 1993. Biodiversity of Michigan's Great Lakes Islands: Knowledge, Threats and Protection. Report prepared by Michigan Natural Features Inventory. Tans, W.E. 1983. Recent Wisconsin records for some interesting vascular plants in the western Great Lakes region-II. Michigan Botanist 22: 11-18. Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and Monocots. Bulletin of the Cranbrook Institute of Science No. 55 and University of Michigan Herbarium. xv + 488 pp. Voss, E. G. 1985. Michigan Flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae-Cornaceae). Bulletin of the Cranbrook Institute of Science No. 59 and University of Michigan Herbarium. xix + 724 pp. Voss, E. G. 1996. Michigan Flora. Part III. Dicots (Pyrolaceae-Compositae). Bulletin of the Cranbrook Institute of Science No. 61 and University of Michigan Herbarium. xix + 622 pp. Wetter, M. A., T. S. Cochrane, M. R. Black, H. H. Iltis, and P. E. Berry. 2001. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Wisconsin. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Technical Bulletin 192. 258 pp. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 2001. Wisconsin. Rare Vascular Plant Species List. Bureau of Endangered Resources, Madison. 6 pp.