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    18. As I argue in Lotz, 2016, “Others have termed these as platforms or apps; all of these terms carry with them wide-ranging and complicated uses. Portal first emerged in relation to computing to describe a website or service that provided internet service, then to websites or services that provided access to a variety of content, for example, AOL as an internet portal (Oxford English Dictionary). Portal has otherwise fallen from use, freeing it for this use that draws on the notion of a gateway to video content. Platform continues to be used extensively as computing systems (Ian Bogost and Nick Montfort, “Platform Studies: Frequently Asked Questions,” Digital Arts and Culture, 2009, http://nickm.com/if/bogost_montfort_dac_2009.pdf) or as a set of interfaces and tools (Facebook platform), while apps describe too broad an array of programs or software. Platform and app can also connote viewing on particular devices and this theorization of portal seeks to be device agnostic. The entities distinguished as portals here provide access to a wide range of content and the thirteenth-century definition of the term emphasizes their function as a gateway, in this case to a library of television programs.” See Amanda D. Lotz, “The Paradigmatic Evolution of U.S. Television and the Emergence of Internet-Distributed Television” Icono 14 Journal of Communication and Emergent Technologies 14, no. 2 (2016): 122–42, http://www.icono14.net/ojs/index.php/icono14/article/view/993/566.


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