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Page 74 ï~~74 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 and overall appearance. They are however, finely hispid, and the general aspect of the plant also strikes one as nettle-like. The axillary flowers are arrayed in greenish to purple-tinged, loose, hemispherical heads, giving an unusual appearance to the plant. Illustrations are found in Wunderlin (1997) and photos on the internet at www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/weeds/mweedl.html. Specimen Citation: MICHIGAN. Jackson Co.: Rest area on S side of 1-94 ca. 0.8 mi W of Business 94 exit on west side of Jackson, SE4 sect. 25, T2S R2W, North Lat. 420 16' 15" West Long. 840 25' 40" (from map). Weed in perennial ground cover planting (low junipers) in beds around rest area building, Sept. 25, 2001, A.A. Reznicek et. al. 11300 (MICH, MSC, MU, and numerous duplicates to be distributed). LITERATURE CITED DuQuesnay, D. 1974. Fatoua villosa (Moraceae) in Florida. Sida 5: 286. Massey, J.R. 1975. Fatoua villosa (Moraceae), Additional notes on distribution in the southeastern United States. Sida 6:116. Neal, J.C. 1998. Mulberry Weed or Hairy Crabweed (Fatoua villosa). Horticulture Information Leaflet #903. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. Reed, C.F. 1977. Economically Important Foreign Weeds-Potential Problems in the United States. USDA Agriculture Handbook 498. Sanders, A.C. 1996. Noteworthy collections-California. Madrofio 43: 524-532. Thieret, J.W. 1964. Fatoua villosa (Moraceae) in Louisiana: New to North America. Sida 1: 248. Vincent, M.A. 1993. Fatoua villosa (Moraceae), Mulberry Weed, in Ohio. Ohio Journal of Science 93: 147-149. Wunderlin, R.P. 1997. Moraceae. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds, Fl. North Amer. 3:388-399 Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford. Yatskievych, G., & J.A. Raveill. 2001. Notes on the increasing proportion of non-native angiosperms in the Missouri flora, with reports of three new genera for the state. Sida 19: 701-709. Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board. 2001. http://www.wa.gov/agr/weedboard/ index.html REVIEWS DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT DESCRIPTIONS OF WISCONSIN LAKE PLANTS. Stanley A. Nichols. 1999. Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, Bulletin 96. xi + 266 pages + two unnumbered pages at the back; metalring binding with a sturdy plastic cover. $15 + $3.25 postage and handling, available from Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, 3817 Mineral Point Road, Madison, WI 53705. Telephone orders at 608. 262. 1705, with V or MC only. www.uwex.edu/wgnhs/, but no sales via that site. This is not a taxonomic monograph. The names are simply taken from Gleason & Cronquist, ed. 2, 1991. There are no keys. There are no descriptions. There are 107 species treated, by my rough count, in alphabetical order by Latin name, and nearly all are accompanied by a faithful and well-reproduced draw
Page 75 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 75 ing. The drawings are by Carol Watkins, whose work is acknowledged on p. 260. They are beautifully done and she deserves thanks and congratulations from botanists. As the title says, the book intends to document distribution. For each species, there is a distribution map of the state, with asterisks for literature reports believed to be reliable and little black squares for actual herbarium records. I believe the author included only herbarium records where the label indicated the plant was in a lake. Wet-roadside-ditch records appear not to have been included. This results in some really odd omissions, but in fairness to the author the maps should not be looked at uncritically. (At a glance, one might suppose that Typha latifolia is missing from much of eastern Wisconsin!) The Great Lakes and the pools of the Upper Mississippi River are also omitted, on the ground that collections are much more difficult to link to specific locational or habitat characteristics. The first thing that occurred to me when I opened the book was, here's an excellent guide to finding some of the state's floristic oddities. For example, the book shows there are four known occurrences of Potamogeton pulcher; I would have said from personal experience that the species doesn't occur in Wisconsin. That opinion would have been re-inforced by the range statement in Gleason & Cronquist, ed. 2, which seems fairly clearly to exclude Wisconsin from the known range. [Voss in Michigan Flora shows only two sites.] For species abundant enough to yield meaningful data, the author has compiled data on water depth, pH, conductivity, and alkalinity. Substrate preference and turbidity tolerance are also assessed. Flowering and fruiting times (taken from herbarium labels) are also given, though these are doubtless skewed herbarium curators often discard specimens of Cyperaceae and Juncaceae that are only in flower. The motive in all this is to permit the framing of hypotheses that can be tested in the field or laboratory. At this stage in the process, the author concludes that "Species having similar habitat requirements are not necessarily found growing together; habitat similarities do not predict species associations very well." One of the problems with this is that what we call habitat "requirements" may be nothing of the sort-they may be tolerance limits. Cannabis sativa around here is to be found only in sandy soils, if left to its own devices, but it will grow perfectly well if planted in heavy lakebed clays. It strikes me that the line between "requirements" and "tolerances" has got awfully thin. Or blurred. Habitat similarities do not predict species associations very well. But what, if anything, do species associations tell us? The process of listing out on herbarium labels the associates of a species has always seemed to me to be a timeconsuming and largely pointless exercise. If each species is a uniquely evolved entity, then listing all the species with which it is "associated" at any given site is about as meaningful as specifying all the people whom I shared a plane trip with. Moreover, recognizable associates will vary with the season, and with respect to aquatics they may also vary with water depth, in the sense that in deeper water many species remain vegetative and do not flower. Species associations are sometimes given in this book, but without amplification and certainly
Page 76 ï~~76 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 without statistical verification. I think these are little more than interesting anecdotes. "Because the information presented here is open to interpretation, the report does not dwell on interpretation-readers can use the information in ways that fit their needs (p. 1)." I applaud the author's discretion and caution. Neil A. Harriman Biology Department University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh Oshkosh, WI 54901 email@example.com THE LANDSCAPE REVOLUTION: GARDEN WITH MOTHER NATURE, NOT AGAINST HER. Andy Wasowski with Sally Wasowski. 2000. 166 pages. Contemporary Books, 4255 West Toughy Ave., Lincolnwood (Chicago), Illinois 60646-1975. ISBN: 0-8092-2665-0. U.S. $27.95. I have been a "revolutionary" since I bought my house in 1977. Then, however, books like this weren't available to guide me in my "natural landscaping" endeavors. The Wasowskis have landscaped in many different parts of the U.S. where they have lived. One weakness of a book like this, which attempts to cover the whole United States, is that detail needed for a particular region is sacrificed to be comprehensive. Wasowski begins by explaining why our current landscapes are harmful to the environment. Anyone who has tried to maintain a perfect green velvet lawn knows the drill: Fertilize (the fertilizer then permeates to the ground water supply and often runs off into nearby lakes and streams causing algae blooms); water extensively (Wasowski describes in detail the world wide water shortage and how a lawn's "drinking problem" contributes to this); mow, polluting the air (inefficient gasoline mower motors are one the biggest air polluters) and contributing to global warming as well as using time that could be spent more enjoyably doing something else; bag those grass clippings in plastic bags and deliver them to a landfill. Wasowski differentiates between a "natural" landscape, which he defines as using only "native" plants and a "naturalized" landscape, defined to include with the natives, some "well behaved," i.e. non-invasive, exotics. His definition of a native plant is one that was germinated and raised within 100 miles of where the landscape is located. This he considers to be the local "provenance" of the species. In western Michigan where I live, however, that may be too extensive a range. Plants that thrive here along the Lake Michigan shoreline often can't live a mere 15 miles inland and vice versa. The benefits of a natural or naturalized landscape are detailed: The plants are adapted to local natural conditions, so need minimal watering and fertilizing, and hence very little maintenance; local plants have evolved to live on the rainfall available in their provenance, whether
Page 77 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 77 it be Pacific Coast Rain Forest or Arizona desert; the right species can provide food and cover for wildlife, such as favorite bird and butterfly species; alternatives to pesticides, again not usually needed for native plants because they have evolved along with the native predators. Wasowski offers tips for combating local "weed ordinances." He also details how to convert a typical "cookie cutter" landscape into a natural or naturalized one, step by step. If the homeowner is lucky enough to be starting from scratch, the process is much easier and that too is described. Construction techniques to be used in new developments can be implemented to save existing vegetation when building. Some communities now mandate such practices when issuing building permits. This is one of the more encouraging predictions of this book, along with Wasowski's assertion that by 2035, the landscapes prevalent today will be totally obsolete, replaced by natural plants that will be environmentally friendly. And to think I was a "pioneer" in this movement! I would recommend this and other recent books along similar lines as a starting point for anyone interested in natural landscaping. President Clinton signed into law a bill that has established consortiums of governmental agencies around the country to promote this concept. "Invasive Plants Councils" or "Plants Out Of Place" conferences are the result of this. State Departments of Natural Resources, Soil Conservation Districts, University Cooperative Extension Services, but especially the U. S. Forest Service, are some of the organizations that are usually involved. The public education conferences they sponsor are an excellent source of obtaining further information, especially since they are slanted towards a certain state or geographical region. Developing a natural or naturalized landscape can be a challenge. As more of us move in this direction and request native plants from local nurseries and garden centers, the law of supply and demand will make the process easier. And if we can become active on local planning commissions and governing bodies, such as city councils and county commissions, to revise outdated "weed ordinances," there will be fewer impediments. As the U.S. becomes more accepting of the fact that global warming exists and threatens our very existence, landscapes that diminish the use of power mowers will be viewed with greater favor. Betty J. Mattson Sky Enterprises Nature Education 805 Waverly Ave. Grand Haven, MI 49417-2131 Pettigrew, J. 1999. TEA & INFUSIONS. A CONNOISSEUR'S GUIDE. Carlton Books Limited. Paperback; 96 pp. ISBN 1-85868715-2 $14.95 The typical American goes into a restaurant and when the waitress asks,"Coffee?" and you say, "No thank you, I would like a cup of tea," you get a sigh, and a blank look in disbelief. A short time later you get a cup and
Page 78 ï~~78 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 saucer, and a metal container containing moderately hot water at best and a common brand tea bag on the side. This bag is then steeped in this warm water and to swallow the brew you have to heap two or more teaspoons of sugar into the infusion to make it palatable. It is no wonder Americans prefer Gloria Jean's or Starbucks for their morning caffeine fix, even though tea is the preferred drink by more people in the world today. Still, the American public is assailed every day in many different ways to drink tea. "Tea is good for you." "Tea will reduce the chances that you will develop certain diseases." "Tea plays a role in human health." Tea, especially green tea has an abundance of polyphenols (also known as flavonoids) that act as antioxidants that prevent or slow down the effects of free radicals, the compounds in the body that cause aging and cell damage. And we all want to be forever young, don't we? But to be young forever do we have to (as a friend once said to me) "loose our taste buds in the process?" With these things swirling in my head I picked up the large (9 X 12 in.) but thin book (96 pages) by Jane Pettigrew with interest at my local book store. Its blue cover with an orange and green tea cup and saucer and orange slice floating in the brown liquid certainly caught my eye. Opening the book I found 90 color photographs (some full page) well dispersed throughout the seven chapters. Chapter 1, The Story of Tea, traces the history of Camellia sinensis (also called Thea sinensis) from its discovery in China in 2737 BC: the English Opium War, the trade that developed between China and surrounding countries, the hated tea tax on the American colonies leading to the American War of Independence, and the spread of tea production to Africa and the New World. It also traces how the use of tea bags came about by accident in 1908 by an American, Thomas Sullivan. Chapter 2, From the Leaf to the Cup, explains how tea leaves, flowers, and buds are harvested, withered, rolled and chopped, dried or briefly fermented, and processed. Pettigrew points out that there are seven different main types of tea: white tea, green tea, oolong tea, black tea, compressed tea, flavored tea, and Pu-erh tea. Finished tea leaves are sorted and graded into various leaf and broken leaf grades, known as pekoe and broken pekoe, with all sorts of sub-divisions to denote size, appearance, and color. Every tea factory or company has a team of tea tasters who are then responsible for checking the quality of the teas and preparing them for sale. Like the science and art of producing fine wine, the same kinds of environmental factors play a role in the flavor of tea: the soil where the bushes grow, when during the day, season, and the year the leaves are picked, where on the plant the leaves are harvested, the temperature and moisture of the region, how the leaves are handled, processed, shipped and stored. She tells why even the minerals in the water and the temperature of the water the tea is steeped in will give different flavors. It's no wonder most Americans don't like tea. We are too busy to check all this out! Chapter 3, Tea Around the World, is an alphabetical journey to the various countries of the world where tea is grown, beginning with Australia and ending with Zimbabwe. Tea is presently grown in the United States at the
Page 79 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 79 Charleston Tea Plantation on Wadmalaw Island, 20 miles south of Charleston, South Carolina and is sold in this country under the brand name American Classic Tea. All other teas sold in this country are imported and blended with teas from various countries to give the different flavors and aromas. Chapter 4, Tea Ceremonies, explains that every country around the world has developed its own ways of preparing and serving tea from the powdered, whisked green tea of Japan to the strong concentrated black tea of Russia. There are certain general rules that must be followed for the best infusion: 1. always use freshly drawn cold water; 2. use tea that has been carefully stored in an air-tight container; 3. choose the right size brewing vessel or teapot; 4. warm the pot with a small amount of warmed water, swirl it around and then discard; and 5. measure the tea carefully - the general rule is one rounded teaspoon or bag of tea per cup. Bring the water to boiling, cool slightly, pour over the leaves and steep. The size of the leaf particles and the time steeped will vary with the type of tea. Chapter 5, Tea Drinks and Recipes, Chapter 6, Herbal and Fruit Infusions, and Chapter 7, Tea and Health are self-explanatory by their titles. The Glossary is rather brief for a person not knowing much about tea. For example such frequently used words throughout the book like: broken grades, decaffeinated tea, Earl Gray, instant tea, oolong, orthodox tea, and withering are not mentioned. The reader must go to the Index and then find the page where the words are defined and used. I found the book very enjoyable reading and at $14.95 a most acceptable price for a four-color book. Never again will I just accept that all tea is the same. I have become a much more discriminating consumer and will demand more than "just a cup of tea." I may just start carrying my own tea caddies or tea bags so I can experience a truly great cup of tea. So might you. Dennis W. Woodland Biology Department, Andrews University Berrien Springs, Michigan 49104-0410 U.S.A. e-mail: woody @ andrews.edu Telephone: 616.471.3240; FAX: 616.471.6911 ANNOUNCEMENT Effective immediately, the address of the University of Michigan Herbarium will be: University of Michigan Herbarium 3600 Varsity Drive, Suite 112 Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108-2287 It is expected that this address will continue in use for 5-7 years, and possibly longer. It is urged that you use the 4-digit extension on the Zip Code, because the University uses that for local deliveries.