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Page 3 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST THE RARE PLANTS OF FORT MCCOY MILITARY RESERVATION, MONROE COUNTY, WISCONSIN Mark K. Leach The Nature Conservancy, Wisconsin Field Office 333 West Mifflin Street Madison, Wisconsin 53703 ABSTRACT Fort McCoy Military Reservation is a 24,180 ha United States Army training facility in west-central Wisconsin. In 1991 and 1992 I conducted the first extensive survey at the fort for rare vascular plants, documenting 89 stations of 14 species including four Wisconsin threatened and 10 Wisconsin watch-list species. Two species, bog bluegrass (Poa paludigena) and fame flower (Talinum rugospermum), were also listed as United States Fish and Wildlife Service Category 2; large populations of these grow at the fort. One formerly documented species, the Wisconsin endangered rough white lettuce (Prenanthes aspera), was apparently extirpated. I briefly describe my observations on population size, habitat and apparent threats. For convenience of reporting, the rare plants are discussed in an upland group (Artemisia dracunculus, Asclepias ovalifolia, Gentiana flavida, Opuntia fragilis, Polytaenia nuttallii, Solidago sciaphila, and Talinum rugospermum) and a lowland (or wetland) group (Bartonia virginica, Carex folliculata, Poa paludigena, Polygala cruciata, Rhexia virginica, Scleria triglomerata, and Thelypteris simulata). Generally, rare plant conservation appears to be compatible with military training: both benefit from restoring and maintaining semi-open, savanna-like upland landscapes and preventing activities which would damage wetlands. INTRODUCTION Fort McCoy Military Reservation is an installation of the United States Army located in Monroe County, Wisconsin (Figure 1). The primary mission of the Fort is to serve as a facility for military training. Training first began on Major General Robert Bruce McCoy's ranch in 1905. The army bought 5,750 ha in 1909 and has since used the facility more or less constantly. Currently more than 100,000 people train there annually. The fort now occupies 24,180 ha, of which 23,358 ha are classified as "unimproved." The facility lies south of the Tension Zone (Curtis 1959) within the Driftless Area (Figure 1), an unglaciated region of geologically ancient, highly eroded, steep-sloped, sandstone hills with narrow ridges and broad valleys. Prior to Euro-American settlement, the generally thin upland soils supported vegetation described by Hole & Germain (1994) as "largely oak savanna, with patches of oak forest. Some white pine (Pinus strobus) and red pine (P resinosa) were present on favorable exposures and on coarse-textured soils. The savanna was composed of bur, white, black, and Hill's oaks (Quercus macrocarpa, Q. alba, Q. velutina, and Q. ellipsoidalis) in a matrix of prairie grasses and forbs." The Present address: University of Wisconsin-Madison Arboretum, 1207 Seminole Highway, Madison WI 53711-3728. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Page 4 ï~~THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 FIGURE 1. Fort McCoy Military Reservation (black) is located in Monroe County, Wisconsin within the Driftless Area (dotted lines), west of the ancient bed of Glacial Lake Wisconsin (gray), and south of the Tension Zone (dashed lines; Curtis 1959). The size of the fort averages about 25 km north to south and 8 to 10 km east to west, Latitude 430 54' to 440 9' North, Longitude 900 36' to 900 46' West. nutrient-poor drought-prone soil, the short growing season, and common wild fires combine to maintain much of the savanna-like character of the uplands. However, many areas now are presumably more densely timbered than at settlement. Some of the valleys contain extensive wetlands on soils varying from sand to muck. Existing wetland communities include hardwood swamp, wet prairie,
Page 5 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST sedge meadow, Sphagnum bog, shrub-carr, tamarack (Larix laricina) swamp, and emergent aquatic marsh. The fort contains 10 major and 10 tributary streams, totaling 17.7 km in length. They are cold, fast-flowing, spring-fed, and sandy-bottomed. Trainers restrict military equipment, for the most part, from wetlands and streams. Annual normal precipitation is 79 cm (Fort McCoy 1983). The Mauston weather station, which is about 48 km east-southeast of Fort McCoy, reports 84 cm of mean average annual precipitation, with most falling in summer (30 cm). They also report that the area has an average summer temperature of 200 C and average winter temperature of -8o C, with extremes of 390 C to -38Â~ C. Median last and first frost dates are May 15 and September 26. The year-to-year variation of weather parameters is considerable. Like many other military installations, Fort McCoy has preserved rare species and communities, including what is likely the largest metapopulation of the federally endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis; Leach 1993a, Bleser 1993). Other rare animals found at the fort include the phlox moth (Shinia indiana; Maxwell & Ferge 1994, Kirk 1994) and the slender glass lizard (Ophisaurua attenuatus; Nedrelo 1994). Fort McCoy's Natural Resource Management Division (NRMD) contracted with The Nature Conservancy-Wisconsin Field Office to survey the fort for rare plants. During the growing seasons of 1991 and 1992 I surveyed for populations of vascular plants listed by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources as Endangered, Threatened, or Watch and plants listed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service as "Category Two." State and federal agencies are considering "Watch" and "Category Two" species, respectively, for protection as Threatened or Endangered. No plant species currently listed as federally endangered or threatened were thought to occur on the fort. Here I give a condensed and revised version of my rare plant survey report (Leach 1993b). I conclude this paper by discussing the challenges for continued plant conservation in the midst of a heavily used military training facility. METHODS Within the boundaries of Fort McCoy, I conducted status surveys for rare plant species. Fourteen such species had previously been reported as growing on the fort. I resurveyed their historic locations (if known) as well as other likely habitats. I worked full-time throughout most of the growing season in 1991 and 1992, alternating this survey with surveys for the Karner blue butterfly (Leach 1993a) and its host plant, wild lupine (Lupinus perennis). I surveyed most portions of the fort except the "hot" North Impact Area-a 2100-ha target area for live ammunition. For each population encountered I mapped the location and recorded the population size, extent, habitat, associated species, and possible threats. The names of tentatively identified specimens were verified by Theodore Cochrane, Curator, University of Wisconsin Herbarium, Madison and by other herbarium staff. Robert Freckmann, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, helped name numerous grass specimens. Nomenclature follows Gleason & Cronquist (1991).
Page 6 ï~~THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 RESULTS I increased the number of known rare plant stations (Table 1) from 27 to 89. Of those populations, 48 were fame flower (Talinum rugospermum). I verified the presence of thirteen previously reported rare plant species and I documented one new species: dragon's sagewort (Artemisia dracunculus). I did not find five previously reported species: large water starwort (Callitriche heterophylla), tufted hairgrass (Deschampsia cespitosa), large-leaved avens (Geum macrophyllum), rough white lettuce (Prenanthes aspera), and silky willow (Salix sericea). Of these, only the record of rough white lettuce, which was made in 1981, was supported by a clearly identifiable specimen (Bever, WIS). Without good specimens, the other reports are questionable. For convenience, the findings are presented in two groups: upland species and lowland species (Table 1). The upland species are geographically centered on the Great Plains or the Midwest and the lowland species are geographically related to eastern North America. Each species' summary includes a description of population size and habitat at the fort. Herbarium specimens that I collected or examined are indicated parenthetically. I. Upland Species The fort's extensive oak and jack-pine (Pinus banksiana) savannas, dry prairies, and sandstone outcrops supported seven rare plant species. Clearly, the most widespread and abundant of the rare plants at the fort was the fame flower (Talinum rugospermum: Portulacaceae). This small, fleshy-leafed, perennial herb grows in the upper Midwest, Nebraska, Kansas, and east Texas, but is most common in western and central Wisconsin (Cochrane 1993). I found populations in four previously reported locations and in 44 new locations. It subsequently has been found elsewhere on the fort (Dave Beckmann, pers. comm.; Maxwell & Givnish 1994). At Fort McCoy, fame flower thrives in areas with apparent intermediate intensity disturbances (e.g., mechanical or fire) either in full sun or partial shade. It most commonly grows in small vegetation gaps (about 5 to 30 cm diameter) within a matrix of short native species, such as Pennsylvania sedge (Carex pensylvanica). This is consistent with Cochrane's (1993) view that fame flower is not a typical sand prairie species, but is a specialist with a narrow ecological amplitude and a lack of competitive ability. Habitats at the Fort were jack-pine barrens, sandy oak savannas, sand prairies, semi-eroded sandy slopes, sandstone outcrops, and the margins of sand blows and tank trails. I found one population of dragon's sagewort (Artemisia dracunculus: Asteraceae). It is a herbaceous perennial native to Eurasia and the Great Plains. The eastern limit of its North American range is in Wisconsin. The Fort McCoy population included about 50 apparent clones, each with from five to 100 stems. These were located in full sun on a good quality bluff prairie situated on a steep (20-30 percent) southwest-facing slope (Leach 2319, WIS). This habitat is similar to the sandy bluff prairies (Mickelson & Iltis 1966) and rocky bluff prairies (Hartley 1966) described for other Wisconsin populations.
Page 7 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST TABLE 1. Rare vascular plants found at Fort McCoy Military Reservation. Legal status is given as WI-W ("Watch" species in Wisconsin), WI-TH ("Threatened" in Wisconsin), and Cat-2 (United States Fish and Wildlife Service Federal "Category 2"). Species listed as "Watch" and "Category 2" were being considered for protection as Threatened or Endangered. The number of sites documented in this study for each species is given under "stations." An asterisk indicates species for which additional stations were discovered since 1992. Superscripts following common names indicate their phytogeographic affinities. Upland species are elements of (1) the Great Plains, (2) the Midwest and Appalachia, or are (3) endemics or near endemics to the Midwest. Wetland species are elements of (4) the Atlantic coastal plain, (5) the northeastern United States, or (6) much of the eastern United States. Upland species grow in dry sandy and rocky places, primarily sand prairies, oak and jack-pine barrens, and rocky slopes. Status Stations Dragon's sagewort' (Artemisia dracunculus) WI-W 1 Oval milkweed1 (Asclepias ovalifolia) WI-W 1* Cream gentian2 (Gentiana flavida) WI-TH 4 Brittle prickly-pearl (Opuntiafragilis) WI-TH 1* Prairie parsley1 (Polytaenia nuttallii) WI-TH 9 Cliff goldenrod3 (Solidago sciaphila) WI-W 1 Fame flower3 (Talinum rugospermum) WI-W, CAT-2 48* Wetland species grow in moist sand, wet meadows, swamps, alder thickets, and along streams. Screw-stem4 (Bartonia virginica) WI-W 1 Long sedge6 (Carexfolliculata) WI-W 11 Bog bluegrass (Poa paludigena) WI-TH CAT-2 4 Cross milkwort4 (Polygala cruciata) WI-W 1 Meadow beauty4 (Rhexia virginica) WI-W 1 Tall nut rush6 (Scleria triglomerata) WI-W 1 Massachusetts fern5 (Thelypteris simulata) WI-W 5 Like dragon's sagewort, the prairie parsley (Polytaenia nuttallii: Umbelliferae), was associated with steep, rocky, southwesterly slopes (Leach 2238, 2239, 2281, WIS). Prairie parsley, as its name implies, is often described as a plant of prairies and plains (e.g., Gleason & Cronquist 1991), but sometimes also of open woods (e.g., Mohlenbrock 1975). At Fort McCoy prairie parsley grew in the partial shade of a black or Hill's oak canopy, where warm-season prairie grasses grew poorly, if at all (see Leach 1996, Leach & Givnish 1999). These slopes had not burned recently. Prairie parsley can live several years as a basal rosette of leaves before putting up a flowering stalk, after which the plant dies (Hubner & Leach 1995). I found rosette-stage individuals scattered under the oak canopies, but flowering individuals were much more common in small light gaps. I found few individuals growing among the prairie grasses in the well-lit areas between trees. There the accumulated litter was much thicker than beneath the trees. Their exclusion from small patches of prairie is consistent with observations that short and basalrosette plants are likely to be lost from Wisconsin prairie remnants in the ab
Page 8 ï~~THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 sence of frequent fires (Leach & Givnish 1996). The fire frequency may have been low at these sites owing to the presence of nearby pine plantations, which are protected from fire. Another species I found on rocky, shaded slopes was the cliff goldenrod (Solidago sciaphila: Asteraceae). This perennial herb is endemic (Salamun 1963) or nearly endemic (Nuzzo 1995) to the Driftless Area. It grows on cliffs, outcrops, talus slopes, and rarely in sandy oak or jack-pine savannas at the base of cliffs (Salamun 1963, Hartley 1966). I documented only one population of cliff goldenrod (Leach 2325 & 2326, WIS), where it grew on slopes, ridge tops, and outcrops with a semi-open canopy of black oak and jack pine. There the associated groundlayer vegetation was sparse and composed of low-growing plants including pussy toes (Antennaria plantaginifolia), Pennsylvania sedge, and Canada mayflower (Maianthemum canadense). I suspect cliff goldenrod is much more common than suggested by this single observation. The bulk of my survey work was in the summer and I lacked experience recognizing this fall-flowering species in its vegetative state. Oval or dwarf milkweed (Asclepias ovalifolia: Asclepiadaceae) is an herbaceous perennial ranging from northern Illinois and Wisconsin to southern Saskatchewan and western South Dakota (Woodson 1954, Gleason & Cronquist 1991). At the fort, I could not relocate one historic population of oval milkweed reported to be within the Silver Creek State Natural Area. I thought the population had been extirpated owing to lack of fire and increased shading from young growth of white pine. However, after several years of observation, Judy Maxwell (pers. comm.) observed the reappearance of the milkweeds. In another historic site, Kristin Westad and I found what appeared to be a single clone. There the canopy of oaks allowed little direct sun. Since milkweeds are suspected of being self-incompatible (Woodson 1954), this isolated population is unlikely to reproduce sexually and, thus, is unlikely to survive in the long term. In contrast to the fort's shaded population, this milkweed's habitat in Wisconsin is generally sunnier-sandy prairie and open woods (Hartley 1966, Woodson 1954, Noamesi & Iltis 1957). In a statewide survey, Westad (1994) reported a severe decline in oval milkweed. She found that populations survived where the tree canopy remained open. In 1997 Judziewicz (1997) discovered 15 new sites in Jackson County, which is immediately north of Fort McCoy (Figure 1). The brittle prickly-pear (Opuntia fragilis: Cactaceae) is a small, spiny cactus found in sandy to rocky prairies and hillsides across the Great Plains (Barkley 1986). Its eastern range limit is in Wisconsin and northern Michigan. It is remarkable for its tolerance of extreme cold temperatures (Loik & Nobel 1993, Ishakawa & Gusta 1996). A large population, which I estimated to include more than 10,000 individuals, grew at Fort McCoy on a single, treeless, sandy, southfacing slope. This slope had been highly disturbed by horses and munitionsloading activities during the First World War. Where prickly-pear grew densely, many individual plants had more than 20 pads. These formed canopies with diameters between 15 and 36 cm. Among these larger plants were many small plants, which may have been seedlings or vegetative offspring. No one I spoke to who was familiar with this population could recall seeing any plants in bloom.
Page 9 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST I found other individuals scattered up to 500 m away in both full sun and the partial shade of scrub oaks. These cacti were relatively small, suggesting their recent dispersal from the main population. As the common and scientific names suggest, pads readily break off the mother plant. Their many spines easily attach to boots or animals that readily carry the small pads. Subsequent to this study, Judy Maxwell (pers. comm.) discovered another population in a south-facing sandy oak barren. Areas supporting brittle prickly-pear at the fort were rocky or sandy openings in oak-barrens. Little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) was dominant and other grasses were common, including big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) and fall witch-grass (Leptoloma cognatum). This habitat is similar to those described by Ugent (1962) for central and northwestern Wisconsin. In a brief inspection of the fort's brittle prickly-pear population in 1998, I found the number of individuals was considerably less than observed in 1992. I also observed that the density of prairie grasses, sweet clover (Melilotus spp.), and leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) had increased. The increased growth of prairie grasses may have decreased the growth of brittle prickly-pear in two ways: directly, by intercepting light and, indirectly, by mediating feeding by specialized insect herbivores (Burger & Louda 1994, 1995). The cream gentian (Gentiana flavida: Gentianaceae) is an essentially Midwestern and Appalachian herbaceous perennial. On the fort, I found cream gentian in places that had once been highly disturbed. The two larger populations, each containing dozens of individuals, grew on sandy former farm fields that had been abandoned about 40 years previously. At the time of my survey, dry prairie species, most notably little bluestem, and agricultural weeds dominated. Two smaller populations, both in road rights-of-way, each consisted of a single plant. Mason & Iltis (1965) and Hartley (1966) describe cream gentian habitat as remnant prairie or edges of dry oak woodlands, not as disturbed ground. However, I found a large population in Lafayette County in southern Wisconsin, occupying an eroding road cut (Leach 1989). II. Lowland Species The fort's complex of streams, swamps, and wet meadows supported seven rare plant species (Table 1). The one I most commonly found was the long sedge (Carexfolliculata: Cyperaceae). It occurs throughout much of the eastern United States, but in Wisconsin is restricted to four contiguous counties (Figure 1): Clark, Jackson, Monroe, and Juneau (Alverson & Iltis 1981). Hartley (1966) incorrectly placed the Wisconsin populations entirely within the old bed of Glacial Lake Wisconsin (Figure 1). I found this relatively tall sedge (to about 1 m) in four of five previously reported locations, including one described by Tans and Read (1975), and in seven new areas (Leach 1941, WIS). It most commonly grew among mossy hummocks in red maple (Acer rubrum) or tamarack swamps and on the margins of streams lined with speckled alder (Alnus incana), winterberry (Ilex verticillata), and poison sumac (Toxicodendron vernix). It was nearly always growing with cinnamon fern (Osmunda cinnamomea) and skunk cabbage (Symplocarpusfoetidus). The number of individuals in these populations ranged
Page 10 ï~~10 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 from dozens to tens of thousands. In portions of some tamarack swamps, long sedge was the dominant ground-layer plant. While populations occurred in both shaded and well-lit locations, the more open-grown plants were larger and bore fruit more often. The Massachusetts fern (Thelypteris simulata: Aspleniaceae) is a mediumsized fern that is relatively common in swamps and moist woods from the eastern shore of Lake Huron to Nova Scotia and Virginia. Its disjunct occurrence in Wisconsin was unknown until 1958, when Hartley (1965) discovered it in the old lakebed of Glacial Lake Wisconsin (Figure 1). Hartley (1966) described it as locally abundant in low sphagnous woods with red maple, white pine, and white oak. In appearance it is similar to the common marsh fern (Thelypteris palustris), but the two do not hybridize (Tyron & Tyron 1973). Massachusetts fern had been reportedly collected by Gage and Bever and had been seen by Dobberpuhl (1988). I found it in two of the three previously reported locations and in three new locations. The ferns were commonly elevated on mossy hummocks near streams, often in speckled alder thickets, tamarack swamps (Leach 1959, WIS), and less often in open bogs. In one red maple-white pine swamp it grew in wet sandy soil without moss. Bog bluegrass (Poa paludigena: Poaceae) is a rarely collected small grass found in bogs and wet woods from New York and Pennsylvania to Wisconsin and Illinois (Gleason & Cronquist 1991). Fassett (1951) indicated only three locations in Wisconsin, in cool mossy springs. The fort contains large populations of bog bluegrass. I surveyed four populations along cool, sandy, fast-flowing streams (Leach 2280, 2282, 2286, 2287, WIS; Leach 2291, UWSP), including one previously known location (Bever 54, WIS; Dobberpuhl 1988). Some individuals grew on moist, moss-covered logs or on mossy beds along streams. Hundreds of bog bluegrass plants grew on moist, mossy terraces under partial shade with a lush herb layer. Common herbs included soft rush (Juncus effusus), sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis), tear-thumb (Polygonum sagittatum), and common vervain (Verbena hastata). Where one stream was widened and braided above a dam, bog bluegrass grew in full sun in very shallow, slow moving water among small, scattered patches of sedges and marsh-marigold (Caltha palustris). Another small, easily overlooked plant is screw-stem (Bartonia virginica: Gentianaceae). This annual (or biennial) has scale-like leaves and may be dependent upon mycorrhizal association. In Wisconsin, Mason & Iltis (1965) and Hartley (1966) describe it as growing in a variety of moist, wet, or boggy sites in shade or sun. I found no screw-stem in a previously reported location. However, Kristin Westad and I found screwstem (Leach & Westad 2311, WIS) in an area described to us by Robert Freckmann and James Hessil (pers. comm.). We counted about 30 individuals on bare, black soil in a moist woodland of white oak and red maple. The understory included scattered cinnamon fern, longawned wood grass (Brachyelytrum erectum), bear sedge (Carex arctata), and star flower (Trientalis borealis). Tall nut rush (Scleria triglomerata: Cyperaceae) occurs in moist sandy soil or marshes (Greene 1953) from Massachusetts to Wisconsin and south to Georgia
Page 11 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 11 and Texas. In Wisconsin, it grows primarily on sand prairies (Alverson & Iltis 1981) and moist, sandy meadows (Hartley 1966). A small population discovered at the fort by Eric Epstein contained about 25 fruiting stems (Leach 1964, WIS). These grew in a floristically rich area of moist, sandy soil located between a sedge meadow and upland oaks. Most plants grew in open places between aspens (Populus tremuloides) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) or in areas kept clear of trees under an overhead transmission line. Immediate associates included upland and lowland species, including prairie heart-leafed aster (Aster oolentangiensis), flowering spurge (Euphorbia corollata), alum root (Heuchera richardsonii), cinnamon fern, royal fern (Osmunda regalis), and downy phlox (Phlox pilosa). Cross milkwort (Polygala cruciata: Polygalaceae) is a small annual herb found chiefly on the Atlantic coastal plain (Gleason & Cronquist 1991) and is considered disjunct in Wisconsin (Reznicek 1994). At the fort, Eric Epstein and I discovered dozens of these herbs (Leach & Epstein 1980a, WIS) where sand had been mined down to the water table. Populations located on other excavations were reported in the Chicago region (Swink & Wilhelm 1994) and in Michigan (Harvey Ballard, pers. comm.). The Fort McCoy site was a more than 100-year-old sand borrow pit that remains moist throughout much of the growing season. The sunny, wet, lownutrient conditions supported a large number of short plants including grass-pink (Calopogon tuberosus), round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia), club-spur orchid (Habenaria clavellata), bog clubmoss (Lycopodium inundatum), rose pogonia (Pogonia ophioglossoides), and yellow-eyed grass (Xyris torta). Occurring near the cross milkwort was a population of meadow-beauty (Rhexia virginica: Melastomaceae), another disjunct from the Atlantic coastal plain (Reznicek 1994). In Wisconsin, this species mainly occurs in the ancient bed of Glacial Lake Wisconsin (Figure 1), in moist sedge meadows, sandy roadside and railroad ditches, and under jack pine along edges of bogs (Ugent 1962). Alverson & Iltis (1981) describe suitable habitats as wet, sandy flats and drying lake borders. I found a single, dense colony (Leach 1970, WIS) where a communications cable was buried several years previously through an area of jack pine on moist sand. The immediate area had an uncommon flora, including colic-root (Aletris farinosa), grass-pink, and round-leaved sundew. DISCUSSION Fort McCoy is an important refuge for rare plants and animals. It contains, perhaps, the world's largest meta-populations of Karner blue butterflies (Bleser 1993, Leach 1993a), fame flower, and bog bluegrass. Its populations of long sedge, prairie parsley, brittle prickly-pear, and Massachusetts fern could be the largest in Wisconsin. In such a heavily used military training facility as Fort McCoy, these and the other smaller populations of rare plants could become extirpated without active management and protection. In the past, the survival of rare plants at the fort was incidental to military activity. Although thousands of soldiers have trained there each year, the fort is so
Page 12 ï~~12 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 large that many areas remain relatively unaffected. Rare plant survival was probably also aided by the combination of nutrient-poor, drought-prone soils and accidental wildfires that slowed forest succession, consumed plant litter, and inhibited alien invasions (Leach & Givnish 1996). For the last several years, the fort's Natural Resource Management Division (NRMD) has taken an increasingly pro-active approach to rare species protection. The fort has placed three areas under the protection of the Wisconsin Natural Areas Program. In addition to my survey for rare plants, experts have surveyed for reptiles, amphibians, birds, small mammals, fish, moths, butterflies, and other invertebrates. Experimental control of pest species, including leafy spurge and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea), is underway. In 1994 the NRMD added a full-time, endangered-species biologist whose primary concern is meeting the legal requirements of the Endangered Species Act as they pertain to the Karner blue butterfly. This biologist also works to minimize impacts on all rare plant and animal populations. Importantly, military commanders, engineers, and trainers have cooperated with the NRMD to protect most rare species from the negative effects of heavy training. The exception is fame flower, which receives no specific protection. Fame flower appears to benefit from small-scale soil disturbances such as those caused by the occasional sod-busting action of track vehicles. To perpetuate rare species, management must look beyond minimizing impacts and toward active management to increase the numbers and sizes of rare populations. One such action being undertaken by the NRMD, in consultation with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, is the development of ecosystem approaches to savanna management (Leach & Ross 1995, Leach & Givnish 1998) to ensure survival of the Karner blue butterfly. Ecosystem management for the Karner blue (Bleser & Leach 1994) could also benefit the upland rare plants found in the butterfly's habitat. Such management includes prescribed fire and selective timber harvests. The military trainers prefer savanna-like landscapes for their training activities and, therefore, are supportive of this ecosystem approach. However, construction and training facility "improvements" will continue to threaten potential rare plant habitat. A survey for rare plants raises more questions than it answers. How underreported were the easily overlooked species (i.e., cliff goldenrod, fame flower, screw stem, bog bluegrass, cross milkwort, and tall nut rush)? How should rare species be monitored? How does training affect rare species? How stable are their populations? Does military training on cliffs and rocky outcrops damage populations of cliff goldenrod in the same manner as have recreational rock climbers in Illinois (Nuzzo 1995)? Ideally, each species should have its own conservation plan based on the best scientific knowledge. In reality there are large gaps in our knowledge of the ecology and population biology of these species and too few resources devoted to writing and implementing such plans. Fort McCoy is a laboratory well suited for research that addresses both practical problems faced by conservationists (e.g., habitat restoration) and theoretical questions yet unanswered by science. For more information on ongoing research and research opportunities at the fort, interested individuals should contact the endangered species biologist at 608. 388. 2252 or write Directorate of Public
Page 13 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 13 Works, ATTN: AFRC-FM-PWN, 2160 South "J" Street, Fort McCoy, Wisconsin 54656-5162. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Nature Conservancy Wisconsin Field Office employed me for this study, under contract with Fort McCoy and with major support from the Department of Defense Legacy Program. I thank Nancy Braker of the Nature Conservancy and the NRMD staff at Fort McCoy: Kim Mello, Timothy Wilder, James Kerkman, James Hessil, David Beckmann, Candy Thornton, and Major (retired) Dennis Kuecherer. Thanks also to Gary Larsen of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Ted Cochrane, Robert Kowal, Hugh Iltis, Harvey Ballard, and Robert Freckmann named or verified the identity of numerous specimens. Hugh Iltis, Harvey Ballard, Mike Penskar, and an anonymous reviewer offered useful criticisms of earlier versions of this work. Michelle Milbauer and David Egan helped edit the final manuscript. Michael Williams of the Center for Environmental Management of Military Lands, Colorado State University, provided the updated information found in the Addendum below. Addendum: The Center for Environmental Management of Military Lands, Colorado State University, now maintains records of Fort McCoy's rare plants. Since my initial survey, they report verified collections of Carex laevivaginata (Wisconsin Endangered), Orobanche uniflora (Wisconsin Special Concern), and Solidago caesia (Wisconsin Endangered). They have also recorded additional populations of Asclepias ovalifolia (one population); Bartonia virginica (one population); Scieria triglomerata (one population), and Talinum rugospermum (several populations). The Bartonia and Scleria were found in the same habitat where I reported Polygala cruciata. I reported Prenanthes aspera to be likely extirpated, but eight individuals have subsequently been observed within about 3 km of the originally reported site. LITERATURE CITED Alverson, W.S., & H.H. Iltis. 1981. Wisconsin's Endangered Plants. Unpublished report available at University of Wisconsin Herbarium, Madison. Barkley, T.M. (ed.) 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. University Press of Kansas. Bleser, C.A. 1993. Status survey, management and monitoring activities for the Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) in Wisconsin, 1990-1992. Report submitted to the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources-Bureau of Endangered Resources. 88 pp. + append. Bleser, C.A., & M.K. Leach. 1994. Protecting the Karner blue butterfly in Wisconsin: Shifting focus from individuals to populations and processes. In, J.S. Fralish, R.C. Anderson, J.E. Ebinger, R Szafoni (eds.), Proceedings of the North American Conference on Barrens and Savannas. Illinois State University, Normal. Pp. 140-146. Burger, J.C., & S.M. Louda. 1994. Indirect versus direct effects of grasses on growth of a cactus (Opuntia fragilis): insect herbivory versus competition. Oecologia 99: 79-87. Burger, J.C., & S.M. Louda. 1995. Interactions of diffuse competition and insect herbivory in limiting brittle prickly pear cactus, Opuntia fragilis (Cactaceae). American Journal of Botany 82(12): 1558-1566. Cochrane, T.S. 1993. Status and distribution of Talinum rugospermum Holz. (Portulacaceae). Natural Areas Journal 13(1): 33-41. Curtis, J.T. 1959. The Vegetation of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 657 pp. Dobberpuhl, J. 1988. Botanist, Natural Heritage Inventory, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison. Letter to Kim Mello, Natural Resources Management Division, Fort McCoy (11 July 1988). Fassett, N.C. 1951. Grasses of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 173 pp. Fort McCoy, Directorate of Engineering, Natural Resource Management Division. 1983. Fort McCoy Resource Management Plan: Part One: General. Report to Commander, Fort McCoy, Wisconsin. Gleason, H.A., & A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada (Second Edition). The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.
Page 14 ï~~14 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 40 Greene, H.C. 1953. Preliminary reports on the flora of Wisconsin. XXXVII. Cyperaceae. Part ICyperus, Dulichium, Eleocharis, Bulbostylis, Fimbristylis, Eriophorum, Scirpus, Hemicarpha, Rhynchospora, Psilocarya, Cladium, Scleria. Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 42: 47-64. Hartley, T.G. 1965. Discovery of the Massachusetts fern in Wisconsin. Rhodora 67 (772): 399-404. Hartley, T. G. 1966. The Flora of the "Driftless Area." The University of Iowa Studies in Natural History XXI(1). Hole, ED., & C.E. Germain. 1994. Natural divisions of Wisconsin. (Map) Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison. Hubner, S., & M.K. Leach. 1995. Prairie parsley reappears following brush cutting and burning (Wisconsin). Restoration and Management Notes 13(2): 209-210. Ishakawa, M., & L.V. Gusta. 1996. Freezing and heat tolerance of Opuntia cacti native to the Canadian prairie provinces. Canadian Journal of Botany 74(12): 1890-1895. Judziewicz, E.J. 1997. Rare vascular plants of the Black River State Forest, Jackson County, Wisconsin, 1997 field season. Unpublished report to Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison. 27 pp. Kirk, K. 1994. Report on a survey of the distribution of downy phlox (Phlox pilosa) and the phlox moth (Schinia indiana) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Ft. McCoy, Monroe County, Wisconsin. Unpublished report submitted to Fort McCoy. Leach, M.K. 1989. Vegetation of interest along the Monroe to Mineral Point recreation trail in Lafayette, Green, and Iowa Counties. Report prepared for the Pecatonica Railroad Commission by Applied Ecological Services, Juda, Wisconsin. 78 Pp. Leach, M.K. 1993a. Status and distribution of the Karner Blue Butterfly at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin: final report of a two-year survey. Unpublished report for The Nature Conservancy, Wisconsin Chapter, Madison. Prepared under contract with the Department of Defense, Fort McCoy. 50 pp. Leach, M.K. 1993b. Survey for Rare Plants at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin: Final Report. Unpublished report for The Nature Conservancy, Wisconsin Chapter, Madison. Prepared under contract with the Department of Defense, Fort McCoy. 142 pp. Leach, M.K. 1996. Gradients in groundlayer composition, structure and diversity in remnant and experimentally restored oak savannas. Ph.D. Dissertation (Botany) University of WisconsinMadison. 167 pp. Leach, M.K., & T.J. Givnish. 1996. Ecological determinants of species loss in remnant prairies. Science 273: 1555-1558. Leach, M.K., & T.J. Givnish. 1998. Identifying highly restorable savanna remnants. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters 86: 119-127. Leach, M.K., & T.J. Givnish. 1999. Gradients in the composition, structure, and diversity of remnant oak savannas in southern Wisconsin. Ecological Monographs 69(3): 353-374. Leach, M.K., & L. Ross (eds.) 1995. Midwest Oak Ecosystem Recovery Plan: A Call to Action. Midwest Oak Savanna and Woodland Ecosystem Conference, Springfield, Missouri. Published by the Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago. 112 pp. Loik, M.E., & P.S. Nobel. 1993. Freezing tolerance and water relations of Opuntia fragilis from Canada and the United States. Ecology 74(6): 1722-1732. Mason, C.T., Jr., & H.H. Iltis. 1965. Preliminary reports on the flora of Wisconsin No. 53. Gentianaceae and Menyanthaceae-Gentian and Buckbean families. Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 54: 295-329. Maxwell, J.A., & L.A. Ferge. 1994. Report on a Survey of Lepidoptera at Fort McCoy 1992-1993. Unpublished report submitted to the Natural Resource Management Division, Fort McCoy, Wisconsin. Maxwell, J.A., & T.J. Givnish. 1994. Research on the Karner Blue Butterfly at Fort McCoy, Wisconsin: Progress Report. Unpublished report submitted to the Natural Resource Management Division, Fort McCoy, Wisconsin and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Green Bay, Wisconsin. Mickelson, C.J., & H.H. Iltis. 1966. Preliminary reports on the flora of Wisconsin No. 55 Compositae IV-Composite Family IV (Tribes Helenieae and Anthemideae). Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 55: 187-222. Mohlenbrock, R.H. 1975. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale. 494 pp.
Page 15 ï~~2001 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 15 Nederlo, D. 1994. Survey for endangered, threatened, and watch reptile and amphibian species at Ft. McCoy, Wisconsin: 1993 Report. Unpublished report submitted to Fort McCoy. Noamesi, C.J., & H.H. Iltis. 1957. Preliminary reports on the flora of Wisconsin. No. 40. Asclepiadaceae-Milkweed family. Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 46: 107-114. Nuzzo, V.A. 1995. Effects of rock climbing on cliff goldenrod (Solidago sciaphila Steele) in northwest Illinois. American Midland Naturalist 133(2): 229-241. Reznicek, A.A. 1994. The disjunct coastal plain flora in the Great Lakes region. Biological Conservation 68: 203-215. Salamun, P.J. 1963. Preliminary reports on the flora of Wisconsin, No. 50 Compositae III-Composite Family III: the Genus Solidago-goldenrod. Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 52: 353-382. Swink, F., & G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region (4th Edition). Indiana Academy of Science. 921 pp. Tans, W.E., & R.H. Read. 1975. Recent Wisconsin records for some interesting vascular plants in the Western Great Lakes region. The Michigan Botanist 14: 36. Tyron, A., & R. Tyron. 1973. Thelypteris in northeastern North America. American Fern Journal 63(3): 65-76. Ugent, D. 1962. Preliminary reports on the flora of Wisconsin. No. 46. The orders Thymelaeales, Myrtales, and Cactales. Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 51: 83-134. Westad, K. 1994. Distribution of Asclepias ovalifolia in Wisconsin, 1993. Unpublished report to Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters. 5 pp. Woodson, R.E., Jr. 1954. The North American species of Asclepias L. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 41(1): 1-211. REVIEW GRAND HAVEN WILDLIFE VIEWING GUIDE. 2001. Betty J. Mattson. Illustrations by Kelly Jewell. 102 pp. paperback; $13.00 with tax and shipping; Sky Enterprises Publications, 805 Waverly Avenue, Grand Haven, Michigan 49417, with checks payable to Sky Enterprises. The city of Grand Haven is on Lake Michigan, in Ottawa County in Michigan's Lower Peninsula. It offers many fine viewing sites. "You should never judge a book by its cover." But in this instance, the cover is sketches of waterways, trees, and other plants, an accurate introduction to the contents, because this fine new book gives information about the plants and animals supported by these habitats. By focusing only on Grand Haven's sites, Mattson was able to include details often omitted in more general guides. Tips on what wildlife to see, exactly where, at which season, and hints on how to for the creatures are presented from the author's perspective as an educator. Separate sections for birds, other animals, and plants have alphabetical listings by common name, with Latin binomials following. For ease of use, simple codes for site, season, and status all appear in a single line. Her writing reflects dedication to details, which are amply supported by Kelly Jewell's line illustrations. Historical backgrounds on the Kitchel-Lindquist Preserve, Harbor Island, and East Grand River Park expand our understanding of the area. The book is en