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Page 70 ï~~70 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 NOTEWORTHY COLLECTIONS WISCONSIN TOMANTHERA AURICULATA (Michx.) Raf. (Scrophulariaceae) Eared false foxglove Previous knowledge. This species was known historically in Wisconsin from three counties: Dane (1858 and 1860); Lafayette (26 August 1888); and Racine (29 August 1892, and 18 August 1900), based on records in MIL, UWM, and WIS. It is apparently rare and local throughout its native range (USDA, NRCS 1999), which extends from Ohio to Minnesota, south to Alabama and Texas. There is some question as to its nativity in the eastern United States. Gleason & Cronquist (1991) considered it to be an introduced species in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. Earlier, Pennell (1928) stated that the species had evidently been introduced into such disturbed habitats as old fields and railroad embankments from New Jersey to Virginia. However, this was amended (Pennell 1935) after early collections from Delaware apparently precluded introduction from the western prairies. Voss (1996) noted that in Michigan it has been collected only in a "sandy bur oak opening" in 1837 and "dry opening" in 1838. It is known from four sites in Minnesota; the collection from Big Stone County 1985 was the first state record in over 25 years (Wheeler et al.1991). It is known from seven counties in eastern and south-central Iowa, where it is described as "rare" (Eilers & Roosa 1994). Mohlenbrock & Ladd (1978) map it as occurring in 25 counties in Illinois; Swink & Wilhelm (1994) show one additional Illinois county (Kane), plus two counties in northwestern Indiana. It was rediscovered in Ohio in 1985 (Knoop 1988). Synonyms for Tomanthera auriculata include Gerardia auriculata Michx. and Agalinis auriculata (Michx.) S.F. Blake. Descriptions of habitat vary, including moist prairies, dry prairies, dry-mesic savanna, old fields, wood borders, and thickets (Swink & Wilhelm 1994); prairies, old fields, or rarely open woodlands (Salamun 1951); shallow drainageway in degraded prairie pasture (Wheeler et al. 1991); prairies and prairie borders (Read 1974); and moist depressions in prairie remnants (Eilers & Roosa 1994). Cunningham & Parr (1990) note that the species is a hemiparasite. Significance. Tomanthera auriculata is a listed species across much of its range. It is listed as Threatened in Illinois and is on Minnesota's State Endangered List. It is a category 2 species for possible Federal listing as threatened or endangered. The species' global rank is G3: "Either very rare and local throughout its range or found locally (even abundantly at some of its locations) in a restricted range.... or because of other factors making it vulnerable throughout its range; in terms of occurrences, in the range of 21 to 100" (Wisconsin Natural Heritage Program 1999). Read (1976) stated "this species is presumed extirpated in Wisconsin," and the Wisconsin Natural Heritage Program (1999) has offi
Page 71 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 71 cially listed it as such. The two collections reported here document the continued presence of Tomanthera auriculata in Wisconsin, and add two new county records. The possibility exists that other populations are present in the southern Kettle Moraine area of southeastern Wisconsin. Diagnostic characters. This species is an annual, herbaceous dicot, to one meter tall. Leaves are simple, opposite, lanceolate to broadly lanceolate, and scabrous on their upper surfaces. The upper leaves are auricled at the base. The stem is terete and pubescent, with numerous longer, stiff, retrorse hairs. The inflorescence is an interrupted spike, with foliaceous bracts exceeding the flowers. The complete, hypogynous, solitary flowers are found in the bract axils. They are sessile or subsessile, on pedicels no greater than 1 mm. The rose-violet corollas are slightly irregular, about 20-23 mm long, not densely woolly inside. Dark purple spots are found anteriorly. The style is pubescent, and there are 4 fertile stamens. The calyx is retrorse-pubescent, the lobes strongly ascending-scabrous, and the calyx soon becomes at least 1 cm long. The 5 sepals are fused about 1/3 the length of the calyx. The fruit is a broadly ovoid capsule, 10-13 mm long. Seeds are ellipsoid-ovoid, 1.3-1.6 mm long. Voucher specimens have been deposited at WIS and at the Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission, Waukesha, Wisconsin. Color photographs of the species are presented at the web site of the University of Wisconsin-Madison herbarium (www.wisc.edu/botany/herbarium/home.html). WISCONSIN. WALWORTH COUNTY: Bluff Creek Low Prairie; T4N R15E Section 23; good quality wet-mesic prairie; about 600 stems; corollas rose-violet; 9 September 1999; Leitner 6657 (WIS). WISCONSIN. WAUKESHA COUNTY: Paradise Creek Low Prairie; T5N R17E Section 16; mix of wet-mesic prairie and old field; 120-150 individuals; corollas rose-violet; 2 September 1999; Leitner 6646. Ecological Notes: These two stations, about 19 km apart, both lie within the Kettle Moraine region of southeast Wisconsin, a generally north-south trending area of glacial hills, kettle hole depressions, and open wetlands. The station in Waukesha County is located in the large Scuppernong Marsh area. The site, about 0.25 hectare, consists of a mix or low prairie and old field; associated species include Solidago graminifolia, S. rigida, Cornus racemosa, Pycnanthemum virginianum, Helianthus spp., and Oxypolis rigidior. The population consists of about 150 stems, of which about 100 were in flower. It lies adjacent to a wooded fencerow. The prairie was burned by Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources personnel in April, 1999, prior to the species' discovery. Soils consist of the somewhat poorly drained Aztalan silt loam, 2-6% slopes. The station in Walworth County lies in a low, open area adjacent to Bluff Creek. Vegetation consists of wet-mesic prairie, spread over 6 to 8 hectares. Associated species include Solidago graminifolia, Cornus racemosa, and Pycnanthemum virginianum. The population consists of about 600 plants, of which about 50 were in flower. The site was burned by Wisconsin DNR personnel about 1991, and has been brush-cut on a semi-regular basis since. Soils consist
Page 72 ï~~72 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 of Pella silt loam (deep, poorly drained, silty; in depressions and drainageways). Both stations lie within the Kettle Moraine State Forest. Updates: As a result of the rediscovery of Tomanthera auriculatain Wisconsin, its status has been changed by the Wisconsin Natural Heritage Program from "presumed extirpated" to Special Concern (see web page: www.dnr.state.wi.us/ org/land/er/rare.htm). Its state rank is now S 1: "Critically imperiled in Wisconsin because of extreme rarity (5 or fewer occurrences or very few remaining individuals or acres) or because of some factor(s) making it especially vulnerable to extirpation from the state." Surveys in late August of 2000 and 2001 revealed approximately 25 stems in 2000 and 250 stems in 2001 at the Waukesha County station, and approximately 600 stems in 2000 and 450 stems in 2001 at the Walworth County station. LITERATURE CITED Eilers, L. J., & D. M. Roosa. 1994. The Vascular Plants of Iowa. An Annotated Checklist and Natural History. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, Iowa. 304 pp. Cunningham, M., & P.D. Parr. 1990. Successful culture of the rare annual hemiparasite Tomanthera auriculata (Michx.) Raf. (Scrophulariaceae). Castanea 55: 266-271. Gleason, H. A., & A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY. 910 pp. Knoop, J. D.1988. Tomanthera auriculata (Michx.) Raf. extant in Ohio. Ohio Journal of Science 88: 120-121. Mohlenbrock, R. H., & D. M. Ladd. 1978. Distribution of Illinois Vascular Plants. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale, IL. 282 pp. Pennell, F.W. 1928. Agalinis and allies in North America, -I. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 80: 339-449. Pennell, F.W. 1935. The Scrophulariaceae of eastern temperate North America. Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1. 650 pp. Read, R. A. 1976. Endangered and Threatened Vascular Plants in Wisconsin. Technical Bulletin No. 92. Scientific Areas Preservation Council, Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI. 58 pp. Salamun, P. J. 1951. Preliminary Reports on the Flora of Wisconsin. XXXVI. Scrophulariaceae. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 36: 111-138. Swink, F., & G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region. 4th edition. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis, IN. 921 pp. USDA, NRCS. 1999. The PLANTS database (http://plants.usda.gov/plants). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA. Voss, E. G. 1996. Michigan Flora. Part III. Dicots (Pyrolaceae-Compositae). Bulletin of the Cranbrook Institute of Science 61 and University of Michigan Herbarium, Ann Arbor, MI. 622 pp. Wheeler, G. A., R. P. Dana, & C. Converse. 1991. Contribution to the vascular (and moss) flora of the Great Plains: A floristic survey of six counties in western Minnesota. Michigan Botanist 30: 75-129. Wisconsin Natural Heritage Program. 1999. Wisconsin Natural Heritage Working List. Bureau of Endangered Resources, Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI. L awrence A. Leitner Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission P.O. Box 1607 Waukesha, Wisconsin 53187-1607 262. 547. 6721, extension 262; email@example.com