Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln. Volume 6.
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865.
THE COLLECTED WORKS OF
ABRAHAM LINCOLN
Vol. 6



THE HISTORY BOOK CLUB EDITION

Page  1

To the Senate [1]

To the Senate of the United States: December 13, 1862

In the list of nominations transmitted to the Senate under date of the 1st instant, Captain Wm. M. Glendy, U.S. Navy, was included therein for promotion to the grade of commodore.

Since submitting this nomination it appears that this officer was ineligible for the advancement to which he had been nominated, in consequence of his age, being sixty-two on the 23d of May, 1862, and under the law of 21 December, 1861, should, had this fact been known to the Navy Department, have been transferred to the retired list on the day when he completed sixty-two years.

The nomination of Captain Glendy is accordingly withdrawn.

It is due to this officer to state that at the period of the passage of the law of December, 1861, he was, and still is, absent on duty on a foreign station, and the certificate of his age, required by the Navy Department, was only received a few days since.

Washington, D.C., 13 December, 1862. ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Senate Executive Journal, XIII, 11. Captain William M. Glendy of Maryland was placed on the retired list and is listed in the U.S. Official Register, 1863, as ``Prize Commissioner'' at Washington, D.C.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

December 13, 1862.

Will the Secretary of War please direct that Mr. Thoroughman may be disposed of at the discretion of Abram Jonas and Henry Asbury of Quincy, Ill., both of whom I know to be loyal and sensible men? A. LINCOLN.

December 13, 1862.

Annotation

[1]   Leslie J. Perry, ``Appeals to Lincoln's Clemency,'' The Century Magazine, LI (December, 1895), 252. Perry describes Lincoln's endorsement as ``on the face of a large official envelop which probably originally contained all the papers relating to the case. . . . Inside in a single-paper the report of Henry Asbury and Abra[ha]m Jonas---from which it appears that Mr. ThoroughmanPage  2

was duly paroled and permitted to go to his home.'' Thomas Thoroughman of St. Joseph, Missouri, was arrested for disloyalty in May, 1862, and afterwards sent to Quincy, Illinois.

To Simon Cameron [1]

Hon. Simon Cameron Executive Mansion,
Harrisburg, Pa. Washington, Dec. 14, 1862.

Please come to Washington so soon as you conveniently can.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. No reply has been found, but see Lincoln to Cameron, February 13, 1863, infra.

To Samuel R. Curtis [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington,
Major-General Curtis, Saint Louis, Mo.: December 14, 1862.

If my friend Dr. William Fithian, of Danville, Ill., should call on you, please give him such facilities as you consistently can about recovering the remains of a step-son and matters connected therewith. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Tarbell (Appendix), p. 355. William Fithian's stepsons, Lieutenant Colonel John C. Black of the Thirty-seventh Illinois, and his brother William P. Black, had been badly wounded in the Battle of Prairie Grove in northwest Arkansas on December 7, 1862. Ward H. Lamon relates, ``I shall never forget the scene, when I took to Mr. Lincoln a letter written by Dr. Fithian to me, describing the condition of the `Black boys,' and expressing his fears that they could not live. Mr. Lincoln read it, and broke into tears. . . .'' (Recollections of Abraham Lincoln, pp. 104-105). John C. Black survived to a distinguished career in politics.

To John G. Nicolay [1]

War Department.
John G. Nicolay, Headquarters: [December 14, 1862]

What news have you? A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   Tarbell (Appendix), p. 355. No answer has been found, but see note, Lincoln to Burnside, December 12, supra.

To Edward Bates [1]

This letter being written by the U.S. District Attorney I have concluded to grant the pardon requested. A. LINCOLN.

Dec. 15. 1862

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA RG 204, U.S. Pardon Attorney, A 453. Lincoln's endorsement is written on the back of a letter from William P. Price, U.S. District Attorney at Baltimore, December 11, 1862, recommending pardon of First Mate Rasmus Ben son, convicted of cruel and unusual punishment of a seaman.

Page  3

To Isaac R. Diller [1]

December 15, 1862

Captain Dahlgren, of the U.S. Navy, having tested, to some extent, the new powder mentioned within, and having expressed the opinion that a fuller test should be made, which he thinks cannot be satisfactorily done with less than one thousand pounds, I agree to the within terms, as modified by what is written below. The quantity of powder produced for the test may be more, but not less than one thousand pounds, and the sum to be paid for preparing this quantity, shall not be more than the actual cost, nor more than two dollars per pound, nor in the aggregate more than five thousand dollars. When the officers, or other skilled person or persons, I shall select to make the test, shall advise me that in their opinion, the powder possesses all the advantages represented within, and that it has no important fault, I will advise the payment of the one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, for the transfer to the United States, the secret of composing and making said. powder, and the exclusive right, within the United States, of making, using, and vending it to others, to be used. I only promise to advise the payment, because I have not the money at my control which I could, by law, absolutely promise to pay.

December 15. 1862. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   Copies, DLC-RTL; copy, DNA WR RG 74, Navy Branch, Bureau of Ordnance, Letters Received 1862-1863. See Lincoln to Welles, August 2, supra, and endorsement of January 15, 1863, infra. On September 10, 1862, Isaac R. Diller wrote Lincoln as follows:

``After consultation with Captain Dahlgreen, I have come to the conclusion not to attempt to make the large quantity of the new powder which he will require for full tests, in this City. In my opinion it would not be safe to do so, on account of the secrecy necessary to be observed in its manufacture.

``In my opinion the expense, incurred in the manufacture of the required amount will not exceed five hundred dollars,---provided I have permission to draw from the public stores such articles as are on hand.

``The sum specified will be used only for the purpose of purchasing certain necessary means for making it, which will always be found useful in the public laboratory connected with the Agricultural Department of the Government.

``Before commencing these experiments it will be positively necessary for me to return to the West for a few days and I respectfully ask that transportation be furnished me for that purpose.

``I propose to do this work in Philadelphia, and in this determination Capt. Dahlgreen concurs.

``When I am prepared to commence operations, I have the honor to ask that Dr. Charles M. Wetherill, Chief Chemist of the Agricultural Department, be again assigned to me to conduct the manufacture, and experiments, as he is the only person, except myself, familiar with the process of manufacture, in this country.

``The expenses already incurred, not counting my time or that of the Chemist, amounts to two hundred & fifty-five dollars.'' (DLC-RTL).

Page  4On October 17, 1862, Charles M. Wetherill wrote Lincoln as follows:

``Having understood that Captain Diller is ready to have me detailed back to the Department of Agriculture, I desire to make the following statement. I have brought my chemical apparatus (which I value at $3000) to Washington by Captain Dillers directions. I have used it in the experiments without charge to the Government.

``I have placed this apparatus together with my scientific library (which I value at $2000) at the disposal of the Department of Agriculture to be used by me in the prosecution of researches in agricultural chemistry, until Congress shall provide for the Chemistry of the Department. As I place $5000 of my Capital at the disposal of the Government, without interest I think I should be made secure in its ownership. As soon as I am detailed back to the Dept. of Agriculture I lose possession of my apparatus unless said room is in the possession of the Commissioner. I have therefore respectfully to request that this laboratory tranfer be made or that I be otherwise made secure in my ownership before I am detailed back to my Department.'' (DLC-RTL).

Shortly afterwards, Wetherill was appointed chemist in the Department of Agriculture (New York Tribune, October 27, 1862), and the experiment was undertaken. On December 10, Diller submitted the following document to the president and received Lincoln's endorsement (dated December 15, as given above):

``The undersigned, Isaac R. Diller, a citizen of the United States, and resident of the State of Illinois, would respectfully represent; that I am the owner and possessor of a process of making an article of gunpowder entirely unknown and unused in the United States.

``I propose to place the art of manufacturing the said powder and every thing pertaining to the complete understanding of its composition, in the possession of the Government of the United States, on the condition, that as soon as the amount hereafter specified has been made, and the article being tested by said Government, and being found to possess the qualities and advantages claimed for it, then and in that case in consideration therefor, the said Government is to pay, or cause to be paid, to the undersigned, the sum of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars ($150,000).

``The said tests to be carried on and conducted by officers of the said Government, to be selected by the President, in the presence of the undersigned, and at as an early a day as possible, after a notification from the undersigned that the material is prepared.

``When the said tests are completed, if successful and satisfactory to the said Government, I will then place them in possession of the said art and mode of compounding the said article of gunpowder, whereupon the above sum is then to be paid, as above stipulated.

``I further propose to proceed immediately, upon the approval of these propositions, by the President of the United States, to prepare a sufficient quantity of the said article for the tests aforesaid, not exceeding one thousand pounds, the said Government agreeing to pay all charges and expenses incurred in the preparation of the said quantity, and the machinery necessary therefor.

``I propose to file full specifications of the advantages claimed for the new powder, in the office of Captain J. A. Dahlgren, chief of the Bureau of Ordnance in the Navy Department, within ten days from the date and approval of the above propositions by the President.

``I have the honor to be Very Respectfully Your Obedient Servant

ISAAC R. DILLER.''

``Specification of the advantages claimed for the `R.R.R. Gunpowder' made a part of this paper by direction of the President.

``1. It contains neither saltpetre nor sulphur. It bears no relation to gun-cotton. The ingredients can always be obtained in the United States.

``2. The manufacture of the powder is simple, requiring no complicated apparatus,Page  5 and is attended with less danger than the manufacture of ordinary gunpowder.

``3. Atmospheric changes, whether of moisture, or heat, do not injure the powder. Like ordinary gunpowder, it requires a great pressure or friction for its explosion. It does not ignite under 300deg. Celsius. It may be ignited by a spark, or percussion cap, like common gunpowder.

``4. In smooth-bored guns, seven parts by weight of this powder, are, as effective as nine parts by weight of ordinary gunpowder, while in rifled guns, this advantage is in the proportion of one to two.

``5. Neither this powder, nor its ingredients in store, are liable to deteriorate.

``6. The heating effect of this powder is less than that of ordinary powder, in the proportion of one to two. It gives a weaker report, less smoke, and fouls the gun much less than ordinary gunpowder. It does not damage the gun.

``7. In comparing equal weights of this with ordinary gunpowder, the estimated cost is about equal---but the smaller amount required of this powder, renders it greatly advantageous on the score of economy.

ISAAC R. DILLER.''

See further Lincoln to Stanton and Welles, July 21, 1863, and Lincoln's memorandum of instructions for testing Diller's powder, November 2, 1863, infra; also references indexed under Isaac R. Diller and Charles M. Wetherill.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Hon. Sec. of War Washington,
Sir: Dec. 15, 1862.

Hon. Mr. Covode wishes Col. Crossman to be made a Brigadier General, and I wish to oblige him if it can be consistently done.

Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, owned by Frederick M. Dearborn, New York City. On March 7, 1863, Lieutenant Colonel George H. Crosman, deputy quartermaster general in charge of the depot of clothing and equipment at Philadelphia, was recommended for promotion by brevet to the rank of colonel from January 1, 1862, and to the rank of brigadier general by brevet from October 1, 1862. The promotions were confirmed by the Senate on March 10, 1863.

To Ambrose E. Burnside [1]

Washington City, D.C.
Majr. Gen. Burnside Dec. 16 1862

Your despatch about Gen. Stahl, is received. Please ascertain from Gen. Sigel, & his old corps, whether Stahl or Schurz is preferable, & telegraph the result, and I will act immediately. After all I shall be governed by your preference.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, IHi. The address ``Falmouth'' is added following Burnside's name by Stanton. Burnside's reply, received at 6 P.M., reads as follows: ``My application for the appointment of Gen Stahl is based upon the recommendation of Gen Sigel who has been a very useful and efficient officer during the time that I have had command of this army. He is decidedly of the opinion that Gen Stahl is the best man.'' (NHi). On the back of the telegram Lincoln endorsed ``Let Gen.Page  6

Stahl be appointed. Dec. 16. 1862. A. LINCOLN.'' Colonel Julius Stahel of the Eighth New York Infantry was appointed brigadier general on November 12, 1861, and assigned to temporary command of the Eleventh Corps on December 18, 1862, during the absence of General Sigel (OR, I, LI, I, 960), and on January 10, 1863, he was named to the command when Sigel assumed command of the Division comprising the Eleventh and Twelfth Corps (OR, I, XXI, 962). Stahel became major general on March 14, 1863.

To Samuel R. Curtis [1]

Majr. Gen. Curtis Executive Mansion,
St. Louis, Mo. Washington, Dec. 16. 1862.

N. W. Watkins, of Jackson, Mo. (who is half brother to Henry Clay) writes me that a Col. of ours has driven him from his home at Jackson. Will you please look into the case, and restore the old man to his home, if the public interest will admit?

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. No reply from Curtis has been found. Nathaniel W. Watkins, a prominent old Whig, had led a force of Missouri State Guards (Confederate) in the early months of the war. On November 30, 1862, he wrote Lincoln as follows:

``In December of last year Mr. [John W.] Noell the member of Congress . . . wrote to my son saying . . . that he had an interview with you in relation to me, that you had expressed kind feelings for me and that if I would come Home, and give my word that . . . I would be loyal, and take no part in the Rebellion you would restore me to my rights, and protection as a citizen. . . . Afterwards you were kind enough in the month of February last to cause the indictment pending against me to be dismissed, and restored me to all my rights as a citizen.

``So soon as I learned this . . . I returned to Missouri, and reached my home at this place in July where I have resided with my Family . . . doing nothing in any way prejudicial to the Government. . . .

``On the day before yesterday . . . Coln. Albert Jackson . . . without cause or provocation forceably drove me and my family from our House giving but three hours notice. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

To Henry H. Sibley [1]

Brigadier General H. H. Sibley Executive Mansion,
St. Paul, Minnesota. Washington, Dec. 16. 1862

As you suggest, let the executions fixed for Friday, the nineteenth (19th.) instant, be postponed to, and be done on, Friday the twentysixth (26th.) instant. A. LINCOLN

Private

Operator please send this very carefully and accurately.

A. L.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. On December 15 General Sibley replied to Lincoln's letter of December 6 supra as follows: ``Your order of 6th Inst. for the Execution of 39 Indians just recd by Special messenger They are imprisoned at Mankato 90Page  7

miles distant & the time fixed 19th is too short for preparation & for concentrating the troops necessary to protect the other Indians & preserve the peace The excitement prevails all sections of the state & secret combinations Exist Embracing thousands of citizens pledged to execute all the Indians matters must be managed with great discretion & as much secrecy as possible to prevent a fearful collision between the U.S. forces & the citizens. I respectfully ask for authority to postpone the Execution one week from the 19th Inst if I deem necessary Please reply at once. Your directions of 9th relative to Chakaydon rec'd today by mail & will be obeyed.'' (DLC-RTL). The communication referred to in the last sentence of Sibley's despatch has not been located. On December 27, Sibley telegraphed as follows: ``I have the honor to inform you that the 38 Indians and half-breeds ordered by you for execution were hung yesterday at Mankato, at 10 a.m. Everything went off quietly, and the other prisoners are well secured.'' (OR, I, XXII, I, 880). One of the thirty-nine listed in Lincoln's communication to Sibley, December 6, supra, ``Chaska-don'' or ``Chaskay-etay,'' alias Robert Hopkins, was not executed. On August 18, 1864, Lincoln endorsed a petition for Hopkins ``Pardons [sic]. A. LINCOLN'' (DNA WR RG 153, Judge Advocate General, NN 2323).

To Ambrose E. Burnside [1]

Executive Mansion,
Major General Burnside Washington, December 17, 1862.

George Patten says he was a class-mate of yours and was in the same regiment of artillery. Have you a place you would like to put him in? and if so what is it? A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Tarbell (Appendix), p. 356. Burnside replied at 3:30 P.M., ``Telegraph Lines have been down all day. Will answer you in reference to George Patten in a day or two. . . .'' (DLC-RTL). No further communication in regard to Patten has been found. George Patten of South Carolina, graduated at West Point in 1847, and resigned from the Army July 21, 1851. He was professor in the Military Institute at Chester, Pennsylvania, from 1861 to March 11, 1863, when he was appointed captain and assistant adjutant general of Volunteers, from which appointment he resigned on July 2, 1863. On February 10, 1864, he was appointed first lieutenant in the Third New Jersey Cavalry and served until May 15, 1865.

To Abraham C. Corder [1]

Abraham C. Corsey, of 7th. Ills. Vols.
Grand Junction, Miss. Dec. 17. 1862

Your despatch of yesterday received. Not now.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. The roster of the Seventh Illinois lists no Abraham C. Corsey, and no correspondence from him or further reference to him can be found. Lincoln probably erred in writing the name. Abraham C. Corder of Brooklyn and New Haven, Illinois, was a wagon master in the Seventh Illinois Cavalry. On March 16, 1863, he telegraphed Lincoln from Memphis, ``Your dispatch of Decr 18th recd. states `not yet.' Am now ready to go to work.'' (DLC-RTL). No satisfactory explanation has been found for this cryptic exchange of telegrams.

Page  8

To John J. Crittenden, John W. Crisfield, and William A. Hall [1]

Hon. J. J. Crittenden Executive Mansion,
`` J. W. Crisfield Washington,
`` W. A. Hall. Dec. 17. 1862.

Gentlemen: Your note of to-day asking me to designate a time when I can receive you as a committee, is at hand. Let 10. A.M. to-morrow be the time. Your Obt. Servt. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, DLC-Nicolay Papers. The note from Representatives Crittenden and Crisfield, and Representative-elect William A. Hall of Missouri, soliciting an interview to present the views of people in the border states is also in the Nicolay Papers.

To Samuel R. Curtis [1]

Executive Mansion,
Major-General Curtis: Washington, December 17, 1862.

Could the civil authority be reintroduced into Missouri in lieu of the military to any extent, with advantage and safety?

A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Tarbell (Appendix), p. 356. General Curtis replied at 9:15 P.M., ``Dispatch received. The peace of this State rests on military power. To relinquish this power would be dangerous. It would allow rebels to rule some sections and ruin the Union men who have joined the military power to put down the rebellion. The civil authority is gradually coming into use, but sneaking rebels are in office, anxious to encourage new raids, and secure revenge for past military surveillance. It requires a considerable military force to keep things quiet in Missouri.'' OR, I, XXII, I, 839.

On December 19, Lieutenant Colonel Franklin A. Dick, provost marshal general of the Department of the Missouri, wrote Lincoln in support of General Curtis' reply, ``Officially I have most complete and reliable information as to the condition of this State. I have been in Missouri nearly all the time during the rebellion, and I say positively that at no previous time have the efforts and evil purposes of the Rebels in this State and city been more active and hopeful than now. . . . I therefore most respectfully ask of the President, that he will not require that we relax in our efforts to fight this enemy in the most effective manner. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

Memorandum Concerning William H. Johnson [1]

December 17, 1862

I decline to sign the within, because it does not state the thing quite to my liking. The colored man William Johnson came with me from Illinois, and I would be glad for him to be obliged, if he can be consistently with the public service; but I can not make anPage  9 order about it, nor a request which might, in some sort, be construed as an order. A. LINCOLN.

Dec. 17, 1862

Annotation

[1]   Hertz, II, 889. John E. Washington speculates that this memorandum refers to a request for leave of absence for Johnson in order to earn extra money (They Knew Lincoln, p. 131).

To Jacob Collamer [1]

Hon. Jacob Collamer. Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir: Washington, Dec. 18. 1862.

I will see the Committee named, at 7 P.M. to-day.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Senator Collamer's note of December 18 notified the president that ``A committee of the Republican Senators desire an interview with the President at as early an hour after six oclock this evening as may suit his convenience.'' (DLC-RTL). The purpose of the interview was to discuss the resignation of Secretary Seward which had been submitted to the president on December 16. See Lincoln's letter to Seward and Chase, December 20, infra.

To Hamilton R. Gamble [1]

Gov. Gamble Executive Mansion,
St. Louis, Mo Washington, Dec. 18, 1862.

It is represented to me that the enrolled militia alone would now maintain law and order in all the counties of your State North of the Missouri river. If so, all other forces there, might be removed South of the river, or out of the State. Please post yourself, and give me your opinion upon this subject. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Governor Gamble replied to Lincoln's telegram on the same day, ``I can maintain law & order north of the Missouri River with the Enrolled Militia alone if they can be certainly provided for with subsistence clothing & pay for time they may be in actual service Many of them are very poor taking other troops would help rather than hinder me I would keep the small number in service that could protect the country (DLC-RTL).'' See further Lincoln to Curtis, December 19, infra.

To the Senate and House of Representatives [1]

December 18, 1862

To the Senate and House of Representatives:

I transmit a copy of a despatch to the Secretary of State from Mr. Adams, United States Minister at London, and of the correspondence to which it refers, between that gentleman and Mr. Panizzi, the Principal Librarian of the British Museum, relative toPage  10 certain valuable publications presented to the Library of Congress.

Washington, 18 December 1862. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA RG 46, Senate 37A F2; DS, DNA RG 233, House Executive Document No. 15. Minister Charles F. Adams' letter to Seward, November 21, 1862, transmitted correspondence with Sir Anthony Panizzi relative to the presentation to the Library of Congress of the early volumes of Description of Ancient Marbles; Select Papyri in the Hieratic Character; and the entire series of zoological catalogs published by the Museum. Lincoln's communication was referred in both Senate and House to the joint committee on the Library.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

I wish this appointment to be made if it can be done consistently.

Executive Mansion A. LINCOLN

Dec. 18, 1862.

Annotation

[1]   AES, IHi. This copy of an autograph endorsement by Lincoln appears on a copy of a letter from Joshua F. Speed, written on Executive Mansion stationery, December 9, 1862, recommending Captain Charles L. Thomasson of the Fifth Kentucky Infantry for an appointment ``in the pay department.'' No record has been found of Thomasson's appointment.

To Ambrose E. Burnside [1]

Washington, December 19, 1862.

Major-General Burnside: Come of course, if in your own judgment it is safe to do so. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   NH, VIII, 147. Lincoln replied to Burnside's telegram received at 11:50 P.M., ``I want very much to see you If all is quiet can I come up tomorrow afternoon'' (DLC-RTL). At 3 P.M. on December 20, Burnside telegraphed, ``I will be with you tonight.'' (Ibid.). See further Lincoln's message to the Army of the Potomac, December 22, infra.

To Samuel R. Curtis [1]

Majr. Gen. Curtis Executive Mansion,
St. Louis, Mo. Washington, Dec. 19, 1862

Hon. Hall, [2] M.C. here, tells me, & Gov. Gamble Telegraphs me, that quiet can be maintained in all the counties North of the Missouri river, by the enrolled militia. Confer with Gov. Gamble, and telegraph me. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Curtis' reply received at 6 P.M. is as follows: ``Only 2 skeleton Regts united States troops north of River the Governor is absent. Some Enrolled Militia not so reliable Will write you'' (DLC-RTL). On December 20, he wrote:

``In regard to your telegraphic inquiry as to the propriety of relying entirely on the Enrolled Militia . . . I proceed to enlarge on my telegraphic reply.

``We have just driven the rebels out of Missouri, and hold them south by a force almost continuous along the southern border. . . . Their anxiety exists to return . . . where the wealthy secessionists in many neighborhoods are readyPage  11 to receive and replenish them. In such neighborhoods the pro-slavery influence seeks to exclude the Union troops, hoping to hold their negroes better under the Enrolled Militia, many of whom are commanded by pro-slavery officers. I try to study the surrounding elements, and move troops away just as fast as I think the safety of community will permit, and will probably soon withdraw all or nearly all the volunteers from Northern Missouri. Another trouble intervenes. The Enrolled Militia when in actual service are fed by the United States, and levy contributions from the secessionists to indemnify themselves for losses. . . . So far I have got along without much difficulty with mixed forces, but I have required of my officers and acted myself with great caution and courtesy toward State troops, for fear of trouble. . . . I, and all good Union men, dread the least conflict of sovereignties. . . . The object of all this is to present . . . the delicacy of my position . . . . wherever a community can maintain the peace with civil laws and the Enrolled Militia, I shall gladly relinquish military authority. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

[2]   William A. Hall.

To Salmon P. Chase [1]

Secretary of the Treasury, please do not go out of town.

December 20, 1862. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Warden, Life of Chase, p. 508. Chase's lengthy reply of the same date is as follows:

``I intended going to Philadelphia this afternoon, but shall, of course, observe your `direction' not to leave town

``Will you allow me to say that something you said or looked, when I handed you my resignation this morning, made on my mind the impression that, having received the resignations both of Gov. Seward and myself, you felt you could relieve yourself from trouble by declining to accept either and that the feeling was one of gratification.

``Let me assure you few things could give me so much satisfaction as to promote in any way your comfort, especially if I might promote at the same time the success of your administration, and the good of the country which is so near your heart.

``But I am very far from desiring you to decline accepting my resignation---very far from thinking, indeed, that its non-acceptance and my continuance in the Treasury Department will be most for your comfort or further benefit of the country.

``On the contrary I could not if I would conceal from myself that recent events have too rudely jostled the unity of your cabinet and disclosed an opinion too deeply seated and too generally received in Congress & the Country to be safely disregarded that the concord in judgment and action essential to successful administration does not prevail among its members.

``By some the embarrassment of administration is attributed to me; by others to Mr. Seward; by others, still to other Heads of Departments. Now neither Mr Seward nor myself is essential to you or to the Country; we both earnestly wish to be relieved from the oppressive charge of our respective Departments; and we both have placed our resignations in your hands.

``A resignation is a grave act; never performed by a right minded man without forethought or with reserve. I tendered mine from a sense of duty to the country, to you, and to myself---and I tendered it to be accepted. So did, as you have been fully assured, Mr. Seward tender his.

``I trust therefore that you will regard yourself as completely relieved from all personal considerations. It is my honest judgment that we can both better serve you and the country at this time, as private citizens, than in your cabinet. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

Page  12

To Thomas J. Henderson [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington,
Hon. T.J. Henderson. December 20, 1862.

My dear Sir:--- Your letter of the 8th to Hon. William Kellogg has just been shown me. You can scarcely overestimate the pleasure it would give me to oblige you, but nothing is operating so ruinously upon us everywhere as ``absenteeism.'' It positively will not do for me to grant leaves of absence in cases not sufficient to procure them under the regular rules.

It would astonish you to know the extent of the evil of ``absenteeism.'' We scarcely have more than half the men we are paying on the spot for service anywhere. Yours very truly,

A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Lapsley, VI, 222. Colonel Thomas J. Henderson of the One Hundred Twelfth Illinois Volunteers was at Camp Ella Bishop, Lexington, Kentucky. No letter from him at this time has been found.

Memorandum:
Appointment of Henry W. Streeter [1]

I want to oblige Mr. Speaker Grow in this case if it can consistently be done. A. LINCOLN

Dec. 20. 1862.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA WR RG 94, U.S. Military Academy, 1863, Box 82, No. 148. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Galusha A. Grow, December 19, 1862, asking appointment to West Point of ``Henry W. Streeter of Montrose Pa. . . . the son of my very best friend.'' Streeter's appointment is not of record.

To William H. Seward and Salmon P. Chase [1]

(COPY)
Hon. William H. Seward, & Executive Mansion,
Hon. Salmon P. Chase. Washington, December 20. 1862.

Gentlemen: You have respectively tendered me your resignations, as Secretary of State, and Secretary of the Treasury of the United States. I am apprised of the circumstances which may render this course personally desireable to each of you; but, after most anxious consideration, my deliberate judgment is, that the public interest does not admit of it. I therefore have to request that you will resume the duties of your Departments respectively. Your Obt. Servt. A. LINCOLN.

Page  13P.S. Same as above sent to Gov. Chase A L.

P.S. Same as above sent to Gov. Seward. A L.

Note---Postscripts, like the above are to respective letters.

Annotation

[1]   ALS copy, DLC-RTL; ALS, NAuE. Since this episode has been told a number of times, the editors do not undertake to elaborate upon it. Brief letters of resignation were submitted on December 16 by Seward and on December 20 by Chase. On December 21, Seward wrote, ``I have cheerfully resumed the functions of this Department in obedience to your command.'' (DLC-RTL). Chase, however, replied on December 22, as follows:

``On Saturday afternoon I received your note addressed to Mr. Seward and myself desiring us to resume the charge of our respective Departments.

``I had just written you a letter expressing quite another judgment; and that you may fully understand my sentiments I now send it to you. [See note, Lincoln to Chase, supra.]

``Your note, of course, required me to reconsider my views; and the next [sic] a further reason for reconsideration was furnished by the receipt from Mr. Seward of a copy of his reply to a note from you, identical with that sent to me, announcing his resumption of the duties of the State Department.

``I cannot say that reflection has much if at all changed my original impressions; but it has led me to the conclusion that I ought, in this matter, to conform my action to your judgment and wishes.

``I shall resume, therefore, my post as Secretary of the Treasury; ready, however, at any moment, to resign it, if, in your judgment, the success of your administration may be, in the slightest degree, promoted.'' (Ibid.).

Congratulations to the Army of the Potomac [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, December 22, 1862.

To the Army of the Potomac: I have just read your Commanding General's preliminary report of the battle of Fredericksburg. Although you were not successful, the attempt was not an error, nor the failure other than an accident. The courage with which you, in an open field, maintained the contest against an entrenched foe, and the consummate skill and success with which you crossed and re-crossed the river, in face of the enemy, show that you possess all the qualities of a great army, which will yet give victory to the cause of the country and of popular government. Condoling with the mourners for the dead, and sympathizing with the severely wounded, I congratulate you that the number of both is comparatively so small.

I tender to you, officers and soldiers, the thanks of the nation.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Printed leaflet distributed to the Army of the Potomac, ORB; New York Tribune, December 24, 1862. In the Lincoln Papers there is what appears to be a draft in an unidentified handwriting of a proclamation, or order of thanks, prepared for Lincoln to issue to the Army of the Potomac on this occasion. It bears little resemblance to Lincoln's communication as issued. The editors venture no guess as to its author, but reproduce it herewith:Page  14

``The President, commander in chief, returns his thanks to the generals, the officers, and the soldiers of the Army of the Potomac for the skill, discipline, valor, and devotion displayed in the Battle of Fredericksburg.

``An army of citizen soldiers largely composed of volunteers fresh from the peaceful occupations which have been heretofore the privilege and the duty of American citizens, you have bridged and crossed a deep and wide river in the face of a powerful foe, have arrayed yourselves with the regularity and order of veterans, have attacked with heroic valor an army in positions fortified with time and skill, and unsuccessful in the assault through the unexpected strength of the position and the number and desperate courage of the foe---misguided children of the same soil and the same race as yourselves, you continued the bloody conflict until night put an end to the unequal struggle.

``Resting on your arms upon the ensanguined field, the dawning day saw you still in firm and regular order offer battle to the enemy.

``Through a whole day the gage was declined.

``The foe had learned the strength of an army of citizen soldiers striking for their country, for the cause of orderly government and human rights. He declined to quit his vantage ground and accept the contest on an equal field.

``During a dark and stormy night you recrossed on narrow bridges the river in your rear, without haste, in close and regular order, without the loss of a color, a gun, and, save in battle, of a man.

``An army which has done this, has answered all the objections heretofore made against the discipline, the steadiness, or the skill of volunteers.

``It has shown that it confides in its leaders; that it can obey orders, and that for every evolution of war, this army of the people is competent as the trained troops of mercenaries on which rulers of other lands rely for defense and for aggression.

``The land mourns the loss of many gallant dead. They are heroes, dead for Liberty.

``Their names will live in the memory of the people from whom they came and whose cause they died to defend. And while it will be a sad page which records the story of the Battle of Fredericksburg, still, it will be blazoned with the names of patriots and gilded with the fires of heroism and of self devotion.

``We fight the battle of Liberty, not in this land only, but throughout the world.

``All lands have looked to America as the home of freedom, as the refuge of the oppressed.

``Upon the courage of her sons now depend the hopes of the world, and wherever the story of Fredericksburg is read, will the lovers of Liberty take courage.

``Soldiers of freedom, again your country thanks you.

``This order will be read at the head of every regiment of the Army of the United States.

``Given at the Executive Mansion, in the City of Washington, this 21st day of December, in the year of our Lord 1862, and of the Independence of the United States the 87th.''

To John A. Dix [1]

Executive Mansion,
Major Gen: Dix Washington, December 22, 1862.

Owing to extreme pressure of business, I have neglected for a week to write this note. General Busteed is with you. I bespeak for him your kindest consideration. His case is peculiar. Without much military experience he has entered the service from purely patrioticPage  15 motives. Please assign him the position best adapted to his case, which may be within your power. Yours very truly

A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   LS (copy?), DLC-RTL. This letter is in John Hay's handwriting, but signed by Lincoln. Concerning General Busteed, see Lincoln to Stanton, August 7, supra. General Dix replied on December 29, ``I have just received your note in regard to Genl. Busteed, and am happy to inform you that I had anticipated your wishes by assigning him to a command at Yorktown under Maj. Genl. Keyes, an experienced officer, who will put him in the way of acquiring a knowledge of his duties. He is already in charge of a Brigade. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

To William B. Franklin and William F. Smith [1]

Major General Franklin & Executive Mansion,
Major General Smith Washington, Dec. 22. 1862.

Yours of the 20th. suggesting a plan of operations for the Army of the Potomac, is received. I have hastily read the plan, and shall yet try to give it more deliberate consideration, with the aid of military men. Meanwhile let me say it seems to me to present the old questions of preference between the line of the Peninsula, and the line you are now upon. The difficulties you point out as pertaining to the Fredericksburg line are obvious and palpable. But now, as heretofore, if you go to James River, a large part of the army must remain on or near the Fredericksburg line, to protect Washington. It is the old difficulty.

When I saw Gen. Franklin at Harrison's Landing on James River last July, I can not be mistaken in saying that he distinctly advised the bringing of the Army away from there [2]

Yours very truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADfS, DLC-RTL. The lengthy letter of December 20 from Major Generals Franklin and Smith advocated the return to a plan of attack via the James River and expressed the generals' opinion that ``the plan of campaign already commenced will not be successful'' (OR, I, XXI, 868-70). On January 23, 1863, Burnside issued an order relieving Smith and Franklin from their commands: ``It being evident [they] can be of no further service to this army. . . .'' (Ibid.,999); but the order was not approved by Lincoln, and Burnside himself was removed a few days later.

[2]   General Franklin's reply of December 26 is not in the Lincoln Papers or in the Official Records, but a copy in the Butler Papers (DLC) reads:

``In arguing the propriety of a campaign on the James River, we supposed Washington to be garrisoned sufficiently and the Potomac impassable except by bridges. The fortifications of Harpers Ferry is another important requisite. These matters were considered as of course and did not enter into our discussion of the two plans of campaign.

``I presume that you are right in supposing that I advised the withdrawal of the army from James River in July last. I think that under the same circumstances I would give the same advice. The Army was debilitated by what it had already gone through, was in an unhealthy position, its sick list was enormous, and therePage  16 was a prospect that we would have to remain in that position during the two worst months August and September.

``The effect of this would have been to ruin the army in health. Circumstances are very different now. The army is in good health and the best months of the year are before us.''

To the Senate [1]

To the Senate of the United States. December 22, 1862

In compliance with the Resolution of the Senate of the 15th. instant, requesting a copy of the Report of the Honorable Reverdy Johnson, I transmit a communication from the Secretary of State and the documents by which it was accompanied.

Washington, ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

22nd. December, 1862.

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA RG 46, Senate 37A F3. The report of Reverdy Johnson's activities as U.S. commissioner at New Orleans from July 7 to July 29, 1862, investigating General Benjamin F. Butler's seizure of property of foreign consuls, may be found in Thirty-seventh Congress, Third Session, Senate Executive Document No. 16.

To Salmon P. Chase [1]

Executive Mansion,
Washington, December 23, 1862.

Dear Sir: Unless you know some strong objection, please send me a nomination for Cuthbert Bullitt as collector of the customs at New Orleans. I wish to do this at once. Yours truly,

A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB NH, VIII, 152. Chase replied on the same day that because ``the Act of Congress of last session provides that the duties of Collectors &c in States in insurrection shall be performed by Special Agents. . . . Mr. Bullitt cannot therefore be appointed Collector. But I propose to appoint him Special Agent to perform the duties. . . .'' (DLC-RTL). Cuthbert Bullitt is listed in the U.S. Official Register, 1863, as ``Acting Collector.''

To Fanny McCullough [1]

Executive Mansion,
Dear Fanny Washington, December 23, 1862.

It is with deep grief that I learn of the death of your kind and brave Father; and, especially, that it is affecting your young heart beyond what is common in such cases. In this sad world of ours, sorrow comes to all; and, to the young, it comes with bitterest agony, because it takes them unawares. The older have learned toPage  17 ever expect it. I am anxious to afford some alleviation of your present distress. Perfect relief is not possible, except with time. You can not now realize that you will ever feel better. Is not this so? And yet it is a mistake. You are sure to be happy again. To know this, which is certainly true, will make you some less miserable now. I have had experience enough to know what I say; and you need only to believe it, to feel better at once. The memory of your dear Father, instead of an agony, will yet be a sad sweet feeling in your heart, of a purer, and holier sort than you have known before.

Please present my kind regards to your afflicted mother.

Your sincere friend A. LINCOLN.

Miss. Fanny McCullough.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, owned by Miss Alice Orme Smith, Fairfield, Connecticut. Fanny's father, Lieutenant Colonel William McCullough of the Fourth Illinois Cavalry was killed in a night battle near Coffeeville, Mississippi, on December 5. As clerk of the McLean County Circuit Court at Bloomington, McCullough had been well known to Lincoln.

To Members of the Cabinet [1]

Executive Mansion,
Washington, December 23, 1862.

Gentleman of the Cabinet A bill for an act entitled ``An Act for the admission of the State of `West-Virginia' into the Union, and for other purposes,'' has passed the House of Representatives, and the Senate, and has been duly presented to me for my action.

I respectfully ask of each [of] you, an opinion in writing, on the following questions, towit:

1st. Is the said Act constitutional?

2d. Is the said Act expedient?

Your Obt. Servt. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS (copy?), DLC-RTL. The opinions submitted by members of the cabinet are too long for adequate quotation here. The originals are in the Lincoln Papers, and an adequate presentation may be found in Nicolay and Hay, Abraham Lincoln: A History (VI, 300 ff.). Seward, Chase, and Stanton replied affirmatively on both questions; Welles, Blair, and Bates negatively. Governor Peirpoint telegraphed Lincoln on December 18 that veto of the bill ``will be death to our cause,'' and again on December 20 that ``great feeling exists . . . in reference to your delay in signing the bill for the new state.'' (DLC-RTL). Lincoln wrote his own opinion on December 31, infra, and signed the bill on the same day.

To John G. Nicolay [1]

Mr. Nicolay, please run over this & tell me what is in it.

Dec. 23, 1862. A.L.

Page  [unnumbered]

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement, and one by David Davis, are written on an envelope containing a fifteen-page letter from the Reverend Henry P. Tappan, president of the University of Michigan, November 22, 1862, reporting from a trip to Europe on the prevailing opinion abroad as unfavorable to the Union because of military reverses and indecisive administration.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

I think Senator Henderson should be obliged in this case.

Dec. 23, 1862 A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA WR RG 107, Secretary of War, Letters Received, P 246. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from John D. L. Dryden of St. Louis, Missouri, to Senator John B. Henderson, December 13, 1862, forwarding a petition for discharge of Reverend E. Kirby Miller from prison.

To Edwin M. Stanton [2]

December 23, 1862.

I really wish the writer of this letter---Uri Manly---appointed a Quarter-Master, or Commissary. Sec. of War please do not overlook this. A. LINCOLN

Dec. 23. 1862.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on the envelope of a letter from a loyal Democrat, Uri Manly of Marshall, Illinois, December 12, 1862, asking appointment. With the letter is an unsigned memo ``Respectfully returned to the President, with the information that Uri Manly was appointed Quarter Master prior to Decr. 1st. His Commission has been made out and signed, and is now in the office of the Adjutant General.'' Manly's appointment as captain and quartermaster was dated November 26, 1862.

To Francis Joseph I [1]

December 24, 1862

Abraham Lincoln,

President of the United States of America.

To His Imperial Royal Majesty Francis Joseph I,

Emperor of Austria,

&c., &c., &c.

Great and Good Friend: I have received the letter which Your Majesty was pleased to address to me on the 28th. of October, last, announcing the marriage of His Imperial Highness the Archduke Charles Louis, Your Majesty's brother, to Her Royal Highness, the Princess Mary Annunziata, sister of His Majesty the King of the Two Sicilies.

Page  19I participate in the satisfaction afforded by this happy event and pray Your Majesty to accept my sincere congratulations upon the occasion.

May God have Your Majesty always in His safe and holy keeping! Your Good Friend, ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Washington, December 24, 1862.

By the President:

WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DNA FS RG 59, Communications to Foreign Sovereigns and States, III, 194.

To the Senate and House of Representatives [1]

December 24, 1862

To the Senate and House of Representatives.

I transmit, for the consideration of Congress, a Report from the Secretary of State on the subject of Consular Pupils.

Washington ABRAHAM LINCOLN

December 24. 1862

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA RG 46, Senate 37A F3. Seward's report of December 24, 1862, reads in part as follows:

``By the act of Congress of August 18, 1856 . . . the President was authorized to appoint a class of officers called consular pupils . . . as consuls were forbidden to employ clerks at the public expense . . . if one or more pupils were attached to the consulate they could, while learning the general duties of the consular service, perform those of clerk. . . . The sudden repeal . . . February 7, 1857, of the section of the act . . . referred to, authorizing the appointment of consular pupils, was consequently regretted . . . and the expediency of asking Congress again to confer the authority for the appointment of such officers . . . is now submitted to your consideration. . . .'' (Thirty-seventh Congress, Third Session, Senate Executive Document No. 14).

No legislation concerning Seward's suggestion was passed.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, December 24, 1862.

To-day Hon. Mr. Cox calls, and asks that Col. Samuel A. Gilbert, of Ohio be a Brigadier Genl. He is now near Lexington, Ky. Has been in service from the beginning. Papers on file in his favor from Gen. Wright & others.

He also says a word for Col. Wood, as also does Senator Sherman. Papers on file in this case also.

Annotation

[1]   AD, IHi. Colonel Samuel A. Gilbert of the Forty-fourth Ohio Volunteers was brevetted brigadier general March 13, 1865. No record has been found of the promotion of Colonel Oliver Wood of the Twenty-second Ohio.

Page  20

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Hon. Sec. of War: Executive Mansion,
Sir: Washington, December 26, 1862

Two Ohio regiments and one Illinois regiment were captured at Hartsville, have been parolled, and are now at Columbus Ohio. This brings the Ohio regiments substantially to their homes. I am strongly impressed with the belief that the Illinois regiment better be sent to Illinois, where it will be recruited and put in good condition, by the time they are exchanged, so as to re-enter the service. They did not misbehave, as I am satisfied; so that they should receive no treatment, nor have anything withheld from them, by way of punishment. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS-F, ISLA. See Lincoln to Halleck, December 8, supra. The One Hundred Fourth Illinois were ordered to Camp Douglas, Illinois.

To Samuel R. Curtis [1]

Maj. Gen. Curtis Executive Mansion,
St. Louis, Mo. Washington, Dec. 27. 1862.

Let the order in regard to Dr. McPheters and family be suspended until you hear from me again. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. On December 19, Provost Marshal F. A. Dick of the Department of the Missouri issued Special Order No. 152, that Reverend Samuel B. McPheeters, Pastor of the Pine Street Presbyterian Church of St. Louis, and his wife, leave the state within ten days because of ``unmistakeable evidence of sympathy with the rebellion.'' Reverend McPheeters' congregation were split, some advocating his expulsion and others opposing it. The Unionist portion of the congregation themselves eventually succeeded in expelling McPheeters from his pastorate, but he was not made to leave the state. See further Lincoln to Curtis, January 2, 1863, and Lincoln's endorsement concerning McPheeters, December 22, 1863, infra.

Endorsement Concerning John J. Key [1]

December 27, 1862

The within, as appears, was written some time ago. On full re-consideration, I can not find sufficient ground to change the conclusion therein arrived at A. LINCOLN

Dec. 27. 1862.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on the envelope containing a signed copy of the letter to Major Key of November 24, 1862, supra.

Page  21

To Hamilton R. Gamble [1]

His Excy. Gov. Gamble December 27, 1862

I do not wish to leave the country North of the Missouri to the care of the enrolled militia, except upon the concurrent judgment of yourself and Gen. Curtis. His I have not yet obtained. Confer with him, & I shall be glad to act when you and he agree.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Lincoln's telegram replied to one from Governor Gamble of 10:30 A.M., December 27, asking Lincoln to direct that the country ``north of the Missouri'' be placed under ``care of enrolled militia.'' See Lincoln to Curtis, December 19, supra.

To Caleb B. Smith [1]

Hon. Sec. of Interior & Executive Mansion
Comr. of Indian Affairs Washington December 27. 1862

Mr DePuy was appointed Indian Agent. Charges were made against him, and another was appointed to the same office. The charges fail in the proof & Mr DePuy's reappointment is sought. But Mr. Daily, [2] the territorial delegate, asks that the other appointee be not removed. Please call Mr. Daily & Mr DePuy before you & give them a fair hearing, decide what is proper to be done & I will do it. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, owned by Gordon A. Block, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Henry W. DePuy's successor at the Pawnee Agency, Genoa, Nebraska Territory, was Benjamin F. Lushbaugh who is listed in the U.S. Official Register as of September, 1863.

[2]   Samuel G. Daily of Peru, Nebraska Territory.

To Hiram Walbridge [1]

General Hiram Walbridge Executive Mansion
My Dear Sir Washington December 28th. 1862.

I have twice declined to see you on the ground that I understood the object of your desired interview, and that it was a matter of embarrassment to me. My real respect and esteem for you makes me unwilling to leave the matter in quite so abrupt a form. My embarrassment is that the place you seek not selfishly I think, is greedily sought by many others; and there is sure to be opposition both fierce and plausible to the appointment of any one who up to this time has not been in the military service. What answer to it will I make? Shall I say I did it for political influence? That willPage  22 be the more loudly objected to. I need not point out to you where this objection will come from. It will come from your competitors; it will come from party spirit; it will come from indignant members of Congress who will perceive in it an attempt of mine to set a guardian over them.

The longer I can get along without a formal appointment the better. Yours Very truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   Copy, ISLA. Lincoln's original letter has not been found, but the contemporary copy from which our text is reproduced seems to be authentic. There is no reply from Walbridge in the Lincoln Papers, but there are numerous letters in November and December, 1862, pressing Lincoln to appoint ``General'' Walbridge military governor of the District of Columbia. Walbridge's only claim to military distinction seems to have consisted in his appointment as brigadier general of Ohio Militia in 1843.

To Benjamin F. Butler [1]

Major General B. F. Butler Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir: Washington, December 29, 1862.

I believe you have a family, and I dislike to deprive you of an early visit to them. But I really wish to see you at the earliest moment. I am contemplating a peculiar and important service for you, which I think, and hope you will think, is as honorable, as it is important. I wish to confer with you upon it. Please come immediately upon your arrival at New-York. Yours very truly

A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, DLC-Butler Papers. Major General Nathaniel P. Banks assumed command at New Orleans on December 16, and on December 18, Butler wrote Lincoln for permission to visit his family (DLC-RTL). See further Lincoln to Stanton, January 23, and to whom it may concern, February 11, 1863, infra.

To Ambrose E. Burnside [1]

Washington City, D.C.
Major General Burnside December 30, 1862 [3:30 P.M.]

I have good reason for saying you must not make a general movement of the army without letting me know.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, owned by Dale Carnegie, New York City. Brigadier Generals John Newton and John Cochrane had gone to the president to tell of the great dejection and demoralization of the Army of the Potomac and had expressed the opinion that to fight under such conditions would bring destruction. Burnside's General Orders No. 8, January 23, 1863, ordered Newton and Cochrane dismissed from the service for their action, but the order was not approved by Lincoln and was not issued (OR, I, XXI, 998). Burnside replied to Lincoln's telegram atPage  23

P.M., ``Your dispatch is received. I have rescinded some orders that had already been given. I am summoned to give evidence in Court Martial tomorrow at Washington and will see you.'' (DLC-RTL).

To Hamilton R. Gamble [1]

Order No. 416. [2]
His Excncy. Gov. Gamble Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir Washington, December 30, 1862.

Inclosed is an order, substantially, and I believe exactly, such as I directed to be made nearly a month ago. After a good deal of reflection, I concluded that it was better to make a rule for the practical matter in hand, (the removal of officers and acceptance of resignations) than to decide a general question, towit, whether the force are State troops, which, while it might embrace the practical question mentioned, might also be the nest in which forty other troublesome questions would be hatched. I would rather meet them as they come, than before they come, trusting that some of them may not come at all. Yours very truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADfS, DLC-RTL; ALS, owned by James D. Randles, Los Angeles, California. See Lincoln to Stanton, December 2, supra.

[2]   ``Order No. 416'' appears on the draft but not on the letter sent, and refers to the enclosure, a copy of AGO Special Orders No. 417 [sic], December 28, 1862, as printed in the Official Records (III, II, 955).

Preliminary Draft of Final Emancipation Proclamation [1]

[December 30, 1862]

Whereas, on the twenty second day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand, eight hundred and sixty-two, a proclamation was issued by the President of the United States, containing among other things the following, to wit:

[Blank space for insertion]

Now therefore I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, by virtue of the power in me vested, as Commander-in-Chief, of the Army, and Navy of the United States in time of actual armed rebellion against the authority and government of the United States, and as a proper and necessary war measure for suppressing said rebellion, do, on this first day of January in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty three, and in accordance with my intention so to do, publicly proclaimed for one hundred days as aforesaid, order and designate as the States andPage  24 parts of States in which the people thereof respectively are this day in rebellion against the United States, the following to wit:

Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, except the Parishes of

[Blank space for insertion]

Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia, except the forty-eight counties designated as West Virginia, and also the counties of

[Blank space for insertion]

And by virtue of the power, and for the purpose aforesaid, I do order, [2] and declare, that all persons held as slaves within said designated States, and parts of States, are, and henceforward forever shall be free; and that the Executive government of the United States, including the military and naval authorities thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons and [3] will do no act, or acts to repress said persons, or any of them, in any suitable efforts they may make for their actual freedom. And I hereby appeal to [4] the people so declared to be free, to abstain from all disorder, tumult, and violence, unless in necessary self defence; and [5] in all cases, when allowed, to labor faithfully, for [6] wages.

And I further declare, and make known, that such persons of suitable condition, will be received into the armed service of the United States to garrison and defend forts, positions, stations, and other places, and to man vessels of all sorts in said service.

Annotation

[1]   Copies, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's autograph draft has not been found, but copies were prepared and distributed to members of the cabinet at the meeting on December 30. Each member was requested to offer suggestions. The copies received by Stanton and Welles have not been located, but those of Bates, Blair, Chase, and Seward are in the Lincoln Papers together with each member's suggestions for revision. In addition to submitting an entirely new redrafting of his own, which Lincoln did not use, Chase on December 31 made the following suggestions:

`` . . . It seems to me wisest to make no exception of parts of States from the operation of the Proclamation, save the Forty-eight Counties designated as West-Virginia. . . .

``I think it would be expedient to omit from the proposed Proclamation the declaration that the Executive Government of the United States will do no act to repress the enfranchised in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom.

``This clause in the September Proclamation has been widely quoted as an incitement to servile insurrection. In lieu of it, and for the purpose of shaming these misrepresentations, I think it would be well to insert some such clause as this: `not encouraging or countenancing, however, any disorderly or licentious conduct.' If this alteration is made, the appeal to the enslaved may properly enough be omitted. It does not appear to be necessary, and may furnish a topic to the evil-disposed for censure and ridicule. . . .

``I think it absolutely certain that the rebellion can in no way be so certainly, speedily and economically suppressed as by the organized military force of the loyal population of the insurgent regions, of whatever complection. In no way can irregular violence and servile insurrection be so surely prevented as by the regular organization and regular military employment of those who might otherwise probably resort to such courses.

Page  25``Such organization is now in successful progress. . . .

``Considering these facts, it seems to me that it would be best to omit from the Proclamation all reference to the military employment of the enfranchised population, leaving it to the natural course of things already well begun; or to state distinctly that in order to secure the suppression of the rebellion without servile insurrection or licentious marauding, such numbers of the population declared free as may be found convenient will be employed in the military and naval service of the United States. . . .

``Finally, I respectfully suggest that on an occasion of such interest, there can be no just imputation of affectation against a solemn recognition of responsibility before men and before God; and that some such close as follows will be proper:---

`` `And upon this act, sincerely believed to be an act of justice warranted by the Constitution, and of duty demanded by the circumstances of the country, I invoke the considerate judgment of Mankind and the gracious favor of Almighty God.' ''

Bates' suggestions (undated but either December 31 or January 1) are as follows:

``I respectfully suggest that

``1. The President issues the proclamation `by virtue of the power in him vested, as commander in chief of the army & navy of the United States, in time of actual, armed rebellion' &c---`and as a proper & necessary war measure, for suppressing said rebellion---' Date January 1863.

``2. It is done in accordance with the first proclamation---of Sept 22nd 1862.

``3. It distinguishes between States & parts of States, and designates those States & parts of States, `in which the people thereof, respectively, ARE THIS DAY, (Jan 1, 1863) in rebellion against the United States.'

``These three propositions being true, I think they ought to be followed out, without excess or diminution, by action, not by the declaration of a principle nor the establishment of a law, for the future guidance of others. It is a war measure by the President---a matter of fact---not a law by the legislature.

``And as to what is proposed to be done in the future, the least said the better. Better leave yourself free to act in the emergencies, as they arise, with as few embarrassing committals as possible.

``Whether a particular State or part of a State, is or is not in actual rebellion, on the 1st. Jany 1863, is a simple matter of fact, which the President, in the first proclamation, has promised to declare in the second. Of course, it must be truly declared: It is no longer open, to be determined, as a matter of policy or prudence, independently of the fact.

``And this applies, with particular force, to Virginia. The Eastern shore of Virginia & the region round about Norfolk, are now (Dec. 31, 1862) more free from actual rebellion than are several of the 48 Counties spoken of as West Virginia.

``If the latter be exempt from the proclamation, so also ought the former. And so, in all the States that are considered in parts.

``The last paragraph of the draft, I consider wholly useless, and probably injurious---being a needless pledge of future action---which may be quite as well done without as with the pledge.''

Blair's suggestions (undated but either December 31 or January 1) and Seward's (December 30) are given in the succeeding footnotes appended to the particular passages affected.

[2]   Blair's suggested revision of the remainder of the draft is as follows (portions in parentheses are on a separate sheet marked for insertion as given here):

``I do order & declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated states & parts of states shall be free; and that the Executive Government of the United States, including the Military & Naval authorities will recognize & maintain the freedom of said persons. And in order that they may render all the aid they are willing to give to this object & to the support of the Government, authority will be given to receive them in to the service whenever they can be usefully employed & they may be armed to garrison forts, to defend positions & stations and to manPage  26 vessels. And (whilst) I appeal to them to show themselves worthy of freedom by fidelity & diligence in the employments which may be given to them by the observance of order & by abstaining from all violence not required by duty or for self defence. (It is due to them to say that the conduct of large numbers of these people since the war began justifies confidence in their fidelity & humanity generally).''

[3]   Seward suggested: ``Omit the words . . . between `and' and `freedom'.''

[4]   Seward suggested: ``for `appeal to' substitute `command and require'.''

[5]   Seward suggested: ``after `and,' insert `I do recommend to them'.''

[6]   Seward suggested: ``after `for,' insert `just and reasonable'.''

To John A. Dix [1]

Major Gen. Dix Executive Mansion,
Fort-Monroe, Va. Washington, Dec. 31, 1862.

I hear not a word about the Congressional election of which you and I corresponded. Time nearly up. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Dix telegraphed on the same day, ``I did not receive until Yesterday, the returns of the conductors of Election of Norfolk & Princess Anne Counties & of the Cities of Norfolk & Portsmouth. Mr [John B.] McCloud the successful Candidate, leaves for Washington to-day. I will write by mail'' (DLC-RTL). His letter of the same date added further information as follows:

``The Union men of the Second Congressional District of Virginia in the counties in our possession being desirous of an opportunity of manifesting their fidelity to the Government and of securing their exemption from the penalties of disloyalty, by electing a member of Congress so as to be represented by the 1st Jany. 1863, I issued the Proclamation of which a copy is enclosed marked A. calling an election on the 22nd inst. . . . I felt assured that my act would meet your approval.

``Previously to the election . . . Governor Pierpont . . . issued writs of elections for the day, and the election was held with all the legal sanctions of which the case was susceptible. . . . The aggregate vote cast was 1402. . . .'' (Ibid.).

John B. McCloud's election was contested by his opponent W. W. Wing. The House committee on elections recommended on February 4, 1863, that neither be seated, and on February 14 this recommendation was adopted by the House.

Opinion on the Admission of West Virginia into the Union [1]

[December 31, 1862]

The consent of the Legislature of Virginia is constitutionally necessary to the bill for the admission of West-Virginia becoming a law. A body claiming to be such Legislature has given it's consent. We can not well deny that it is such, unless we do so upon the outside knowledge that the body was chosen at elections, in which a majority of the qualified voters of Virginia did not participate.

Page  27But it is a universal practice in the popular elections in all these states, to give no legal consideration whatever to those who do not choose to vote, as against the effect of the votes of those, who do choose to vote. Hence it is not the qualified voters, but the qualified voters, who choose to vote, that constitute the political power of the state. Much less than to non-voters, should any consideration be given to those who did not vote, in this case: because it is also matter of outside knowledge, that they were not merely neglectful of their rights under, and duty to, this government, but were also engaged in open rebellion against it. Doubtless [2] among these non-voters were some Union men whose voices were smothered by the more numerous secessionists; but we know too little of their number to assign them any appreciable value. Can this government stand, if it indulges constitutional constructions by which men in open rebellion against it, are to be accounted, man for man, the equals of those who maintain their loyalty to it? Are they to be accounted even better citizens, and more worthy of consideration, than those who merely neglect to vote? If so, their treason against the constitution, enhances their constitutional value! Without braving these absurd conclusions, we can not deny that the body which consents to the admission of West-Virginia, is the Legislature of Virginia. I [3] do not think the plural form of the words ``Legislatures'' and ``States'' in the phrase of the constitution ``without the consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned &c'' has any reference to the new State concerned. That plural form sprang from the contemplation of two or more old States contributing to form a new one. The idea that the new state was in danger of being admitted without its own consent, was not provided against, because it was not thought of, as I conceive. It is said, the devil takes care of his own. Much more should a good spirit---the spirit of the Constitution and the Union---take care of it's own. I think it can not do less, and live.

But is the admission into the Union, of West-Virginia, expedient. This, in my general view, is more a question for Congress, than for the Executive. Still I do not evade it. More than on anything else, it depends on whether the admission or rejection of the new state would under all the circumstances tend the more strongly to the restoration of the national authority throughout the Union. That which helps most in this direction is the most expedient at thisPage  28 time. Doutless those in remaining Virginia would return to the Union, so to speak, less reluctantly without the division of the old state than with it; but I think we could not save as much in this quarter by rejecting the new state, as we should lose by it in West-Virginia. We can scarcely dispense with the aid of West-Virginia in this struggle; much less can we afford to have her against us, in congress and in the field. Her brave and good men regard her admission into the Union as a matter of life and death. They have been true to the Union under very severe trials. We have so acted as to justify their hopes; and we can not fully retain their confidence, and co-operation, if we seem to break faith with them. In fact, they could not do so much for us, if they would.

Again, the admission of the new state, turns that much slave soil to free; and thus, is a certain, and irrevocable encroachment upon the cause of the rebellion.

The division of a State is dreaded as a precedent. But a measure made expedient by a war, is no precedent for times of peace. It is said that the admission of West-Virginia, is secession, and tolerated only because it is our secession. Well, if we call it by that name, there is still difference enough between secession against the constitution, and secession in favor of the constitution.

I believe the admission of West-Virginia into the Union is expedient.

Annotation

[1]   ADf, DLC-RTL. Although the draft is undated, Nicolay and Hay (VIII, 157) give December 31, 1862, the date upon which Lincoln signed the act admitting West Virginia, as the date of Lincoln's opinion. See Lincoln's letter to members of the cabinet, December 23, supra.

[2]   This sentence is written on the right-hand margin of the first page, and the place for its insertion marked by an asterisk.

[3]   This sentence and the next two following are written on the right-hand margin and bottom of the second page, and the place for their insertion marked by an asterisk.

To Solomon Foote [1]

Hon. S. Foote Executive Mansion

My dear Sir: Washington, 1863

Mrs. L. requests me to invite you to accompany us to the opera this evening. If you accept, be here at half past 7 P.M. Please answer by bearer. Yours truly, A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, Taper Collection. No reply has been discovered and efforts to supply a specific date have not succeeded.

Emancipation Proclamation [1]

January 1, 1863

By the President of the United States of America:

A Proclamation.

Whereas, on the twentysecond day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty two, a proclamation was issued by the President of the United States, containing, among other things, the following, towit:

Page  29``That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom.

``That the Executive will, on the first day of January aforesaid, by proclamation, designate the States and parts of States, if any, in which the people thereof, respectively, shall then be in rebellion against the United States; and the fact that any State, or the people thereof, shall on that day be, in good faith, represented in the Congress of the United States by members chosen thereto at elections wherein a majority of the qualified voters of such State shall have participated, shall, in the absence of strong countervailing testimony, be deemed conclusive evidence that such State, and the people thereof, are not then in rebellion against the United States.''

Now, therefore I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, by virtue of the power in me vested as Commander-in-Chief, of the Army and Navy of the United States in time of actual armed rebellion against authority and government of the United States, and as a fit and necessary war measure for suppressing said rebellion, do, on this first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty three, and in accordance with my purpose so to do publicly proclaimed for the full period of one hundred days, from the day first above mentioned, order and designate as the States and parts of States wherein the people thereof respectively, are this day in rebellion against the United States, the following, towit:

Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, (except the Parishes of St. Bernard, Plaquemines, Jefferson, St. Johns, St. Charles, St. James[,] Ascension, Assumption, Terrebonne, Lafourche, St. Mary, St. Martin, and Orleans, including the City of New-Orleans) Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South-Carolina, North-Carolina, and Virginia, (except the fortyeight counties designated as West Virginia, and also the counties of Berkley, Accomac, Northampton, Elizabeth-City, York, Princess Ann, and Norfolk, including the cities of Norfolk & Portsmouth [)]; and which excepted parts are, for the present, left precisely as if this proclamation were not issued.

And by virtue of the power, and for the purpose aforesaid, I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated States, and parts of States, are, and henceforward shall bePage  30 free; and that the Executive government of the United States, including the military and naval authorities thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons.

And I hereby enjoin upon the people so declared to be free to abstain from all violence, unless in necessary self-defence; and I recommend to them that, in all cases when allowed, they labor faithfully for reasonable wages.

And I further declare and make known, that such persons of suitable condition, will be received into the armed service of the United States to garrison forts, positions, stations, and other places, and to man vessels of all sorts in said service.

And upon this act, sincerely believed to be an act of justice, warranted by the Constitution, upon military necessity, I invoke the considerate judgment of mankind, and the gracious favor of Almighty God.

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.

Done at the City of Washington, this first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty three, and of the Independence of the United States of America the eighty-seventh.

[L.S.]

By the President: ABRAHAM LINCOLN

WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.

Annotation

[1]   ADS-P, DLC-RTL; DS, DNA FS RG 11, Proclamations. Lincoln's original autograph of the proclamation was sold in 1863 (see Lincoln's letter to Ladies in charge of North Western Fair, October 26, infra), at the Chicago North-western Sanitary Fair, to Thomas B. Bryan, who presented it to the Soldiers' Home in Chicago. It was lithographed ``and thousands [of dollars] were realized by the Chicago Soldiers Home from the sale of copies. . . .'' (Charles Bryan, son, to Nicolay, November 24, 1886, DLC-Nicolay Papers. See also Lincoln to Bryan, January 18, 1864, infra.) In 1871 the original was burned in the Chicago Fire. Prior to the Chicago Fair in 1863 the historian Benson J. Lossing also had prevailed upon Lincoln to allow him to have a facsimile made for use in his Pictorial History of the Civil War. On October 29, 1863, John Hay forwarded to Lossing a photograph made at Lincoln's direction, with apologies for ``blots on the edges'' which were ``incidental to the copying, and are not in the original'' (ALS, RPB). Three photographic copies of the original preserved in the Lincoln Papers, presumably made at the same time as the copy sent to Lossing, have provided the present text. The official engrossed document in The National Archives follows Lincoln's original. (For a detailed study of the various printings of the proclamation, see Charles Eberstadt, ``Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation,'' The New Colophon, 1950, pp. 312-56.)

Lincoln's final proclamation was not completed until January 1 after consultation with the cabinet and study of the suggestions for revision submitted by the several members on December 31. Nicolay telegraphed Horace Greeley and Henry J. Raymond on the afternoon of December 31 that ``The Proclamation cannot be telegraphed to you until during the day tomorrow (telegrams, RPB). Telegrams from John A. Dix and Michael Hahn on December 31 defined thePage  31 parts of Virginia and Louisiana not then in rebellion which were to be exempted by the proclamation (DLC-RTL).

The photographic copies of the original autograph show the superscription ``By the President of the United States of America: A Proclamation.'' to be in the hand of a clerk. The excerpt from the preliminary proclamation of September 22, which appears as paragraphs two and three in the final proclamation, is in the form of a clipping from the State Department circular printing of the preliminary proclamation, with quotation marks added by Lincoln. The formal close, ``In witness whereof,'' etc., is also added in the handwriting of a clerk. Otherwise the body of the proclamation is in Lincoln's handwriting.

Endorsement Concerning John McNeil [1]

[c. January 1, 1863?]

531 citizens justifying Gen McNeil for hanging the ten men, & asking that he shall not be surrendered to Jeff Davis 146, more names.

Annotation

[1]   AE, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on the envelope containing a printed petition January 1, 1863, justifying General McNeil's conduct and asking that he not be surrendered to Jefferson Davis, signed by ``loyal citizens of Northern Missouri.'' Brigadier General John McNeil of the Missouri State Militia had on October 18, 1862, executed ten rebel guerrillas at Palmyra, Missouri. On November 17, Jefferson Davis ordered Theophilus H. Holmes, commanding the Confederate Trans-Mississippi Department, to demand surrender of McNeil, and if it was refused, to execute the first ten Union officers to fall into his hands. McNeil remained active in the Union cause, and no further action seems to have been taken in the matter by Lincoln.

To Henry W. Halleck [1]

Major Gen. Halleck Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir: Washington, January 1. 1863.

Gen. Burnside wishes to cross the Rappahannock with his army, but his Grand Division commanders all oppose the movement. If in such a difficulty as this you do not help, you fail me precisely in the point for which I sought your assistance. You know what Gen. Burnside's plan is; and it is my wish that you go with him to the ground, examine it as far as practicable, confer with the officers, getting their judgment, and ascertaining their temper, in a word, gather all the elements for forming a judgment of your own; and then tell Gen. Burnside that you do approve, or that you do not approve his plan. Your military skill is useless to me, if you will not do this. Yours very truly A LINCOLN

[Endorsement]

Withdrawn, because considered harsh by Gen. Halleck. A.L.

Jan. 1. 1862 [1863]

Page  32

Annotation

[1]   Copy ALS $$$ Feb. 17, 1970. ALS, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement, incorrectly dated ``Jan. 1. 1862'' is written on the back of the letter. On January 1, Major General Burnside wrote Lincoln as follows:

``Since leaving you this morning, I have determined that it is my duty to place on paper the remarks which I made to you, in order that you may use them or not, as you see proper.

``I am in command . . . of nearly 200,000 men, 120,000 of whom are in the immediate presence of the enemy, and I cannot conscientiously retain the command without making an unreserved statement of my views.

``The Secretary of War has not the confidence of the officers and soldiers, and I feel sure that he has not the confidence of the country. In regard to the latter statement, you are probably better informed than I am. The same opinion applies with equal force in regard to General Halleck. It seems to be the universal opinion that the movements of the army have not been planned with a view to co-operation and mutual assistance.

``I have attempted a movement upon the enemy, in which I have been repulsed, and I am convinced, after mature deliberation, that the army ought to make another movement in the same direction, not necessarily at the same points on the river; but I am not sustained in this by a single grand division commander in my command. My reasons for having issued the order for making this second movement I have already given you in full, and I can see no reasons for changing my views. Doubtless this difference of opinion between my general officers and myself results from a lack of confidence in me. In this case it is highly necessary that this army should be commanded by some other officer, to whom I will most cheerfully give way.

``Will you allow me, Mr. President, to say that it is of the utmost importance that you be surrounded and supported by men who have the confidence of the people and of the army, and who will at all times give you definite and honest opinions in relation to their separate departments, and at the same time give you positive and unswerving support in your public policy, taking at all times their full share of the responsibility for that policy? In no positions held by gentlemen near you are these conditions more requisite than those of the Secretary of War and General-in-Chief and the commanders of your armies. In the struggle now going on, in which the very existence of our Government is at stake, the interests of no one man are worth the value of a grain of sand, and no one should be allowed to stand in the way of accomplishing the greatest amount of public good.

``It is my belief that I ought to retire to private life. I hope you will not understand this to savor of anything like dictation. My only desire is to promote the public good. No man is an accurate judge of the confidence in which he is held by the public and the people around him, and the confidence in my management may be entirely destroyed, in which case it would be a great wrong for me to retain this command for a single day; and, as I before said, I will most cheerfully give place to any other officer.'' (OR, I, XXI, 941-42. This letter does not appear in the Lincoln Papers, and a footnote to the text in the source specifies ``This letter is printed from General Burnside's copy.'')

On the same day General Halleck wrote Stanton the following letter of resignation:

``Sir: From my recent interview with the President and yourself, and from the President's letter of this morning, which you delivered to me at your reception, I am led to believe that there is a very important difference of opinion in regard to my relations toward generals commanding armies in the field, and that I cannot perform the duties of my present office satisfactorily at the same time to the President and to myself. I therefore respectfully request that I may be relieved from further duties as General-in-Chief.'' (OR, I, XXI, 940-41. A footnote in the source reads as follows: ``As duplicates are found among General

Page  33Halleck's papers, and no copy is found in the War Department files, it is presumed that the application was withdrawn upon withdrawal of the President's letter.'')

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Hon. Sec. of War: Executive Mansion,
Dear Sir: Washington, Jany. 1, 1863.

Yesterday a piteous appeal was made to me by an old lady of genteel appearance, saying she had, with what she thought sufficient assurance that she would not be disturbed by the government, fitted up the two South Divisions of the old ``Duff Green'' building in order to take boarders, and has boarders already in it, & others, including M.C.s. engaged, and that now she is ordered to be out of it by Saturday the 3rd. Inst.; and that, independently of the ruin it brings on her, by her lost out-lay, she neither has, nor can find another shelter for her own head. I know nothing about it myself, but promised to bring it to your notice. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS-P, ISLA. The lady has not been identified and no further reference has been discovered. The ``Duff Green Building'' presumably referred to the former residence of Duff Green on the north side of E Street, a short distance east of Tenth Street.

To Samuel R. Curtis [1]

Executive Mansion,
Major General Curtis Washington, January 2, 1863.

My dear Sir: Yours of Dec. 29th. by the hand of Mr. Strong is just received. The day I telegraphed you suspending the order in relation to Dr. McPheters, he, with Mr. Bates, the Attorney General, appeared before me, and left with me a copy of the order mentioned. The Dr. also showed me the copy of an oath which he said he had taken, which is, indeed, very strong, and specific. He also verbally assured me that he had constantly prayed in church for the President and Government, as he had always done before the present war. In looking over the recitals in your order, I do not see that this matter of the prayer, as he states it, is negatived; nor that any violation of his oath is charged; nor, in fact, that any thing specific is alledged against him. The charges are all general ---that he has a rebel wife & rebel relations, that he sympathizes with rebels, and that he exercises rebel influence. Now, after talking with him, I tell you frankly, I believe he does sympathize with the rebels; but the question remains whether such a man, ofPage  34 unquestioned good moral character, who has taken such an oath as he has, and can not even be charged of violating it, and who can be charged with no other specific act or omision, can, with safety to the government be exiled, upon the suspicion of his secret sympathies. But I agree that this must be left to you who are on the spot; and if, after all, you think the public good requires his removal, my suspension of the order is withdrawn, only with this qualification that the time during the suspension, is not to be counted against him. I have promised him this.

But I must add that the U.S. government must not, as by this order, undertake to run the churches. When an individual, in a church or out of it, becomes dangerous to the public interest, he must be checked; but let the churches, as such take care of themselves. It will not do for the U.S. to appoint Trustees, Supervisors, or other agents for the churches. Yours very truly

A. LINCOLN

P.S. The committee composed of Messrs. Yeatman & Filley (Mr. Brodhead not attending) has presented your letter and the memorial of sundry citizens. On the whole subject embraced, exercise your best judgment, with a sole view to the public interest, and I will not interfere without hearing you. [2] A. LINCOLN

Jan. 3, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   ADfS, DLC-RTL. Curtis' letter of December 29, 1862, introduced ``the bearer Geo. P. Strong . . . a leading and worthy member of the Union Element of Dr. McPheter's church. Your Telegraphic order suspending the Provost Marshalls was a surprise. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

[2]   Giles F. Filley, crockery merchant and stove manufacturer, and James E. Yeatman, banker, left St. Louis on December 30 to interview the president concerning the McPheeters affair and other problems of the state. (OR, I, XXII, I, 884). James O. Broadhead, a lawyer at St. Louis, was the third member who did not attend.

To the Senate and House of Representatives [1]

January 2, 1863

To the Senate and House of Representatives:

I submit to Congress the expediency of extending to other Departments of the Government, the authority conferred on the President by the 8th. Section of the Act of the 8th. of May, 1792, to appoint a person to temporarily discharge the duties of Secretary of State, Secretary of the Treasury and Secretary of War, in case of the death, absence from the seat of Government or sickness of either of those officers. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Washington 2nd. January 1862 [1863]

Page  35

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA RG 46, Senate 37A F2; DS, DNA RG 233, House Executive Document No. 24. Secretary Caleb B. Smith sent in his resignation on December 31, 1862. Seward wrote Lincoln on January 2, 1863, that since the act authorizing the president to appoint ``an acting head of a department'' applied only to the departments of State, Treasury, and War, ``You will have to leave Mr Smith's resignation unaccepted,'' in which case the assistant could ``without special appointment . . . act in the absence of the Secretary.'' (DLC-RTL). An act approved February 20, 1863, gave the president power to appoint acting heads in other executive departments. On January 5, Lincoln nominated John P. Usher to succeed Smith, and Usher was confirmed by the Senate on January 8.

Endorsement [1]

Let this woman have her boy out of Old Capitol Prison.

January 3, 1863. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Leslie J. Perry, ``Appeals to Lincoln's Clemency,'' The Century Magazine, LI (December, 1895), 253. No further reference has been found.

To Joseph Holt [1]

Judge-Advocate-General: Executive Mansion,
My Dear Sir: Washington, January 3, 1863.

The bearer of this [Benjamin N. Martin] [2] makes an appeal in behalf of General Benham. I have told him that if you can carefully examine the case, and therefore do advise the restoration of General Benham [sic]. [3] I do not order you to do this, but leave it to yourself. I send the papers in my possession. Yours, very truly, A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   OR, I, XIV, 979.

[2]   Brackets are in the source. Benjamin N. Martin was a professor at the ``University of the city of New York'' and a friend of General Henry W. Benham's.

[3]   Brackets are in the source. Benham's appointment as brigadier general of Volunteers was revoked on August 7, 1862, on recommendation of Halleck and approval of Stanton, for Benham's part in the Union repulse at Secessionville, James Island, South Carolina, June 16, 1862. Holt recommended on January 26, 1863, that Benham be restored to service, and the revocation of Benham's appointment was cancelled on February 6 (OR, I, XIV, 979-83).

To the Senate [1]

To the Senate of the United States. January 3, 1863

I transmit to the Senate for consideration with a view to ratification, a Convention for the mutual adjustment of claims between the United States and Ecuador, signed by the respective plenipotentiariesPage  36 of the two Governments, in Guayaquil, on the 25th. November, ultimo. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Washington, 3 January, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   DNA RG 46, Senate 37B B4 The convention was ratified by the Senate on January 28, 1863.

To Gideon Welles [1]

Executive Mansion,
Dear Sir: Washington, Jan'y 4, 1863.

As many persons, who come well recommended for loyalty and service to the Union cause, and who are refugees from rebel oppression in the State of Virginia, make application to me for authority and permission to remove their families and property to protection within the Union lines, by means of our armed gunboats on the Potomac River and Chesapeake Bay, you are hereby requested to hear and consider all such applications, and to grant such assistance to this class of persons as in your judgment their merits may render proper, and as may, in each case, be consistent with the perfect and complete efficiency of the naval service and with military expediency. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Hon. Gideon Welles

Secretary of the Navy.

Annotation

[1]   LS, DNA WR NB RG 45, Executive Letters, January-February, 1864, No. 8. No reply from Welles has been located. Although definitely dated 1863, this letter is filed among 1864 documents, and may have been misdated by Lincoln.

To Samuel R. Curtis [1]

Executive Mansion,
Major General Curtis Washington, January 5, 1863.

My dear Sir: I am having a good deal of trouble with Missouri matters, and I now sit down to write you particularly about it. One class of friends believe in greater severity, and another in greater leniency, in regard to arrests, banishments, and assessments. As usual in such cases, each questions the other's motives. On the one hand it is insisted that Gov. Gamble's Unionism, at most, is not better than a secondary spring of action---that hunkerism, and a wish for political influence, stand before Unionism, with him. On the other hand, it is urged that arrests, banishments, and assessments are made more for private malice, revenge, and pecuniary interest, than for the public good. This morning I was told by a gentleman who, I have no doubt believes what he says,Page  37 that in one case of assessments for ten thousand dollars, the different persons who paid, compared receipts, and found they had paid thirty thousand dollars. If this be true, the inference is that the collecting agents pocketed the odd twenty thousand. And true or not, in the instance, nothing but the sternest necessity can justify the making and maintaining of a system so liable to such abuses. Doubtless the necessity [2] for the making of the system in Missouri did exist, and whether it continues for the maintainance of it, is now a practical, and very important question. Some days ago Governor Gamble telegraphed me asking that the assessments, outside of St. Louis county, might be suspended, as they already have been within it; and this morning all the members of congress here from Missouri, but one, lay a paper before me asking the same thing. Now, my belief is that Gov. Gamble is an honest and true man, not less so than yourself; that you and he could confer together on this, and other Missouri questions with great advantage to the public; that each knows something which the other does not, and that, acting together, you could about double your stock of pertinent information. May I not hope that you and he will attempt this? I could at once safely do, (or you could safely do without me) whatever [3] you and he agree upon. There is absolutely no reason why you should not agree. Yours as ever

A. LINCOLN

P.S. I forgot to say that Hon. James S. Rollins, M.C. from one of the Missouri Districts wishes that, upon his personal responsibility, Rev. John M. Robinson, of Columbia, Mo. James L. Matthews of Boone county, Mo, and James L. Stephens, also of Boone county, Mo. may be allowed to return to their respective homes. Major Rollins leaves with me very strong papers from the neighbors of these men, whom he says he knows to be true men. He also says he has many constituents who he thinks are rightfully exiled; but that he thinks these three should be allowed to return. Please look into the case, and oblige Major Rollins if you consistently can. [4] Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS copy, DLC-RTL. This letter is misdated July 5, 1863, in Hertz, II, 899. As printed in the Official Records (I, XXII, II, 17-18) it carries the subscription ``(Copy sent to Governor Gamble),'' and we may infer from General Curtis' reply (infra) that as of January 15, he had not received the original. On December 31, 1862, Governor Gamble telegraphed Lincoln as follows: ``I have stopped all assessments of Enrolled Militia. Please order by telegraph the suspension of all assessments by United States officers. Great distress is produced.'' (OR, I, XXII, I, 888). On January 3, 1863, Lincoln's interview with James E. Yeatman, Giles F. Filley, and George P. Strong took place (see postscript to Lincoln's letter to Curtis, January 2, supra). On January 4 six members ofPage  38

Congress from Missouri petitioned Lincoln to order a discontinuance of the military assessments ``as now all penalties for violations of the law, can be enforced in the civil tribunals in that State.''

On January 15, Curtis replied as follows:

``I had the honor to see a letter addressed to me, but sent to Governor Gamble, of the 5th instant . . . relating to . . . affairs in this State, which you say are giving you much trouble. . . .

``In my interview with Governor Gamble, and in reference to persons charging him with selfish and ambitious motives, and doubts as to his fidelity, the Governor expressed his regrets, and evinced generous sentiments of loyalty. . . . I think with you that Governor Gamble is loyal, and I do not see any occasion for us to differ, except it may be as to some measures. . . . He goes for you and our country and some of your measures. I go for all. . . . There may be frauds, such as you name, but I doubt it. No assessment committee could commit such a fraud as you name with impunity. . . . On matters concerning the degree and direction of force against rebels, I am appealed to as the supposed head of military power in this vicinity. On complaints of too much severity, the Governor and Your Excellency are appealed to, and we do not, therefore, . . . always see both sides. As to banishments, the Governor goes further than I. . . . As to the cases named by Mr. Rollins, I will examine, and write to him. They must stand on their own merits, not on his; but I shall have due deference to his opinion as to the safety of the release. As I intimated in a former letter, I only fear some conflict with the Governor in regard to Enrolled Militia and regular volunteers. I command the volunteers, but the Enrolled Militia, it is claimed, can only be commanded by the Governor. . . .'' (OR, I, XXII, II, 42-43).

[2]   ``Necessity for the'' inserted by Hay.

[3]   ``Ever you'' inserted by Hay.

[4]   No further reference to the disposal of these cases has been found.

Memorandum [1]

January 5, 1863

Major Rollins' three cases of exile.

I have, to-day, Jan. 5. 1863, written Gen. Curtis about this.

AL.

Annotation

[1]   AES-DLC-RTL. See Lincoln to Curtis, supra.

Memorandum [2]

As to suspending Assessments. Wrote Gen. Curtis to-day

Jan. 5. 1863. A.L

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on an envelope containing a letter from Missouri members of congress asking that military assessments in Missouri be discontinued. See Lincoln to Curtis, supra.

To the House of Representatives [1]

To the House of Representatives. January 5, 1863

In compliance with the Resolution of the House of Representatives of the 22nd. ultimo, in relation to the alleged interference ofPage  39 our Minister to Mexico in favor of the French, I transmit a report from the Secretary of State and the papers with which it is accompanied. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Washington, January 5, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA RG 233, House Executive Document No. 23. Seward's report of December 29, 1862, transmitted by Lincoln, including all the papers involved, may be found in Thirty-seventh Congress, Third Session, House Executive Document No. 23. Minister Thomas Corwin and other members of the diplomatic corps in Mexico City had protested on October 2, 1862, an order expelling foreigners without ``evident proofs'' of their actions against the Mexican government.

To William S. Rosecrans [1]

Major General W. S. Rosecrans [2] Executive Mansion,
Murfreesboro, Tenn. Washington, Jan. 5. 186[3]

Your despatch announcing retreat of enemy has just reached here. God bless you, and all with you! Please tender to all, and accept for yourself, the Nation's gratitude for yours, and their, skill, endurance, and dantless courage. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Lincoln's erroneous date ``1862'' has been corrected on the manuscript in a different handwriting. Rosecrans' dispatch to Halleck on January 5, 1863, reported the Union victory in the Battle of Murfreesboro, Tennessee, as follows: ``We have fought one of the greatest battles of the war, and are victorious. Our entire success on the 31st was prevented by a surprise of the right flank; but have, nevertheless, beaten the enemy, after a three-days' battle. They fled with great precipitancy on Saturday night. The last of their columns of cavalry left this morning. Their loss has been very heavy. Generals [James E.] Rains and [Roger W.] Hanson killed. [James R.] Chalmers, [Daniel W.] Adams, and [John C.] Breckinridge are wounded.'' (OR, I, XX, I, 186).

[2]   ``W. S. Rosecrans'' is not in Lincoln's handwriting.

To Caleb Russell and Sallie A. Fenton [1]

Executive Mansion,
My Good Friends Washington, January 5, 1863

The Honorable Senator Harlan has just placed in my hands your letter of the 27th of December which I have read with pleasure and gratitude.

It is most cheering and encouraging for me to know that in the efforts which I have made and am making for the restoration of a righteous peace to our country, I am upheld and sustained by the good wishes and prayers of God's people. No one is more deeply than myself aware that without His favor our highest wisdom is but as foolishness and that our most strenuous efforts would avail nothing in the shadow of His displeasure. I am conscious of noPage  40 desire for my country's welfare, that is not in consonance with His will, and of no plan upon which we may not ask His blessing. [2] It seems to me that if there be one subject upon which all good men may unitedly agree, it is imploring the gracious favor of the God of Nations upon the struggles our people are making for the preservation of their precious birthright of civil and religious liberty. Very truly Your friend A. LINCOLN.

To Caleb Russell}

Sallie A. Fenton}Secretaries

Annotation

[1]   LS-F, Davenport, Iowa, Democrat and Leader, February 14, 1928. The letter is in John Hay's handwriting signed by Lincoln. A draft in Hay's autograph indicates his composition of the letter (DLC-RTL). The following communication was sent to Senator James Harlan by Caleb Russell on December 27, 1862 (ibid.):

``To Abraham Lincoln President of the United States

``Esteemed Friend On behalf of the Religious Society of Friends in the State of Iowa, whom we represent, we desire briefly to express to thee the very deep solicitude we feel that that [sic] in the present perilous condition of the Nations life, thou mayest be favored to ask counsel of Him who holdeth the destinies of Nations in His hand. We desire to express our united approval of thy late Proclamation of Prospective Emancipation. We believe it is intrinsically right and in the direction to bring about a permanent peace in our beloved country and we hope it may be carried out uncompromisingly. At this very late period we can do but very little more, than bear our testimony in favor of justice and liberty and like Aaron and Him of old would gladly hold up thy hands as they did the hands of Moses.

``In Christian love we subscribe ourselves thy friends.

``Signed by direction and on behalf of the monthly meeting of the Religious Society of Friends of Prairie Grove in the State of Iowa this 27th of the 12th mo A.D. 1862.

``CALEB RUSSELL

``SALLIE A. FENTON''

[2]   This sentence is marked for deletion in the draft, but appears in the letter.

To Mrs. Abraham H. Hoge [1]

Mrs. A. H. Hoge Executive Mansion,
Chicago, Illinois. Washington, January 6. 1863.

I am sorry I failed in my former note to make myself understood by you. You send me a commission, which is good as far as it goes; but it fills only one of the three conditions which I stated to you as being indispensable. The remaining conditions are that a Major General must be found who has not already the full complement of Staff-officers, which the law allows to a Major-General, and who is willing to take your son as one of them. Without these I should violate both law, and an indispensable courtesy, to thrust your son, or any one else, upon any Major General's staff. As to Brigadier-Generals, they are not allowed any staff officers with asPage  41 high rank as Major. If I were to undertake it, I probably could not, in less than a month, nor without a laborious correspondence, find the General entitled by law to have an additional staff officer with the rank of Major, and who is willing [to] take your son as the man. This your son must do this [sic] for himself. I hope I now make myself understood Yours very truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, ICHi. See Lincoln's letter to Mrs. Hoge, November 25, 1862, supra. Mrs. Hoge's letter is not in the Lincoln Papers.

Memorandum Concerning Alban B. Botsford [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, Jan. 6. 1863.

Col. Ulmann, calls with Capt. Alban B. Botsford, now of 78th. N.Y. Inftry.---both at National Hotel. Has property in Mississippi and is well acquainted in La. When time comes would like to aid in organizing blacks there.

Annotation

[1]   AD, DLC-RTL. On March 2, 1863, Botsford was appointed colonel of the Seventy-eighth U.S. Colored Troops and served until September 22, 1863, when he resigned. Daniel Ullmann, colonel of the Seventy-eighth New York Infantry, was recruiting a cadre of officers to organize a brigade of Negro troops in Louisiana. See Lincoln to Banks, March 29, infra.

Memorandum Concerning Meredith Clymer [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, Jan. 6. 1863.

To-day, Col. Ulmann calls & urges that Dr. Meredith Clymer be appointed one of the new Medical Inspectors. Thinks he is of superior fitness for the place.

Annotation

[1]   AD, IHi. Dr. Meredith Clymer was appointed surgeon of Volunteers on December 25, 1861, and had received praise from Dorothea Dix (see Lincoln to Stanton May 5, 1862, supra), but no record of his appointment as inspector has been found.

To William H. Seward [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, 6th. January, 1863.

The Secretary of State is directed not to countersign the within contract, or to affix the seal of the United States thereto, but to retain the instrument under advisement. ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA FS RG 59, Miscellaneous Letters. The accompanying contract between Bernard Kock ``formerly of New Orleans'' and the U.S. government, December 31, 1862, called for transporting and colonizing five thousand Negroes on Vache Island, a dependency of Haiti. Seward wrote Lincoln on JanuaryPage  42

``I think it necessary to have a few precautions taken before I certify the contract of Bernard Kock, and I will speak with you on the subject when we meet.'' (DLC-RTL). Kock, who signed himself ``Governor of A'Vache Island,'' had secured a twenty-year concession from the government of Haiti. His letter of January 17 implies that he had asked the government for $50,000 in advance (DLC-RTL). One March 20, 1863, Kock transferred his contract to Leonard W. Jerome, Charles K. Tuckerman and Paul S. Forbes. On April 16, Lincoln issued his proclamation (infra), cancelling the contract.

To Green Adams [1]

Executive Mansion,
Hon. Green Adams Washington, January 7, 1863.

My dear Sir: In answer to your inquiries of this morning I have to say I am very anxious to have the special force in Kentucky raised and armed. But the changed conduct towards me of some of her members of congress, and the ominous out-givings as to what the Governor and Legislature of Kentucky intend doing, admonish me to consider whether any additional arms I may send there, are not to be turned against the government. [2] I hope this may clear up on the right side. So far as I can see, Kentucky's sons in the field, are acting loyally and bravely, God bless them! I can not help thinking the mass of her people feel the same way. Yours truly

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADfS, DLC-RTL; LS, owned by Mrs. Henry C. Adams, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. No letter from Green Adams has been found to which this can be a reply. The probability is that Adams presented his request in person. An act approved on February 7, 1863, authorized the Governor of Kentucky to raise a force of 20,000 twelve-months volunteers to serve in Kentucky, with discretion of the president to use them outside the state.

[2]   This reference may be explained by Horatio G. Wright's communication to Halleck of December 30, 1862, ``I have information, on which I am inclined to rely, that in case the President issues his proclamation . . . on the 1st proximo, the Legislature of Kentucky, which meets on Monday next, will legislate the State out of the Union, and that the Governor's message will favor such action; also that the court of appeals has a disloyal majority, and will reverse all judgments of loyal inferior courts against rebels. . . .'' (OR, I, XX, II, 282).

To B. Gratz Brown [1]

Hon. B. Gratz Brown Washington, D.C.,
Jefferson City, Mo. Jan. 7. 1863 [5:30 P.M.]

Yours of to-day just received. The Administration takes no part between it's friends in Mo, of whom, I at least, consider you one; and I have never before had an intimation that appointees there, were interfering, or were inclined to interfere. A. LINCOLN

Page  43

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. The time sent does not show on the original, the clerk's notation at the top left of the page having been trimmed off. The telegram from Brown, received at 5:15 P.M., reads as follows: ``Does the administration desire my defeat if not why are its appointees here working for that end'' (DLC-RTL).

To John A. Dix [1]

Major Gen. Dix Washington, D.C.,
Fort-Monroe, Va Jan. 7, 1863

Do Richmond papers of 6th. say nothing about Vicksburg? or, if anything, what? A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Dix replied at 5:55 P.M., ``The only 2 Richmond papers of the Sixth I have seen say nothing of Vicksburg but they admit & mourn over the Rebel defeat at Murfreesboro'' (DLC-RTL). A later telegram from Dix received at 8:40 P.M., quotes a despatch of January 2 in the Richmond Examiner of January 6, ``It expresses a confidence of holding Vicksburgh against any force the Federals can bring against it It adds `this morning our forces advanced against the Enemy who were erecting works on the Lake causing them to evacuate their position, leaving fifty stand of arms nine prisoners & all their implements for erecting fortifications. Our forces now occupy the whole country bordering on the Lake.

`` `The Enemy having returned with their transports & gone down the Yazoo. The Enemy have left Chickasaw Bayou & are reported going on their transports to Snyder's Bluff on the Yazoo where it is supposed they will make an attempt to storm our works.

`` `Our forces are well advised of their movements' '' (DLC-RTL).

To Henry W. Halleck [1]

Executive Mansion.
Maj Genl Halleck. Washington, January 7th. 1863.

My dear Sir: What think you of forming a reserve Cavalry Corps of, say 6000 for the Army of the Potomac? Might not such a corps be constituted from the Cavalry of Sigels and Slocums corps, with scraps we could pick up here and there? Yours truly,

A LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DNA WR RG 108, HQA, December file 1863, 137L. No reply from Halleck has been found and none is given in the Official Records where Lincoln's communication is printed (I, XXI, 954). On January 14, however, General Carl Schurz wrote Lincoln, ``To-day I went with Gen. Sigel to see Gen. Burnside, who fully agreed to it that I should command the Eleventh Corps and Gen. Stahel the Cavalry Reserve. Gen. Stahel also is very well satisfied with it. All concerned now agreeing upon that point the only thing that is wanted is that you should be kind enough to issue an order placing me in command of the Corps and Gen. Stahel in command of the Cavalry-Reserve, consisting of the Cavalry now with the Grand Reserve Division and such regiments as will be attached to it. . . .'' (DLC-RTL). See further Lincoln to Stanton, January 12, infra.

Page  44

To William A. Hammond [1]

January 7, 1863

Will the Surgeon General please see Rev. Mr. Alvord, and give his opinion to me in writing whether he should be appointed a Chaplain as he desires? A. LINCOLN

Jan. 7. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, OFH. Lincoln's endorsement is written on an envelope on which the following endorsements also appear:

``Will the President please give me a commendation to any Regt. in the Army of the Potomac in need of a chaplain. Dr. Hammond promises to transfer me to the first permanent Hospital which shall be opened on the front. In the mean time I will do what I can in connection with a Regiment. Very respectfully J. W. ALVORD''

``Respectfully returned to the President. There is no Law which will permit of a chaplain being appointed to a hospital and assigned to duty in the field. Mr Alvord thinks he can obtain the appointment of Regimental Chaplain which will be sati[sfactory] to him and cover the case.

``W. A. HAMMOND Surg. Gen.''

No record of the Reverend Alvord's appointment has been found.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Allow Col. Peyton the additional time required, unless there be reason to the contrary unknown to me. A. LINCOLN

Jan. 7. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, CSmH. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Jesse E. Peyton to Adjutant General Lorenzo Thomas, Philadelphia, January 3, 1863, asking an extension of time for recruiting his regiment, since the draft and restrictions imposed upon his recruiting had seriously handicapped recruitment. Stanton's endorsement below Lincoln's is as follows: ``There is good & valid reason for not extending the time & the Secretary of War declines to do it.'' See further Lincoln to Stanton, January 8, infra.

To Edwin M. Stanton [2]

If it is lawfully competent for me to make the appointments within requested, let it be done at once. A. LINCOLN

Jan. 7. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES-IHi. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Major General John A. McClernand, Memphis, Tennessee, December 29, 1862, asking appointment of ``Major Adolph Schwartz, 2nd. Illinois Light Artillery, to be Asst. Inspector General of my corps, with the rank of Lt. Colonel; also Major Walter B. Scates A. A. General, for promotion to the same rank; also Capt. James Dunlap for promotion to the same rank in the Qr. Mast. Dept.'' Major Scates apparently brought this letter from McClernand along with another of the same date (see Lincoln to McClernand, January 8, infra). No record has been found of Major Schwartz's promotion. Dunlap and Scates were appointed lieutenant colonels as of January 1, 1863.

Page  45

To Jose M. Acha [1]

January 8, 1863

Abraham Lincoln,

President of the United States of America.

To His Excellency Senor Don Jose M. Acha

Constitutional President of the Republic of Bolivia.

Great and Good Friend: I have received the letter of your Excellency of the 16 August last informing me of your election by the popular suffrage to the Constitutional Presidency of the Republic at the expiration of the Provisional term of service which the national assembly had entrusted to you.

I felicitate Your Excellency on this renewed mark of the confidence of the people in your Excellency's administration, and I sincerely hope that under your continued direction of affairs the national prosperity may be greatly enlarged and the happiness of the people secured.

The sentiments of friendship expressed by your Excellency are cordially reciprocated. It is equally my desire and study to strengthen the friendly relations which have, happily, always subsisted between our respective countries. The Treaty just exchanged by our respective plenipotentiaries which I will immediately proclaim as the law of the land, will, I am confident, aid us both in giving effect to our good intentions.

I beg your Excellency to accept the expressions of my high regard and sincere friendship, and I pray God to have &c. Your Good Friend ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

By the President:

WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.

Washington, 8 January, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DNA FS RG 59, Communications to Foreign Sovereigns and States, III, 196-97.

Order to Edward Bates [1]

Executive Mansion
Ordered by the President: January 8. 1863.

Whereas on the 13th day of November, 1862, it was ordered ``that the Attorney General be charged with the superintendence and direction of all proceedings to be had under the Act of Congress of the 17 of July 1862 entitled ``an Act to suppress insurrection, to punish treason and rebellion, and to seize and confiscate the property of rebels, and for other purposes'' in so far as may concernPage  46 the seizure, prosecution and condemnation of the estate, property and effects of rebels and traitors as mentioned and provided for in the fifth, sixth, and seventh sections of the said Act of Congress.''

And whereas, since that time it has been ascertained that divers prosecutions have been instituted in the Courts of the United States, for the condemnation of property of rebels and traitors under the Act of Congress of August the 6th 1861, entitled ``an Act to confiscate property used for insurrectionary purposes'' which equally require the superintending care of the Government: Therefore---

It is now, further ordered by the President: That the Attorney General be charged with the superintendence and direction of all proceedings to be had under the said last-mentioned Act (the Act of 1861) as fully in all respects, as under the first-mentioned Act (the Act of 1862). ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DLC-Nicolay Papers. In the Official Records (III, IV, 408-409) this order is printed as an enclosure in a letter from Bates to General Lewis Wallace, May 25, 1864. See also Lincoln's order to Bates, November 13, 1862.

To Ambrose E. Burnside [1]

Jan. 8. 1863.

I understand Gen. Halleck has sent you a letter of which this is a copy. I approve the letter. I deplore the want of concurrence with you, in opinion by your general officers, but I do not see the remedy. Be cautious, and do not understand that the government, or country, is driving you. I do not yet see how I could profit by changing the command of the A.P. & if I did, I should not wish to do it by accepting the resignation of your commission.

Gen. Burnside. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES-IHi; AES copy, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on an official copy of Halleck's letter to Burnside of January 7, 1863. The autograph copy of the endorsement is written on the back of Burnside's letter to Lincoln of January 5, 1863, and is headed ``Answered by indorsement on copy of Gen. Halleck's letter as follows.''

On January 5, Burnside tendered his resignation ``as Major General of Volunteers'' and wrote Lincoln as follows:

``Since my return to the Army I have become more than ever convinced that the General Officers of this command are almost unanimously opposed to another crossing of the river; but I am still of the opinion that the crossing should be attempted, & I have accordingly issued orders to the Engineers and Artilery to prepare for it. There is much hazzard in it as there always is in the majority of Military Movements, and I cannot begin the movement without giving you notice of it, particularly as I know so little of the effect that it may have upon other movements of distant armies. The influence of your telegraph the other day is still upon me, and has impressed me with the idea that there are many parts of the problem which influence you that are notPage  47 known to me. In order to relieve you from all embarassment in my case, I enclose with this my resignation of my commission of Major General of Volunteers which you can have accepted, if my movement is not in accordance with the views of yourself, and your military advisers. I have taken the liberty to write to you personally upon this subject because it was necessary as I learn from Genl Halleck for you to approve of my general plan written at Warrenton, before I could commence the movement, and I think it quite as necessary that you should know of the important movement I am about to make---particularly as it will have to be made in opposition to the views of nearly all my General Officers, & after the receipt of a dispatch from you informing me of the opinion of some of them who had visited you.

``I beg leave to say that my resignation is not sent in, in any spirit of insubordination, but as I before said simply to relieve you of any embarrassment in changing commanders where lack of confidence may have rendered it necessary.

``The bearer of this will bring me any answer, or I should be glad to hear from you by telegraph in cipher.'' (DLC-RTL).

As printed in the Official Records (I, XXI, 944-45) Burnside's letter has an additional paragraph, third from the last, which is reproduced from ``Burnside's copy of this letter, but is not in that received by the President,'' as follows:

``In conversation with you on New Year's morning, I was led to express some opinions which I afterward felt it my duty to place on paper, and to express them verbally to the gentlemen of whom we were speaking, which I did in your presence after handing you the letter. You were not disposed then, as I saw, to retain this letter, and I took it back, but I now return it to you for record, if you wish it.''

The copy of Halleck's letter to Burnside of January 7, which bears Lincoln's original endorsement, reads as follows:

``In all my communications and interviews with you since you took command of the Army of the Potomac, I have advised a forward movement across the Rappahannock. At our interview at Warrenton, I urged that you should cross by the fords above Fredericksburg rather than to fall down to that place, and, when I left you at Warrenton, it was understood that at least a considerable part of your army would cross by the fords, and I so represented to the President. It was this modification of the plan proposed by you, that I telegraphed you had received his approval. When the attempt at Fredericksburg was abandoned, I advised you to renew the attempt at some other point, either in whole or in part to turn the enemy's works, or to threaten their wings or communications; in other words, to keep the enemy occupied till a favorable opportunity offered to strike a decisive blow. I particularly advised you to use your cavalry and light artillery upon his communications, and attempt to cut off his supplies and engage him at an advantage.

``In all our interviews I have urged that our first object was, not Richmond, but the defeat or scattering of Lee's army, which threatened Washington and the line of the Upper Potomac. I now recur to these things simply to remind you of the general views which I have expressed, and which I still hold.

``The circumstances of the case, however, have somewhat changed since the early part of November. The chances of an extended line of operations are now, on account of the advanced season, much less than then. But the chances are still in our favor to meet and defeat the enemy on the Rappahannock, if we can effect a crossing in a position where we can meet the enemy on favorable or even equal terms. I therefore still advise a movement against him. The character of that movement, however, must depend upon circumstances which may change any day and almost any hour. If the enemy should concentrate his forces at the place you have selected for a crossing, make it a feint and try another place. Again, the circumstances at the time may be such as to renderPage  48 an attempt to cross the entire army not advisable. In that case theory suggests that, while the enemy concentrates at that point, advantages can be gained by crossing smaller forces at other points, to cut off his lines, destroy his communication, and capture his rear guards, outposts, &c. The great object is to occupy the enemy, to prevent his making large detachments or distant raids, and to injure him all you can with the least injury to yourself. If this can be best accomplished by feints of a general crossing and detached real crossings, take that course; if by an actual general crossing, with feints on other points, adopt that course. There seems to me to be many reasons why a crossing at some point should be attempted. It will not do to keep your large army inactive. As you yourself admit, it devolves on you to decide upon the time, place, and character of the crossing which you may attempt. I can only advise that an attempt be made, and as early as possible.'' (OR, I, XXI, 953-54).

To Andrew Johnson [1]

Gov. Johnson. Executive Mansion,
Nashville, Tenn. Washington, January 8. 1863.

A despatch of yesterday, from Nashville, says ``the body of Capt. Todd of 6th. Ky, brought in to-day.[''] Please tell me what was his Christian name, and whether he was in our service, or that of the enemy. I shall also be glad to have your impression as to the effect the late operations about Murfreesboro, will have on the prospects of Tennessee. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. The operator's notation of time sent for this telegram appears in the upper left hand corner ``2.15 P.M.'' Johnson telegraphed his reply at 9 P.M., ``Body of Capt Charles S Todd of Shelbyville Ky belonging to federal 6th Ky is here in metallic case awaiting transportation Your order in regard thereto will be promptly attended to'' (DLC-RTL). Captain Charles S. Todd, a relative of Mrs. Lincoln, had been killed in the Battle of Murfreesboro. See Lincoln to Johnson, January 10, infra.

To John A. McClernand [1]

Executive Mansion,
Major General McClernand Washington, January 8. 1863.

My dear Sir Your interesting communication by the hand of Major Scates is received. I never did ask more, nor ever was willing to accept less, than for all the States, and the people thereof, to take and hold their places, and their rights, in the Union, under the Constitution of the United States. For this alone have I felt authorized to struggle; and I seek neither more nor less now. Still, to use a coarse, but an expressive figure, broken eggs can not be mended. I have issued the emancipation proclamation, and I can not retract it.

After the commencement of hostilities I struggled nearly a year and a half to get along without touching the ``institution''; and when finally I conditionally determined to touch it, I gave a hundredPage  49 days fair notice of my purpose, to all the States and people, within which time they could have turned it wholly aside, by simply again becoming good citizens of the United States. They chose to disregard it, and I made the peremptory proclamation on what appeared to me to be a military necessity. And being made, it must stand. As to the States not included in it, of course they can have their rights in the Union as of old. Even the people of the states included, if they choose, need not to be hurt by it. Let them adopt systems of apprenticeship for the colored people, conforming substantially to the most approved plans of gradual emancipation; and, with the aid they can have from the general government, they may be nearly as well off, in this respect, as if the present trouble had not occurred, and much better off than they can possibly be if the contest continues persistently.

As to any dread of my having a ``purpose to enslave, or exterminate, the whites of the South,'' I can scarcely believe that such dread exists. It is too absurd. I believe you can be my personal witness that no man is less to be dreaded for undue severity, in any case.

If the friends you mention really wish to have peace upon the old terms, they should act at once. Every day makes the case more difficult. They can so act, with entire safety, so far as I am concerned.

I think you would better not make this letter public; but you may rely confidently on my standing by whatever I have said in it. Please write me if any thing more comes to light. Yours very truly

A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS-P, ISLA; LS copy, DLC-RTL. The autograph letter is incorrectly dated ``1862,'' but the signed copy is correctly dated. Two letters from McClernand dated December 29, 1862, were carried to Lincoln by Major Walter B. Scates (see Lincoln's endorsement to Stanton, January 7, supra). The lengthy letter to which Lincoln here replied reported that, ``A gentleman of the first respectability just arrived from the rebel army . . . brings suggestions of . . . import from officers of high rank in the rebel service, who were formerly my warm personal and political friends.

``These officials desire the restoration of peace and are represented to be willing to wheel their columns into the line of that policy. They admit that the South West and the North West are geographically and commercially identified. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

To Caleb B. Smith [1]

Executive Mansion,
Hon. Caleb B. Smith Washington, January 8. 1863.

My dear Sir: I wish you would tell me in writing, exactly what you did promise Watt about going to Europe last Spring. If it wasPage  50 in writing send me a copy; if merely verbal, write it as accurately as you can from memory, and please send it to me at once. Yours as ever A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, CSmH. No reply from Smith has been found, but his endorsement of approval appears on a copy of a letter from David P. Holloway to John Watt, March 14, 1862, which reads as follows:

``Understanding that you are about to go to Europe, I wish to engage your services for the Agricultural Division of the Patent Office, in the selection and purchase of seeds, commencing on the first of July next. You will receive full instructions about that time, informing you of the services required in detail. Your compensation will be at the rate of fifteen hundred dollars per annum and your actual travelling expenses'' (DLC-RTL).

But see also Lincoln to Lorenzo Thomas, November 16, 1861, supra, and note.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Hon. Sec. of War: Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir, Washington, January 8, 1863.

We shall need all the men we can get. Is there a special reason why Col. Peyton should not finish up his Regiment? If there is such special reason please tell me what it is. Yours truly

A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, The Hill School, Pottstown, Pennsylvania. See Lincoln's endorsement to Stanton, January 7, supra. Senators Samuel C. Pomeroy, James A. McDougall, and Edgar Cowan wrote Lincoln on January 8 as follows:

``Will you listen for a moment to Col. Jesse E. Peyton of Philadelphia Pa.

``I hope no injustice will be done and that he may be encouraged to fill up his Regiment. He comes to me very highly recommended.

``And in that spirit is most cordially commended to you. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

No record of Peyton's appointment has been found.

Memorandum Concerning William S. Pryor, J. O'Hara, and Thomas L. Jones [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, January 9, 1863.

To-day Mr. Senator Powell calls and demands the unconditional release William S. Pryor, of New-castle, Henry Co. Ky J. O'Hara, of Covington, Ky, who have been imprisoned at Camp Chase, & are now on parol at Cincinnati, not allowed to go to Kentucky. Col. Thomas L. Jones has a similar case except he has the previleges of New-port.

Annotation

[1]   AD, DLC-RTL. No further reference has been found to the cases of Pryor and O'Hara. The case of Thomas L. Jones of Newport, Kentucky, is amply recorded in the Official Records (II, V, 247, 250, 296). Jones had been paroled by Governor Tod of Ohio and upon expiration of his parole was recommended to be released upon taking an oath of allegiance in February, 1863.

Page  51

Memorandum Concerning Sandwich Islands [1]

I have a new reason for holding on to this a little while.

Jan. 9. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA FS RG 59, Appointments, Box 373. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter to Seward from James S. Rollins, January 6, 1862[3], concerning activities of French Roman Catholics and the possibility of French intervention in the Sandwich Islands. The memorandum probably refers to the imminent replacement of Thomas J. Dryer by James McBride as commissioner to the Sandwich Islands on January 26, 1863. See Lincoln to Seward March 7 and 15, 1862, supra. Although Dryer seems to have been incompetent, his difficulties as commissioner were aggravated by the presence of former commissioner David L. Gregg, Lincoln's old friend whom President Pierce had appointed commissioner in 1853 and who remained in the Islands as adviser to King Kamehameha IV (Sumner to Lincoln, October 11, 1862, DLC-RTL).

To the Senate and House of Representatives [1]

January 9, 1863

To the Senate and House of Representatives.

I transmit for the consideration of Congress, and with a view to the adoption of such measures in relation to the subject of it as may be deemed expedient, a copy of a note of the 8th instant, addressed to the Secretary of State by the Minister Resident of the Hanseatic Republics accredited to this Government, concerning an International Agricultural Exhibition to be held next summer in the City of Hamburg. ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Washington, 9th January, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA RG 46, Senate 37A F2; DS, ICU. Lincoln transmitted a copy of (Rudolph) R. Schleiden's letter to Seward, January 8, 1863, presenting a prospectus of the international agricultural exhibition to be held at Hamburg. Resolutions to facilitate a proper representation of the U.S. at the Hamburg Fair were introduced in the House on February 11 and the Senate on February 26, but neither seems to have been adopted.

To William H. Seward [1]

January 9, 1863

Dr. Smith, mentioned within, is an intimate personal friend of mine; and I have unconsciously superseded him, if at all. Sec. of State please inform me how it is A. LINCOLN

Jan. 9. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA FS RG 59, Appointments, Box 383. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from John Forsythe, Chicago, January 6, 1863, to Orville H. Browning, in regard to the removal of Forsythe's father-in-law, Dr. James Smith, as acting consul at Dundee, Scotland. Smith's son Hugh was appointed consul at Dundee in 1861 but because of poor health had to turn over the managementPage  52

of the office to his father. Lincoln's nomination of James Smith for the consulship was confirmed by the Senate on February 18, 1863. See further Lincoln to Seward, January 14, infra.

To Gideon Welles [1]

My dear Sir Executive Mansion Jan. 9, 1863

Capt Boggs of the Navy, thinks he ought to be recommended to Congress for a vote of thanks, and I am anxious to give the due reward of merit in all cases. Please give special attention to his case, & let me know the result Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   Stan. V. Henkels Catalog 1342, January 4, 1924, No. 26. Charles S. Boggs of New Jersey, who had been nominated for promotion to captain on December 1, 1862, was probably the officer concerned, but no reply from Welles or record of a recommendation for a congressional vote of thanks has been found.

To David Wilmot [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, Jan. 9, 1863.

Hon. D. Wilmot, I will do that. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, DLC-RTL. An undated note from Wilmot to which Lincoln replied, reads as follws: ``I leave for Harrisburg at 5 o'c to day. Not having heard from you I have called for an answer. Will you please give an answer on this sheet.'' (DLC-RTL).

Another undated letter from Wilmot, probably written on or near this date, is as follows:

``Yesterday Mr Grow informed me you had determined to make my appointment. I tender you my gratitude and thanks.

``Will you allow me a word, I dislike exceedingly to sever my identity with my State. I am known to its people, and hope that I have the love and respect of many of them. A position on the Court of Claims is national, the Bench of the District is local. I feel that Mr President very much---more perhaps than I ought. Again, while able to labor, in quiet and without excitement, I am satisfied that I have not many years in which to make provision for the family I must leave behind. The salary on the court of claims is $1000 greater than on the District Court.

``I trust that my name would not impair public confidence in the Courts and that your friends throughout the country would feel that you had not unworthily bestowed the appointment.''(DLC-RTL).

On March 6, 1863, Lincoln appointed Wilmot judge of the Court of Claims.

To Samuel R. Curtis [1]

Maj. Gen. Curtis Executive Mansion,
St. Louis, Mo. Washington, Jany. 10. 1863.

I understand there is considerable trouble with the slaves in Missouri. Please do your best to keep peace on the question for two or three weeks, by which time we hope to do something here towards settling the question, in Missouri. A. LINCOLN

Page  53

Annotation

[1]   ALS, owned by Alfred W. Stern, Chicago, Illinois. Curtis replied on January 11, ``Dispatch received. Hear of no negro troubles. Rebel raid on Springfield some trouble. My forces are coming on them from two directions.'' (OR, I, XXII, II, 32). A bill introduced in the House on December 22, 1862, by Representative Albert S. White for giving aid to Missouri toward abolishment of slavery passed the House on January 6 and as amended passed the Senate on February 12, 1863. No record of Lincoln's approval has been found, however, and a similar bill introduced in the Senate on December 19, 1862, by Senator John B. Henderson was reported unfavorably on January 14 by Senator Lyman Trumbull from the committee on the judiciary.

To William A. Hammond [1]

Respectfully submitted to Surgeon General, for his opinion whether Mr. Bushnell should be appointed, as recommended.

Jany. 10. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, CCamStJ. Lincoln's endorsement is written on an envelope of the U.S. Sanitary Commission, Washington, D.C. Below it Hammond endorsed on January 13: ``Respectfully returned to His Excellency the President with the recommendation that Mr. Bushnell be appointed as there is a place for him at Louisville.'' Bushnell has not been identified and no record of his appointment has been found.

To Andrew Johnson [1]

Gov. Johnson. Executive Mansion,
Nashville, Tenn. Washington, January 10, 1863.

Yours received. I presume the remains of Capt. Todd are in the hands of his family friends, & I wish to give no order on the subject.

But I do wish your opinion of the effects of the late battles about Murfreesboro, upon the prospects of Tennessee. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. See Lincoln to Johnson, January 8, supra. Johnson's telegram in reply was received at 11:10 P.M., January 11, ``The battle of Murfreesborough has inspired much confidence with Union men of the ultimate success of the Government, and has greatly discouraged rebels, but increased their bitterness. If the rebel army could be expelled from the State, and Union sentiment developed without fear or restraint, I still think Tennessee will be brought back into the Union by decided majority of popular vote. Eastern portion of the State must be redeemed before confidence can be inspired with the mass of the people that the Government has the power to assert and maintain its authority in Tennessee. . . .'' (OR, I, XX, II, 317).

To Jacob Collamer [1]

If not going to church please call & see me at once; & if to church, please call as soon after, as convenient A. LINCOLN

Jan. 11. 1863.

Page  [unnumbered]

Annotation

[1]   ALS, owned by Charles W. Olsen, Chicago, Illinois. Lincoln's note is written on a small card. No specific data has been located concerning this conference, but the possibility is that Lincoln discussed the serious public reaction against the Emancipation Proclamation, the possibility of getting action on pending legislation to aid Missouri to free the slaves in that state (see Lincoln to Curtis, January 10, supra) and the general state of Union morale.

To William A. Buckingham [1]

Executive Mansion,
Governor: Washington, January 12, 1863.

It is with feelings of sincere pleasure and gratitude that I acknowledge the receipt of your kind favor of the 2nd. of January, conveying the Resolutions the Legislature of Connecticut, approved December 24th, 1862.

Be assured, my dear sir, that I am deeply gratified by this new proof of the loyal and patriotic devotion of the people of your state, and that I most gratefully appreciate their expressions towards myself, which are at once so generous and so kind.

I have the honor to be Very truly Your Obt. Servt.

His Excellency A. LINCOLN

The Governor of Connecticut

Annotation

[1]   LS copy, DLC-RTL. The copy or draft is in John Hay's handwriting. The resolution transmitted by Governor Buckingham reads in part as follows: ``Resolved by this Assembly: That our confidence in the patriotism and integrity of the president . . . remains unshaken; and that, as the representatives of the people of this state, we pledge ourselves to support and sustain him . . . ; and . . . we tender him our sympathy in the trying and difficult circumstances in which he is placed. . . . We deprecate every attempt to impute to him such evils or disasters as may have resulted from the errors of judgement, insufficiency, or culpability of subordinate officials. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

To Joseph Holt [1]

War Department, Washington City, January 12, 1863.

The Judge-Advocate-General is instructed to revise the proceedings of the court-martial in the case of Maj.-Gen. Fitz John Porter, and to report fully upon any legal questions that may have arisen in them, and upon the bearing of the testimony in reference to the charges and specifications exhibited against the accused and upon which he was tried. ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   OR, I, XII, II (Supplement), 1134. Judge Advocate General Holt's long review appears in Thirty-seventh Congress, Third Session, House Executive Document No. 71 and in the official Records, I, XII, II (Supplement), 1112-33.

Page  55

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Hon. Sec. of War Executive Mansion
Dear Sir. Washington, January 12, 1863.

I intended proposing to you this morning, and forgot it, that Schurz and Stahl should both be Maj. Genls. Schurz to take Sigel's old corps, and Stahl to command Cavalry. They, together with Sigel, are our sincere friends; and while so much may seem rather large, any thing less is too small. I think it better be done. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS-F, ISLA. See Lincoln to Halleck, January 7, supra, and endorsement to Franz Sigel, January 26, infra. Carl Schurz and Julius Stahel were appointed major generals of Volunteers on March 14, 1863. AGO Special Orders No. 29, January 19, 1863, assigned Schurz to Sigel's old corps and Stahel to command cavalry in the newly formed Grand Reserve Division under Sigel.

To Edwin M. Stanton [2]

Hon. Sec. of War Executive Mansion,
Dear Sir: Washington, January 12, 1863.

Dr. Thomas Sim, has been dismissed from the service for being in this City contrary to a general order. His afflicted wife assures me he had a pass from Gen. Sickles, commander of his Division, for 48 hours, and that within the 48 hours he was refused the 15 days absence he asked, and reported to Gen. Sickles, who extended his time so as to take the Dr. with him, and that he reached the army in less than twelve additional hours, to the original 48, allowed him. Please see the lady. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS-P, ISLA. Dr. Thomas Sim of Illinois, surgeon-in-chief of General Daniel E. Sickles' brigade, had been dismissed January 5 on erroneous information. Although the official date of his restoration to service has not been found, the New York Tribune reported his restoration on January 17, 1863.

To Edward Bates [1]

Attorney General, please make out and send me a pardon in this case. A. LINCOLN

Jan. 13. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA RG 204, U.S. Pardon Attorney, A 456. Lincoln's endorsement, preceded by one from Benjamin F. Butler recommending the pardon, is written on a recommendation signed by Ira Harris and others, January 5, 1863, in the case of Robert B. Nay, formerly of New York and Quincy, Illinois, who had served as chief of detectives in the provost marshal's department under Butler at New Orleans. Nay had been convicted of defrauding the government. See Lincoln to Bates, February 13, infra.

Page  56

To John A. Dix [1]

Private & confidential
Major General Dix Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir: Washington, January 14, 1863.

The proclamation has been issued. We were not succeeding---at best, were progressing too slowly---without it. Now, that we have it, and bear all the disadvantage of it, (as we do bear some in certain quarters) we must also take some benefit from it, if practicable. I therefore will thank you for your well considered opinion whether Fortress-Monroe, and York-Town, one or both, could not, in whole or in part, be garrisoned by colored troops, leaving the white forces now necessary at those places, to be employed elsewhere. Yours very truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, IHi; ADfS, DLC-RTL. Dix replied on January 15:

``I have just received your `private and confidential' letter, and hasten to reply to it by the special messenger who brought it.

``You do not ask my opinion in regard to the policy of employing colored troops; and I infer that this is a question, which has been decided. I therefore, answer only the special inquiry proposed to me. . . .

``I regard this Fortress . . . as second to no other in the Union. It is the key to the Chesapeake Bay. . . . In a political point of view . . . the tranquillity . . . of Maryland may depend on the possession of this Fortress. . . .

``Under these circumstances I think this post should be held by the best and most reliable troops the country can furnish. . . .

``The question of employing colored troops at Yorktown may be determined by a totally different class of considerations. The position is of little practical importance. . . .

``If it be decided to employ colored troops any where, I know no place where they could be used with less objection. The proper garrison is 4000 men. One half of that number at least should be white troops. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

To the House of Representatives [1]

To the House of Representatives: January 14, 1863

The Secretary of State has submitted to me a resolution of the House of Representatives of the 5th. instant, which has been delivered to him, and which is in the following words:

``Resolved, That the Secretary of State be requested to communicate to this House if not in his judgment incompatible with the public interest, why our Minister in New Granada has not presented his credentials to the actual government of that country. Also, the reasons for which Senor Murillo is not recognized by the United States as the diplomatic representative of the Mosquera government of that country. Also what negotiations have beenPage  57 had, if any, with General Herran as the Representative of Ospina's Government in New Granada since it went out of existence.''

On the 12th. day of December 1846, a treaty of amity, peace and concord was concluded between the United States of America and the Republic of New Granada, which is still in force. On the 7th. day of December 1847, General Pedro Alcantara Herran, who had been duly accredited, was received here as the Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of that Republic. On the 30th. day of August, 1849, Senor Don Rafael Rivas was received by this Government as Charge d'Affaires of the same Republic. On the 5th. day of December, 1851, a Consular Convention was concluded between that Republic and the United States, which Treaty was signed on behalf of the Republic of Granada by the same Senor Rivas. This treaty is still in force. On the 27th. of April, 1852, Senor Don Victoriano de Diego Paredes was received as Charge d'Affaires of the Republic of New Granada. On the 20th. of June, 1855, General Pedro Alcantara Herran was again received as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, duly accredited by the Republic of New Granada, and he has ever since remained, under the same credentials, as the representative of that Republic near the Government of the United States. On the 10th. of September, 1857, a Claims Convention was concluded between the United States and the Republic of Granada. This Convention is still in force, and has in part been executed. In May, 1858, the Constitution of the Republic was remodelled and the nation assumed the political title of ``The Granadian Confederacy.'' This fact was formally announced to this Government, but without any change in their representative here. Previous to the fourth day of March, 1861, a revolutionary war against the Republic of New Granada, which had thus been recognized and treated with by the United States, broke out in New Granada, assuming to set up a new Government under the name of the United States of Columbia. This war has had various vicissitudes, sometimes favorable, sometimes adverse to the revolutionary movement. The revolutionary organization has hitherto been simply a military provisionary power, and no definitive constitution of Government has yet been established in New Granada in place of that organized by the Constitution of 1858. The Minister of the United States to the Granadian Confederacy, who was appointed on the 29th. day of May, 1861, was directed, in view of the occupation of the capital by the revolutionary party and of the uncertainty of the civil war, not to present his credentials to either the Government of the Granadian Confederacy or to the provisional Military Government,Page  58 but to conduct his affairs informally as is customary in such cases, and to report the progress of events and await the instructions of this Government. The advices which have been received from him, have not hitherto been sufficiently conclusive to determine me to recognize the revolutionary Government. General Herran being here with full authority from the Government of New Granada, which had been so long recognized by the United States, I have not received any representative from the Revolutionary government, which has not yet been recognized, because such a proceeding would in itself be an act of recognition. Official communications have been had on various incidental and occasional questions with General Herran as the Minister Plenipotentiary and Envoy Extraordinary of the Granadian Confederacy---but in no other character; no definitive measure or proceeding has resulted from these communications, and a communication of them at present would not, in my judgment, be compatible with the public interest.

Washington, January 14, 1863. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA RG 233, House Executive Document No. 33.

To John G. Nicolay [1]

Will Mr. Nicolay, please make out the papers in this case.

Jan. 14. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, CSmH. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Attorney General Bates, January 14, 1863, asking appointment of ``the Revd Wm. K. Talbot (of Columbus)'' to fill the vacant hospital chaplaincy at Columbus, Kentucky.

To William H. Seward [1]

January 14, 1863

As I understand the Consulate at Dundee has not been accepted by Mr. Hall, and as I was unconscious, in appointing Mr. Hall, (if I did it) that I was interfering with my old friend, Dr. Smith, I will be obliged if the Sec. of State will send me a nomination for Rev. James Smith, of Ills. for that Consulate. A. LINCOLN

Jan. 14. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA FS RG 59, Appointments, Box 382. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a memorandum from Seward of January 10, 1863, Summarizing the facts concerning the consulship at Dundee, Scotland, and nothing that since L. W. Hall, appointed as successor to Hugh Smith, had declined appointment, the place was officially vacant. See Lincoln to Seward January 9, supra, concerning appointment of Reverend James Smith.

Page  59

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

January 14, 1863

Will the Sec. of War please consider whether a test of this invention is not worth making; and if decided in the affirmative, have the test made. A. LINCOLN

Jan. 14. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA WR RG 92, Quartermaster General, Consolidated File. Lincoln's endorsement, accompanied by an endorsement of Stanton's referring the matter to Montgomery C. Meigs, is written on an envelope which contained recommendations of John Schenck's ``concentrated food for horses,'' now filed separately (RG 92, P 130, S 381).

Endorsement
Concerning Isaac R. Diller's Gunpowder [1]

January 15, 1863

The President the War and Navy Departments to take such measures as may be necessary to test the powder submitted or to be submitted by Mr. Diller, and referred to in the inclosed papers.

Jan. 15. 1863. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DNA WR RG 74, Navy Branch, Bureau of Ordnance Letters Received. The copy of Lincoln's endorsement is with the copies of Lincoln's agreement with Diller of December 15, 1862, supra, and associated papers.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

January 15, 1863.

Secretary of War: Please see Mr. Stafford, who wants to assist in raising colored troops in Missouri. A LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   NH, VIII, 191. Lieutenant Colonel Spencer H. Stafford of the Eleventh New York Infantry resigned March 5, 1862, and worked under Benjamin F. Butler at New Orleans. He served later as colonel of the Tenth and Seventy-third U.S. Colored Infantry.

To Editors of the Washington Chronicle [1]

Editors of Chronicle Executive Mansion,
Gentlemen: Washington, Jan. 16. 1863.

If you should publish the attached letter, please make the corrections indicated. Yours &c A LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, owned by Paul Huttinger, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The letter which Lincoln enclosed to John W. Forney's Chronicle was undoubtedly a copy of his letter to McClellan of April 9, 1862, supra, which had been released by General Ethan A. Hitchcock at the McDowell court of inquiry then in session.Page  60

The letter was published in the Chronicle on January 17, 1863, with the comment that ``The Star last evening contains the letter, but as it was full of errors, we obtained the following corrected and official copy. . . .''

Memorandum:
Appointment of Charles S. Heintzelman [1]

When the time comes I should like to make this appointment, if not pressed too hardly in other directions. A.L.

Jan. 16. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA WR RG 94, U.S. Military Academy, 1861, No. 373, Box 78. Lincoln's endorsement is written on an envelope containing recommendations in favor of Charles S. Heintzelman, son of Samuel P. Heintzelman whom Lincoln nominated on the same date to be major general of Volunteers to rank from May 5, 1862, the date of the Battle of Williamsburg, Virginia. Charles S. Heintzelman entered West Point July 1, 1863, and graduated in June, 1867.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

January 16, 1863

Injustice has probably been done in this case. Sec. of War please examine it.

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DNA WR RG 107, Register of Secretary of War, Letters Received, P 9. The original document is missing but the Register preserves the copy of Lincoln's endorsement written on papers in the case of Lieutenant Gurdon McKay, Twenty-second Massachusetts Volunteers, dismissed from service as absent without leave. No later record of McKay's service has been found.

To the Senate and House of Representatives [1]

January 17, 1863

To the Senate and House of Representatives:

I have signed the Joint Resolution to provide for the immediate payment of the army and navy of the United States, passed by the House of Representatives on the 14th, and by the Senate on the 15th instant.

The Joint Resolution is a simple authority, amounting however, under existing circumstances, to a direction to the Secretary of the Treasury to make an additional issue of one hundred millions of dollars in United States notes if so much money is needed for the payment of the army and navy.

My approval is given in order that every possible facility may be afforded for the prompt discharge of all arrears of pay due to our soldiers and our sailors.

While giving this approval, however, I think it my duty to express my sincere regret that it has been found necessary to authorizePage  61 so large an additional issue of United States notes, when this circulation, and that of the suspended banks together have become already so redundant as to increase prices beyond real values, thereby augmenting the cost of living to the injury of labor, and the cost of supplies to the injury of the whole country.

It seems very plain that continued issues of United States notes, without any check to the issues of suspended banks, and without adequate provision for the raising of money by loans, and for founding the issues so as to keep them within due limits, must soon produce disastrous consequences. And this matter appears to me so important that I feel bound to avail myself of this occasion to ask the special attention of Congress to it.

That Congress has power to regulate the currency of the country, can hardly admit of doubt; and that a judicious measure to prevent the deterioration of this currency, by a reasonable taxation of bank circulation or otherwise is needed, seems equally clear. Independently of this general consideration, it would be unjust to the people at large, to exempt banks, enjoying the special privilege of circulation, from their just proportion of the public burdens.

In order to raise money by way of loans most easily and cheaply, it is clearly necessary to give every possible support to the public credit. To that end, a uniform currency, in which taxes, subscriptions to loans, and all other ordinary public dues, as well as all private dues may be paid, is almost, if not quite indispensable. Such a currency can be furnished by banking associations, organized under a general act of Congress, as suggested in my message at the beginning of the present session. The securing of this circulation, by the pledge of United States bonds, as therein suggested, would still further facilitate loans, by increasing the present and causing a future demand for such bonds.

In view of the actual financial embarrassments of the government, and of the greater embarrassments sure to come, if the necessary means of relief be not afforded, I feel that I should not perform my duty by a simple announcement of my approval of the Joint Resolution which proposes relief only by increasing circulation, without expressing my earnest desire that measures, such in substances as those I have just referred to, may receive the early sanction of Congress.

By such measures, in my opinion, will payment be most certainly secured, not only to the army and navy, but to all honest creditors of the government, and satisfactory provision made for future demands on the treasury. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

January 17. 1863.

Page  62

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA RG 46, Senate 37A F2; DS, DNA RG 233, House Executive Document No. 37. A bill (H.R. 659) to provide ways and means for the support of the government, introduced on January 8, was much amended and finally approved on March 3, 1863. It provided for issuance of $150,000,000 of U.S. notes for the payment of Army, Navy, and other creditors, for issuance of not more than $900,000,000 in bonds and $400,000,000 in Treasury notes, and that holders of U.S. notes issued under the Act of February 25, 1862, should turn them in for bonds by July 1, 1863. The act also put a tax on all banks, etc., issuing notes or bills for circulation as currency.

To John W. Forney [1]

Hon. J. W. Forney Executive Mansion
My dear Sir: Jan. 18. 1863.

I see that ``Occasional'' in the ``Press'' appeals to Congress to make the appropriation for paying for the emancipated slaves in this District. That appropriation is already made in the emancipation act, as you will see in Sec. 7. page 378. Yours truly

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, IHi. On the bottom of the first page Forney endorsed in ink: ``Dear Doctor---Did you know this? I did not. J.W.F.'' What appears to be an answer is written in pencil above and between the lines of Forney's endorsement as follows: ``The Prest is right. There was $1000,000 appd. for purposes connected with the Emancipation in the District. JMB over'' The verso has a further illegible note in pencil but also signed with the initials ``J.M.B.'' ``Occasional'' seems to have been Forney's own column in the Philadelphia Press, but was probably written in part by John R. Young who was editor of the Press. On January 18, Forney telegraphed Young, ``Let Occasional correct himself in a short letter for tomorrow by stating that he was misinformed as to the appropriation for paying emancipated slaves in the dist of columbia that the appropriation is made in the emancipation act & add that his great object was to secure prompt payment of claimants out of appropriations already made. Do your best.'' (DLC-Young Papers). The correction appeared in the Press on January 19, 1863. The identity of ``J.M.B.'' can only be hazarded. Dr. John M. Bernhisel, a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania medical department and friend of Forney's, was delegate in congress from Utah Territory.

To Montgomery Blair [1]

January 19, 1863

The relations of Downey are among the best men of my acquaintance, and as Judge Treat, before whom he was convicted, recommends his pardon, I incline to pardon him, if the Post-Master General does not object. Will he please say whether he has any objection & return to me? A. LINCOLN

Jan. 19. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA RG 204, U.S. Pardon Attorney, A 457. Below Lincoln's endorsement Postmaster General Blair endorsed on January 20, ``I concur in the propriety of pardoning Downey.'' The endorsements are written on a letter fromPage  63

Lawrence Weldon with concurring endorsements by Judge Samuel H. Treat, Stephen A. Corneau and David L. Phillips, January 13, 1863, asking a pardon for James M. Downey, convicted of robbing the mails. See Lincoln to Bates, January 20, infra. Downey has not been further identified.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Hon. Sec. of War: Executive Mansion
Dear Sir: January 19, 1863

Please have the Pay-Master-General examine & report upon all the evidence in his control, bearing upon the question of removal of Joseph A. Nunes, as an Additional Pay-Master. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, IHi. No reply from Stanton has been found, but Joseph A. Nunes remained in service, was brevetted lieutenant colonel as of November 1, 1865, and was mustered out on November 15, 1865.

To Edwin M. Stanton [2]

If it be lawful to make the appointment within requested by Gen. Franklin, let it be done A. LINCOLN

Jan. 19. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES-F, ISLA. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Major General William B. Franklin to Major Emeric Meszaros of the Fourth Missouri Cavalry, December 23, 1862, as follows:

``I have received your letter of the 15 inst.

``I shall be very glad to have you on my Staff, and if you can obtain the necessary commission, hope that you will come.''

No record has been found of Meszaros' appointment.

To the Workingmen of Manchester, England [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington,
To the workingmen of Manchester: January 19, 1863.

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the address and resolutions which you sent to me on the eve of the new year.

When I came, on the fourth day of March, 1861, through a free and constitutional election, to preside in the government of the United States, the country was found at the verge of civil war. Whatever might have been the cause, or whosoever the fault, one duty paramount to all others was before me, namely, to maintain and preserve at once the Constitution and the integrity of the federal republic. A conscientious purpose to perform this duty is a key to all the measures of administration which have been, andPage  64 to all which will hereafter be pursued. Under our form of government, and my official oath, I could not depart from this purpose if I would. It is not always in the power of governments to enlarge or restrict the scope of moral results which follow the policies that they may deem it necessary for the public safety, from time to time, to adopt.

I have understood well that the duty of self-preservation rests solely with the American people. But I have at the same time been aware that favor or disfavor of foreign nations might have a material influence in enlarging and prolonging the struggle with disloyal men in which the country is engaged. A fair examination of history has seemed to authorize a belief that the past action and influences of the United States were generally regarded as having been beneficient towards mankind. I have therefore reckoned upon the forbearance of nations. Circumstances, to some of which you kindly allude, induced me especially to expect that if justice and good faith should be practiced by the United States, they would encounter no hostile influence on the part of Great Britain. It is now a pleasant duty to acknowledge the demonstration you have given of your desire that a spirit of peace and amity towards this country may prevail in the councils of your Queen, who is respected and esteemed in your own country only more than she is by the kindred nation which has its home on this side of the Atlantic.

I know and deeply deplore the sufferings which the workingmen at Manchester and in all Europe are called to endure in this crisis. It has been often and studiously represented that the attempt to overthrow this government, which was built upon the foundation of human rights, and to substitute for it one which should rest exclusively on the basis of human slavery, was likely to obtain the favor of Europe. Through the actions of our disloyal citizens the workingmen of Europe have been subjected to a severe trial, for the purpose of forcing their sanction to that attempt. Under these circumstances, I cannot but regard your decisive utterance upon the question as an instance of sublime Christian heroism which has not been surpassed in any age or in any country. It is, indeed, an energetic and reinspiring assurance of the inherent power of truth and of the ultimate and universal triumph of justice, humanity, and freedom. I do not doubt that the sentiments you have expressed will be sustained by your great nation, and, on the other hand, I have no hesitation in assuring you that they will excite admiration, esteem, and the most reciprocal feelings of friendship among the American people. I hail this interchange ofPage  65 sentiment, therefore, as an augury that, whatever else may happen, whatever misfortune may befall your country or my own, the peace and friendship which now exist between the two nations will be, as it shall be my desire to make them, perpetual.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Thirty-seventh Congress, Third Session, Senate Executive Document No. 49. Although Lincoln's letter as printed in Executive Document No. 49 is dated January 19, Seward's letter to Charles F. Adams transmitting it is dated January 16, in the same source. On January 2, Minister Charles F. Adams transmitted to Seward a letter from Mayor Abel Haywood of Manchester, January 1, forwarding ``an address to the President . . . agreed upon at a public meeting of the working men and others of this city . . . last night'' which reads in part as follows:

``As citizens of Manchester . . . we beg to express our fraternal sentiments. . . .

``We rejoice in your greatness. . . . We honor your free States, as a singular, happy abode for the working millions. . . . One thing alone has, in the past, lessened our sympathy with your country and our confidence in it; we mean the ascendency of politicians who not merely maintained negro slavery, but desired to extend and root it more firmly. Since we have discerned, however, that the victory of the free north, in the war which has so sorely distressed us as well as afflicted you, will strike off the fetters of the slave, you have attracted our warm and earnest sympathy.

``We joyfully honor you, as the President, and the Congress with you, for the many decisive steps towards practically exemplifying your belief in the words of your great founders, `All men are created free and equal.' . . .

``Accept our high admiration of your firmness in upholding the proclamation of freedom.'' (Ibid.).

To Edward Bates [1]

Hon. Attorney-General please make out and send me a pardon in this case. A. LINCOLN

Jan. 20. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA RG 204, U.S. Pardon Attorney, A 457. See Lincoln to Blair, January 19, supra, case of James M. Downey.

To Samuel R. Curtis [1]

I know not what to do with these letters but to submit them to Gen. Curtis. A. LINCOLN

Jan. 20. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on the back of a letter from John J. Crittenden, January 19, 1863, enclosing a letter from Governor Yates of Illinois protesting the supposed military assessments against Derrick A. January, prominent merchant of St. Louis, Missouri, for being disloyal. Succeeding endorsements by Curtis (February 2) and Provost Marshal GeneralPage  66

Franklin A. Dick (February 3) indicate that although January was disloyal in the early months of the war he had later established his loyalty and was not actually under assessment for disloyalty.

To Samuel T. Glover [1]

Hon. S. T. Glover Executive Mansion
My dear Sir Washington, D.C. Jan. 20, 1863.

Yours of January 12th. stating the distressed condition of the people in South-West Missouri, and urging the completion of the Railroad to Springfield, is just received. Of course I deplore the distress of the people in that section & elsewhere. Nor is the thought of extending the railroad, new to me. But the military necessity for it, is not so patent, but that Congress would try to restrain me in some way, were I to attempt it. I am very glad to believe that the late military operations in Missouri and Arkans[as] are at least, promising of repose to South West Missouri.

Yours very truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADfS, DLC-RTL. Glover's letter of January 12 reads in part: ``When recently in Jefferson City I found the most intense interest prevailing among members of the legislature . . . in relation to the condition of S W Mo. That country has been repeatedly ravaged by contending armies. It is now in great want . . . very great suffering already exists. . . . I promised when at Jefferson to write you and call your attention to the project of finishing our Railroad to Springfield as a military necessity. It would complete the conquest of Mo and lay all Arkansas in our power. . . .'' (DLC-RTL). Concerning the extension of the Pacific Railroad see Lincoln's order of July 11, 1862, Lincoln to Curtis, October 12, 1862, supra, and to Rosecrans, March 4 and 10, 1864, infra.

To the Senate [1]

To the Senate of the United States: January 20, 1863

I transmit, herewith, a report from the Secretary of State in answer to the Resolution of the Senate relative to the correspondence between this Government and the Mexican Minister, in relation to the exportation of articles contraband of war for the use of the French Army in Mexico. ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Washington, January 20, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA RG 46, Senate 37A F3. Seward's report of January 19 (in reply to Senate resolution of January 13) transmitting correspondence with Mexican Minister Matias Romero may be found in Thirty-seventh Congress, Third Session, Senate Executive Document No. 24. The Mexican complaint was that although the French were permitted to purchase at New Orleans and New York mules and wagons for use in Mexico against the Mexican forces, a shipment ofPage  67

arms to the Mexican government had been stopped at New Orleans by Stanton's order of November 20, 1862. While the order prohibited ``arms,'' it did not prohibit mules and wagons.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

I have a strong inclination to give Col. McHenry another chance. What says the Sec. of War? A. LINCOLN

Jan. 20. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, NHi. Lincoln's endorsement is written on the margin of a broadside reprinting an account of the dismissal of Colonel John H. McHenry, Jr., of the Seventeenth Kentucky Volunteers on account of an order issued by McHenry on October 27, 1862, in regard to returning slaves to their owners. McHenry and the Seventeenth Kentucky had established a notable battle record at Donelson and Shiloh. No record of further action in the case of Colonel McHenry has been found.

To Thomas Ewing [1]

January 21, 1863

I believe your son knows, and you may now know, that I hold him in very high estimation; still, there is a reason, in no wise personal to him, why I shall have to confer the appointment mentioned to another. A. LINCOLN

Jan. 21. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-Ewing Papers. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Thomas Ewing recommending his son Thomas, Jr., who had ``borne himself creditably . . . in three hard fought battles, but his habits & education do in my opinion fit him for civil rather than military life,'' for appointment as assistant secretary of the Interior. On March 13, Colonel Thomas Ewing, Jr., of the Eleventh Kansas Cavalry, was nominated brigadier general of Volunteers, and was confirmed by the Senate on the same day.

Order Approving Sentence of Fitz-John Porter [1]

January 21, 1863

The foregoing proceedings, findings, and sentence in the foregoing case of Major-General Fitz-John Porter, are approved and confirmed; and it is ordered that the said Fitz-John Porter be, and he hereby is, cashiered and dismissed from the service of the United States as a Major General of Volunteers, and as Colonel and Brevet Brigadier General in the Regular Service of the United States, and forever disqualified from holding any office of trust or profit under the Government of the United States.

January 21, 1863. ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   AGO General Orders No. 18, January 22, 1863.

Page  68

Order Establishing Gauge of Union Pacific Railroad [1]

January 21, 1863

Whereas, by the 12th. Section of an act of Congress, entitled ``An Act to aid in the construction of a Rail Road and Telegraph line, from the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean and to secure to the Government the use of the same, for postal, military, and other purposes,'' Approved July 1st. 1862, it is made the duty of the President of the United States, to determine the uniform width of the track of the entire line of the said Rail Road and the branches of the same; and whereas, application has been made to me, by the Leavenworth, Pawnee and Western Rail Road Company, (a company authorized by the Act of Congress above mentioned to construct a branch of said Rail Road) to fix the gauge thereof.

Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States of America, do determine that the uniform width of the track of said Rail Road and all its branches which are provided for in the aforesaid Act of Congress, shall be Five (5) feet, and that this order be filed in the Office of the Secretary of the Interior, for the information and guidance of all concerned.

Done at the City of Washington, this 21st. day of January, in the Year of Our Lord One thousand eight hundred and sixty three.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA NR RG 48, General Records, Department of Interior, Union Pacific Railroad: On January 20, Lincoln asked the cabinet for their opinions on the relative merits of the five-foot gauge and the standard gauge of four feet eight and one-half inches. Welles' Diary on this date records that he as well as other members favored the standard gauge which was generally approved by Eastern interests, while California interests desired the five-foot width. Lincoln's order was superseded, however, by an act of congress approved on March 3, 1863, which established the standard gauge already widely adopted in the East as the width of the first transcontinental railroad.

To the Senate and House of Representatives [1]

Executive Mansion Washington January 21. 1863

Gentlemen of the Senate and House of Representatives.

I submit herewith for your [2] consideration, the Joint Resolutions of the Corporate authorities of the City of Washington, adopted September 27th. 1862, and a Memorial of the same under date of October 28th. 1862, both relating to, and urging the construction of certain rail roads concentrating upon the City of Washington.

Page  69In presenting this Memorial, and the Joint Resolutions to you, I [3] am not prepared to say more than that the subject is one of great practical importance; and that I hope it will receive the attentive consideration of Congress. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

January 21. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   DfS, DLC-RTL; DS, DNA RG 46, Senate 37A F2. The resolution transmitted asked the president to direct the construction of railroads from Washington to the deep waters of Chesapeake Bay and to Hagerstown, Maryland. On January 23, the message was read in the Senate and ordered to lie on the table and be printed. On January 26, the message was read in the House and referred to the committee on roads and canals. There is no record of further action.

[2]   Lincoln deleted ``favorable'' at this point in the draft.

[3]   The draft is revised in Lincoln's autograph to the present text from this point on. The original reading was: ``I deemed it proper to note that it must be apparent to all, that the Nation in time of peace, will derive great advantages from these Roads, and they will be invaluable to the government in time of war. Their want has been, and is severely felt in suppressing the present rebellion.''

To William H. Seward [1]

It won't do. Must have a tip-top man there next time.

Jan. 21. 1863. A. L.

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DLC-RTL. The copy of Lincoln's endorsement is with a copy of Seward's note to which it replies: ``What do you say as to sending Bradford R. Wood to the Sandwich Islands.'' Bradford R. Wood was minister to Denmark. See Lincoln's memorandum of January 9, supra, and note to Seward concerning James McBride, January 24, infra.

To John P. Usher [1]

Sec. of Interior, please send me a nomination for William T. Otto, as Assistant Sec. of Interior. A. LINCOLN

Jan. 21. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA NR RG 48, Applications, Box 1293. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter of January 12, 1862 [3], signed by twenty-one members of congress recommending the appointment of William T. Otto of Indiana.

To Samuel Y. At Lee [1]

If entirely convenient, will Mr. Atelee, allow William, leave of absence for to-day? A. LINCOLN

Jan. 22. 1863

Annotation

[1]   ALS, N. William H. Johnson worked as messenger for At Lee at the Treasury Department in the afternoons and tended to Lincoln's wardrobe, shaved him, and did other personal services in the mornings.

Page  70

To James R. Doolittle [1]

Executive Mansion,
Hon. J. R. Doolittle Washington, Jan 22. 1863.

My dear Sir I find I can not postpone the appointment of Asst. Sec of Interior to the end of the session. I therefore shall have to try to recognize Mr. Potter in some other way. Yours very truly A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS-F, ISLA. Representative John F. Potter had been defeated for re-election in 1862. Lincoln later in the year appointed him consul general to Canada.

To Stephen A. Hurlbut [1]

Major Gen. S. A. Hurlbut Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir. Washington, January 22, 1863.

Yours of the 17th. to Mr. Washburne has been shown me. As your friend, which you know I am, I would advise you not to come to Washington, if you could safely come without leave. You now stand well with the Sec. of War, and with Gen. Halleck, and it would lessen you with both for you to make your appearance here. I advise you by all means to dismiss the thought of coming here. Yours very truly A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS-P, ISLA. Brigadier General Hurlbut's letter to Representative Elihu B. Washburne of January 17 specifies that he wishes ``to come to Washington & see the President on matters of public as well as private importance. You will greatly oblige me by obtaining from him ``orders'' for me to come. . . .'' (DLC-RTL). See Lincoln to McClernand, infra.

To John A. McClernand [1]

Major Gen. McClernand Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir: Washington, January 22. 1863.

Yours of the 7th. was received yesterday. I need not recite, because you remember the contents. The charges, in their nature, are such that I must know as much about the facts involved, as you can. I have too many family controversies, (so to speak) already on my hands, to voluntarily, or so long as I can avoid it, take up another. You are now doing well---well for the country, and well for yourself---much better than you could possibly be, if engaged in open war with Gen. Halleck. Allow me to beg, that for your sake, for my sake, & for the country's sake, you give your whole attention to the better work.

Your success upon the Arkansas, was both brilliant and valuable, and is fully appreciated by the country and government.

Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Page  71

Annotation

[1]   ALS, IHi. On January 7, McClernand had written Lincoln as follows:

``I have determined, at whatever personal cost to myself, to address . . . you, upon a subject of the deepest interest. . . .

``I charge Maj. Genl. Henry W. Halleck with wilful contempt of superior authority, and with utter incompetency for the extraordinary and vital functions with which he is charged as Genl-in-Chief. . . .

``I charge him with contempt of authority in this: That in violation of the order made by the Secretary of War, under your personal direction, bearing date of October 21, 1862, assigning me to the command of the proposed `Miss. River Expedition,' he set me aside for . . . Maj. Genl. U.S. Grant---whom he privately authorized to detach troops to Memphis, to form part of the Expedition, prior to the issue of the public order, assigning me to its command. Also in this: That, although the order, issued by the Secretary of War, was made in the presence of the Genl.-in-Chief . . . he has contumaciously refused to recognize me in the relations contemplated . . .

``I charge him with incompetency on many grounds: 1st, For want of eminence in any profession, or calling, previous to his appointment as Maj. Genl. . . .

``Without ever having fought a battle, he curtailed the success of our arms at Fort Henry. . . . Before Corinth, . . . he permitted the enemy to escape. . . . Since he assumed the functions of General-in-Chief, scarcely anything but disaster has marked the experiences of our arms. . . .

``How can the country be saved in its dire extremity, with such a Chief at the head of our armies! . . .

``Without genius, justice, generosity, or policy, his continuance in command will not only involve continual new levies to fill up the wasting ranks . . . but must be attended by accumulating disaster. . . .

``Having full confidence in the correctness of my views, and having no concealments in regard to this letter, it is left to you to make such use of it as you may think proper. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

On January 21, Halleck further extended General Grant's authority and explained the revocation of Grant's order expelling Jews from his department:

``General: The President has directed that so much of Arkansas as you may desire to control be temporarily attached to your department. This will give you control of both banks of the river.

``In your operations down the Mississippi you must not rely too confidently upon any direct co-operation of General Banks and the lower flotilla, as it is possible that they may not be able to pass or reduce Port Hudson. They, however, will do everything in their power to form a junction with you at Vicksburg. If they should not be able to effect this, they will at least occupy a portion of the enemy's forces and prevent them from re-enforcing Vicksburg. I hope, however, that they will do still better and be able to join you.

``It may be proper to give you some explanation of the revocation of your order expelling all Jews from your department. The President has no objection to your expelling traitors and Jew peddlers, which, I suppose, was the object of your order; but, as it in terms proscribed an entire religious class, some of whom are fighting in our ranks, the President deemed it necessary to revoke it.'' (OR, I, XXIV, I, 9).

Memorandum
Appointment of Thomas J. C. Amory [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, Jan. 22. 1863.

To-day, Jonathan Amory, U.S. despatch agent at Boston, call to ask that his son, Col. Thomas. J. C. Amory, may be made a Brig.

Page  72Gen. He is a graduate, is a Capt. in the Reg. Army, and a Col. of 17th. Mass vols---is at Newbern N.C. and is recommended by Gen. Foster, & also by Mass. delegation---so says the father.

Annotation

[1]   AD, IHi. Colonel Thomas J. C. Amory was brevetted brigadier general October 1, 1864.

Memorandum Concerning Herman Koppel [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, January 22. 1863.

To-day, Mr. Prentiss, calls as Atty. of Herman Koppel, saying the latter is a loyal citizen, that he resided at Charleston S.C. at the beginning of the rebellion; that he converted what he had into a few bales of cotten and other articles, apparantly to break the blockade, as a mode of getting out, but really intending to surrender to the blockade, which he did of purpose & with no effort to avoid it---that his property has been condemned by a prize court, and he appeals to me to remit to him the proceeds of the property, or at least the government's moiety of it.

Admitting this all to be true, is it both lawful and proper for me to do this?

Annotation

[1]   AD, DLC-RTL. No further reference has been found, and the persons named have not been identified.

To Frederick Steele [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington,
Brigadier General Frederick Steele January 22, 1863.

Sir: So far as respects your military record and reputation, it seems highly fit and proper that you should be promoted to a Major Generalship; and I should nominate you for it, at once, were it not for a document [2] presented to me, of which the inclosed is a copy. With a satisfactory explanation, I will gladly make the nomination; and in such way, that the time from now till then, shall not be lost to you. Without such explanation, I could scarcely bring myself to make the nomination; and I think it is certain the Senate would not confirm it, if made. Your Obt. Servt.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADfS, DLC-RTL; LS, owned by William W. Steele, Pescadero, California. General Steele replied on February 15, 1863:

``In reply to your communication of the 22d ultimo. touching certain allegations made against me by J. G. Forman, I have the honor to submit the following brief explanation. . . .

``When I assumed command of the Army of the South West . . . our camps and . . . Helena were overrun with fugitive Slaves of both sexes. . . . Vice,Page  73 immorality and distress . . . followed. . . . Under the Articles of War I considered it my imperative duty to use every proper means . . . to abate these evils.

``While such a state of affairs existed . . . Mrs. [Charles] Craig, a lady of the highest respectability and wife of the planter alluded to in the allegations, came to my office, and weeping told me that a negro girl who had been raised under her own eyes, and whom she regarded as almost one of her own family was in a house of prostitution, with, I think five other negro girls. I inquired whether she could point out the house, and on being answered that she could, I gave her the order to the Provost Marshal which appears in the allegations. There was no understanding that any of these girls should be delivered up to their masters. If they had been white I should have given the same order. . . .

``Forman asserts that Craig was a rebel. . . . I assert that he was a Union man, and as loyal to the United States. . . . as most people would have been under the circumstances. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

Steele also enclosed a letter of the same date from General U. S. Grant to Elihu B. Washburne, as follows:

``I have just been shown a letter from the President to Brig. Steele stating that his name had been withheld from the Senate for promotion in consequence of charges that had been made against him for returning fugitive slaves to their Masters.

``Gen. Steele is one of our very best soldiers. . . . He is in every sense a soldier. . . . No matter how far any policy of the Government might vary from his individual views he would conform to it. . . . Besides I have never heard him express an opinion against any policy of the administration and know he would do nothing to weaken the power of the President. . . .

``I hope the President & the Senate will be disabused of any opinion they may have formed prejudicial to Gen. Steele. . . .'' (Ibid.).

Steele was appointed major general dating from November 29, 1862.

[2]   The document has not been located but Steele's letter of February 15 indicates the author as Jacob G. Forman, a former army chaplain who was acting as postmaster at Helena, Arkansas.

To Nathaniel P. Banks [1]

Major Gener Banks Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir: Washington, [January 23?] 1863.

In superseding you, by returning Gen. Butler to command the Department of the Gulf, I have trusted that you will not understand me as being even indifferent to your feelings and your honor. I would be as careful of yours as of my own.

I have issued the proclamation, which, like most measures has two sides to its effects. What is evil in effect we are already en during, and we must have the counterpart of it. For this last, as I think, there is no such place as Louisiana, and no such man as Gen. Butler. But to make the most of both, he must go with heart and will; and having been relieved from that Department it is a great point with him to be restored to it. In beginning the peculiar work alluded to there should not be another hour's delay. Hence I send him at once. I sincerely hope the Mississippi may be opened by the time Gen. Butler reaches New-Orleans; but whether itPage  74 shall be or not, he must go forward without more delay. That you shall make your independent expedition into Texas is still intended; but it can not be made so long as your force is needed on the Mississippi; and while needed there, it is my purpose that you retain the immediate command of it in it's operation, although you are to report to Gen. Butler after his arrival. When your force, or a substantial and sufficient part of it can be spared from the Mississippi, you are to go to Texas with a department independent of Gen. Butler. His orders and instructions are drawn up with a view to, and in conformity with all this.

Annotation

[1]   ADf, NHi. The draft was apparently never completed, nor any letter sent. See Lincoln to Stanton, infra.

To Edward Bates [1]

January 23, 1863

Please give me your opinion in writing whether, after a vessel and cargo is regularly condemned in a prize court, for breach of United States blockade, I, as President, have any lawful power of remission in the case? And if any, to what extent?

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DLC-RTL. The copy of this note appears in Bates' reply of February 9, 1863, which reads: ``I . . . believe that after a regular condemnation of a vessel and cargo in a prize court, for breach of Blockade, the President has no lawful power to remit the forfeiture, and restore the property or its proceeds, to the claimant. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

To Ambrose E. Burnside [1]

Executive Mansion,
General Burnside: Washington, January 23, 1863.

Will see you any moment when you come. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Tarbell (Appendix), p. 359. Burnside had telegraphed at 8:30 P.M. on January 23, ``I have prepared some very important orders and I want to see you before issuing them Can I see you alone if I am at the White House after midnight?'' (DLC-RTL). Burnside's General Orders No. 8, January 23, 1863, reads as follows:

``I. General Joseph Hooker, major-general of volunteers and brigadier-general U.S. Army, having been guilty of unjust and unnecessary criticisms of the actions of his superior officers, and of the authorities, and having, by the general tone of his conversation, endeavored to create distrust in the minds of officers who have associated with him, and having, by omissions and otherwise, made reports and statements which were calculated to create incorrect impressions, and for habitually speaking in disparaging terms of other officers, is hereby dismissed the service of the United States as a man unfit to hold an important commission during a crisis like the present, when so much patience, charity, confidence, consideration, and patriotism are due from every soldierPage  75 in the field. This order is issued subject to the approval of the President of the United States.

``II. Brig. Gen. W. T. H. Brooks, commanding First Division, Sixth Army Corps, for complaining of the policy of the Government, and for using language tending to demoralize his command, is, subject to the approval of the President, dismissed from the military service of the United States.

``III. Brig. Gen. John Newton, commanding Third Division, Sixth Army Corps, and Brig. Gen. John Cochrane, commanding First Brigade, Third Division, Sixth Army Corps, for going to the President of the United States with criticisms upon the plans of their commanding officer, are, subject to the approval of the President, dismissed from the military service of the United States.

``IV. It being evident that the following-named officers can be of no further service to this army, they are hereby relieved from duty, and will report, in person, without delay, to the Adjutant-General, U.S. Army: Maj. Gen. W. B. Franklin, commanding left grand division; Maj. Gen. W. F. Smith, commanding Sixth Corps; Brig. Gen. Samuel D. Sturgis, commanding Second Division, Ninth Corps; Brig. Gen. Edward Ferrero, commanding Second Brigade, Second Division, Ninth Army Corps; Brig. Gen. John Cochrane, commanding First Brigade, Third Division, Sixth Corps; Lieut. Col. J. H. Taylor, assistant adjutant-general, right grand division.'' (OR, I, XXI, 998-99).

Lincoln did not approve the order and hence it was never issued. See Lincoln's letter to Halleck January 25, infra, and note.

To Henry W. Halleck [1]

Major General Halleck Executive Mansion
My dear Sir. Jan. 23. 1863.

I understand you have before you the record of a Court-martial, in the case of Col. Samuel Graham. If so, and you have not already decided it, please do not, until speaking with me concerning it. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS-F, ISLA. Colonel Samuel Graham of the Fifth New York Volunteer Artillery was found guilty and sentenced to be dismissed on November 17, 1862, on charges of appointing George H. Sealey as sutler for the regiment in return for $1,000 from Sealey. The court-martial recommended pardon because of Graham's inexperience, and Lincoln remitted the sentence.

Memorandum
Appointment of John J. D. Kingsbury [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, January 23, 1863.

To-day, Mrs. Col. Kingsbury, whose husband fell at Antietam, calls and asks that John J. D. Kingsbury, cousin, and adopted son, of the Col. be appointed to West Point, for which the Col. intended him. He now resides in New-York, but is native of Conn. Will be 18. years of age next June.

Annotation

[1]   AD, DNA WR RG 94, U.S. Military Academy, 1863, No. 101, Box 81. With the memorandum is a letter from Governor William A. Buckingham recommending the appointment. The only Colonel Kingsbury listed as killed atPage  76

Antietam was Henry W. Kingsbury of the Eleventh Connecticut Infantry. John J. D. Kingsbury is listed at West Point in the fourth class as of 1863, but no further record has been found.

Memorandum: Promotion of John Green [1]

Executive Mansion Jan. 23. 1863

To-day, Mrs. Green, calls and urges that her husband, Capt. John Green of the 2nd. Cavalry, have brevet promotions. I am to have his case inquired into.

And now, has his name been sent for the brevet? Or, if not, ought it to be? A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADS, DLC-RTL. Below Lincoln's memorandum appears the following endorsement:

``Capt Jno Greene 2d Cavry is recommended by Genl McClellan for the brevet of Major for `distinguished services from Camp Lincoln to James river to date July 1. 62.' Respy. J. C. KELTON A.A.G.''

``Jany 24. 63.

Captain Green was not brevetted major until later, for gallantry at Gettysburg, July 3, 1863.

To the Senate and House of Representatives [1]

January 23, 1863

To the Senate and House of Representatives:

I transmit for the consideration of Congress a report from the Secretary of State, transmitting the Regulations, Decrees and Orders for the government of the United States Consular Courts in Turkey. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Washington.

January 23. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA RG 46, Senate 37A F3. Seward's report transmitted by Lincoln is printed in Thirty-seventh Congress, Third Session, Senate Executive Document No. 25.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Executive Mansion,
Hon. Secretary of War Washington, January 23. 1863.

Sir: I think Gen. Butler should go to New-Orleans again. He is unwilling to go, unless he is restored to the command of the Department. He should start by the first of February, and should take some force with him. The whole must be so managed as to not wrong, or wound the feelings of Gen. Banks. His original wishPage  77 was to go to Texas; and it must be arranged for him to do this now with a substantial force; and yet he must not go, to the endangering the opening of the Mississippi. I hope this may be done by the time Gen. Butler shall arrive there; but whether or not, I think we can not longer dispense with Gen. Butler's service. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS-P, ISLA. See also Lincoln to Banks, supra. General Butler never got back to New Orleans but was assigned to command of the Eighteenth Army Corps and Departments of Virginia and North Carolina on October 28, 1863. See Lincoln to Butler January 28, infra, and Lincoln to whom it may concern regarding Butler, February 11, infra.

To Henry W. Halleck [1]

January 24, 1863

Will General Halleck please call over, bringing with him the letter from Genl Hooker, this morning? A. LINCOLN

Jany 24th. 1863.

P.S. Please bring Genl Heintzelman's last return A. L.

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DNA WR RG 108, HQA, No. 67, Box 60. No trace has been found of a letter from General Joseph Hooker to which Lincoln might be referring, but one is tempted to suspect that it may have been a private, rather than an official letter, containing personal views pertinent to the question of whether he was fit to command the Army of the Potomac.

To William H. Seward [1]

Sec. of State, please send me a nomination for Dr. James McBride, of Oregon, to be Commissioner at the Sandwich Islands.

Jan. 24. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA FS RG 59, Appointments, Box 335. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Thomas Nelson of New York, January [9?] 1863, enclosing recommendations for Dr. James McBride of Oregon.

To Henry W. Halleck [1]

Maj. Gen. Halleck Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir Washington, Jan. 25, 1863.

Please meet Gen. Burnside here at 10 o'clock this morning. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, Perke-Bennet, Feb. 17, 1970 AGO General Orders No. 20, January 25, 1863, relieved Major Generals Burnside, Edwin V. Sumner and William B. Franklin of their commands, and assigned Major General Joseph Hooker to command the Army of the Potomac. Later Halleck described his interview with Lincoln as follows:Page  78

`` . . . General Burnside had had an interview with the President in the night or very early in the morning. I was sent for while at breakfast. When I arrived at the President's room, he informed the Secretary and myself that General Burnside had proposed the dismissal and relieving of several high officers, and, if his order was not approved, he wished to resign. The President announced his decision to relieve General Burnside and put General Hooker in command. He asked no opinion or advice either from the Secretary or myself, and none whatever was offered by either of us. General Burnside afterward came in, and the matter of accepting his resignation was discussed. I strongly urged him to withdraw it, which he finally consented to do.'' (Halleck to Franklin, May 29, 1863, OR, I, XXI, 1008-1009.)

To George E. Fawcett [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, January 26 1863

My Dear Sir Allow me to thank you cordially for your thoughtful courtesy in sending me a copy of your ``Emancipation March'' Your Obt Servt A. LINCOLN

George E. Fawcett Esq

Muscatine Iowa

Annotation

[1]   LS-F, ISLA. The letter is in John Hay's handwriting. George E. Fawcett was a teacher of instrumental music at Greenwood Academy, Muscatine, Iowa.

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Major General Hooker: Executive Mansion,
General. Washington, January 26, 1863.

I have placed you at the head of the Army of the Potomac. Of course I have done this upon what appear to me to be sufficient reasons. And yet I think it best for you to know that there are some things in regard to which, I am not quite satisfied with you. I believe you to be a brave and a skilful soldier, which, of course, I like. I also believe you do not mix politics with your profession, in which you are right. You have confidence in yourself, which is a valuable, if not an indispensable quality. You are ambitious, which, within reasonable bounds, does good rather than harm. But I think that during Gen. Burnside's command of the Army, you have taken counsel of your ambition, and thwarted him as much as you could, in which you did a great wrong to the country, and to a most meritorious and honorable brother officer. I have heard, in such way as to believe it, of your recently saying that both the Army and the Government needed a Dictator. Of course it was not for this, but in spite of it, that I have given you the command. Only those generals who gain successes, can set up dictators. What I now ask of you is military success, and I will riskPage  79 the dictatorship. The government will support you to the utmost of it's ability, which is neither more nor less than it has done and will do for all commanders. I much fear that the spirit which you have aided to infuse into the Army, of criticising their Commander, and withholding confidence from him, will now turn upon you. I shall assist you as far as I can, to put it down. Neither you, nor Napoleon, if he were alive again, could get any good out of an army, while such a spirit prevails in it.

And now, beware of rashness. Beware of rashness, but with energy, and sleepless vigilance, go forward, and give us victories.

Yours very truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, owned by Alfred W. Stern, Chicago, Illinois. Hooker was called to the White House for an interview, and this letter presumably was handed to him at that time. It remained unknown until after Hooker's death in 1879, and the circumstances of the interview, as well as Hooker's reception of the president's views, have not been adequately recorded. All accounts known to the editors reveal an abundance of conjecture and rationalized recollection after the fact.

To the Senate [1]

To the Senate of the United States: January 26, 1863

In compliance with the Resolution of the Senate of the 13th. instant requesting a copy of certain correspondence respecting the capture of British vessels sailing from one British port to another, having on board contraband of war intended for the use of the insurgents, I have the honor to transmit a report from the Secretary of State and the documents by which it was accompanied.

Washington, ABRAHAM LINCOLN

January 26th. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA RG 46, Senate 37A F3. Seward's report concerning the seizure of the British ships Lilla and Adela by the U.S.S. Quaker City on July 3 and 7, 1862, is printed in Thirty-third Congress, Third Session, Senate Executive Document No. 27. The Lilla was carrying saltpeter and the Adela was charged with running the blockade under guise of carrying the mails.

To Franz Sigel [1]

January 26, 1863

I believe an increased Cavalry force would be valuable, but I have not promised that, to suit the convenience of any officer, I would, however inconvenient to the government, raise one immediately. I have tried, in regard to Gen. Schurz & Gen. Stahl, to oblige all around; but it seems to get worse & worse. If Gen. Sigel would say distinctly, and unconditionally, what he desires done, about thePage  80 command of the forces he has, I should try to do it; but when he has plans, conditioned upon my raising new forces, which is inconvenient for me to do, it is drawing upon me too severely.

Jan. 26. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, NN. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Major General Sigel, January 23, as follows:

``The order from the War Department, assigning Gen. Schurz to the command of the Eleventh Corps has been received and promulgated by me. It was my understanding and that of the officers of the Eleventh Corps that Gen. Schurz was only to take the command of the Corps in the event of his becoming a Major General; and also that Gen. Stahel was, at the same time, to be promoted and assigned to the command of a Reserve Corps of Cavalry attached to the Grand Reserve Division.

``Under existing circumstances there is much dissatisfaction among the officers, which might be damaging to our interests in case of a battle, and Gen. Stahel feels humiliated by this arrangement, since it gives him a command inferior to that he has all along had---the command of a Division together with the Cavalry of the Corps. According to the order of the War Dept. he is now assigned to the command of the Cavalry alone, which is not so strong as it was when he had the command of his Division together with the Cavalry of the Corps.

``In order to harmonize these misunderstandings, and as an act of justice to Genl. Stahel, I would respectfully recommend that an order be immediately issued for the organization of a Reserve Cavalry Corps, to be attached to the Grand Reserve Division, and that its organization and command be assigned to Gen. Stahel.

``This would at once harmonize the differences, and be at the same time to the highest interests of the army of the Potomac.''

On January 29, Sigel replied to Lincoln's endorsement:

``I respectfully acknowledge the receipt of your endorsement on my letter of the 23d inst. I beg leave to submit to you the following statement:

``I believe that, in regard to Genl. Stahel and Genl. Schurz, the former is entitled by seniority to succeed me in the command of the 11th Corps, and so I represented my convictions to Genl. Burnside, and intended to be so understood by Your Excellency.

``In order to accommodate both of these officers, and because I believed a Cavalry Corps would be of great advantage . . . I recommended that, if such a Corps could be organized, Genl. Stahel could superintend its organization and take command of it, while Genl. Schurz could . . . command . . . the 11th Corps. . . . As, however, according to your endorsement . . . it seems not convenient to organize such a Cavalry force at present, I think it my duty . . . to renew my recommendation that Genl. Stahel succeed me in the command of the 11th Corps. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

See also Lincoln to Halleck, January 7 and Lincoln to Stanton, January 12, supra, and Lincoln to Sigel, February 5, infra.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Hon. Sec. of War Executive Mansion,
Dear Sir. Washington, January 26, 1863.

The bearer of this, Mr. Edward Yates, is an Englishman, who, more than a year ago, sent two small treatises on the Art of War,Page  81 of which treatises he is the author. He is now passing some time in the United States, and wishes permission to visit our Army. I know not whether you consistently can oblige him, but if you can, I shall be obliged, as I feel sure he is our true friend. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, PMA. Edward Yates was the author of Elementary Treatise on Strategy, London, 1852, as well as an abolitionist and reformer. No further reference to his visiting the army has been found, but a friendly letter which he wrote to Lincoln from London, May 4, 1864, is in the Lincoln Papers.

To Ambrose E. Burnside [1]

Major Gen. Burnside Executive Mansion, Washington,
My dear Sir January 28. 1862 [1863].

Gen. Humphreys is now with me saying that you told him that you had strongly urged upon me, his, Gen. H's promotion, and that I in response had used such strong language, that you were sure his name would be sent to the Senate. I remember nothing of your speaking to me; or I to you, about Gen. H. still this is far from conclusive that nothing was said. I will now thank you to drop me a note, saying what you think is right and just about Gen. Humphreys. Yours as ever A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, IHi. Lincoln misdated this letter as to year. On February 14, 1863, Burnside answered as follows:

``General [Andrew A.] Humphreys is the general that behaved so gallantly at Fredericksburg, and when I spoke to you of him you said he ought to be rewarded by promotion to rank of major-general, and I hope it will be done. . . .'' (OR, I, XXI, 1006).

On March 28, 1863, Humphreys wrote Secretary Stanton asking for a court of inquiry in regard to a note of censure which he received from Major General Halleck, September 13, 1862, ``I make this request because after having been strongly recommended for promotion for services in the field by Major-General Burnside, my promotion has not taken place. . . .'' (OR, I, XIX, I, 368). Halleck endorsed this complaint with the notation that ``As General Halleck did not oppose General Humphrey's promotion, but on the contrary supported General Burnside's recommendation for such promotion, the whole motive of General Humphreys' complaints falls to the ground.'' (OR, I, LI, I, 1000). Humphreys' promotion to major general was sent to the Senate in a list under date of December 31, 1863, but was not confirmed by the Senate until May 12, 1864.

To Benjamin F. Butler [1]

Major General Butler Executive Mansion,
Lowell, Mass. Washington, January 28. 1863.

Please come here immediately. Telegraph me about what time you will arrive.

A. LINCOLN

Page  82

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Butler's reply was received at 1 P.M., ``Telegram received, will leave thursday morning. Be in Washington friday morning'' (DLC-RTL). See Lincoln to Stanton January 23, supra, and his letter to whom it may concern, February 11, infra.

Order Approving Sentence of Justus McKinstry [1]

January 28, 1863

The sentence in the foregoing case will be carried into execution by the dismissal of Major Justus McKinstry, Quartermaster, United States Army, from the service of the United States.

Washington, January 28, 1863. ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   AGO General Orders No. 43, February 13, 1863. Major McKinstry had been found guilty of neglect and violation of duty and had been sentenced to be dismissed from the service.

To the Senate and House of Representatives [1]

January 28, 1863

To the Senate and House of Representatives:

In conformity to the Law of 16 July 1862, I most cordially recommend that Commander David D. Porter, U.S. Navy, Acting Rear Admiral, commanding the Mississippi Squadron, receive a vote of thanks of Congress, for the bravery and skill displayed in the attack on the Post of Arkansas, which surrendered to the combined Military and Naval Forces on the 10th. Inst.

Washington City, ABRAHAM LINCOLN

28 January 1863.

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA RG 46, Senate 37A F2. The joint resolution tendering thanks to Commander Porter was approved February 7, 1863.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Sec. of War, please see the bearer, and have any injustice which may have been done Gen. Keyes corrected. A. LINCOLN

Jan. 28. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, NHi. Lincoln's endorsement is written on the envelope of a letter from Major General Erasmus D. Keyes, January 25, 1863:

``I take the liberty to introduce to you my adjutant General, Col. C[harles]. C. Suydam. As the nominations of Sumner, Heintzleman, Hooker & Casey to be major generals to date from Williamsburg & Fair Oaks, while my name is omitted, does me injustice, I have requested Col. Suydam to state to you the facts of my conduct in those two battles with which he was personally cognizant.''

Keyes' nomination as major general, dated March 5, 1863, was confirmed by the Senate on March 11.

Page  83

To John A. Dix [1]

Majr. Genl. Dix Washington City, D.C.
Fort-Monroe Va. January 29, 1863

Do Richmond papers have any thing about Vicksburg?

A LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. General Dix replied on the same day, ``The Richmond papers up to & including the 27th, the latest date we have, were carefully examined & nothing about Vicksburgh was noticed. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Hon. Sec. of War Executive Mansion
Dear Sir Jan. 29, 1863.

Mr. Speed tells me you wish to appoint him to some agency about the Goose-Creek Salt works; and he wishes to decline it, & that William P. Thomason may be appointed. I personally know Mr. Thomason to be an honest & very competent man, & fully in sympathy with the administration. I think he should be appointed. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, IHi. The Goose Creek Salt Works near Manchester, Kentucky, had been destroyed by Union forces in October, 1862. Joshua F. Speed was in Washington at this time (James F. Speed to Joshua F. Speed, January 19, 1863, DLC-RTL), but no further reference to the salt works has been found. William P. Thomasson, a lawyer in Chicago who had formerly been U.S. representative from Kentucky (1843-1847) was probably the man recommended.

To Thurlow Weed [1]

Hon. Thurlow Weed Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir Washington, January 29. 1863.

Your valedictory to the patrons of the Albany Evening Journal brings me a good deal of uneasiness. What does it mean? Yours truly A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ADfS, DLC-RTL. Weed's reply of February 1, 1863, reads as follows:

``I retired from an apprehension that I was doing more harm than good. I could not remain without remonstrance against a Spirit by which you are persecuted, and which I know will end our Union and Government. It is impossible, just now, to resist Fanaticism---a Fanaticism which divides the North and deprives you of the support essential, vital in-deed, to the Life of the Republic. Its constant cry is: `Give! Give!' and the more you give the more it demands.

``They accuse me of `opposing the Administration.' I answered that falsehood yesterday, and sent Mr. Nicolay a Paper. I have labored to shield the Administration from their persecution.

``There is crazy `method' in Greeley's Abolitionism. He has the Presidency on his Brain. He ran `Maine Law' into the ground expecting to make himself

Page  84Governor. His Ambition is mere lunacy, but, unfortunately, I fear he possesses the power to ruin our Country. If I could be heard by the same, and the same number, of readers, I should hope to open their eyes.

``This State was ours, in November, by 25,000 majority, with Morgan, and 50,000 with Dix, but he, and his like, would have an Abolition issue for Govnr, that they might have a Legislature in favor of Greeley or Field, for U.S. Senator.

``I may not be able to do much good, but all I am belongs to my Country, and to yourself, as its President.'' (DLC-RTL).

To John A. Dix [1]

Major General Dix Washington City, D.C.
Fort Monroe, Va. January 30 1863

What Iron-clads, if any, have gone out of Hampton Roads within the last two day[s]? A LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. General Dix replied on the same day, ``No iron-clads have left for two days. The Weehawken is at Norfolk; the Patapsco is here, waiting for favorable weather, and the Nahant is at Newport News. I have just telegraphed to General Halleck our success in a fight with [Roger A.] Pryor.'' (OR, I, XVIII, 530).

To John A. Dix [1]

Major Gen. Dix Washington City, D.C.
Fort-Monroe, Va. January 31 1863

How has Corcoran's and Pryor's battle terminated? Have you any news through Richmond papers, or otherwise?

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. General Dix's reply was received at 5:30 P.M. ``I am waiting for an answer from Genl Peck to a despatch I sent him three hours ago asking . . . the result of the fight at the deserted house yesterday. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

A second telegram was received at 6 P.M. ``I have just recd . . . Peck's answer. . . . He has not yet received reports or lists but he has ascertained that we had twenty four killed & eighty wounded No missing reported The Enemys supposed loss in killed & wounded to be about equal to ours. We have taken 12 prisoners. . . .'' (Ibid.).

To William W. Gallaer [1]

January 31, 1863

I would like to oblige Mr. Gallaer, & other good men; but I cannot now do the thing he desires.

Annotation

[1]   American Art Association Anderson Galleries Catalog 4180, May 8-9, 1935, No. 204. According to the catalog description this is an autograph note signed. On February 9, 1863, William W. Gallaer of Memphis, Tennessee, wrote LincolnPage  85

from Willard's Hotel in Washington. Although his letter does not state specifically the subject which he laid before Lincoln, it is reproduced in part as follows:

``Although it is probable I may be considered troublesome, if not impertinent, yet I cannot resist the impression that I have failed in properly presenting the subject I had the honor personally to lay before you. Permit me to . . . briefly state some facts bearing upon that matter.

``It cannot be denied that since the occupation of Memphis . . . there has been apparent on the part of the prominent men of that vicinity, who formerly sympathized with the rebellion movement, a secret desire to withdraw their support from that unholy cause, and a desire for peace on any terms.

``The prevalence of such feelings alarmed the rebel leaders, and induced them to resort to every argument and threat to prevent the spread of union sentiment.

``The argument having most weight and used most effectually is, that the government is determined to sweep away all their property, and under no circumstances ever to restore, or permit them to enjoy it again. . . .

``The result is, that hundreds of influential men are rendered lukewarm, who would otherwise have the strongest incentives to use their influence in putting down the rebellion, for the protection of their interests if from no other motive. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

To Montgomery C. Meigs [1]

Quarter-Master-General Executive Mansion,
Dear Sir: Washington, January 31. 1863.

The bearer of this, Mr. James C. Conkling, is successor to Mr. Thomas H. Campbell, now deceased, as agent to adjust accounts with this government for the State of Illinois. He has ample business qualifications, is entirely trustworthy; and with all is my personal friend of long standing. Please see & hear him. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, CSmH.

Memorandum Concerning Fines Collected from Kentuckians [1]

January 31, 1863

Senator Powell calls and leaves this paper and asks that an order be made on the persons stated to have made the collections to refund the money to the persons respectively from whom collected, and all monies collected in like manner in the counties of Henderson, [2] Union, Hopkins & Webster A. LINCOLN

Jan. 31, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-RTL. The signature has been crossed out, but is as given. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a list of more than one hundred citizens with amount of fines collected by Colonel John W. Foster and Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Johnson of the Sixty-fifth Indiana Volunteers and Lieutenant ColonelPage  86

John Mehringer of the Ninety-first Indiana Volunteers. See Lincoln to Jeremiah T. Boyle, February 1, infra.

[2]   ``Henry'' has been deleted and ``Henderson'' written above.

To Robert C. Schenck [1]

Major Gen. Schenck Washington City, D.C.
Baltimore, Md. January 31 1863

I do not take jurisdiction of the pass question. Exercise your own discretion as to whether Judge Pettis shall have a pass.

A LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. A purported telegram from Schenck received at 4:40 P.M. on January 31, reads: ``Judge Pettis desires leave tonight to visit a sick soldier at Gloucester Point. Shall he have it?'' (DLC-RTL). A second telegram from Schenck received at 11:20 P.M., replied, ``I beg to say that the Telegram sent you in my name about a pass was without my authority.'' (Ibid.). ``Judge Pettis'' was probably S. Newton Pettis, appointed associate justice in Colorado Territory in 1861, who had returned to Pennsylvania in 1862.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

January 31, 1863

If the within showing of Col. Ballier's case is correct, I think he should be restored. It shows that he was sick in hospital when discharged from service, and that without knowledge of his discharge he made premature efforts to return to his duty.

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DNA WR RG 107, Register of Secretary of War, Letters Received, P 42. The original endorsement or note is missing but the register preserves a copy. Colonel John F. Ballier of the Ninety-eighth Pennsylvania was discharged on November 26, 1862, and re-mustered on March 12, 1863.

To Joseph P. Taylor [1]

Commissary General. Executive Mansion,
Sir. Washington, January 31, 1863.

Please see the bearer, Edward D. Baker, who is a son of my old friend Col. Baker, who fell at Ball's Bluff. He is now a first Lieut. in the 4th. U.S. Cavalry, and has been serving as Adjutant of the Regiment. He was in the battles of Perryville, and Murfreesboro. He now wishes to be a Commissary with the rank of Captain, and if you can inform me that he can be made such consistently with the rules of the service, I will oblige him. Yours truly

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, IHi. Lieutenant Baker was appointed captain and assistant quartermaster, March 13, 1863. See Lincoln's endorsement to Taylor concerning Baker, February 5, infra.

Page  87

To Jeremiah T. Boyle [1]

Gen. J. T. Boyle Executive Mansion,
Dear Sir: Washington, February 1. 1863.

Yesterday Senator Powell left a paper with me, with a request which I endorsed upon it at the time, and the contents of which paper, and request appear by the inclosed copies. You perceive at once what the object is. This course of procedure, though just and politic in some cases, is so liable to gross abuse, as to do great injustice in some others and give the government immense trouble. I will thank you, therefore, if you will, without reasonable delay, ascertain the facts of these cases and report them to me, together with such other information as may best enable me to understand the whole case. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADfS, DLC-RTL. See Lincoln's memorandum of January 31, supra. General Boyle replied on February 11, 1863, ``Your letter of the 1st inst., requesting information in regard to contributions assessed . . . by Col. J. W. Foster, of 65th Regt. Ind. Vols . . . was received on 7th inst. and forwarded to Col. Foster for report.

`` . . . the assessment . . . was made by Col. Foster without orders from me; but I approved it after it was done, and still approve it as right, just, and politic. . . . The contributions were required of avowed secessionists . . . and it was applied honestly to reimburse loyal Union citizens in part for their losses by rebel guerrillas. . . . As far as I am advised, Mr. President, I believe the matter should be left as it is, without any interference with it. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

On February 20 Boyle enclosed a copy of Colonel John W. Foster's report of January 6, 1863, and a letter from Foster dated February 16, which reads in part:

``I am in receipt of the letter of . . . President Lincoln, with your endorsement . . . instructing me to report on the names contained in the paper submitted by Senator Powell.

``You will remember that I made full report of all my action in these matters at the time, giving in detail the condition of the country, the causes which led to my action, the amount levied, the manner in which it was distributed, and the effect which it had upon the community. This report has been read by yourself and Maj. Gen. Wright . . . and . . . fully approved.

``I desire that this report be sent to the President. It was made upon my honor as an officer, and by it I desire that I may be judged. The money levied has been . . . paid out . . . to the citizens of Hopkins County, who were the sufferers by the action of these very men and their friends, who ask the President for redress. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

To Oliver P. Morton [1]

``Cypher''
Gov. O. P. Morton Washington, D.C.,
Indianapolis, Ia: Feb. 1. 1863

I think it would not do for me to meet you at Harrisburg. It would be known, and would be misconstrued a thousand ways. OfPage  88 course if the whole truth could be told and accepted as the truth, it would do no harm, but that is impossible. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. On January 31, Governor Morton telegraphed, ``It is important that I should see you a few hours, but I cannot leave long enough to go to Washington. Can you meet me at Harrisburg?'' (OR, III, III, 23). Peace Democrats were advocating a Northwest Confederacy. The Indiana legislature had gone Democratic in the 1862 elections, and Morton was having a great deal of trouble. On February 9, he sent Lincoln by Robert Dale Owen a letter outlining the plans of the Democrats to end the war by whatever means, to recognize the Confederacy, and to propose a reunion leaving out the New England States. The letter also dealt with the secret societies which were being organized with the avowed purpose of sabotaging the Union.

Memorandum:
Appointment of Eliphalet N. Chester [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, Feb. 2. 1863.

To-day Senator Doolittle, Mrs. Spaulding, and Col. Root, call and ask that Eliphalet Nott Chester, of Buffalo N.Y. 17 the 18th. of next July, be sent to West-Point. Two of his brothers have served in this war, (one of them still in the service) and he, as a private, has been through the battles of South-Mountain, Antietam, and Fredericksburg. Col. Root is his Col., and gives the strongest testimony, both as to his general worthiness, and his particular talent for Military matters.

Annotation

[1]   AD, DNA WR RG 94, U.S. Military Academy, 1862, No. 55, Box 80. Private Eliphalet N. Chester of the Ninety-fourth New York Infantry, commanded by Colonel Adrian R. Root, entered West Point September 9, 1863, and graduated June 17, 1867. ``Mrs. Spaulding'' was probably the wife of U.S. Representative Elbridge G. Spaulding of Buffalo, New York.

To the Workingmen of London [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington,
To the workingmen of London:February 2, 1863.

I have received the new year's address which you have sent me with a sincere appreciation of the exalted and humane sentiments by which it was inspired.

As those sentiments are manifestly the enduring support of the free institutions of England, so I am sure also that they constitute the only reliable basis for free institutions throughout the world.

The resources, advantages, and powers of the American people are very great, and they have, consequently, succeeded to equally great responsibilities. It seems to have devolved upon them to test whether a government, established on the principles of humanPage  89 freedom, can be maintained against an effort to build one upon the exclusive foundation of human bondage.

They will rejoice with me in the new evidences which your proceedings furnish, that the magnanimity they are exhibiting is justly estimated by the true friends of freedom and humanity in foreign countries.

Accept my best wishes for your individual welfare, and for the welfare and happiness of the whole British people.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Thirty-seventh Congress, Third Session, Senate Executive Document No. 49. On February 2, Lincoln's letter was forwarded to Minister Charles F. Adams by Secretary Seward with instructions to ``submit it informally to the notice of Earl Russell and if he offers no objection, then to deliver it to the parties to whom it is addressed.'' The address of the Workingmen adopted at a meeting on December 31, 1862, printed in the London Daily News of January 1, 1863, was forwarded by Adams to Seward on January 8, and reads in part:

``We who offer to you this address are Englishmen and workingmen. We prize as our dearest inheritance . . . the liberty we enjoy---the liberty of free labor upon a free soil. We have . . . been acustomed to regard with veneration and gratitude the founders of the great republic in which the liberties of the Anglo-Saxon race have been widened beyond all the precedents of the old world, and in which there was nothing to condemn or to lament but the slavery and degradation of men guilty only of a colored skin or an African parentage. . . . We have watched with the warmest interest the steady advance of your policy along the path of emancipation; and on the eve of the day on which your proclamation of freedom takes effect, we pray God to strengthen your hands, to confirm your noble purpose, and to hasten the restoration of that lawful authority which engages, in peace or war, by compensation or by force of arms, to realize the glorious principle on which your Constitution is founded---the brotherhood, freedom, and equality of all men.'' (Ibid.).

To Edward Bates [1]

Let a pardon be made out in this case. A. LINCOLN

Feb. 3, 1863

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA RG 204, U.S. Pardon Attorney, A 459. Lincoln's endorsement appears on a petition signed by Samuel Brereton and others, asking a pardon for Albert C. War, convicted of assault with intent to kill.

Memorandum:
Appointment of William H. Hodges [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, February 3. 1863.

To-day Senator Foote calls and asks that William H. Hodges, of Mass. 17 next June, and nephew of Mrs. Foote, may be sent to

Page  90West-Point. He says the boy is a fine scholar, and of uncommonly fine physical development

Annotation

[1]   AD, DNA WR RG 94, U.S. Military Academy, 1863, No. 91, Box 81. William H. Hodges is listed at West Point as of September 1863, but is not in the Official Register in 1865.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

February 3, 1863

Sec. of War, Please see Mr. Conkling, a good man, who comes as successor of Mr. Campbell, now deceased, as agent to settle accounts for Illinois. A. LINCOLN

Feb. 3. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, IHi. See Lincoln to Meigs, January 31, supra.

To the House of Representatives [1]

To, the House of Representatives: February 4, 1863

In compliance with the resolution of the House of Representatives on the 5th. December last, requesting information upon the present condition of Mexico, I transmit a report from the Secretary of State, and the papers by which it was accompanied.

Washington, February, 4th. 1863. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA RG 233, House Executive Document No. 54. Seward's eight hundred-page report transmitted by Lincoln may be found in Thirty-seventh Congress, Third Session, House Executive Document No. 54.

To Robert C. Schenck [1]

Cypher
Major Gen. Schenck Washington, D.C.,
Baltimore, Md. Feb. 4 1863

I hear of some difficulty in the streets of Baltimore yesterday. What is the amount of it? A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. No reply from General Schenck has been located. A Washington despatch of February 5 appearing in the New York Herald, February 6, suggests the occasion of Lincoln's telegram: ``The practical feeling of white soldiers towards negroes is seen in the fact that yesterday morning a lot of one hundred and fifty convalescents from Philadelphia, in charge of a guard of ten men, armed at the Soldiers' Rest, and at once showed their antipathy to the colored people by assaulting the contrabands employed about the quarters. . . . The Baltimore papers state that in coming through that city they attacked every colored person coming in their way, and assaulted the police who endeavored to protect them.''

Page  91

To the Senate [1]

To the Senate of the United States: February 4, 1863

In pursuance of the joint resolution of Congress approved 3 February, 1863, tendering its thanks to Commander John L. Worden, U.S. Navy, I nominate that officer to be a captain in the Navy, on the active list, from the 3d February, 1863.

It may be proper to state that the number of captains authorized by the 2d section of the act of 16 July, 1862, is now full, but presuming that the meaning of the 9th section of the same act is that the officer receiving the vote of thanks shall immediately be advanced one grade, I have made the nomination.

Washington, D.C., February 4, 1863. ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Executive Journal, XIII, 113-14. John L. Worden's appointment was confirmed by the Senate on February 21.

To Francisco S. Lopez [1]

February 5, 1863

Abraham Lincoln,

President of the United States of America,

To His Excellency Senor Don Francisco Solano Lopez,

President of the Republic of Paraguay.

Great and Good Friend: I have received the letter which under date of 30 October, last, you addressed to me, announcing the death of the late most excellent President, Senor Don Carlos Antonio Lopez and of your subsequent elevation to the Presidency of the Republic by the unanimous vote of the Representatives of the nation.

I offer your Excellency my sincere sympathy in the sad bereavement which you have experienced in the death of your distinguished Father, under whose government the Republic of Paraguay enjoyed many years of peace and prosperity. The election of your Excellency to succeed him is the best proof of the satisfaction of the Republic with his administration.

I congratulate you upon this mark of the confidence of the nation, and sincerely reciprocate the desire Your Excellency has expressed for the continuance of the good relations so happily subsisting between the United States and Paraguay, to which desirable end my own best efforts shall not be wanting.

Wishing peace, progress, and prosperity for the Republic, and health and happiness to your Excellency I pray God to have you always in His most holy keeping.

Page  92Written at the city of Washington this 5th. day of February 1863 and of the Independence of the United States of America the eighty-seventh. Your Good Friend, ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

By the President:

WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DNA FS RG 59, Communications to Foreign Sovereigns and States, III, 198-99.

To the Senate [1]

To the Senate of the United States. February 5, 1863

I submit to the Senate for consideration with a view to ratification a ``Convention between the United States of America and the Republic of Peru, providing for the reference to the King of Belgium of the claims arising out of the capture and confiscation of the ships Lizzie Thompson and Georgiana''---signed at Lima on the 20th, December, 1862. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Washington, 5 February, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA RG 46, Senate 37B B17. The convention was ratified by the Senate on February 18, 1863.

To the Senate [2]

To the Senate of the United States: February 5, 1863

I submit to the Senate, for consideration with a view to ratification, a ``convention between the United States of America and the Republic of Peru, for the settlement of the pending claims of the citizens of either country against the other,'' signed at Lima on the 12th January, ultimo, with the following amendment:

Article 1. Strike out the words, ``The claims of the American citizens Dr. Charles Easton, Edmund Sartori, and the owners of the whale ship William Lee, against the Government of Peru, and the Peruvian citizen Stephen Montano against the Government of the United States,'' and insert all claims of citizens of the United States against the Government of Peru, and of citizens of Peru against the Government of the United States, which have not been embraced in conventional or diplomatic agreement between the two Governments or their plenipotentiaries, and statements of which soliciting the interposition of either Government may, previously to the exchange of the ratifications of this convention have been filed in the Department of State at Washington, or the Department for Foreign Affairs at Lima, &c.

This amendment is considered desirable, as there are believed to be other claims proper for the consideration of the commissionPage  93 which are not among those specified in the original article, and because it is at least questionable whether either Government would be justified in incurring the expense of a commission for the sole purpose of disposing of the claims mentioned in that article.

Washington, February 5, 1863. ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Executive Journal, XIII, 122. Lincoln's suggested amendment of Article 1 was adopted and appears in the convention as printed in U.S. Statutes at Large, XIII, 639.

To William H. Seward [1]

Sec. of State please see these gentlemen, representative of the shipping interests. A. LINCOLN

Feb. 5, 1863

Annotation

[1]   Copy, ISLA. A note from Senator Sumner, February 4, 1863, requests Lincoln to receive three men named Frazer, [Samuel?] Hall, and Eldredge, ``a committee from Boston of gentlemen interested in the Navy & familiar with ships & the sea. They have important suggestions to offer. . . .'' (DLC-RTL). The men have not been identified, but it seems possible that they were the gentlemen whom Lincoln sent to Secretary Seward.

To Franz Sigel [1]

Executive Mansion,
Major General Sigel Washington, February 5. 1863.

My dear Sir Gen. Schurz thinks I was a little cross in my late note to you. If I was, I ask pardon. If I do get up a little temper I have no sufficient time to keep it up.

I believe I will not now issue any new order in relation to the matter in question; but I will be obliged, if Gen. Hooker consistently can, and will give an increased Cavalry command to Gen. Stahl. You may show Gen. Hooker this letter if you choose. Yours truly

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, NN. See Lincoln's endorsement to Sigel, January 26, supra. On February 5, General Hooker broke up the Grand Division organization of the Army of the Potomac and assigned Sigel to command of the Eleventh Corps. On February 12, Sigel wrote Joseph Dickinson, assistant adjutant general, Army of the Potomac, ``I beg leave respectfully to represent that the reduction of my command in the Army of the Potomac makes it exceedingly unpleasant . . . to remain longer in my present command, and therefore request that I be immediately relieved from my command. . . .'' On February 19, Lincoln directed Stanton to telegraph Hooker that the president ``has given General Sigel as good a command as he can, and desires him to do the best he can with it.'' (OR, I, XXV, II, 71). Sigel insisted, however, ``Either, that I be relieved from my command, or that my resignation be accepted, as my present position and relations . . . are so unsatisfactory and dispiriting to me, that it would be in the highest degree unpleasant for me to continue in command of my Corps.'' (Sigel to Stanton, March 11, 1863, DLC-RTL). Later Sigel took a subordinate command in the Department of the Susquehanna.

Page  94

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Let Thomas J. C. Amory be appointed a Brigadier General.

Feb. 5, 1863 A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   Copy, ISLA. Colonel Thomas J. C. Amory of the Seventeenth Massachusetts Volunteers was nominated brigadier general on February 6, 1863. On February 12, his nomination was returned to the president along with others, on recommendation of the Senate Committee on Military Affairs that there was ``no law authorizing said appointments'' (Executive Journal, XIII, 128). Appointed brevet brigadier general as of March 13, 1865, Amory was confirmed by the Senate on March 12, 1866.

To Joseph P. Taylor [1]

[c. February 5, 1863]

I would like to give the son of my old friend, Col. Baker one of the places or vacancies created by this act, Will the Com. Genl. please arrange it for me? A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, MHi. Lincoln's endorsement is written on the bottom of the printed bill H.R. 658 ``An Act to promote the efficiency of the commissary department.'' The date of the bill (``In the Senate . . . February 5, 1863. Read the first and second times.'') suggests the date of Lincoln's endorsement. See further, Lincoln's endorsement to Meigs, February 27, infra.

Endorsement: Appointment of Joseph Hertford [1]

I should be glad for my friend Swett to be obliged; and besides, Mr. Hertford is a very worthy and competent gentleman.

Feb. 6. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DLC-RTL. The copy of this endorsement is contained in a letter from Joseph Hertford, March, 1863, reminding Lincoln of a letter from Leonard Swett in favor of Hertford's appointment as special agent of the Treasury. Joseph Hertford is listed in the U.S. Official Register, 1863, as a clerk in the Bureau of Internal Revenue.

To Bartolome Mitre [1]

February 6, 1863

Abraham Lincoln,

President of the United States of America.

To His Excellency Senor Don Bartolome Mitre,

President of the Argentine Republic.

Great and Good Friend: I have received the letter which Your Excellency has addressed to me under date of the 23d. October, last, announcing your election to the Presidency of the Republic by the free suffrages of your fellow-citizens.

Page  95I assure Your Excellency that this event has inspired me with the liveliest gratification. After so many years of discord and strife the Provinces of the Argentine Confederation have buried their jealousies and again present themselves to the world as a united nation having a common interest and a common destiny.

No one knows better than Your Excellency that it has been the uniform desire and effort of this Government so far as it could properly do so by the friendly offices of its Ministers in the Plata, to promote conciliation and to effect the consolidation which has happily been accomplished.

I congratulate the nation and Your Excellency upon this result, and upon the elevation of Your Excellency to the Chief Magistracy of the reunited Republic. And I do not doubt that the earnest patriotism and enlightened statesmanship of Your Excellency will speedily obliterate all painful remembrances of the past and inspire the people of the nation to give you a hearty and unanimous support in the development of their best interests.

Sincerely reciprocating Your Excellency's sentiments of friendship for this Government and people and praying God to have your Excellency always in His most holy keeping, I am your Good Friend, ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

By the President:

WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.

Washington 6 February, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DNA FS RG 59, Communications to Foreign Sovereigns and States, III, 200-202.

To the Senate [1]

To the Senate of the United States: February 6, 1863

I transmit herewith a report from the Secretary of State with accompanying documents in answer to the resolution of the Senate on the 30th ultimo. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Washington, February 6th, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA RG 46, Senate 37A F3. Seward's report of February 5 and accompanying documents are printed in Thirty-seventh Congress, Third Session, Senate Executive Document No. 33. The resolution of January 30, 1863, asked the president to communicate `` . . . whether or not any commissioner, representative, or agent of the United States has received from the Japanese government, or from any agent thereof, any sum of money to be used and expended in the construction of a ship or ships of war; and if so, who was that commissioner, representative, or agent of this government; how much money he received; into whose hands did he deposit it; in whose hands or under whose control is it now; and what disposition is proposed to be made of it.'' Robert H. Pruyn, minister to Japan, had arranged for the building of three warshipsPage  96

and guns, a field battery of six guns, and a rifling machine, for the government of Japan. Thurlow Weed and Charles B. Lansing of Albany, New York, were selected as agents by Pruyn.

To the Senate [2]

To the Senate of the United States: February 6, 1863

In compliance with the resolution of the Senate of the United States of yesterday, requesting information in regard to the death of General Ward, a citizen of the United States, in the military service of the Chinese Government, I transmit a copy of a despatch of the 27th. of October, last, and of its accompaniment, from the Minister of the United States in China. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Washington, 6th. February, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA RG 46, Senate 37A F2. Seward's report enclosed a copy of a dispatch from Anson Burlingame, October 27, 1862, informing him of the death of Frederick T. Ward of Salem, Massachusetts, killed by rebels at Tse-Kzi near Ning Po during the Tai-Ping rebellion.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

[c. February 8, 1863]

If another Quarter Master is needed in Gen. McClernand's Corps, I would like for the appointment within requested to be made. Sec. of War, please refer to Q.M. Genl. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, IHi. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Mrs. Abraham H. Hoge, February 8, 1863, asking a quartermastership for her son. Holmes Hoge was appointed captain and assistant quartermaster on March 13, 1863. See Lincoln's letters to Mrs. Hoge, November 25, 1862, and January 6, 1863, supra.

To James M. Edmunds [1]

February 9, 1863

I shall be obliged if the Commissioner of the General Land-Office will give Mr. Morris a full hearing on the business indicated within, and do what may be directed by the law in the case. Please give Mr. Morris an early hearing. A. LINCOLN

Feb. 9. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES-P, ISLA. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Governor Richard Yates, January 13, 1863, asking that Isaac N. Morris be given a hearing in regard to ``the claim of Illinois to the two per cent fund, due the State from the General Government.'' The claim had to do with net proceeds of the sale of public lands in Illinois from January 1, 1819, to be used for roads. Morris'Page  97

report (Illinois Reports, 1865) indicates that as of December 24, 1864, the claim had not been allowed. See Lincoln's memorandum and letter to Morris, August 24, 1863, infra.

To William A. Hammond [1]

February 9, 1863

Will the Surgeon General please have an examination of the physical condition of Henry Williams, named within, made by a competent Surgeon, and report to me. A. LINCOLN

Feb. 9. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter of February 3 from Ambrose W. Clark to Hiram Berdan concerning a physical examination of Private Henry Williams of Company D, First U.S. Sharpshooters, under sentence of imprisonment for desertion. On February 14, Hammond returned the letter with additional endorsements and a report ``from which it appears that no apprehension need be entertained as to the health of Henry Williams.''

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

February 9, 1863

I know nothing as to whether the transfer sought, is admissable. I have a very strong impression, however that Gen. Frye is a worthy gentleman and meritorious officer. A. LINCOLN

Feb. 9. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, NHi. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter signed by Representatives John J. Crittenden, Aaron Harding, and Senator Garrett Davis, January 6, 1863, asking that Brigadier General Speed S. Fry be transferred from the Army of the Cumberland to the Army of the Ohio. On May 26, 1863, General Fry was placed in command of the Eastern District of Kentucky under the Department of the Ohio.

To Edwin M. Stanton [2]

Will Mr. Stanton please see Col. Kirkham and read the letter of Mr. Butler, one of our wisest and most reliable men at Springfield

Monday. Feby. 9. 1863. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   LS, NHi. William Butler's letter has not been located, but Governor Richard Yates wrote Lincoln on January 30, 1863, that Colonel Robert Kirkham of Shawneetown, Illinois, who had resigned command of the Fifty-sixth Illinois Infantry on June 26, 1862, was going to Washington. ``He knows what is going on here. The Government must let us have at least 4 Regiments of well armed men in Illinois. Hope you will give friend Kirkham a careful hearing.'' (DLC-RTL). On February 9, Stanton ordered four regiments to be raised as Illinois home guards, but the order was countermanded on March 31 when matters had somewhat quieted down (OR, III, III, 109).

Page  98

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

I personally know John W. True; and think him both competent and worthy to be an Additional Paymaster. A. LINCOLN

Feb. 9. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, IHi. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from F. G. True, a banker at Mattoon, Illinois, February 1, 1863, to Lyman Trumbull, asking that Major John W. True of the Fifty-fourth Illinois Infantry be made a paymaster. John W. True resigned from service on July 17, 1863. See Lincoln to Stanton, December 4, 1862, supra.

To Edward Bates [1]

Let a pardon be made out in this case.

Feb. 10, 1863

Annotation

[1]   AE, DNA RG 204, U.S. Pardon Attorney, A 460. Lincoln's endorsement appears on a petition signed by Bernhardt Weiss and H. P. King, February 5, asking pardon for Henry Williams of Baltimore convicted of manslaughter.

To David Hunter and Others [1]

Executive Mansion
Washington. February 10th. 1863

To David Hunter, Major General U.S.A., Rufus Saxton,

Brig: Genl. U.S.A., A.C. Smith, W.E. Wording and W.H. Brisbane Esquires:

You are hereby authorized and directed agreeably to an Act of Congress, approved on the 6th. day of February inst. to select for Government use, for war, military, naval revenue, charitable, Educational or police purposes, such tracts, parcels or lots of land, within the State of South Carolina, from the lands which may have been or which may hereafter be offered for sale by the Direct Tax Commissioners in said State, appointed under an Act of Congress, approved June 7th. 1862. as may seem to you necessary and proper for the purposes aforesaid. And I do direct and order that either of the two persons first named, together with two of the three persons last named, shall constitute a quorum for the purpose of making such selections; and in case of the absence of the two persons first named, the last named three persons, or the major part of them, are authorized to make the selections, as hereinbefore directed. And you are hereby authorized and empowered to execute and perform the duties herein specified, according to Law. You will report your proceedings to the Secretary of the Treasury. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Page  99

Annotation

[1]   LS-P, ISLA. The act of June 7, 1862 (amended February 6, 1863), provided that the President appoint a board of three tax commissioners for each state in which insurrection existed.

Memorandum: Appointment of Philip Reade [1]

Executive Mansion Feb. 10. 1863.

To-day Gen. B. F. Butler calls and asks that Philip Read of Mass (Dracut) may be sent to West-Point. Is now just past 17.

Annotation

[1]   AD, DLC-RTL. Philip Reade entered West Point in 1865, but did not graduate.

To the Senate [1]

To the Senate of the United States: February 10, 1863

In answer to the resolution of the Senate of yesterday, requesting information touching the visit of Mr. Mercier to Richmond, in April last, I transmit a report from the Secretary of State, to whom the resolution was referred. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Washington, 10th. Feby., 1863.

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA RG 46, Senate 37A F2. Seward's report of February 9 concerning the visit of Henri Mercier, the French minister, reads in part:

``That no suggestions were made to M. Mercier by the Secretary of State that induced, or were designed or calculated to induce, him to undertake a mission to Richmond in April last, or at any other time. He was not then, nor has he or any other person ever been, authorized by this government or by the Secretary of State to make any representations of any kind or on any subject to the . . . so-called authorities at Richmond, or to hold any communication with them on behalf of this government. . . .

``Since the fourth of March, 1861, no communication, direct or indirect, formal or informal, has been held by this government, or by the Secretary of State, with the insurgents, their orders, or abettors. No passport has been granted to any foreign minister to pass the military lines except by the President's direction, and each of such ministers who has received such passport has, on his return, waited upon the President as well as the Secretary of State, and given them such account, unasked, as he thought proper of the incidents of his journey.

``Of course, these statements are to be qualified so far as the facts relating to communications concerning the exchange of prisoners and other military matters. . . .''

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

I suppose these papers are superseded, by what the Secretary did yesterday. A. LINCOLN

Feb. 10. 1863.

Page  [unnumbered]

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-Stanton Papers. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Governor Richard Yates, Ozias M. Hatch and Jesse K. Dubois, February 2, 1863, relating the danger of insurrection in Illinois. The Democrats had won the election in 1862, and as in Indiana were attempting to rule as well as legislate. See Lincoln's note to Stanton introducing Colonel Robert Kirkham, February 9, supra.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Hon. Sec. of War Executive Mansion
My dear Sir February 11, 1863.

Mr. Senator Henderson and Mr. Representative Rollins, are so anxious to have something done for Edward H. Castle [Casth?], of Mo, that I ask you to see them, and oblige them if you can consistently with law and propriety. [A. LINCOLN]

Annotation

[1]   ALS, IHi. The signature has been cut off this letter. No further reference has been found, and Edward H. Castle (Casth?) has not been further identified.

To Whom It May Concern [1]

Executive Mansion
Whom it may concern. Washington, February 11, 1863.

Major General Butler, bearer of this, visits the Mississippi River, and localities thereon, at my request, for observation. The Military and Naval Commanders, whom he may meet, will please facilitate his passage from point to point, and make him as comfortable as possible during his stay with them respectively. I will thank them also to impart to him such information as they may possess, and he may seek, not inconsistent with the military service.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADS, DLC-Butler Papers. See Lincoln to Stanton January 23 and to Butler January 28, supra. A draft of an order is preserved in the Lincoln Papers with emendations in Stanton's autograph and dated February 17, 1863, which ordered (1) Butler's return to command of the Department of the Gulf and the creation of a separate department in Texas under command of General Nathaniel P. Banks; (2) the creation of a new department ``as soon as the navigation of the Mississippi is opened . . . to consist of the Department of the Gulf,---and so much of the Mississippi valley as is contained south of Cairo, in the States of Missouri and Arkansas on the west Bank and of Kentucky west of the Cumberland River, Western Tennessee and Mississippi on the Eastern Bank of the River, . . . to be called the Department of the Gulf and the Mississippi. . . . command assign[ed] to Maj. Gen. Butler,'' and (3) authorized Butler ``to enlist and organize such forces as he may deem expedient within these Departments. . . .'' (DLC-RTL). The order was never issued, however, and Butler did not return to New Orleans.

Page  101

To Henry W. Halleck [1]

Executive Mansion
Major Gen. Halleck Feb. 12. 1863.

Gen. Meagher, now with me, says the Irish Brigade has had no promotion; and that Col. Robert Nugent &; Col. Patrick Kelly, both of that Brigade have fairly earned promotion. They both hold commissions as Captains in the regular army. Please examine their records with reference to the question of promoting one or both of them. Yours truly

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, owned by Charles W. Olsen, Chicago, Illinois. Colonel Patrick Kelly was killed in action June 16, 1864, and Colonel Robert Nugent was not brevetted brigadier general until March 13, 1865.

To William S. Rosecrans [1]

Majr. General Rosecrans. Executive Mansion
Murfreesboro, Tenn. Washington, Feb. 12, 1863.

Your despatch about ``River Patrolling'' received. I have called the Sec. of Navy, Sec. of War, and General-in-Chief, together and submitted it to them, who promise to do their very best in the case. I can not take it into my own hands without producing inextracable confusion. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. General Rosecrans telegraphed on February 11: ``The enemy will direct all its operations to intercept our connection. To prevent this it is absolutely necessary to patrol the rivers. Information in possession of the commanding General and post Commanders must be promptly acted upon. It is, therefore, absolutely necessary to have the gunboats which co-operate in that work directed to report to, and receive instructions from, the general commanding, or, in his absence, the commanders along the river districts. The officers commanding gunboats express a willingness to co-operate with the department, but in order to make their aid effective and prompt, such arrangements should be made.'' (OR, I, XXIII, II, 57).

To the Senate [1]

To the Senate of the United States: February 12, 1863

In answer to the resolution of the Senate of the 10th. instant, requesting information on the subjects of mediation, arbitration, or other measures looking to the termination of the existing civil war, I transmit a report from the Secretary of State and the documents by which it was accompanied. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Washington, 12th. Feby., 1863.

Page  102

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA RG 46, Senate 37A F3. Seward's report of February 12, enclosing copies of letters and extracts of letters which passed between the Department of State and various representatives of foreign powers relative to mediation, arbitration, and other proposals for ending the war, may be found in Thirty-seventh Congress, Third Session, Senate Executive Document No. 38.

To the Senate [2]

To the Senate of the United States: February 12, 1863

On the 4th of September, 1862, Commander George Henry Preble, U.S. Navy, then senior officer in command of the Naval force off the harbor of Mobile, was guilty of inexcusable neglect in permitting the armed steamer Oreto, in open daylight, to run the blockade. For his omission to perform his whole duty on that occasion and the injury thereby inflicted on the service and the country, his name was stricken from the list of Naval officers and he was dismissed the service.

Since his dismissal earnest application has been made for his restoration to his former position by Senators and Naval officers, on the ground that his fault was an error of judgment, and that the example in his case has already had its effect in preventing a repetition of similar neglect.

I therefore, on this application and representation, and in consideration of his previous fair record, do hereby nominate George Henry Preble to be a commander in the Navy, from the 16th July, 1862, to take rank on the active list next after Commander Edward Donaldson, and to fill a vacancy occasioned by the death of Commander J. M. Wainwright. [2] FOOTNOTES}>(2) ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Washington, D.C., 12 February, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   Executive Journal, XIII, 129. Commander George H. Preble of Maine was supported for reinstatement principally by William P. Fessenden. His restoration was confirmed by the Senate on February 21, 1863.

[2]   Jonathan M. Wainwright was killed in action at Galveston, Texas, on January 1, 1863.

To the Senate [1]

To the Senate of the United States: February 12. 1863

On the 24th August, 1861, Commander Roger Perry, U.S. Navy. was dismissed from the service under a misapprehension in regard to his loyalty to the Government, from the circumstance that several oaths were transmitted to him and the Navy Department failed to receive any recognition of them. After his dismissal, and uponPage  103 his assurance that the oath failed to reach him and his readiness to execute it, he was recommissioned to his original position on the 4th September following. On the same day, 4th September, he was ordered to command the sloop-of-war Vandalia; on the 22d this order was revoked and he was ordered to duty in the Mississippi squadron, and on the 23d January, 1862, was detached sick, and has since remained unemployed. The Advisory Board, under the act of 16th July, 1862, did not recommend him for further promotion.

This last commission having been issued during the recess of the Senate expired at the end of the succeeding session, 17 July. 1862, from which date, not having been nominated to the Senate. he ceased to be a commander in the Navy.

To correct the omission to nominate this officer to the Senate at its last session, I now nominate Commander Roger Perry to be a commander in the Navy, from the 14th September, 1855, to take his relative position on the list of commanders not recommended for further promotion. ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Washington, D.C., 12th February, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   Executive Journal, XIII, 129-30. Commander Roger Perry of Maryland was confirmed by the Senate on February 21, 1863.

To Edward Bates [1]

Attorney General will please have a pardon made out for Robert B. Nay, mentioned within. A. LINCOLN

Feb. 13. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA RG 204, U.S. Pardon Attorney, A 456. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Major General Nathaniel P. Banks, January 24, 1863, transmitting the record in the case of Robert B. Nay, former chief of police in New Orleans. See Lincoln to Bates, January 13, supra.

To Simon Cameron [1]

Hon. Simon Cameron Executive Mansion,
Harrisburg, Penn. Washington, Feb. 13, 1863.

Gen. Clay is here, & I suppose the matter we spoke of will have to be definitely settled now. Please answer. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Cameron replied to Lincoln's telegram on February 15, as follows:

``I was in Phila Friday & yesterday, and only got your Telegram this morning.

Page  104``I will come to Washington, as soon as I can leave Harrisburg---but it may not be until Saturday next. I hope this short delay will put Mr Clay to no inconvenience.'' (DLC-RTL).

On February 23 Cameron tendered his resignation as minister to Russia, and on the next day Lincoln nominated Cassius M. Clay to replace him.

Endorsement Concerning Mr. Wright [1]

Would see Mr. Wright any time. A. LINCOLN

Feb. 13. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, RPB. The endorsement has been clipped from an envelope.

To Galusha A. Grow [1]

Washington, February 13, 1863.

Sir: I herewith communicate to the House of Representatives, in answer to their resolution of the 18th of December last, a report from the Secretary of the Interior, containing all the information in the possession of the department respecting the causes of the recent outbreaks of the Indian tribes in the north-west, which has not heretofore been transmitted to Congress.

Hon. Galusha A. Grow, ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Speaker of the House of Representatives.

Annotation

[1]   Thirty-seventh Congress, Third Session, House of Representatives Executive Document, No. 68. Secretary Usher's report, concluding that the ``real cause of outbreak is difficult, if not impossible, to determine,'' may be found in the same source.

Memorandum
Concerning Transfer of Richard W. Johnson [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, Feb. 13. 1863.

To-day, Hon. Mr. Yeaman, of Ky, calls and asks that Gen. R. W. Johnson, may be transferred from Gen. Rosecrans command to that of Gen. Wright. Mr. Yeaman says he does this at the request of Gen. Johnson A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADS, CSmH. Brigadier General Richard W. Johnson had commanded the Second Division of the right wing of the Fourteenth Corps, Army of the Cumberland, in the Stone's River campaign, December 26, 1862-January 5, 1863. The returns for January, 1863, list Colonel William H. Gibson in command of the Second Division, but those for February and later list Johnson back in the same command. George H. Yeaman was congressman from Owensboro, Kentucky.

Page  105

To the Senate [1]

To the Senate of the United States. February 13, 1863

I transmit to the Senate, in answer to their Resolution of the 12th instant, the accompanying report from the Secretary of State.

Washington, February 13th, 1863. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA RG 46, Senate 37A F3. The resolution of February 12, 1863, introduced by Lot M. Morrill, called upon the president for information concerning the employment by the French Emperor of African Negro troops in Mexico. Secretary Seward's report of February 13 enclosed along with other corroborating evidence a copy of a letter from William S. Thayer, consul at Alexandria, Egypt, January 9, 1863, reporting that the viceroy of Egypt had placed 450 Negro soldiers on the French transport La Seine to be used in the expedition to Mexico.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Sec. of War, please examine & give me his opinion of this case.

Feb. 13. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Major General William W. Burns, February 12, 1863, asking an investigation of the stoppage of royalties on a tent which he and Colonel Ebenezer S. Sibley had jointly patented and which the army had adopted in 1861. Stanton replied on February 14 that payment was stopped by order of Secretary Cameron ``probably on the ground that an officer in the service cannot charge the government for the use of his invention,'' and added that upon his own request for an opinion, the judge advocate general had likewise decided against the payments. ``The ruling is not satisfactory to my mind. . . . But the claim being decided against by my predecessor and by the law officer of the Department whose opinion . . . is entitled to great consideration I have not felt myself authorised to allow a claim. . . .'' (Ibid.).

To Henry W. Halleck [1]

February 14, 1863

Submitted to Gen. Halleck, with the remark that the object---matching the Cavalry raids of the enemy---is a most desireable one. The particular project, the Gen. in-Chief must judge of.

Feb. 14. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA WR RG 108, HQA, A 1755, Box 56. Lincoln's endorsement is written on what seems to be a copy, with no signature or date, of a request from an officer in the Army of the Cumberland that he be permitted to organize an independent command of cavalry and mounted infantry to counter the effect of Confederate cavalry raiders. No clue has been found as to its authorship, but see Lincoln's letter to Rosecrans, February 17, infra.

Page  106

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Hon. Sec. of War. Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir: Washington, February 14, 1863.

Will you please let me see the papers mentioned to us some time last summer, by Gen. Halleck as convicting Fitz Henry Warren of fraud in connection with the payment of a regiment. Yours truly

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, NHi. Brigadier General Fitz-Henry Warren, formerly editor of the Burlington, Iowa, Hawk-Eye (1844-1849) and assistant editor of the New York Tribune (1861), wrote Lincoln from Rolla, Missouri, February 8, 1863:

``I appeal to your sense of justice, and your impartial intelligence for permission to defend myself against a false charge of `fraud'

``For that purpose, I most respectfully ask permission to visit Washington'' (DLC-RTL).

The Register of letters received by the Adjutant General's Office lists a presidential request of March 21, 1863, for leave for General Fitz-Henry Warren to visit Washington to explain his case, but the original letter is missing (DNA WR RG 94, P 178). General Warren remained in service and was brevetted major general on August 24, 1865, after being mustered out of service on August 5.

To Edward Bates [1]

Hon. Attorney General Executive Mansion,
Dear Sir: Washington, Feb. 16. 1863.

Nathan Darling, Captain of the Capitol Police, was fined forty dollars and charged with costs, for arresting two persons in the Lobby of the Gallery of the H.R. on the occasion of Reading Washington's Farewell Address Feb. 22. 1863. [2] He supposing he was performing his official duty. The fine was imposed in the Criminal Court upon indictment. I have concluded to remit the fine, if considered lawful for me to do so. Please make out the proper paper, if you deem it within my power. Yours truly, A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, DNA RG 204, U.S. Pardon Attorney, A 460. On February 22, 1862, Washington's birthday was elaborately observed in Washington. Part of the scheduled ceremony was the presentation to congress of captured Confederate flags, to be followed by the reading of Washington's Farewell Address. Representative John J. Crittenden, however, introduced a resolution opposing acceptance of the flags on the ground that they were flags of pirates and rebels and represented no recognized government. After heated debate his resolution was adopted 70 to 61, to the vast disappointment of the crowd in the gallery, and the pursuant ceremony was disrupted by a commotion in the audience. (Washington Daily Globe, February 22, 1862). Captain Nathan Darling was indicted by a grand jury in March, on the complaint of Milton L. Brosius that he ``with force of arms did make assault did then and there beat and ill treat. . . .'' The case was continued to the June term of the Criminal Court, when Darling entered a plea of guilty, and on July 25 was sentenced to pay a fine of twentyPage  107

dollars and costs. The envelope containing Lincoln's letter to Bates bears the following endorsement by Benjamin B. French, commissioner of public buildings: ``The President wrote the within & handed it to me this morning. Will you have the kindness to attend to it as soon as you conveniently can and oblige.'' On February 18, 1863, Lincoln signed Darling's pardon.

[2]   Lincoln's date is obviously an error for ``1862.''

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Submitted to the War-Department. If consistent with the public interest I would like for Gen. Logan to be obliged in this case.

Feb. 16. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, IHi. Lincoln's endorsement appears on a letter from General John A. Logan, January 3, 1863, recommending Lieutenant C. C. Williams, his acting assistant quartermaster, for appointment as quartermaster. No further reference has been found.

To Edwin M. Stanton and Gideon Welles [1]

Hon. Secretary of War & Executive Mansion,
Hon. Secretary of the Navy. Washington, February 16, 1863

Gentlemen Please appoint an officer from each of your Departments, for the purpose of testing the incendiary shell, & incendiary fluid, of A. Berney, and reporting to me whether it would be proper to introduce the shell, or the fluid, in some other form, one or both, into the Military or Naval service of the United States.

Yours truly A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, ICHi. This letter has been separated from the documents which once accompanied it in the War Records, but a copy of Stanton's endorsement dated February 17 is preserved in the Naval Records, indicating appointment of Captain Stephen V. Benet of the ordnance department, who was stationed at West Point. A copy of a later (undated) endorsement of the Navy Department indicates appointment of three officers, Captain Timothy A. Hunt, Captain John S. Chauncey, and Commodore John S. Missroon, to act for the Navy in making the tests (DNA WR NB RG 45, Executive Letters, No. 114a). An unsigned report dated February 20, 1863, summarized several tests by the Navy of Alfred Berney's fluid and incendiary shells, dating from March and April, 1862, all of which indicated unsatisfactory results (DLC-RTL). On April, 28, 1863, Assistant Secretary of War Peter H. Watson enclosed a report from Captain Benet dated April 10, which stated that ``the trial was satisfactory, & for incendiary purposes I do not hesitate to recommend it to the Department.'' (Ibid.). Alfred Berney was a chemist at Jersey City, New Jersey.

Memorandum: Appointment of Edgar Harriott [1]

[c. February 17, 1863]

A direct descendant of one who never was a father.

Page  108

Annotation

[1]   AE, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a florid letter from Edgar Harriott, New York, February 17, 1863, to Mrs. Lincoln, asking her influence in obtaining his appointment as acting assistant paymaster in the Navy and claiming to be ``a direct decendent of John Randolph of Roanoke.'' Harriott was indeed poorly informed as to his ancestry, in view of what the Dictionary of American Biography refers to as the ``universal contemporary opinion that he [John Randolph] was impotent . . . verified after his death.''

Memorandum Concerning Interview with W. H. Tyler and Committee [1]

The President will be pleased to see the Committee at 7. P.M. today.

Feb. 17. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AE, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on the envelope containing a letter from W. H. Tyler, chairman of a committee of citizens of New York, February 17, 1863, asking an interview in which to present resolutions concerning colonization of Florida with ``armed free labor colonies.'' The resolutions prepared by William C. Bryant and adopted by a meeting at Cooper Institute on February 7 had been sent to Lincoln on February 8, and as early as November 6 and 28, 1861, the scheme had been the subject of letters written to the president by Eli Thayer (DLC-RTL).

To William S. Rosecrans [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington,
Major General Rosecrans. February 17, 1863.

My dear Sir:In no other way does the enemy give us so much trouble, at so little expence to himself, as by the raids of rapidly moving small bodies of troops (largely, if not wholly, mounted) harrassing, and discouraging loyal residents, supplying themselves with provisions, clothing, horses, and the like, surprising and capturing small detachments of our forces, and breaking our communications. And this will increase just in proportion as his larger armies shall weaken, and wane. [2] Nor can these raids be successfully met by even larger forces of our own, of the same kind, acting merely on the defensive. I think we should organize proper forces, and make counter-raids. We should not capture so much of supplies from them, as they have done from us; but it would trouble them more to repair railroads and bridges than it does us. What think you of trying to get up such a corps in your army? Could you do it without any, or many additional troops (which we have not to give you) provided we furnish horses, suitable arms, and otherPage  109 appointments? Please consider this, not as an order, but as a suggestion. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

[Endorsement]

While I wish the required arms to be furnished to Gen. Rosecrans, I have made no promise on the subject, except what you can find in the within copy of letter A. LINCOLN

March 27, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   ADfS, DLC-RTL; copy and AES, DLC-Stanton Papers. Lincoln sent a copy of this letter to Stanton with the endorsement as reproduced. See Lincoln's endorsement to Halleck, February 14, supra. No reply from General Rosecrans has been located.

[2]   Lincoln deleted semicolon and ``if they ever shall'' after ``wane.''

To the Senate [1]

To the Senate Executive Office,
of the United States, February 17. 1863,

I transmit, herewith, for the constitutional action of the Senate thereon, a Treaty made and concluded, on the 3d. day of February 1863, between W. W. Ross, Commissioner, on the part of the United States, and the Chiefs and Head-men of the Pottowatomie Nation of Indians, of Kansas, which, it appears from the accompanying letter, from the Secretary of the Interior, of the 17th. instant, is intended to be amendatory of the treaty concluded with said Indians, on the 15th. November 1862. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA RG 46, Senate 37B C11. On February 18, the treaty was referred to the committee on Indian Affairs and ordered to be printed. On December 18, 1868, it was recommitted, and on February 16, 1869, finally rejected.

To Timothy P. Andrews [1]

PayMaster-General, Executive Mansion
Dear Sir Washington, Feb. 18. 1863.

You will oblige me if you will send me in writing the items, and amount of each, in which Major Wilson received or charged, more than was lawful for him to take. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, DLC-RTL. Paymaster General Andrews wrote his answer on the back of Lincoln's letter the same day:

``The charges referred to were made of the money received by Major N. G. Wilcox, late an addl. Pay Master, for the transportation of two servants, never transported on various journeys from Illinois to Louisville---Louisville to St. Louis---St. Louis to Leavenworth---Leavenworth to St. Louis---in 1861 & 1862.

``I was in St. Louis & several PM's informed me of the abuse & of his boasting of having done so: and, in giving him an order to return to Louisville KentuckyPage  110 gave him an order to refund all the monies so drawn from the Qr. Masters Dept., which he alledges he did do. I cannot give the dates or names records being at St. Louis except that the order to him to refund was in the Spring or Summer of last year 1862.''

On February 23, Lincoln directed that Major Wilcox's dismissal be rescinded and that his resignation be accepted to take effect February 21, 1863 (AGO General Orders No. 47, February 23, 1863).

Memorandum:
Appointment of Henry R. Tucker [1]

Executive Mansion Feb. 18. 1863

To-day, Hon. I. N. Arnold calls with Col. Tucker, of Chicago, and asks that his son, Henry Russell Tucker, 16 next July, be sent to West-Point. Col. T. has just lost his only other son in battle, & has himself been in charge of Camp Douglas.

Annotation

[1]   AD, DNA WR RG 94, U.S. Military Academy, 1863, No. 168, Box 82. Joseph H. Tucker, a Chicago commission merchant, was colonel of the Sixty-ninth Illinois Infantry, a three-months regiment. His son Henry R. is not listed at West Point. His other son, Captain Lansing B. Tucker, also of the Sixty-ninth Illinois, died in August, 1862.

To the Senate [1]

To the Senate of the United States: February 18, 1863

I transmit to the Senate for consideration, with a view to its ratification, an Additional Article to the treaty between the United States and Great Britain, of the 7th. of April, 1862, for the suppression of the African slave trade, which was concluded and signed at Washington on the 17th. instant by the Secretary of State and Her Britannic Majesty's Minister accredited to this Government. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Washington, 18th. Feby. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA RG 46, Senate 37B B7. On February 27 the Senate unanimously agreed to the additional article, and ratifications were exchanged by Great Britain and the United States on April 1, 1863. The article added the coasts of Madagascar, Puerto Rico, and San Domingo to those of Africa and Cuba stipulated in the treaty as the areas to be patrolled.

To William H. Seward [1]

Hon. Sec. of State Executive Mansion
My dear Sir Feb. 18. 1863

I have two not very important matters, upon which I wish to consult the Cabinet. Please convene them, say at 10. A.M. tomorrow. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Page  111

Annotation

[1]   ALS, owned by Richard F. Lufkin, Boston, Massachusetts. Welles' Diary records the meeting on February 19 as discussing the expediency of an extrasession of the Senate, which Chase favored and Seward opposed and the others expressed ``no very decided opinion.'' The proclamation convening the Senate on March 4 was issued on February 28, infra. Welles also mentions discussion of whether the president should accept an invitation to preside at a religious meeting on Sunday evening, February 22. ``Chase favored it. All the others opposed it but Usher, who had a lingering, hesitating, half-favorable inclination to favor it. . . .'' Concerning this meeting see Lincoln's letter to Alexander Reed, February 22, infra. Bates' Diary mentions an additional discussion of ``brevetting the meritorious regular officers, among whom promotion is so slow. . . .''

To John P. Usher [1]

Sec. of Interior, please see my old friend, Dr. Henry, now from Oregon A. LINCOLN.

Feb. 18. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, ORB. On February 3, Anson G. Henry, surveyor general of Washington Territory, had written Lincoln a ten-page letter concerning affairs in Oregon and Washington Territory in general and Indian affairs in particular (DLC-RTL).

To William H. Herndon [1]

William H. Herndon Washington, D.C.,
Springfield, Ills. February 19. 1863

Would you accept a job of about a month's duration at St. Louis, five dollars a day & mileage? Answer. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AIS, RPB. Herndon's reply to Lincoln's telegram is not in the Lincoln papers and has not been located, but a letter from Herndon to Nicolay, March 3, 1863, requested that, `` . . . If you preserved the letter which I wrote to you declining the office which the Presdt offered me please send it to me. I didn't save a copy. Don't forget to write to me & send the letter.'' (DLC-RTL).

To the Senate [1]

To the Senate of the United States: February 19, 1863

Congress on my recommendation passed a resolution, approved 7th February, 1863, tendering its thanks to Commodore Charles Henry Davis for ``distinguished service in conflict with the enemy at Fort Pillow, at Memphis, and for successful operations at other points in the waters of the Mississippi River.''

I therefore, in conformity with the 7th section of the act approved 16th July, 1862, nominate Commodore Charles Henry Davis to be a rear-admiral in the Navy, on the active list, from the 7th February, 1863.

Captain John A. Dahlgren, having in said resolution of the 7th

Page  112February, in like manner, received the thanks of Congress ``for distinguished service in the line of his profession, improvements in ordnance, and zealous and efficient labors in the ordnance branch of the service, I therefore, in conformity with the 7th section of the act of 16th July, 1862, nominate Captain John A. Dahlgren to be a rear-admiral in the Navy, on the active list, from the 7th February, 1863.

The 9th section of the act of July, 1862, authorizes ``any line officer of the Navy or Marine Corps to be advanced one grade, if, upon recommendation of the President by name, he receives the thanks of Congress for highly distinguished conduct in conflict with the enemy, or for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession;'' and Captain Stephen C. Rowan and Commander David D. Porter having each, on my recommendation, received the thanks of Congress for distinguished service, by resolution of the 7th February, 1863, I do therefore nominate Captain Stephen C. Rowan to be a commodore in the Navy, on the active list, from the 7th February, 1863.

Commander David D. Porter to be a captain in the Navy, on the active list, from the 7 February, 1863.

If this nomination should be confirmed there will be vacancies in the several grades to which these officers are nominated for promotion. ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Washington, D.C., 19th February, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   Executive Journal, XIII, 151. The promotions of Davis and Dahlgren were confirmed by the Senate on February 27, 1863, and those of Rowan and Porter on February 2, 1864.

To Thurlow Weed [1]

Mr. T. Weed: Executive Mansion,
Dear Sir Washington, Feb. 19, 1863.

The matters I spoke to you about are important; & I hope you will not neglect them. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, NRU. On the bottom of the page and continuing on the back are the signatures of New York merchants who pledged $1,000 each as follows: Charles Knapp; Marshall O. Roberts; Alexander T. Stewart; Isaac Bell; William H. Aspinwall; Cornelius Vanderbilt; James Mitchell; H. B. Cromwell; Novelty Iron Works, Horace Allen, Pres.; James T. Sanford; Spofford & Tileston; J. F. Winslow; Secor & Co.; and P.S. Forbes. Russell Sturges and Henry W. Hubbell pledged $1,000 together. In the Life of Thurlow Weed, Including His Autobiography and a Memoir . . . , edited by Harriet A. Weed, Boston, 1883-1884 (II, 434-35) an account of the circumstances which occasioned Lincoln's note and Weed's raising of the money is quite specific about everything except the purpose for which the money was needed, but quotes Lincoln as follows: ``Mr. Weed, wePage  113

are in a tight place. Money for legitimate purposes is needed immediately; but there is no appropriation from which it can be lawfully taken. I didn't know how to raise it, and so I sent for you.'' It is more likely that the money was raised to finance party machinery than that it was needed for purposes of government. Welles' Diary on February 10 noted Weed's presence in Washington: ``He has been sent for, but my informant knows not for what purpose. It is, I learn, to consult in regard to a scheme of Seward to influence the New Hampshire and Connecticut elections. . . .'' On March 8, Weed wrote Lincoln that ``The Secession `Petard,' in Connecticut, has probably `hoisted' its own Engineers. Thank God for so much.'' (DLC-RTL). Governor Buckingham was re-elected over Democrat Thomas H. Seymour by a 2,000 majority.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

If consistent with the service, I would like for my friend, Major Fell, to be obliged, as within requested. A. LINCOLN

Feb. 20. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, IHi. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Jesse W. Fell to David Davis, February 20, 1863, asking that he present to Lincoln, Fell's case for a leave of absence of two or three months for reasons of health and business. Fell resigned his commission on December 26, 1863.

To Edward Bates [1]

Attorney General please send me a nomination according to the within. A. LINCOLN

Feb. 21, 1863

Annotation

[1]   AES, CU-T. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from California members of congress, February 20, 1863, requesting appointment of Stephen J. Field as circuit judge in California. Field's appointment was confirmed by the Senate on March 10, 1863.

Memoranda: Appointment of John Wilson [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, Feb. 21, 1863.

To-day Hon. John S. Watts, and many others from Arizona, ask that John Wilson, of Chicago be Surveyor General for that territory.

John Wilson---Chicago.

Surveyor General

Arizona.

I now understand Mr. Wilson does not desire this appointment.

[February 23, 1863?]

Annotation

[1]   AD, DLC-RTL. The second of the two notations is written on the envelope containing the first and is dated on the basis of a report that John Wilson of Chicago had declined the appointment during an interview with the president on February 23 (New York Times, February 25, 1863).

Page  114

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Hon. Sec. of War Executive Mansion
My dear Sir. Washington, Feb. 21. 1863.

George W. Phipps, of Philda., is brother-in-law to Senator Foster; and I am led to think, he has more than common qualifications for, say, a Pay-Mastership. I shall really be glad if an Additional Pay Mastership can be given him. Yours truly

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, NHi. No record has been found of an appointment for Lafayette S. Foster's brother-in-law George W. Phipps, but see Lincoln's letters to Mrs. L. H. Phipps and to Stanton, March 9, infra.

To Edwin M. Stanton [2]

February 21, 1863

What says the Pay Master General to the case?

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DNA WR RG 107, Secretary of War, Register of Letters Received, P 30. The original endorsement and papers are missing, but the register indicates that Lincoln's endorsement referred papers in the case of Major Ezra Wolf, dismissed from service as paymaster. No further record of Ezra Wolf has been located.

To Alexander Reed [1]

Rev. Alexander Reed Executive Mansion
My dear Sir Washington, February 22, 1863

Your note by which you, as General Superintendent of the U.S. Christian Commission, invite me to preside at a meeting to be held this day at the Hall of the House of Representatives in this city, is received.

While, for reasons which I deem sufficient, I must decline to preside, I can not withhold my approval of the meeting, and it's worthy objects. Whatever shall be sincerely, and in God's name, devised for the good of the soldier and seaman, in their hard spheres of duty, can scarcely fail to be blest. And, whatever shall tend to turn our thoughts from the unreasoning, and uncharitable passions, prejudices, and jealousies incident to a great national trouble, such as ours, and to fix them upon the vast and long-enduring consequences, for weal, or for woe, which are to result from the struggle; and especially, to strengthen our reliance on the Supreme Being, for the final triumph of the right, can not but be well for us all.

The birth-day of Washington, and the Christian Sabbath, coincidingPage  115 this year, and suggesting together, the highest interests of this life, and of that to come, is most propitious for the meeting proposed. Your Obt. Servt. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADfS, DLC-RTL; LS-F, ISLA. See note to Lincoln's letter to Seward, February 18, supra. The letter of invitation from the U.S. Christian Commission of February 12, 1863, signed by George H. Stuart and others, reads in part:

``Under the auspices of the U.S. Christian Commission public meetings have been recently held in Phila. and New York, to be followed up by another next Sunday night in Boston, and it is proposed to complete the series by a final one in Washington.

``These meetings are doing great good for our countrys cause as well as for the noble men of our Army and Navy.

``If we may believe the united testimony of press and people their influence to check distrust and disloyalty and to restore confidence and support to the Government has been very great. . . .

``To give the meeting in Washington the greatest possible weight for the Sacred interests involved the House of Representatives as the place, the 22nd of February the anniversary of Washingtons birth day, as the time, and the President of the United States as the Chairman, have been suggested. . . .

``Rev Alex Reed General Superintendent for the Christian Commission is commended to your kindness, and is authorized to act in regard to the meeting. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

To Senator Wilson [1]

Will Senator Wilson please call and see me. A. LINCOLN

Feb. 23. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Whether this note was to Senator Henry Wilson of Massachusetts or to Senator Robert Wilson of Missouri is not certain.

To Henry W. Halleck [1]

Major Gen. Halleck Executive Mansion,
Dear Sir: Washington, February 24. 1863.

This morning the West-Virginia delegation call and say that the enemy contemplate invading & over-running them, in the early Spring; and that, for this object, among other things they are building a plank-road from Staunton to Beverly. To meet this our friends are anxious, first, that the 7 Virginia Infantry, and the 1st. Virginia Cavalry both now under Gen. Hooker, may be sent back to West-Virginia. These regiments are greatly reduced, our having not more than one hundred and sixteen men. Secondly, they desire that, if, possible, a larger portion of their force in West-Virginia, should be mounted, in order to meet the increasing guerallaism with which they are annoyed & threatened.

Can these things, or some of them, be done? Yours truly

A. LINCOLN

Page  116

Annotation

[1]   ALS-P, ISLA. No reply from Halleck has been located. References in the Official Records indicate that the Seventh Virginia Infantry and First Virginia Cavalry were not transferred as requested.

To Hannibal Hamlin [1]

The President of the War Department, Washington City,
United States Senate. February 25th. 1863.

Sir. In answer to the Senate Resolution of the 21st inst. I have the honor to enclose herewith a letter of the 24th Inst. from the Secretary of War, by which it appears that there are 438 Assistant Quartermasters, 387 Commissaries of Subsistence, and 343 Additional Paymasters, now in the Volunteer Service, including those before the Senate for confirmation.

I am, Sir, Very Respectfully Your Ob't Servant

ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA RG 46, Senate 37B A6, Box 9. A resolution submitted by Senator Lyman Trumbull on February 21 asked that the secretary of War be ``directed to inform the Senate how many paymasters, and how many assistant quartermasters, and how many assistant commissaries, including those nominated to the Senate, there now are in the Volunteer force.'' (Executive Journal, XIII, 158).

To the Senate [1]

To the Senate of the United States: February 25, 1863

I nominate Passed Midshipman Samuel Pearce and Nathaniel T. West, now on the retired list, to be ensigns in the Navy on the retired list.

These nominations are made in conformity with the 4th section of the act to amend an act entitled ``An act to promote the efficiency of the Navy,'' approved 16 January, 1857, and are induced by the following considerations:

The pay of a passed midshipman on the retired list as fixed by the ``Act for the better organization of the military establishment,'' approved 3d August, 1861, amounted, including rations, to $788 per annum. By the ``Act to establish and equalize the grade of line officers of the U.S. Navy,'' approved 16 July, 1862, the grade or rank of passed midshipman, which was the next below that of master, was discontinued and that of ensign was established, being now the next grade below that of master and the only grade in the line list between those of master and midshipman. The same act fixes the pay of officers on the retired list, omitting the grade ofPage  117 passed midshipman, and prohibits the allowance of rations to retired officers. The effect of this was to reduce the pay of a passed midshipman on the retired-list from $788 to $350 per annum, or less than half of previous rate.

This was no doubt an unintended result of the law, operating exclusively on the two passed midshipmen then on the retired-list, and their promotion or transfer to the equivalent grade of ensign would not completely indemnify them, the pay of an ensign on the retired-list being only $500 per annum. It is the only relief however which is deemed within the intention of the existing laws, and it is the more willingly recommended in this case as there is nothing in the character of the officers to be relieved which would make it objectionable. These are the only cases of the kind.

Washington, D.C., February 25, 1863. ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Executive Journal, XIII, 194-95. The nominations of Samuel Pearce and Nathaniel T. West were confirmed by the Senate on March 10, 1863.

To Edward Bates [1]

Attorney General please send me a nomination according to the within. A. LINCOLN

Feb. 26. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, CSmH. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from the senators and three of the four representatives from Michigan, February 2, 1863, asking appointment of Solomon L. Withey of Grand Rapids as U.S. judge for the Western District of Michigan. See Lincoln to Russell and Dickey, February 27, infra. Withey's appointment to the new district was confirmed by the Senate on March 11, 1863.

To Jesse K. Dubois [1]

Hon. J. K. Dubois Washington, D.C.,
Springfield, Ills. February 26, 1863

Gen. Rosecrans repeatedly urges the appointment of William P. Carlin as a Brigadier General. What say you now?

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. General Rosecrans telegraphed Lincoln on January 28, 1863, that Colonel William P. Carlin of the Thirty-eighth Illinois ``ought to have been made Brigadier long ago. His conduct in the recent battle of Stone river doubly deserves it. . . . I hope you will promote him.'' (DLC-RTL). Carlin's promotion was confirmed by the Senate on March 9, 1863. The reason for Lincoln's telegram to Dubois may be suggested by Dubois' letter of December 3, 1862, complaining that the army was controlled by Democrats and that Democrats received all the promotions (DLC-RTL). No reply from Dubois has been found.

Page  118

Memorandum:
Appointment of William W. Danenhower [1]

Feb. 26. 1863.

To-day William W. Danenhower says that the Fourth Auditor of the Treasury will probably resign in April next; and that if so, and when, he wishes to be appointed to the place.

Annotation

[1]   AD, DLC-RTL. Stephen J. W. Tabor of Iowa received the appointment, but Danenhower is listed as chief clerk under Tabor in the U.S. Official Register, 1863.

To Edward Bates [1]

If the judgment of the Attorney General concurs, let a pardon be made out, conditioned on taking oath and giving bond, as within.

Feb. 27. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA RG 204, U.S. Pardon Attorney, A 465. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Bland Ballard, February 21, 1863, accompanying a petition from William Welch of Jefferson County, Kentucky, for pardon of his son William G. Welch, who had joined the Confederate army and who had an indictment for treason pending against him, but wished to take the oath of allegiance and return home.

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Executive Mansion,
Major Gen. Hooker Washington, Feb. 27. 1863.

If it will be no detriment to the service I will be obliged for Capt. Henry A. Marchant, of Company I, 23rd. Pennsylvania Vols, to come here, and remain four or five days. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, IHi. Hooker's chief-of-staff, General Daniel Butterfield, replied on the same day, ``The necessary order, as requested, has been issued in the case of Captain Merchant. . . . General Hooker just left for Washington.'' (Report of the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War, 1865, I, 198). Henry A. Marchant of Philadelphia was an artist who had been associated with his brother Edward D. Marchant in the painting of portraits and miniatures. During February, 1863, Edward D. Marchant was engaged in painting the portrait of Lincoln which is now owned by the Union League Club of Philadelphia. The genesis of this portrait is explained by John W. Forney's letter to Lincoln, December 30, 1862, introducing Edward D. Marchant, who ``has been empowered by a large body of your personal and political friends to paint your picture for the Hall of American Independence. . . .'' (DLC-RTL). Presumably Edward D. Marchant may have suggested to Lincoln the desirability of a consultation with his relative and associate, Captain Henry A. Marchant. See further, Lincoln to Hooker, March 5, infra.

Page  119

To Montgomery C. Meigs [1]

What I said within for Lieutenant Baker to be a Commissary I now say for him to be a Quarter Master. A. LINCOLN.

Feb 27-1863,

Annotation

[1]   AES, owned by Anson M. Henry, Olympia, Washington. Lincoln's endorsement is written on an envelope which at one time contained Lincoln's letter to Taylor, January 31, supra. See also Lincoln's endorsement to Taylor, February 5, supra. Edward D. Baker was appointed captain and assistant quartermaster on March 13, 1863.

Memorandum: Appointment of John C. Mallery [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, Feb. 27. 1863.

To-day Hon. Mr. Babbitt, of Penn. strongly urges the appointment of John C. Mallery, son of Judge Garrick Mallery, for West-Point. Mr. Babbitt is very earnest & anxious on this subject.

Annotation

[1]   AD, DNA WR RG 94, U.S. Military Academy, 1862, No. 187, Box 80. John C. Mallery, son of Garrick Mallery, a Philadelphia lawyer who had served in the Pennsylvania legislature (1827-1831) and as judge of the Third District of Pennsylvania (1831-1836), entered West Point in 1863 and graduated in 1867.

Memorandum
Concerning Report on California Trade [1]

Several Senators and Representatives call this day and urge that this Resolution be attended to by the next meeting of Congress.

Feb. 27. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AE, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a duplicate copy of a resolution adopted in the Senate on July 12, 1862: ``Resolved, That the President be requested to have prepared a full Report of the Foreign and Domestic Trade and commerce of the States of California and Oregon and Washington Territory, to be submitted at the next Session of Congress for the use of the Senate.'' No record has been found of any communication from Lincoln to the Senate in answer to this request.

To Alfred Russell and Charles Dickey [1]

Alfred Russell & Charles Dickey Executive Mansion,
Detroit, Mich. Washington, Feb. 27, 1863.

The bill you mention in your despatch of yesterday was approved and signed on the 24th. of this month. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. The despatch from Russell and Dickey has not been located, but it probably referred to the act approved on February 24 ``to divide the State of Michigan into two Judicial Districts and to provide for holding the District andPage  120

Circuit Courts therein.'' Alfred Russell and Charles Dickey were U.S. Attorney and U.S. Marshal, respectively, for the Eastern District of Michigan, as listed in the U.S. Official Register for 1863.

To Barney Williams [1]

Mr. Barney Williams Executive Mansion
My dear Sir--- Washington, Feb. 27, 1863.

Your note of today is received. I do not think I can put your nephew among the first ten appointments now soon to be made. I really wish to oblige you; but the best I can do is to keep the papers, and try to find a place before long. Yours truly,

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   Copy, CSmH. The letter from Williams has not been located. Barney Williams (Bernard O'Flagerty) was a popular blackface minstrel and Irish comedian who amassed a considerable fortune. His nephew has not been identified, but it is probable that he was asking a West Point appointment.

Memorandum
Concerning the New York Herald [1]

[February 28, 1863?]

It is important to humor the Herald. Is there any objection to Hanscoms telegraphing the proclamation?

Annotation

[1]   AD, DLC-RTL. The date assigned to this memorandum in the Lincoln Papers has been followed because of insufficient evidence to the contrary. Simon P. Hanscom was reporter for the New York Herald and in 1863 became editor of the Washington, D.C., National Republican. Lincoln's memorandum (probably to Seward) concerning Hanscom's request may have referred to the proclamation of February 28 infra, convening the special session of the Senate, but in view of the interest of New York papers in receiving advance copies of the Emancipation Proclamation, it seems possible that the undated note may have been written circa December 31, 1862.

Proclamation Convening the Senate [1]

February 28, 1863

By the President of the United States of America:

A Proclamation.

Whereas objects of interest to the United States require that the Senate should be convened at twelve o'clock on the fourth of March next, to receive and act upon such communications as may be made to it on the part of the Executive:

Page  121Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, have considered it to be my duty to issue this my Proclamation, declaring that an extraordinary occasion requires the Senate of the United States to convene for the transaction of business at the Capitol, in the City of Washington, on the fourth day of March next, at twelve o'clock at noon on that day, of which all who shall at that time be entitled to act as members of that body are hereby required to take notice.

[L.S.]

Given under my hand and the seal of the United States at Washington, the twenty-eighth day of February, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, and of the Independence of the United States of America, the eighty-seventh. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

By the President:

WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA FS RG 11, Proclamations. See note from Lincoln to Seward, February 18, supra. The necessity for the special session was a backlog of appointments and promotions which required Senate confirmation.

To the Senate [1]

To the Senate of the United States: February 28, 1863

In compliance with the resolution of the Senate of the 26th. instant, requesting a copy of any correspondence which may have taken place between me and working men in England, I transmit the papers mentioned in the subjoined list.

Washington, 28th. Feby. 1863. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA RG 46, Senate 37A F2. See Lincoln's letters to the Workingmen of Manchester, January 19, and to the Workingmen of London, February 2, supra. The correspondence transmitted is printed in Thirty-seventh Congress, Third Session, Senate Executive Document No. 49.

To the Senate and House of Representatives [1]

February 28, 1863

To the Senate and House of Representatives:

I transmit for the consideration of Congress, a despatch to the Secretary of State from the United States Consul at Liverpool, and the address, to which it refers, of the distressed operatives of Blackburn, in England, to the New York Relief Committee, and to the inhabitants of the United States generally.

Washington, 28th. Feby. 1863. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Page  122

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA RG 46, Senate 37A F2. The despatch from Thomas H. Dudley, U.S. Consulate, Liverpool, England, February 3, 1863, enclosed a memorial from ``the distressed operatives of Blackburn,'' expressing thanks for kindness and sympathy and the hope that the war might come ``to a speedy termination in favor of freedom, regardless of race or color.'' The memorial suggested further that ``the benevolent object you have in view would be more effectually accomplished by affording to distressed operatives free or assisted passages to some port in the United States, where employment could be afforded them. This plan, your memorialists feel convinced, would be infinitely preferable to that of sending provisions for distribution by the relief committee of England. . . .''

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington,
Hon. Sec. of War. Feb. 28, 1863.

My dear Sir Mr. Eastman says you said he would have to come to me about the guns, or something to that effect. Do you know any law giving me control of the case? If so, please say so in writing. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, IHi. Arthur M. Eastman of Massachusetts was a manufacturer of arms. Stanton's reply has not been located.

To Salmon P. Chase [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington,
Hon. Secretary of the Treasury: March 2, 1863.

My Dear Sir: After much reflection, and with a good deal of pain that it is adverse to your wish, I have concluded that it is not best to renominate Mr. Howard, for collector of internal revenue, at Hartford, Connecticut. Senator Dixon, residing at Hartford, and Mr. Loomis, representative of the district, join in recommending Edward Goodman for the place, and, so far, no one has presented a different name. I will thank you, therefore, to send me a nomination, at once, for Mr. Goodman. Yours truly, A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Robert B. Warden, Account of the Private Life and Public Services of Salmon Portland Chase (1874), p. 524. Mark Howard's appointment as collector of internal revenue for the First District in Connecticut had been opposed by Senator James Dixon, with the result that the Senate rejected the appointment on February 26. Chase replied on March 2:

``This morning I received your note directing me to send the nomination proposed by Mr. Dixon & Mr. [Dwight] Loomis & was about replying to it, when the Senator called & we talked the matter over. The result of our conversation was an agreement to call on you as soon as practicable and submit the matter to you for further consideration. I do not insist on the renomination of Mr. Howard and Mr. Dixon & Mr. Loomis, as I understand, do not claim the nomination of his successor.

``I shall be glad if this shall prove acceptable to you. My only object---and I think you so understand it---is to secure fit men for responsible places, withoutPage  123 admitting the right of Senators or Representatives to control appointments for which the President & the Secretary as his presumed adviser must be responsible. Unless this principle can be practically established I feel that I cannot be useful to you or the country in my present position.'' (DLC-RTL).

On March 9, Welles' Diary records, ``Had a call from Senator Dixon. Is depressed and unhappy. Regrets that he opposed the confirmation of Howard. Says if the subject was to be gone over again his course would be different. . . . He proposed several names for the place. I had no other candidate than my old friend James G. Bolles, and he, though naming two or three others, fell in with it.'' The appointment of James G. Bolles was confirmed by the Senate on March 12.

To Salmon P. Chase [2]

Executive Mansion, Washington, March 2, 1863.

My dear Sir: Your note in relation to the collectorship at Hartford is just received. It is a little difficult for me to read; but as I make it out, the matter is now temporarily suspended by agreement of yourself and Senator Dixon; and with which, of course, I am satisfied. Yours, truly, A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   NH, VIII, 222.

To Salmon P. Chase [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, March 2, 1863.

My dear Sir: I see an act under which an assistant collector of the port of New York is to be appointed. Nobody has applied to me for it. Have you any applications or any particular wishes upon the subject? Yours truly,

A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. No reply from Chase has been located. The U.S. Official Register, 1863, lists Charles P. Clinch as assistant collector for the Port of New York. An act approved March 3, 1863, provided for the appointment.

To the Senate and House of Representatives [1]

March 2, 1863

To the Senate and House of Representatives

I transmit to Congress a copy of a Preamble and Joint Resolutions of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of New Mexico, accepting the benefits of the Act of Congress approved the 2d of July, last, entitled ``An Act donating public Lands to the several States and Territories, which may provide colleges for the benefit of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts.'' ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Washington, 2d March, 1863.

Page  124

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA RG 46, Senate 37A F2. The resolutions of the territorial legislature accepted the grant and instructed the governor that all monies accruing should be placed in the hands of curators of the industrial college to be located at Santa Fe.

To David P. Holloway [1]

March 4, 1863

The writer of this letter is an acquaintance and friend of mine, & I believe, an honest and true man, & I introduce him as such.

A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Parke-Bernet Catalog 272, April 2, 1941, No. 438. According to the catalog description, Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Jonathan Haines asking an introduction to the commissioner of patents in order to press his claim for an extension of his patent on a harvesting machine.

To Miguel de San Roman [1]

March 4, 1863

Abraham Lincoln,

President of the United States of America.

To His Excellency The Marshal Don Miguel San Roman,

Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru.

Great and Good Friend: I have received the letter which you addressed to me on the 29th. October last, informing me of Your Excellency's elevation to the Presidency of the Republic by the free suffrages of your fellow-citizens and offering to me assurances of your desire to cultivate the relations established between our respective Governments.

I congratulate your Excellency upon this token of the confidence of the people of Peru, and I am satisfied that your Excellency's experience and statesmanship will be constantly exerted for the best interests of the Republic. It shall be my constant desire so to conduct the relations of this Government that Your Excellency may always look to the United States as a faithful and true friend.

I pray Your Excellency to accept the assurances of my earnest wishes for your personal happiness and for the prosperity of Peru.

And so, commending you to the care of the Almighty, I remain Your Excellency's Good Friend. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

By the President:

WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.

Washington, 4 March, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DNA FS RG 59, Communications to Foreign Sovereigns and States, III, 202-203.

Page  125

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington D.C., March 5, 1863.

Major General Hooker, Commanding Army of the Potomac:

For business purposes, I have extended the leave of absence of Capt. Henry A. Merchant, [Marchant] 23d Pennsylvania volunteers, five days, hoping that it will not interfere with the public service. Please notify the regiment to-day. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Thirty-eighth Congress, Second Session, Report of the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War (1865), I, 200. See Lincoln's letter to Hooker February 27, supra. No reply from Hooker has been found.

Receipt from Francis E. Spinner [1]

March 5, 1863

Received, March 5. 1863. of A. Lincoln, President of the United States the sum mentioned within, in ``Green-backs''

F. E. SPINNER

Treasurer of the United States

Annotation

[1]   AD, DLC-RTL. With the exception of Spinner's signature, the receipt is in Lincoln's autograph accompanying a letter dated at Brooklyn, March 2, 1863, and signed ``Candide secure,'' as follows:

``Enclosed you will find Eight hundred and sixty eight dollars which came by in a dishonest manner and which I return to the United States through you

``Being tempted, in an unguarded moment, I consented to take it being very much in want of money but thanks be to my Saviour I was led by the influences of the Holy Spirit to see my great sin and to return it to you as the representative of the United States

``Hoping you will pardon, me in the name of the government you represent as I trust I will be pardoned by my Father who is in heaven (through the merits and mediation of Jesus Christ his son).''

The envelope which contained the letter and money is addressed to Lincoln ``Care of `Adams & Co Express.' '' In the upper left-hand corner the envelope is endorsed in an unidentified hand ``$900 from Wm Johnson,'' and on the verso Lincoln endorsed first in pencil and later in ink, ``Stolen money returned.'' It is uncertain whether the ``from Wm Johnson'' is meant to designate the person who stole and returned the money, or merely the messenger who carried the money from Lincoln to the Treasurer's office. William H. Johnson, Lincoln's part-time valet and messenger of the Treasury Department, was probably the person designated.

Memorandum Concerning Henry Baxter [1]

[Executive Mansio]n
[Washington, Mar]ch 6. 1863.

Senator Chandler says Col. Baxter crossed the Rappahannock with boats when Pontoniers shrunk back.

Page  126

Annotation

[1]   AD, IHi. The bracketed portion has been restored by the editors. Severely wounded at Fredericksburg, Lieutenant Colonel Henry Baxter, commanding the Seventh Michigan Volunteers, had secured a bridgehead across the Rappahannock while a pontoon bridge was completed by Union forces. He was appointed brigadier general of Volunteers on March 12, 1863.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

If this appointment can be consistently made, I shall be glad.

March 6. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, owned by Gordon A. Block, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Lincoln's endorsement, as well as concurring endorsements by General William T. Sherman and Colonel Giles A. Smith of the Eighth Missouri Volunteers, is written on a letter from Colonel George B. Hoge of the One Hundred Thirteenth Illinois Volunteers, February 2, 1863, recommending Lieutenant William A. McLean, quartermaster of Hoge's regiment, for appointment as assistant quartermaster in the Regular Army. McLean was not appointed to the Regular Army, but was appointed captain and commissary of subsistence of Volunteers on May 18, 1864.

To William H. Seward [1]

Hon. Sec. of State Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir Washington, March 7, 1863.

Please call over, and bring the ``Marque & Reprisal'' bill with you. Yours truly A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. The act approved March 3, 1863, authorized the president to issue to private armed vessels letters of marque and general reprisal and to make all needful rules and regulations for the government and conduct thereof. The act was passed as a possible counterstroke to rebel vessels being built in English shipyards. Employment of such letters was discussed in cabinet meetings on March 10, 13, and 17. Seward and Chase favored, and Bates and Welles opposed the action, on the ground that it might lead to war with Great Britain. See Bates' and Welles' Diaries under these dates.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

March 7, 1863

I incline to think there is some mistake in this case. Will the Sec. of War please inquire what Gen. Hooker personally knows about it? A. LINCOLN

March 7. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Colonel Moses N. Wisewell of the Twenty-eighth New Jersey Volunteers, March 3, 1863, asking investigation of the dismissal of Lieutenant William Berdine on charges of disloyalty. Succeeding endorsements are concluded by General Joseph Hooker's endorsement of March 24, ``The investigation which has been had . . . seems to establish the propriety of the order dismissing Lieutenant Berdine.'' See Lincoln's endorsement, April 8, infra.

Page  127

To Edwin M. Stanton [2]

March 7, 1863

According to appointment I had a talk with Gen. Fremont last evening. I promised to try to have him told something definite by this evening. Please see Gen. Halleck to-day; and if you can get him half agreed, I agree.

Annotation

[1]   Stan. V. Henkels Catalog 1243, October 22, 1919, No. 311. According to the catalog description, this communication is an autograph letter signed. No reply from Stanton has been located. The proposed new command for Fremont did not materialize, reportedly because of Halleck's opposition, and on March 17, Fremont left Washington for New York highly disgruntled (New York Tribune, March 18, 1863).

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

I understand the Secretary of War, knows of this case, and I incline to think something should be done in it. A. LINCOLN

March 7, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, IHi. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from James W. Fenton, Kankakee, Illinois, March 2, 1863:

``Having been for many years past a hearty supporter and laborer in your cause . . . I take the liberty of imploring you to discharge the poor Boys in the U.S. service that were recruited from this state for the Marine Artillery, and at least to discharge my son Alonzo Fenton and prospective son in law George M Wood

``My son, a weak & feeble boy, having had for some years past the consumption, and desirous of serving his country, but unable to endure the hardship of the Land service, . . . was induced to enlist in the Marine Artillery. Both he & Wood are lying in prison at Newbern N.C. . . . where they have been imprisoned by the Provost Marshall . . . for no reason but refusing to join a different branch of the service from that in which they enlisted. . . . The United voice of the State cries against retaining those men in the service. The Legislature have had to demand their discharge as they should never have been called upon to do, & I believe never would have been necessary, if you had known all the facts. . . .''

The letter is also endorsed by Peter H. Watson, assistant secretary of War, referring the matter to the adjutant general ``for investigation and report,'' but no further reference has been found.

A somewhat different picture is presented by Headquarters Department of North Carolina, General Orders No. 64, December 4, 1862: ``A portion of the Marine Artillery having forfeited their right to any benefits from the investigating court now sitting on their case by their disgraceful and mutinous conduct in refusing work, threatening to seize an armed United States boat, threatening to abandon a post of the United States left under their care, and other conduct most subversive to good order and military discipline, it is ordered that these men be distributed as follows: To . . . First United States Artillery . . . 50 men; to Third New York Volunteer Artillery . . . 100 men, the balance . . . to the volunteer regiments in this department. . . .''

Page  128

To Benjamin F. Wade [1]

Will the Committee please call and see me at, say 8. o'clock this evening? A. LINCOLN

March 7. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Senator Wade, chairman of the committee on the conduct of the war, March 7, 1863, asking that ``copies of all papers & documents connected with the movements of the Army of the Potomac,'' requested by a Senate resolution of December 5, 1862, but never received, be furnished ``with as little delay as possible, as they are very necessary to enable us to complete our labors.'' Wade's endorsement appearing below Lincoln's is as follows: ``I will see you this evening at 8 o'clock as you suggest.'' No record has been found of the conference nor of Lincoln's transmittal of the requested papers. A joint resolution of March 2, 1863, extended the life of the committee for thirty days.

To Montgomery Blair [1]

I very cheerfully indorse the above indorsers, knowing nothing of Mr. Christy. A. LINCOLN

March 9. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, IaHA. Lincoln's endorsement is written below a note signed by Senators James Harlan and James W. Grimes and others: ``If the Post Master General finds it possible to make the promotion solicited within the undersigned would be personally gratified.'' These endorsements are no longer with the papers designated as ``within,'' and ``Mr. Christy'' has not been identified.

Endorsement [1]

Can any thing be done for this Lady-friend of Marshal Lamon? I do not see how. A. LINCOLN

March 9. 1863

Annotation

[1]   AES-P, ISLA. Lincoln's endorsement has been clipped from an envelope. The only clue to the lady mentioned is in an extract from a letter received from Miss Maria A. Donnelly of Martinsburg, Virginia, by Ward H. Lamon, dated March 11, 1863, giving information as to conditions in Richmond from the sister of Miss Donnelly, recently released from imprisonment there. (DLC-RTL).

To Anson G. Henry [1]

March 9, 1863

I know not except the Secretary of the Treasury tells me the report shows that Mr. Stevens has already had a full hearing of the charges and evidence. The report is to be shown to me.

March 9, 1863. A. LINCOLN

Page  129

Annotation

[1]   Copy, ISLA. Lincoln's endorsement is written on the back of a letter from Anson G. Henry, March 9, 1863, which states: ``I have just heard from Stevens of the Mint. He asks for a copy of the Charges Against him, and promises to disprove them so far as they affect his integrity & management of the Mint, if a little time is allowed him.'' Robert J. Stevens, superintendent of the Mint at San Francisco, was reported to have ``appointed or retained in office dishonest or vicious men'' (New York Tribune, March 11, 1863). He was removed from office and replaced by Robert B. Swain.

To Joseph Holt [1]

Hon. Joseph Holt Executive Mansion,
Judge Advocate General. Washington,
My dear Sir March 9. 1863.

I understand there is one vacancy of a Judge Advocate, under the 6th. section of the same act under which you hold your appointment. If so, please indorse on this sheet, your opinion as to whether, with reference to the service, the vacancy should now be filled; and also what army the appointee shall be assigned to. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, IHi. Holt did not endorse the letter and no reply from him has been found.

Memorandum Concerning Joseph W. Fisher [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, March 9, 1863.

Hon. Mr. Stevens asks that J. W. Fisher, now Colonel of a Penn. Regt. & commanding a Brigade, may take the place of the Gen. caught at Fairfax last night.

Annotation

[1]   AD, IHi. Colonel Joseph W. Fisher of the Fifth Pennsylvania was not appointed a brigadier. Brigadier General Edwin H. Stoughton of Vermont was captured in bed at 2 A.M. on March 9 during a raid by Confederate General John S. Mosby. It was of this episode that Lincoln was reported to have said ``that he did not mind the loss of the Brigadier as much as he did the loss of the horses. `For,' said he, `I can make a much better Brigadier in five minutes, but the horses cost a hundred and twenty-five dollars apiece.' '' (New York Times, March 11, 1863).

Memorandum Concerning William F. Smith [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, March 9, 1863.

To-day, Gen. Wm. F. Smith calls and asks that his nomination heretofore as a Major General, and his acceptance of it, by being assigned to, and taking command as a Major General, may be taken and held to be a vacation of his office as a Brigadier GeneralPage  130 of Volunteers, so that he can again take his place in the regular army.

He would also like to have a leave of absence of as long as the service will admit.

Annotation

[1]   AD, DLC-Stanton Papers. General William F. Smith was in command of the Ninth Corps, Army of the Potomac, from February 4 to March 17, 1863, and his next assignment was to command of a division in the Department of the Susquehanna, which he held from June 17 to August 3, 1863.

Memorandum Concerning Joseph Snider [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, March 9, 1863.

To-day, Senator Bowden, with Mr. Boyd, & Mr. Hawxhurst, [2] one an editor & one a member of the Legislature, call and ask that Col. Joseph Snider, of the 7th. Va. now in the A.P. be a Brigadier General. He has been three times hit,---twice at Antietam with but slight injury, and once very serverly at Fredericksburg. Also has had two horses shot under him. They say Gov. Pierpoint & many of the Legislature [are] for him. He resides in Monongalia Co. West Virginia.

Annotation

[1]   AD, IHi. No record has been found of Colonel Joseph Snider's appointment as brigadier general.

[2]   Boyd has not been further identified, but John Hawxhurst was a member of Governor Peirpoint's government at Alexandria after the admission of West Virginia to the Union.

To Mrs. L. H. Phipps [1]

Executive Mansion,
Mrs. L. H. Phipps Washington, March 9, 1863.

Yours of the 8th. is received. It is difficult for you to understand, what is, nevertheless true, that the bare reading of a letter of that length requires more than any one person's share of my time. And when read, what is it but an evidence that you intend to importune me for one thing, and another, and another, until, in self-defence, I must drop all and devote myself to find a place, even though I remove somebody else to do it, and thereby turn him & his friends upon me for indefinite future importunity, and hindrance from the legitimate duties for which I am supposed to be placed here.? Yours &c. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADfS, DLC-RTL. Lincoln probably did not send this letter. See his letter to Stanton, infra. The letter from Mrs. L. (S.?) H. Phipps of March 8, 1863, reads in part: ``Mr Stanton declined making another appointment to a Pennsylvanian . . . but I have been told that had I applied for Mr Phipps as from Memphis . . . Mr Stanton w'd probably have nominated him---& that it is notPage  131

now too late. . . . Mr. Phipps was in business in Tennessee some years---& was driven from Memphis in the outbreak of the Rebellion---as an Abolitionist . . . &. . . . cast . . . upon the world penniless. . . . deprived of the power to support his family. . . . Can President Lincoln wonder at my coming to his aid in this way? . . .'' (DLC-RTL). See also Lincoln's letter to Stanton concerning George W. Phipps, February 21, supra.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Hon. Sec. of War: Executive Mansion,
Dear Sir Washington, March 9. 1863.

A few days since I gave the lady, bearer of this, Mrs. Phipps, some sort of writing, favoring the appointment of her husband to be an Additional PayMaster. She thinks she failed because the application was made as from Pennsylvania, and says that it could & can be justly made from Tennessee. Please let her have it, if you consistently can either from Tennessee or any where else. Yours truly A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ADfS, DLC-RTL. See Lincoln's letter to Stanton, February 21, and to Mrs. L. H. Phipps, supra. In addition to some uncertainty as to whether Mrs. Phipps signed her letter of March 8 as ``Mrs. L. H.'' or as Mrs. ``S. H.,'' and also as to whether the George W. Phipps, about whom Lincoln wrote on February 21 was the husband referred to, there is no further record available which would indicate that Lincoln ever sent either of his letters of March 9.

To Edwin M. Stanton [2]

Hon. Sec. of War. Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir Washington, March 9. 1863.

Please make up the order to-day, sending Gen. Sumner to Missouri---it being understood that he finishes up the Court-Martial, which will be done in two or three days. Yours truly

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, MeHi. AGO Special Orders No. 114, March 10, 1863, ordered General Edwin V. Sumner to proceed to St. Louis to relieve General Samuel R. Curtis in command of the Department of the Missouri. Sumner died on March 23, however, and Curtis remained in command until May 24, when he was succeeded by General John M. Schofield. See also Lincoln to Stanton, May 11, infra.

To David Tod [1]

Gov. David Tod Executive Mansion,
Columbus, O. Washington, March 9. 1863.

I think your advice, with that of others, would be valuable, in the selection of Provost-Marshals for Ohio. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. No reply from Governor Tod has been found.

Page  132

Memorandum:
Appointment of Leopold O. Parker [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, March 10, 1863.

To-day, Leopold C. P. Cooper, of Norfolk, Va. asks that his adopted son, Leopold O. Parker, may go to West-Point. Is now in his 20th. year. Mr. Cooper says there are papers on file, from Senators Bowden & Willey. Also Messrs. Brown, Blair & Segar. [2]

Annotation

[1]   AD, DNA WR RG 94, U.S. Military Academy, 1863, No. 127, Box 82. Leopold O. Parker was not appointed to West Point, but he became a second lieutenant of Volunteers on January 14, 1865. Senator Lemuel J. Bowden's letter of introduction, March 7, 1863, gives the father's name as Leopold C. P. Cowper.

[2]   Representatives William G. Brown, Jacob B. Blair, and Joseph E. Segar.

Proclamation Granting Amnesty to Soldiers Absent without Leave [1]

Executive Mansion, March 10, 1863.

In pursuance of the twenty-sixth section of the act of Congress, entitled ``An act for enrolling and calling out the National Forces, and for other purposes,'' approved on the third day of March, in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, I ABRAHAM LINCOLN, President and Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, do hereby order and command, that all soldiers enlisted or drafted into the service of the United States, now absent from their regiments without leave, shall forthwith return to their respective regiments.

And I do hereby declare and proclaim, that all soldiers now absent from their respective regiments without leave, who shall, on or before the first day of April, 1863, report themselves at any rendezvous designated by the General Orders of the War Department number fifty-eight, hereto annexed, may be restored to their respective regiments without punishment, except the forfeiture of pay and allowances during their absence; and all who do not return within the time above specified shall be arrested as deserters, and punished as the law provides.

And whereas evil disposed and disloyal persons at sundry places have enticed and procured soldiers to desert and absent themselves from their regiments, thereby weakening the strength of the armies and prolonging the war, giving aid and comfort to the enemy, and cruelly exposing the gallant and faithful soldiers remaining in the ranks to increased hardships and danger, I do therefore call upon all patriotic and faithful citizens to oppose and resist thePage  133 aforementioned dangerous and treasonable crimes, and to aid in restoring to their regiments all soldiers absent without leave, and to assist in the execution of the act of Congress ``for enrolling and calling out the national forces, and for other purposes,'' and to support the proper authorities in the prosecution and punishment of offenders against said act, and in suppressing the insurrection and rebellion.

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand.

[L.S.]

Done at the city of Washington, this tenth day of March, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, and of the Independence of the United States the eighty-seventh.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

By the President:

EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War.

Annotation

[1]   AGO General Orders (not numbered but between No. 57 and No. 58), 1863. In U.S. Statutes at Large (XIII, 775-76) this order is termed ``Executive Order No. 1.''

To Edward Bates [1]

Attorney General, please make out & send me a pardon for Wilbur Buckheart. The papers are with you. A. LINCOLN

March 11. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, DNA RG 204, U.S. Pardon Attorney, A 439. Wilbur Buckheart (Buckhart?), who was convicted of mail robbery, has not been identified further.

Memorandum:
Appointment of Edward E. Cross [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, March 11. 1863

This morning Senator Hale calls with Col. Edward E. Cross of 5. N.H. volunteers, asking that he may be a Brig. Gen. The Col. says he is the senior Colonel of the A.P. He has been in several battles, has been nine times hit, and appeals to his military record.

Annotation

[1]   AD, owned by Milton H. Shutes, Oakland, California. Colonel Cross died on July 3 of wounds received at Gettysburg on July 2, 1863.

Memorandum: Appointment of Odon Guitar [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, March 11. 1863.

Major Rollins calls and again urges that, if possible, Col. Odon Guitar, be a Brigadier General. I believe the case is a meritorious [one].

Page  134

Annotation

[1]   AD, IHi. Representative James S. Rollins had been a major in the Black Hawk War. His recommendations of Colonel Guitar of the Ninth Missouri State Militia Cavalry came to naught. Lincoln had nominated Guitar as brigadier general of Volunteers on January 19, but the nomination was not confirmed by the Senate. As of June 27, 1863, Guitar became brigadier general in the Missouri Militia.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

March 11, 1863

Submitted to the Sec. of War, with the remark, that the experiment of filling up the authorized four regiments better be made, without wasting time to get up the framework of two more.

March 11. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, NHi. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a telegram from Brigadier General Daniel Ullmann, New York, March 11, 1863, ``I can in less than ten days organize from the names I have corps of officers for at least Two more Regiments. Please authorize me.'' See Lincoln to Banks, March 29, infra.

To Charles Sumner [1]

Hon. Charles Sumner Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir Washington, March 11. 1863

I still have no name for Solicitor to go to Peru. Have you? Yours truly A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS-F, ISLA. An act approved March 3, 1863, to carry into effect the Convention with Peru signed at Lima on January 12, 1863, authorized the appointment of a solicitor ``learned in the Spanish language.'' No reply from Sumner has been found. The U.S. Official Register, 1863, lists Henry R. La Reintrie of Maryland as solicitor to Peru.

To John P. Usher [1]

March 11, 1863

If there be a vacancy at the place named, let the appointment within requested, be made. If there be two vacancies, let this appointment be to the lower one A. LINCOLN

March 11. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES-P, ISLA. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Senator James Harlan, March 9, 1863, recommending appointment of Mahlon Wilkinson of Dakota Territory ``as Indian Agent on the Missouri river above Ft. Randal.'' Wilkinson's appointment was made during the recess of the Senate and confirmed on March 2, 1864.

Page  135

To the Senate [1]

To the Senate of the United States: March 12, 1863

I herewith transmit to the Senate, for its consideration and ratification, a treaty with the chiefs and headmen of the Chippewas of the Mississippi and the Pillagers and Lake Winibigoshish bands of Chippewa Indians. ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Executive Mansion, March 12, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   Executive Journal, XIII, 293. The treaty was ratified by the Senate on March 13.

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Executive Mansion,
Major General Hooker: Washington, March 13, 1863.

General Stahl wishes to be assigned to General Heintzelman, and General Heintzelman also desires it. I would like to oblige both if it will not injure the service in your army or incommode you. What say you? A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Thirty-eighth Congress, Second Session, Report of the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War (1865), I, 203. Hooker replied on March 14, ``No serious loss will result to the service by the transfer of General Stahl to General Heintzelman's command, provided Colonel [Percy] Wyndham, now on duty with General H., be ordered to join his regiment [First New Jersey Cavalry].'' (Ibid.). On February 2, Samuel P. Heintzelman had been placed in command of the Twenty-second Corps and Department of Washington, and on March 17, Brigadier General Julius Stahel was assigned to command the cavalry under Heintzelman.

To William W. Morris [1]

Executive Mansion,
To the Commandant at Fort McHenry: March 13, 1863.

General:--- You will deliver to the bearer, Mrs. Winston, her son, now held a prisoner of war in Fort McHenry, and permit her to take him where she will, upon his taking the proper parole never again to take up arms against the United States.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Allen T. Rice, ed., Reminiscences of Abraham Lincoln, p. 507. As described by E. W. Andrews in his reminiscence, Lincoln's order was written on an envelope containing a letter from Andrews to Lincoln stating the case of Mrs. Winston's wounded son. Andrews does not give Mrs. Winston's full name, nor that of the son, but states that she resided near Nashville, Tennessee. For details see the source.

Page  136

To Isabel II [1]

March 14, 1863

Abraham Lincoln.

President of the United States of America.

To Her Majesty Dona Isabel II.

By the Grace of God and the

Constitution of the Spanish

Monarchy, Queen of Spain

Great and Good Friend I have received the letter which your Majesty was pleased to address to me on the 28th. of December announcing that the Duchess of Montpensier Your Majestys beloved sister had on the 12th of the same month happly given birth to a Prince who has received at the holy baptismal font the names of Petro de Alcantana Maria de Gudalupe Isabel Francisco de Asis Gabriel Sebastian Christina

I participate in the satisfaction afforded by this happy event and offer my sincere congratulations upon the occasion May God have, Your Majesty always in His holy keeping Your Good Friend ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Washington 14. March 1863

By the President

WILLIAM H. SEWARD Secretary of State.

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DNA FS RG 59, Communications to Foreign Sovereigns and States, III, 224.

Memorandum: Promotion of George Sangster [1]

Executive Mansion,
Washington, March 14, 1863.

To-day, Gov. Hicks, with Col. Walton, Member of Md. Leg. & Mr. Ireland, Post-Master at Anapolis, and ask that Col. George Sangster, of N.Y. be promoted. These Md. people make his acquaintance [from] his commanding paroled camp at Anapolis. Senator Harris, is also for him.

Annotation

[1]   AD, IHi. No record has been found of a promotion for Lieutenant Colonel George Sangster of the Forty-seventh New York Militia. Thomas Ireland was the Annapolis postmaster, and ``Col. Walton'' was doubtless John Walton, who served one term in the House of Delegates 1861-1863.

Memorandum Concerning Isaac H. Duval [1]

March 16. 1863

H. W. Crothers, aid to Gov. Pierpoint, on behalf of the Governor & himself, asks that Col. Isaac H. Duval, of W. Virginia, & nowPage  137 at Winchester with Milroy, be a Brigadier General. They want him in West-Virginia, Lightburn [2] being in Tennessee with Rosecrans. Senator Bowden joins in the request.

Both say they wish Milroy to command in West-Virginia

Annotation

[1]   AD, IHi. Hugh W. Crother's recommended promotion of Colonel Isaac H. Duval, Ninth West Virginia Infantry, was not fulfilled until September 24, 1864.

[2]   Colonel Joseph A. J. Lightburn of the Fourth West Virginia Infantry.

Memorandum: Appointment of Henry Stevens [1]

March 16. 1863.

To-day Mr. Whaley of W. V. calls and says he has nothing to fall back upon now, except to have Rev. Mr. Stevens, appointed a chaplain for the hospital at Charleston, Kanhawa Co. Va

Annotation

[1]   AD, DLC-RTL. Following Representative Kellian Van Rensalear Whaley's recommendation, Reverend Henry Stevens of West Virginia was appointed hospital chaplain of Volunteers on April 13, 1863.

To Jesse O. Norton [1]

Hon. J. O. Norton Executive Mansion,
Joliet, Ills. Washington, March 16. 1863.

William Chumasero, is proposed for Provost-Marshal of your District. What think you of it? I understand he is a good man

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. No reply from former congressman Norton has been located. William Chumasero, a lawyer at Peru, Illinois, was not appointed, the appointment going to Abel Longworth.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Sec. of War, please see & hear Capt. Deaw [Dean?].

March 16, 1863 A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   Charles Retz Catalog 51, 1947. Captain Deaw has not been identified. It seems possible that the source may be in error as to the name.

Memorandum: Removal of John Lockwood [1]

[c. March 17, 1863]

I agree to this when P.M.G. sends me the papers.

Annotation

[1]   AE, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on the envelope of a letter from Senator James R. Doolittle, March 17, 1863, recommending removalPage  138

of John Lockwood and appointment of C. Latham Sholes, as postmaster at Milwaukee. Lockwood ``resigned,'' and Charles Wells was appointed, April 22, 1864, to take over the post effective May 1, 1864.

To William S. Rosecrans [1]

Major Genl. Rosecrans Executive Mansion,
Murfreesboro, Tenn. Washington, March 17, 1863.

Your telegram of yesterday just received. I write you more fully than I could communicate by the wires. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. This telegram was followed by the letter, infra.

To William S. Rosecrans [2]

Executive Mansion,
Major General Rosecrans Washington, March 17, 1863.

My dear Sir. I have just received your telegram saying that ``The Secy. of War telegraphed after the battle of Stone River'' `Anything you & your command want, you can have,''' and then specifying several things you have requested, and have not received.

The promise of the Secretary, as you state it, is certainly pretty broad; nevertheless it accords with the feeling of the whole government here towards you. I know not a single enemy of yours here. Still the promise must have a reasonable construction. We know you will not purposely make an unreasonable request; nor persist in one after it shall appear to be such.

Now, as to the matter of a Pay-Master. You desired one to be permanently attached to your Army, and, as I understand, desired that Major Larned should be the man. This was denied you; and you seem to think it was denied, partly to disoblige you, and partly to disoblige Major Larned---the latter, as you suspect, at the instance of Paymaster-General Andrews. On the contrary, the Secretary of War assures me the request was refused on no personal ground, whatever, but because to grant it, would derange, and substantially break up the whole pay-system as now organized, and so organized on very full consideration, and sound reason as believed. There is powerful temptation in money; and it was and is believed that nothing can prevent the Pay-Masters speculating upon the soldiers, but a system by which each is to pay certain regiments so soon after he has notice that he is to pay those particular regiments that he has no time or opportunity to lay plansPage  139 for speculating upon them. This precaution is all lost, if Paymasters respectively are to serve permanently with the same regiments, and pay them over and over during the war. No special application of this has been intended to be made to Major Larned, or to your Army.

And as to Gen. Andrews, I have, in another connection, felt a little agrieved, at what seemed to me, his implicit following the advice and suggestions of Major Larned---so ready are we all to cry out, and ascribe motives, when our own toes are pinched.

Now, as to your request that your Commission should date from December 1861. Of course you expected to gain something by this; but you should remember that precisely so much as you should gain by it others would lose by it. If the thing you sought had been exclusively ours, we would have given it cheerfully; but being the right of other men, we having a merely arbitrary power over it, the taking it from them and giving it to you, became a more delicate matter, and more deserving of consideration. Truth to speak, I do not appreciate this matter of rank on paper, as you officers do. The world will not forget that you fought the battle of ``Stone River'' and it will never care a fig whether you rank Gen. Grant on paper, or he so, ranks you.

As to the appointment of an aid contrary to your wishes, I knew nothing of it until I received your despatch; and the Secretary of War tells me he has known nothing of it, but will trace it out. The examination of course will extend to the case of R. S. Thoms, whom you say you wish appointed.

And now be assured, you wrong both yourself and us, when you even suspect there is not the best disposition on the part of us all here to oblige you. Yours very truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADfS, DLC-RTL. Rosecrans' telegram of March 16 is as follows: ``The Secretary of War telegraphed after the battle of Stone's River: `Anything you and your command want you can have.' I asked that paymasters like other staff officers, should serve with the troops in the field. It was not granted. I then asked as a personal favor that my commission should date from December, 1861. It was not granted. I then asked that Major [Charles T.] Larned, chief paymaster of this department, might be left here, and not removed, as I have reason to believe he has been, to gratify the spleen of Colonel [Timothy P.] Andrews, who hates him on account of his dislike of the old Colonel [Benjamin F.] Larned. That was refused. When I asked that the major might stay to expedite the payment of the troops, Major [Charles M.] Terrell being then sick, that was not granted. Now I find an aide has been appointed, whom, having once recommended, I requested not to be appointed, because he went off on a spree the very night after I told him I had recommended him, hoping that he would at least quit drinking.

``After telegraphing the withdrawal, and explaining to his brother-in-law, Col. Donn Piatt, the reason, I nominated R[obert] S. Thoms, esq., a young lawyer of Cincinnati, who, paying his own way, served at the battle of Stone's

Page  140River with as much gallantry and effect as any one of the staff. This request was disregarded, and an aide appointed in spite of my request. . . .'' (OR, I, XXIII, II, 146-47).

Rosecrans' appointment as major general took effect as of March 21, 1862, Grant's, as of February 16, 1862. Robert S. Thoms' nomination as captain and aide-de-camp had gone to the Senate under date of February 26, 1863, but the nomination incorrectly gave his name as ``Thomas.'' He was appointed as of April 25, 1863. The appointment of Donn Piatt's brother-in-law, Byron Kirby, as captain and aide-de-camp to Rosecrans was confirmed by the Senate on March 11.

To Joshua F. Speed [1]

Confidential.
Executive Mansion,
My dear Speed Washington, March 17. 1863.

I understand a Danville, Illinoisian, by the name of Lyman Guinnip, is under an indictment at Louisville, something about slaves. I knew him slightly. He was not of bad character at home, and I scarcely think he is guilty of any real crime. Please try if you can not slip him through. Yours as ever A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS-P, ISLA. No reply from Speed has been found. Lyman Guinnip, a dealer in agricultural implements at Danville, Illinois, had served as colonel of the Seventy-ninth Illinois Volunteers from August 28 to October 17, 1862. He was indicted October 24, 1862, together with one C. G. Bradshaw for aiding a slave to escape; John Smith Speed, brother of Joshua, was foreman of the grand jury. The Circuit Court Order Book No. 9 records the disposal of the case in the May term of court, 1863: ``The defendants having in the three foregoing cases deposited in court thirty-six hundred dollars in lieu of bail for their appearance and having failed to appear and suffered a default on motion of Commonwealth by attorney It is ordered that the Trustee of the jury fund pay over to him one thousand and eighty dollars being the thirty percent damages on said forfeiture which was accordingly done.''

To Henry W. Davis [1]

Hon. H. W. Davis Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir Washington, March 18. 1863.

There will be, in the new House of Representatives, as there were in the old, some members openly opposing the war, some supporting it unconditionally, and some supporting it with ``buts'' and ``ifs'' and ``ands.'' They will divide on the organization of the House---on the election of Speaker.

As you ask my opinion, I give it that the supporters of the war should send no man to congress who will not [2] go into caucus with the unconditional supporters of the war, and abide the actionPage  141 of such caucus, and support in the House, [3] the person therein nominated for Speaker. Let the friends of the government first save the government, and then administer it to their own liking.

Yours truly A. LINCOLN.

P.S. This is not for publication, but to prevent any [4] misunderstanding of what I verbally said to you yesterday. A. L.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, MdHi; ADfS, DLC-RTL. Representative Davis replied on March 20, 1863, ``Your favor of the 18th is all that could be desired & will greatly aid us in bringing our friend to a conclusion such as the interests of the country require.'' (DLC-RTL). The congressman referred to has not been indentified.

[2]   ``Pledge himself to'' appears at this point in the autograph draft in the Lincoln Papers.

[3]   ``Support in the House,'' is substituted for ``vote for'' in the autograph draft.

[4]   ``Any'' does not appear in the autograph draft.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Hon. Sec. of War. Executive Mansion,
Sir. Washington, March 19, 1863.

Hon. John A. Gurley, Gov. of Arizona, wishes one of the Colorado regiments, to be placed where it can give protection to that Territory; and he also wishes authority to raise one regiment in the territory. I wish you and the General-in-Chief, would consider whether these things, one or both, can not be safely & profitably done? Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, NHi. Defeated for re-election to the House of Representatives in 1862, John A. Gurley was appointed governor of Arizona Territory, but died in Ohio, August 19, 1863, before his departure to take over his duties. No reply from Stanton has been found.

To Edwin M. Stanton [2]

Will the Secretary of War please give Mr. Theobald as early an appointment as possible, for a hearing of his business?

March 19. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, KyU. Lincoln's endorsement is written on an envelope containing a letter from Governor James F. Robinson of Kentucky, March 9, 1863, introducing Edward S. Theobald as financial agent of the state, who sought federal funds in repayment of state funds expended in raising militia to repel Confederate raids. Robinson set forth information that Confederate forces were preparing to invade Eastern Kentucky again and plead the inability of the state to raise troops for defense unless her treasury were reimbursed for the prior expenditures. Stanton also endorsed the envelope, referring the matter to Brigadier General William S. Ketchum. See further, Lincoln to Stanton, March 24, infra.

Page  142

To John P. Usher [1]

Hon. Sec. of Interior Executive Mansion,
Sir. Washington, March 19, 1863.

Levi J. Keithly was nominated for Indian Agent for New-Mexico, and the nomination fell by the non-action of the Senate. Please send me a recess appointment for him. Yours truly

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, MnHi. Levi J. Keithly is listed as agent for New Mexico in the U.S. Official Register, 1863.

To Stephen A. Hurlbut [1]

``Cypher''
Major Gen. Hurlbut Executive Mansion,
Memphis, Tenn. Washington, March 20 [25?], 1863

What news have you? What from Vickburg? What from Yazoo-Pass? What from Lake Providence? What generally?

A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. This telegram is dated March 25 in the Official Records, also by Nicolay and Hay (VIII, 232), and in view of the fact that Hurlbut replied from Memphis at 4 P.M. on March 25, it seems barely possible that Lincoln dated his message erroneously. However, Hurlbut's reply was not received at Washington until 9:50 P.M. on March 27, and the condition of the telegraph may have been such as to delay receipt of Lincoln's despatch for a period of five days. Hurlbut's reply is in part as follows: ``Two divisions of General Sherman's command are in Steele's Bayou, above Haynes' Bluff, and two divisions in Yazoo Pass, near Greenwood. Water runs freely into Lake Providence, but Bayou Macon is encumbered with trees. About 900 square miles of Upper Louisiana under water. Canal at Vicksburg deep enough but not wide enough. . . . All indications point to a steady abandonment of Vicksburg and concentration on Rosecrans. . . .'' (OR, XXIV, III, 147).

To Whom It May Concern [1]

Executive Mansion,
Washington, March 20. 1863.

Whom it may concern Whereas it appears to my satisfaction that Thomas W. Knox, a correspondent of the New-York Herald, has been, by the sentence of a Court-Martial, excluded from the Military Department under command of Major General Grant, and also that Gen. Thayer, [2] president of the court Martial which rendered the sentence, and Major General McClernand in command of a corps of that Department, and many other respectable persons, are of opinion that Mr. Knox's offence was technical,Page  143 rather than wilfully wrong, and that the sentence should be revoked, now therefore said sentence is hereby so far revoked as to allow Mr. Knox to return to Gen. Grant's Head-Quarters, and to remain, if Gen. Grant shall give his express assent; and to again leave the Department, if Gen. Grant shall refuse such assent.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS-F, ISLA. This item is misdated May 20, 1863, in Hertz (II, 895). In an article appearing in the Herald on January 18, 1863, Thomas W. Knox had been highly critical of General William T. Sherman's competence. Having violated Sherman's order prohibiting civilians from accompanying the expedition to Vicksburg, Knox was arrested on Sherman's orders, and tried before a general court-martial at Young's Point, Louisiana, on February 5, for ``giving intelligence to the enemy directly or indirectly'' (found not guilty) and for ``disobedience of orders.'' Found guilty on the latter charge he was sentenced to be banished from the lines, not to return under penalty of imprisonment.

On April 6, Knox presented Lincoln's ``To whom it may concern'' to Sherman, and expressed ``regret at the want of harmony between portions of the army and the press, and the hope that there may be a better feeling in the future. . . .'' (OR, I, XVII, II, 893).

General Grant replied to Knox on April 6, as follows:

``The letter of the President . . . authorizing you to return to these headquarters, and to remain with my consent, or leave if such consent is withheld, has been shown me.

``You came here first in positive violation of an order from General Sherman. Because you were not pleased with his treatment of army followers, who had violated his order, you attempted to break down his influence with his command, and to blast his reputation with the public. You made insinuations against his sanity, and said many things which were untrue, and, so far as your letter had influence, calculated to affect the public service unfavorably.

``General Sherman is one of the ablest soldiers and purest men in the country. You have attacked him and been sentenced to expulsion from this department for the offense. Whilst I would conform to the slightest wish of the President, where it is formed upon a fair representation of both sides of any question, my respect for General Sherman is such that in this case I must decline, unless General Sherman first gives his consent to your remaining.'' (Ibid., p. 894).

General Sherman replied to Knox on April 7:

``Yours of April 6, inclosing a copy of President Lincoln's informal decision in your case, is received.

``I certainly do regret that Generals McClernand and Thayer regard the disobedience of orders emanating from the highest military source and the publication of willful and malicious slanders against their brother officers as mere technical offenses, and notwithstanding the President's indorsement of that conclusion, I cannot so regard it. After having enunciated to me the face that newspaper correspondents were a fraternity bound together by a common interest that must write down all who stood in their way, and that you had to supply the public demand for news, true if possible, but false if your interest demanded it, I cannot be privy to a tacit acknowledgment of the principle.

``Come with a sword or musket in your hand, prepared to share with us our fate in sunshine and storm . . . and I will welcome you . . . but come as you now do, expecting me to ally the reputation and honor of my country and my fellow-soldiers with you, as the representative of the press, which you yourself say makes so slight a difference between truth and falsehood, and my answer is, Never.'' (Ibid., pp. 894-95).

[2]   Brigadier General John M. Thayer.

Page  144

To Salmon P. Chase [1]

March 21, 1863

Will the Secretary of the Treasury do me the favor to hear my old friend Dr. Henry briefly, about Victor Smith.

A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Charles F. Heartman Catalog 199, December 8, 1928, No. 111. According to the catalog description this is an autograph note signed. On April 13, Henry wrote Chase a reminder of his application for the removal of Victor Smith, collector at Port Angelos, Puget Sound, ``on account of the unfortunate influence which his continuance in office will exert and does exert upon the public estimation of the Administration in Washington Tery. . . .'' (Copy, DLC-RTL). See further, Lincoln's letter to Chase, May 8, infra.

Memorandum
Appointment of Erasmus Dennison [1]

[c. March 21, 1863]

West-Point---for next year---now 1863, then 1864.

Annotation

[1]   AE, DNA WR RG 94, U.S. Military Academy, 1863, No. 46, Box 81. Lincoln's endorsement is written on the envelope of a letter from Governor William Dennison to Montgomery Blair, March 21, 1863, concerning appointment of his son to West Point. There is no record of Erasmus Dennison's appointment.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

If the Sec. of War approves, let the man Martin, be released

March 21. 1863 A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, IHi. Lincoln's endorsement appears on an undated letter from Green Adams: ``I left with you some time since a letter from Mr. Walters, with a request written on it and signed by Mr. Pomeroy and my self asking that a man by the name of Martin, now in Prison in Kansas, be released. I hope it will be done I am satisfied it ought to be done & that the effect would be beneficial.''

The letter from Walters endorsed by Samuel C. Pomeroy has not been found, and Martin and Walters have not been identified.

To Salmon P. Chase [1]

March 23, 1863

Submitted to the Sec. of Treasury. Mr. Williamson, writer of the within was our ``Willie's'' teacher; and I would be really glad for him to be obliged. A. LINCOLN

March 23. 1863.

Page  145

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DNA FI RG 56, Treasury Department, General Records. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Alexander Williamson, March 21, 1863, which states: ``There are several appointments to be made by Secretary Chase on Monday first in the 2nd., 3rd., and 5th. Auditors and also in the Quarter Masters Department. I therefore respectfully request your recommendation for a position in either of these offices.'' On March 28, Williamson was appointed to a temporary clerkship in the Second Auditor's Office at a salary of $1200 per year.

Memorandum [1]

[c. March 23, 1863]

The President would like to see the gentlemen who sent in a letter from the Philadelphia Board of Trade, dated the 23rd. Inst.

Annotation

[1]   AD, DLC-RTL. Accompanying this undated note is a letter from the Office of the Board of Trade, Philadelphia, March 23, 1863, signed by Lorin Blodget, William B. Thomas, and George L. Buzby, recommending that the president order the testing of a new weapon called ``Solidified Greek Fire,'' to be used in filling shells. On March 31, William B. Thomas acknowledge receipt of a non-extant letter from Lincoln, as follows:

``I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of yesterdays date.

``Mr Levi Short of the state of New York is the inventor of the article known as `Solidified Greek Fire.' I have written to him informing him of your desire to witness his experiments.

``He will doubtless await upon you in a very few days.'' (DLC-RTL).

The New York Herald reported that on March 31 ``Mr. G. Rush Duer, one of the patentees of the `liquified and solidified Greek fire,' gave a private exhibition last night in the presence of the President . . . General Martindale and Assistant Secretary of the Navy Fox, and others. . . .'' (New York Herald, April 1, 1863).

To Horatio Seymour [1]

Private & Confidential
His Excellency Executive Mansion,
Gov. Seymour Washington, March 23, 1863.

Dear Sir: [2] You and I are substantially strangers; and I write this chiefly that we may become better acquainted. I, for the time being, am at the head of a nation which is in great peril; and you are at the head of the greatest State of that nation. As to maintaining the nation's life, and integrity, [3] I assume, and believe, there can not be a difference of purpose between you and me. If we should differ as to the means, it is important that such difference should be as small as possible---that it should not be enhanced by unjust suspicions on one side or the other. In the performance of my duty, the co-operation of your State, as that of others, is needed---in fact, is indispensable. This alone is a sufficient reason why I should wish to be at [4] a good understanding with you.

Page  146Please write me at least as long a letter as this---of course, saying in it, just what you think fit. Yours very truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS-F, ISLA; ADfS, DLC-RTL. On April 14, Governor Seymour replied in part as follows: ``I have delayed answering your letter for some days with a view of preparing a paper in which I wished to state clearly the aspect of public affairs from the stand point I occupy. . . . I have been prevented from giving my views in the manner I intended by a pressure of official duties. . . . In the mean while I assure you that no political resentments, or no personal objects will turn me aside from the pathway I have marked out for myself---I intend to show to those charged with the administration of public affairs a due deference and respect and to yield them a just and generous support in all measures they may adopt within the scope of their constitutional powers. For the preservation of this Union I am ready to make every sacrifice. . . .''

[2]   ``Dear Sir:'' appears only in the autograph draft in the Lincoln Papers.

[3]   The autograph draft has a phrase deleted at this point as follows: ``and relieving it from it's peril.''

[4]   In the autograph draft Lincoln substituted ``at a good understanding'' for ``on good terms.''

To Salmon P. Chase [1]

March 24, 1863

Hon. Secretary of the Treasury: Please see and hear Miss Upton (Upton's Hill) who now has employment in your department and fears she may lose it. A. LINCOLN.

March 24. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. No record of Miss Upton's employment has been found.

Memorandum Concerning Charles Wiegand [1]

March 24, 1863

I think this man, Charles Wiegand, called on me once, or oftener; but I really know nothing as to his capacity or merit. If a Brigade was promised him by the War Department I know nothing of it; and not knowing whether he is fit for any place I could not with propriety, recommend him for any. A. LINCOLN

March 24. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter signed ``Charles Wiegand Col. I Arkansas Inft.,'' and dated at Washington, March 24, 1863, asking ``after a long illness and suffering from wounds,'' to be restored ``to my command, or rather the command of the brigade as promised by the War Department.'' Apparently a letter in reply to Wiegand gave substantially the consent of this endorsement, for on March 26 Wiegand wrote again, ``Your answer to my application of March 24th is in my hands and regret that through pressure of business a former favorable decision on Your part has been obliterated and therefor would most respectfully request Your Excellency,Page  147

to have the official records as to my conduct of Generals Sigel & [Alexander] Asboth of the battle of Pea Ridge Mar 6, 7 & 8- '62; the official report from July 11-22 '62 and of the battles of Kam Hill & Boston Mountain; and the official reports of General Rosecrans in Septemb. 1862---battle of Corinth---reexamined, which I trust will refresh Your memory and no doubt will reverse Your decision above mentioned.'' (Ibid.).

Although Wiegand submitted with his letter an autograph testimonial from General Sigel, there is no further record of Lincoln's action, or of Wiegand's service.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

March 24, 1863

Let James H. Ledlie . . . be made a Brigadier General, if it is legally possible. I doubt if it is admissable, but if it is, let his appointment date from the Goldsboro battle.

Annotation

[1]   The Collector, July 1948, No. M 1345. According to the catalog description Lincoln's note is on a letter from John G. Foster to Henry W. Halleck, asking that Ledlie's nomination be submitted to the Senate. Colonel James H. Ledlie of the Third New York Artillery was appointed brigadier general of Volunteers as of December 24, 1862, but the appointment expired on March 4, 1863. His re-appointment was dated October 27, 1863.

To Edwin M. Stanton [2]

Can not this sum of 250,000 be paid at once? Sec. of War, please tell me. A. LINCOLN

March 24. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Joshua F. Speed and James Guthrie, March 22, 1863, which states:

``Mr. Theobald the attorney and agent for the state of Ky. who came here with an earnest letter from Governor Robinson to you, to have the accounts of the state audited and settled--- finds that the 3d auditor makes requirements before he will go into an adjustment of the balance, which will cause some six or eight weeks delay.

``If this is done we fear that the very object for which the Governor asks, so small a sum as $250.000. will pass by reason of the delay. It is to aid in raising new troops that the Governor asks this money.''

Stanton answered on March 25 that ``An examination of the disbursements must first be made to ascertain how much is available.'' (Ibid.) On March 29, Stanton reported further:

``Upon investigation of the state of the appropriation for the supply of arms to loyal citizens of States in rebellion---July 31st 1861, p. 283, it appears that there will not remain sufficient [funds] for the purpose specified in the letter of Messrs. Speed and Guthrie herewith returned.

``Accounts are pending in the Treasury Department, which when passed, will afford to . . . Kentucky a very large sum that may be applied . . . to the purpose mentioned.'' (Ibid.).

See also Lincoln to Stanton, March 19, supra.

Page  148

Commutation of Sentence of James S. Pleasants [1]

March 25, 1863.

The sentence of death in this case is hereby commuted to imprisonment for during the war, in one of the military prisons to be designated by the Secretary of War. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AGO General Orders No. 76, March 31, 1863. Lincoln's endorsement is on the court-martial record of James Snowdon Pleasants, a citizen of Montgomery County, Maryland, convicted March 8, 1863, of feeding the enemy and knowingly harboring and protecting them.

To Benjamin Gratz [1]

Mr. Benjamin Gratz. Executive Mansion,
Lexington, Ky. Washington, March 25, 1863.

Show this to whom it may concern as your authority for allowing Mrs. Shelby to remain at your house, so long as you choose to be responsible for what she may do. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. No communication from Benjamin Gratz which accounts for Lincoln's telegram has been located, but a letter from Gratz to Montgomery Blair, April 18, 1863, asks that ``Mrs. Susan Shelby the daughter of the late Alfred Shelby and Grand-daughter of Gov. Shelby'' be given a pass to visit her wounded husband, who was Colonel J. Warren Grigsby of the Confederate Sixth Kentucky Cavalry. Although Gratz's reference to her as both ``Mrs. Shelby'' and ``Mrs. G.'' are confusing, other sources confirm that Mrs. Susan Shelby Grigsby was probably the woman meant.

To William S. Rosecrans [1]

Major Gen. Rosecrans Executive Mansion,
Murfreesboro Tenn. Washington, March 25, 1863.

Your despatches about Gen. Davis and Gen. Mitchell are received. Gen. Davis' case is not peculiar, being simply one of a great many recommended, and not nominated, because they would transcend the number allowed by the law. Gen. Mitchell was nominated and rejected by the Senate; and I do not think it proper for me to re-nominate him without a change of circumstances, such as the performance of additional service, or an expressed change of purpose on the part of at least some Senators who opposed him.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. General Rosecrans telegraphed on March 24, midnight, asking appointment of Brigadier General Jefferson C. Davis, formerly colonel of the Twenty-second Indiana Infantry, as a major general. On March 25 Rosecrans telegraphed a similar request for appointment of Brigadier General Robert B.Page  149

Mitchell, formerly colonel of the Second Kansas Infantry. Neither was appointed, but Davis was brevetted major general of Volunteers as of August 8, 1864.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

March 25, 1863

The writer of the within,---Charles King---is President of Columbia College, N.Y.---son of the Rufus King of revolutionary memory, and, I believe, father of our Gen. Rufus King. If his request within, can be consistently granted, I shall be glad.

March 25. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, IHi. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Charles King, March 21, 1863, introducing Louis Peugnet whose son Ernest Peugnet had been appointed assistant quartermaster of Volunteers on March 16, and who wished the appointment changed to that of aide-de-camp. No further reference to the matter has been found.

To Edwin M. Stanton [2]

I remember nothing about this case; but if there is an order of mine, such as stated within, let the appointed at once [sic]?

March 25. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from William Lilley, March 20, 1863, reviewing his inability to get action on Lincoln's ``order'' to Stanton of August 9, 1862, supra. Lilley's letter complains that ``For a period of seven months therefore he [Stanton] has kept me idle, on hotel expenses, awaiting his action on your written order, giving me from time to time, such answers as would seem to preclude my right to leave the city.'' See further Lincoln to Lilley, April 2, and to Stanton, April 20 and May 9, infra.

To Andrew Johnson [1]

Private
Hon. Andrew Johnson Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir: Washington, March 26, 1863.

I am told you have at least thought of raising a negro military force. In my opinion the country now needs no specific thing so much as some man of your ability, and position, to go to this work. When I speak of your position, I mean that of an eminent citizen of a slave-state, and himself a slave-holder. The colored population is the great available and yet unavailed of, force for restoring the Union. The bare sight of fifty thousand armed, and drilled black soldiers on the banks of the Mississippi, would end the rebellionPage  150 at once. And who doubts that we can present that sight, if we but take hold in earnest? If you have been thinking of it please do not dismiss the thought. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, NNP; ADfS, DLC-RTL. No reply from Governor Johnson has been found.

To Montgomery C. Meigs [1]

Quarter-Master-General please see the bearer a moment.

March 26. 1863 A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, owned by Carl E. Wahlstrom, Worcester, Massachusetts. Beneath Lincoln's note is written: ``Given to me by the President. Eli Parker.'' Eli (Ely) S. Parker of New York was appointed assistant adjutant general with rank of captain as of May 25,1863, but it is not certain that he was the bearer of this note.

To Edward Bates [1]

I do not remember how the record stands. Have appointments been made, as indicated within? A. LINCOLN

March 27. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA RG 60, Papers of Attorney General, Appointments. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Lyman D. Stickney, chairman, U.S. Direct Tax Commission, and Rufus Saxton, military governor of Florida, Beaufort, South Carolina, March 16, 1863, asking that Judge Philip Fraser of the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Florida, ``with a marshall & district attorney be assigned to active duty in Florida. A vigorous effort is now being made to restore that State. . . .'' Below Lincoln's endorsement is written ``No Marshal & no District Attorney. In regard to Marshal recommendations of a strong character for Mr Remington---of Jacksonville. March 28. 1863.'' Joseph Remington's appointment as marshal was confirmed by the Senate on January 20, 1864.

To Salmon P. Chase [1]

Executive Mansion,
Washington, March 27, 1863.

Dear Sir: Governor Dickinson's business was rather with you than with me. His friend with him, Edward J. Westcott, has been trading at Newbern, and is hindered from renewing his business there. Please oblige the governor and Mr. Westcott so far as you consistently can. Yours truly, A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Daniel S. Dickinson's friend, Edward J. Westcott, has not been further identified.

Page  151

To Robert B. Nay [1]

[c. March 27, 1863]

I will not say thee ``Nay.''

Annotation

[1]   AE, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Robert B. Nay, March 27, 1863, requesting an interview. See Lincoln to Bates, January 13 and February 13, supra.

Speech to Indians [1]

March 27, 1863

``You have all spoken of the strange sights you see here, among your pale-faced brethren; the very great number of people that you see; the big wigwams; the difference between our people and your own. But you have seen but a very small part of the palefaced people. You may wonder when I tell you that there are people here in this wigwam, now looking at you, who have come from other countries a great deal farther off than you have come.

``We pale-faced people think that this world is a great, round ball, and we have people here of the pale-faced family who have come almost from the other side of it to represent their nations here and conduct their friendly intercourse with us, as you now come from your part of the round ball.''

Here a globe was introduced, and the President, laying his hand upon it, said:

``One of our learned men will now explain to you our notions about this great ball, and show you where you live.''

Professor Henry then gave the delegation a detailed and interesting explanation of the formation of the earth, showing how much of it was water and how much was land; and pointing out the countries with which we had intercourse. He also showed them the position of Washington and that of their own country, from which they had come.

The President then said:

``We have people now present from all parts of the globe---here, and here, and here. There is a great difference between this palefaced people and their red brethren, both as to numbers and the way in which they live. We know not whether your own situation is best for your race, but this is what has made the difference in our way of living.

``The pale-faced people are numerous and prosperous becausePage  152 they cultivate the earth, produce bread, and depend upon the products of the earth rather than wild game for a subsistence.

``This is the chief reason of the difference; but there is another. Although we are now engaged in a great war between one another, we are not, as a race, so much disposed to fight and kill one another as our red brethren.

``You have asked for my advice. I really am not capable of advising you whether, in the providence of the Great Spirit, who is the great Father of us all, it is best for you to maintain the habits and customs of your race, or adopt a new mode of life.

``I can only say that I can see no way in which your race is to become as numerous and prosperous as the white race except by living as they do, by the cultivation of the earth.

``It is the object of this Government to be on terms of peace with you, and with all our red brethren. We constantly endeavor to be so. We make treaties with you, and will try to observe them; and if our children should sometimes behave badly, and violate these treaties, it is against our wish.

``You know it is not always possible for any father to have his children do precisely as he wishes them to do.

``In regard to being sent back to your own country, we have an officer, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, who will take charge of that matter, and make the necessary arrangements.''

The President's remarks were received with frequent marks of applause and approbation. ``Ugh,'' ``Aha'' sounded along the line as the interpreter proceeded, and their countenances gave evident tokens of satisfaction.

Annotation

[1]   Washington Daily Morning Chronicle, March 28, 1863. The Chronicle account of the ceremonies which preceded Lincoln's speech reads in part:

``The Executive Mansion was yesterday morning the scene of a very interesting ceremony. The Indian chiefs now in the city met the President of the United States and had a formal interview with him. The meeting took place in the East room. Quite a number of persons were present, among whom we noticed Secretaries Seward, Chase, and Welles, Daniel S. Dickinson, of New York, Professor Henry, and other celebrated personages. The Indians were all seated on the floor in a line, and around them the spectators formed a ring which, notwithstanding the assiduous yet polite efforts of Mr. Nicolay, was still too contracted to permit all to see the principal actors. The silence, which would seem to be the part of common propriety on such an occasion, was by no means observed by the restless and eager crowd of visitors. Everybody seemed to find some one's bonnet or shoulder in the way, and to think himself or herself entitled to the best and most conspicuous place. The ladies, too, could not refrain from audible comments on the speeches.

``Still everything went off very well. These Indians are fine-looking men. They have all the hard and cruel lines in their faces which we might expect in savages; but they are evidently men of intelligence and force of character. They were both dignified and cordial in their manner, and listened to everythingPage  153 with great interest. At half-past eleven the President entered the circle, and each one of the chiefs came forward and shook him by the hand, some of them adding a sort of salaam or salutation by spreading out the hands, and some contenting themselves with a simple shake of the hand and the inevitable `how' of the Indians of the Plains. The following is a list of the chiefs:

``Cheyennes.---Lean Bear, War Bonnet, and Standing Water.

``Kiowais.---Yellow Buffalo, Lone Wolf, Yellow Wolf, White Bull, and Little Heart.

``Arapahoes.---Spotted Wolf and Nevah.

``Comanches.---Pricked Forehead and Ten Bears.

``Apache.---Poor Bear.

``Caddo.---Jacob.

``Mr. Commissioner Dole introduced them. . . .

``The President said: `Say to them I am very glad to see them, and if they have anything to say, it will afford me great pleasure to hear them.' ''

Speeches were made by Lean Bear and Spotted Wolf, through an interpreter, and by Lincoln as reported above.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Executive Mansion,
Washington, March 27. 1863.

To-day Mr. Blake, of Indianapolis, asks

1. Capt. Aiken be promoted

2. Col. William H. Blake of the 9th. be promoted.

3. Col. John W. Blake of the 40th. be promoted.

4. That himself---James Blake---have something.

[Endorsement]

Submitted to the Secretary of War. A. LINCOLN

March. 30. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AD and AES, DLC. A letter from Caleb B. Smith, Indianapolis, March 23, 1863, introduced ``James Blake Esq one of the oldest and most worthy citizens of this City,'' who ``has sacrificed a very large estate to meet liabilities incurred in an effort to promote an important public enterprize.'' (DLC-RTL). No record has been found of his appointment or of the other promotions mentioned.

To Edwin M. Stanton [2]

Sec. of War, please have me informed as to what ground Capt. O'Hara was dismissed upon. A. LINCOLN

March 27, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Assistant Adjutant General James B. Fry to Captain Daniel O'Hara, January 22, 1863, notifying him that his appointment as assistant quartermaster of Volunteers ``is hereby revoked.'' Stanton endorsed in reply to Lincoln's query, that O'Hara's name had been stricken from the list of nominations ``upon satisfactory evidence that the appointment was one not fit to be made.''

Page  154

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

March 27, 1863

Sec. of War, please see this man, who is well recommended by Mayor Opdyke. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA WR RG 107, Secretary of War, Personnel Appointments, Box 24. Lincoln's endorsement is written on an envelope containing recommendations of Jacob Wilson by George Opdyke and others.

To Gideon Welles [1]

If there be any vacancy of a Lieutenant of Marines, I really wish the appointment within requested to be made. A. LINCOLN

March 27. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, ORB. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter of John J. Hughes, Roman Catholic archbishop of New York, February 4, 1863, asking appointment of the son (unnamed) of ``Mrs. Emily Duke of Washington'' as a lieutenant of Marines. No such appointment has been found.

To Nathaniel P. Banks [1]

Private
Major General Banks Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir: Washington, March 29, 1863.

Hon. Daniel Ullmann, with a commission of Brigadier General, and two or three hundred other gentlemen as officers, goes to your department and reports to you, for the purpose of raising a colored brigade. To now avail ourselves of this element of force, is very important, if not indispensable. I therefore will thank you to help Gen. Ullmann forward with his undertaking, as much, and as rapidly, as you can; and also to carry the general object beyond his particular organization if you find it practicable. The necessity of this is palpable if, as I understand, you are now unable to effect anything with your present force; and which force is soon to be greatly diminished by the expiration of terms of service, as well as by ordinary causes. I shall be very glad if you will take hold of the matter in earnest.

You will receive from the Department a regular order upon this subject. Yours truly A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, CSmH; ADfS, DLC-RTL. On January 13, Colonel Daniel Ullmann was authorized to raise a brigade of Negro Volunteers in Louisiana (OR, III, III, 14). A later order of March 24 authorized him to raise six companies of Louisiana Volunteer Infantry (ibid., pp. 99-100). On March 25, Stanton issued instructions to Banks and Ullmann covering the assignment (ibid., pp. 101-102). Banks acknowledged receipt of Lincoln's letter on April 17, ``It gives me pleasure to assure you that I shall give him [Ullmann] every assistance . . . in carrying out your instructions. . . .'' (DLC-RTL). On September 3, 1863,Page  155Special Orders No. 50 revoked Ullmann's special powers and ordered him to report to Banks (ibid., p. 766).

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Hon. E.M. Stanton March 29. 1863

Sir I fear---in fact, believe---the despatch you mentioned is utter humbuggery. I have tracked it up & found that it came from Cairo last-night to the New-York-Mercury, was printed in that paper of this morning, which came by mail to Philadelphia & is thence telegraphed to Capt. Fox [2] Now, is it not past belief that such news would be at Cairo that length of time, and not be sent directly to us---especially as Pennock [3] is under strict orders to send every thing promptly. Besides there are no six-iron-clads, nor 15000 men at Vicksburg to pass through the canal, even if the Mississippi river had risen fifteen feet in as many minutes. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS-P, ISLA. On Sunday, March 29, the New York Mercury printed a dispatch dated Cairo, March 28, 8 P.M., announcing the successful use of one of the canals which Grant's army was engaged in digging to by-pass the Vicksburg fortifications. A telegram from M. J. Roberts, manager of the New York telegraph office to Thomas T. Eckert, March 30, 12:10 P.M., verified that the purported dispatch was a hoax, ``No dispatch for the `Mercury' appears on the . . . Line Books Saturday.'' (DLC-RTL).

[2]   Gustavus V. Fox.

[3]   Captain Alexander M. Pennock, commanding the Naval Station at Cairo, Illinois.

Proclamation Appointing a National Fast Day [1]

March 30, 1863

By the President of the United States of America.

A Proclamation.

Whereas, the Senate of the United States, devoutly recognizing the Supreme Authority and just Government of Almighty God, in all the affairs of men and of nations, has, by a resolution, requested the President to designate and set apart a day for National prayer and humiliation:

And whereas it is the duty of nations as well as of men, to own their dependence upon the overruling power of God, to confess their sins and transgressions, in humble sorrow, yet with assured hope that genuine repentance will lead to mercy and pardon; and to recognize the sublime truth, announced in the Holy Scriptures and proven by all history, that those nations only are blessed whose God is the Lord:

Page  156And, insomuch as we know that, by His divine law, nations like individuals are subjected to punishments and chastisements in this world, may we not justly fear that the awful calamity of civil war, which now desolates the land, may be but a punishment, inflicted upon us, for our presumptuous sins, to the needful end of our national reformation as a whole People? We have been the recipients of the choicest bounties of Heaven. We have been preserved, these many years, in peace and prosperity. We have grown in numbers, wealth and power, as no other nation has ever grown. But we have forgotten God. We have forgotten the gracious hand which preserved us in peace, and multiplied and enriched and strengthened us; and we have vainly imagined, in the deceitfulness of our hearts, that all these blessings were produced by some superior wisdom and virtue of our own. Intoxicated with unbroken success, we have become too self-sufficient to feel the necessity of redeeming and preserving grace, too proud to pray to the God that made us!

It behooves us then, to humble ourselves before the offended Power, to confess our national sins, and to pray for clemency and forgiveness.

Now, therefore, in compliance with the request, and fully concurring in the views of the Senate, I do, by this my proclamation, designate and set apart Thursday, the 30th. day of April, 1863, as a day of national humiliation, fasting and prayer. And I do hereby request all the People to abstain, on that day, from their ordinary secular pursuits, and to unite, at their several places of public worship and their respective homes, in keeping the day holy to the Lord, and devoted to the humble discharge of the religious duties proper to that solemn occasion.

All this being done, in sincerity and truth, let us then rest humbly in the hope authorized by the Divine teachings, that the united cry of the Nation will be heard on high, and answered with blessings, no less than the pardon of our national sins, and the restoration of our now divided and suffering Country, to its former happy condition of unity and peace.

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.

[L. S.]

Done at the City of Washington, this thirtieth day of March, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, and of the Independence of the United States the eighty seventh.

By the President: ABRAHAM LINCOLN

WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.

Page  157

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA FS RG 11, Proclamations. The Senate Resolution requesting the president to proclaim a day for ``national prayer and humiliation'' was introduced by Senator James Harlan on March 2, and adopted on March 3, 1863.

To William A. Hammond [1]

Let Rev. James Gubby be appointed Hospital Chaplain, to serve at the Hospital at Hilton-Head South-Carolina.

March 31. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, IHi. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Judge H. D. Smith, chairman of the tax commission at Hilton Head, South Carolina, to Senator Charles Sumner, February 26, 1863, introducing Reverend James Gubby ``late chaplin of 3d R.I. Regt. and for some time detailed to the Genl. Hospital at Hilton Head. He is now desirous of being appointed as chaplain to the Genl. Hospital at Hilton Head. . . .'' Reverend Gubby was appointed on April 1, 1863.

License of Commercial Intercourse [1]

Washington, Executive Mansion,
March 31, 1863.

Whereas, by the act of Congress approved July 13, 1861, entitled ``An act to provide for the collection of duties on imports, and for other purposes,'' all commercial intercourse between the inhabitants of such States as should by proclamation be declared in insurrection against the United States and the citizens of the rest of the United States, was prohibited so long as such conditions of hostility should continue, except as the same shall be licensed and permitted by the President to be conducted and carried on only in pursuance of rules and regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury; and whereas it appears that a partial restoration of such intercourse between the inhabitants of sundry places and sections heretofore declared in insurrection in pursuance of said act, and the citizens of the rest of the United States, will favorably affect the public interests:

Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, exercising the authority and discretion confided to me by the said act of Congress, do hereby license and permit such commercial intercourse between the citizens of loyal States and the inhabitants of such insurrectionary States in the cases and under the restrictions described and expressed in the regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, bearing even date with these presents, or in such other regulations as he may hereafter, with my approval, prescribe. ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   NH, VIII, 238-39.

Page  158

To David Hunter [1]

Private
Executive Mansion
Major General Hunter Washington D.C. April 1. 1863.

My dear Sir: I am glad to see the accounts of your colored force at Jacksonville, Florida. I see the enemy are driving at them fiercely, as is to be expected. It is important to the enemy that such a force shall not take shape, and grow, and thrive, in the South; and in precisely the same proportion, it is important to us that it shall. Hence the utmost caution and vigilance is necessary on our part. The enemy will make extra efforts to destroy them; and we should do the same to preserve and increase them. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, CSmH. On March 10, 1863, the First South Carolina Volunteers commanded by Colonel Thomas W. Higginson and a portion of the Second South Carolina Volunteers commanded by Colonel James Montgomery reoccupied Jacksonville, Florida. Both were Negro regiments.

Order for Pardon and Release of John O. Brown [1]

War Department Washington City,
Ordered April 1 1863

That John O Brown under sentence of death by judgment of a Court Martial at Indianapolis be and he is hereby pardoned and absolved from the sentence aforesaid; and that he be released from imprisonment and discharged from the service of the United States. By order of the President. A. LINCOLN

EDWIN M STANTON

Secretary of War

Annotation

[1]   DS, owned by Emanuel A. Gardiner, New York City. The order is in Stanton's handwriting, signed by Lincoln. On March 19, 1863, Colonel Henry B. Carrington submitted a report to Stanton and Lincoln on the activities of the Knights of the Golden Circle, ``organized to break up the army. I have abundant affidavits and . . . proof. . . . Their success was considerable until the arrest and conviction of John O. Brown, now under sentence of death suspended at my request, that he may be used as a witness before the U.S. district court in May next.'' (OR, II, V, 363-67). See further Lincoln to Morton, July 18, infra.

To William Lilley [1]

Capt. William Lilly Executive Mansion,
Sir: Washington, April 2, 1863.

Possibly there has been some misunderstanding in your case. You were nominated to, and rejected by the Senate. I have thoughtPage  159 it a good rule, and have tried to act upon it, not to renominate any one whom the Senate has already rejected, unless I have evidence that the Senate would do differently on a second trial. In your case I now distinctly say that if any Senator, continuing in the Senate, will say in writing, that he voted against you, and that he has since investigated the case, and would now vote for you, and that he believes you would now be confirmed, I will renominate you. Without this, or something as strong, I can not do it. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, DLC-RTL. See Lincoln's communication to Stanton concerning Lilley, March 25, supra, and April 20 and May 9, infra.

Proclamation about Commercial Intercourse [1]

April 2, 1863

By the President of the United States of America.

A Proclamation.

Whereas, in pursuance of the Act of Congress, approved July 13, 1861, I did, by Proclamation dated August 16, 1861, declare that the inhabitants of the States of Georgia, South Carolina, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Mississippi and Florida (except the inhabitants of that part of Virginia lying West of the Alleghany mountains and of such other parts of that State and the other States hereinbefore named as might maintain a legal adhesion to the Union and the Constitution or might be, from time to time, occupied and controlled by forces of the United States engaged in the dispersion of said insurgents) were in a state of insurrection against the United States and that all commercial intercourse between the same and the inhabitants thereof, with the exceptions aforesaid, and the citizens of other States and other parts of the United States was unlawful and would remain unlawful until such insurrection should cease or be suppressed, and that all goods and chattels, wares and merchandise, coming from any of said States, with the exceptions aforesaid, into other parts of the United States, without the license and permission of the President, through the Secretary of the Treasury, or proceeding to any of said States, with the exceptions aforesaid, by land or water, together with the vessel or vehicle conveying the same to or from said States, with the exceptions aforesaid, would be forfeited to the United States:

And whereas, experience has shown that the exceptions madePage  160 in and by said Proclamation embarrass the due enforcement of said Act of July 13, 1861, and the proper regulation of the commercial intercourse authorized by said Act with the loyal citizens of said States:

Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, do hereby revoke the said exceptions, and declare that the inhabitants of the States of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Mississippi, Florida and Virginia (except the forty-eight counties of Virginia designated as West Virginia, and except, also, the ports of New Orleans, Key West, Port Royal and Beaufort in North Carolina) are in a state of insurrection against the United States, and that all commercial intercourse not licensed and conducted as provided in said Act between the said States and the inhabitants thereof, with the exceptions aforesaid, and the citizens of other States and other parts of the United States, is unlawful and will remain unlawful until such insurrection shall cease or has been suppressed, and notice thereof has been duly given by Proclamation; and all cotton, tobacco and other products, and all other goods and chattels, wares and merchandise, coming from any of said States, with the exceptions aforesaid, into other parts of the United States, or proceeding to any of said States, with the exceptions aforesaid, without the license and permission of the President, through the Secretary of the Treasury, will, together with the vessel or vehicle conveying the same, be forfeited to the United States.

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.

[L.S.]

Done at the City of Washington, this 2d. day of April, A.D. 1863, and of the Independence of the United States of America, the eighty seventh.

By the President: ABRAHAM LINCOLN

WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA FS RG 11, Proclamations.

To Charles F. Adams [1]

Hon. Charles F. Adams. Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir. Washington, April 3. 1863

This will introduce to you, Rev. John M. Sturtevant, President of Illinois College. He visits Europe in no official character. He is a worthy and capable gentleman; and also is one of my most highly valued personal friends. I shall be much obliged for anyPage  161 kind attentions you may find it convenient to show him. Your Obt. Servt. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS copy, DLC-RTL. Reverend Julian M. Sturtevant wrote Lincoln on March 27, 1863, that on the ``advice and request of many friends'' he would visit England in order to present ``the cause of our dear country and of universal liberty.'' (DLC-RTL).

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Executive Mansion,
Major General Hooker Washington, April 3, 1863.

Our plan is to pass Saturday-night on the boat; go over from Acquia-creek to your camp Sunday morning; remain with you till Tuesday morning, and then return. Our party will probably not exceed six persons of all sorts. A LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, IHi. General Hooker replied to Lincoln's telegram at 5 P.M., ``Your telegram of today has just been received by me I am rejoiced to learn that you have appointed a time to visit this Army and only regret that your party is not as large as our hospitality. . . .'' (DLC-RTL). Bates' Diary records that the party consisted of the president, Bates, Mrs. Lincoln, ``Tad'' Lincoln, Dr. Anson G. Henry, Noah Brooks, and Captain Medorem Crawford of Oregon.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

The writer of this is a true man to my personal knowledge; and if there can be a way found to oblige him I shall be glad.

April 3, 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, IHi. Lincoln's endorsement appears on a letter of Brigadier General James C. Veatch to John P. Usher, March 26, 1863, asking assistance in procuring a commission for his son Harry Veatch, who ``has been with me over a year, sharing the toils and dangers of a soldiers, without rank or pay.'' No record of Harry Veatch's appointment has been found.

To John P. Usher [1]

What, if anything, does the Sec. of Interior know about this?

Apl. 3. 1863. A LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a telegram signed ``B. Pickett,'' Rock Island, Illinois, April 3, 1863, ``Am removed from agency Island Rock Island without chance to be heard in defense desire investigation; will send evidence by mail'' (DLC-RTL). A clerk endorsed in reply on April 5, ``This Dept. has no information . . . & no officer there.'' The telegram was in error as to the name. Lincoln's old friend Thomas J. Pickett wrote Montgomery C. Meigs on April 18, that he had been removed ``from the agency of the Q.M. Department (on the Island of Rock Island) on newspaper charges, emanatingPage  162

. . . from J. B. Danforth, editor of the Rock Island Argus. Capt. [Henry B.] Hendershott, to whom the matter was referred, gave me no opportunity to defend myself from the very serious accusation of selling (for my private benefit) government timber and stone. I utterly and positively deny the truth of these charges.'' (DLC-RTL). On April 23, Meigs referred Pickett's letter to Stanton and Lincoln. See further Lincoln's letter to Calvin Truesdale, April 20, infra.

To Isabel II [1]

April 4, 1863

Abraham Lincoln.

President of the United States of America

To Her Majesty Dona Isabel II.

By the Grace of God and the Constitution of the Spanish Monarchy, Queen of Spain, &c. &c

Great and Good Friend: I have received the letter which Your Majesty was pleased to address to me on the 30th. of January last announcing that Her Royal Highness the Infanta Dona Maria Cristina, had, on the 17th. of that month happily given birth to a son, who has received at the holy baptismal font the names of Luis Jesus, Maria Isabel, Jose, Francisco de Asis Sebastian

I participate in the satisfaction afforded by this happy event, and offer my sincere congratulations upon the occasion.

May God have Your Majesty always in His safe and holy keeping ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Washington, April 4th 1863

By the President

WILLIAM H. SEWARD Secretary of State.

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DNA FS RG 59, Communications to Foreign Sovereigns and States, III, 226.

Memorandum:
Appointment of John M. K. Davis [1]

Executive Mansion,
Washington, April 4, 1863.

Miss Davis calls & asks for the appointment of her brother---John M. K. Davis---as a cadet---Nineteen last January---resides here where also he was born. If any of the present batch slip up I am to consider young Mr. Davis.

Annotation

[1]   AD, DNA WR RG 94, U.S. Military Academy, 1861, No. 215, Box 77. John M. K. Davis entered West Point in 1863 and graduated in 1867.

Page  163

Memorandum Concerning Harbor Defenses [1]

April 4, 1863

On this general subject, I respectfully refer Mr. Browne to the Secretaries of War and Navy for conferrence and consultation.

I have a single idea of my own about harbor defences It is a Steam ram, built so as to sacrifice nearly all capacity for carrying, to those of speed and strength, so as to be able to split any vessel having hollow enough in her to carry supplies for a voyage of any distance. Such ram, of course could not her self carry supplies for a voyage of considerable distance; and her business would be to guard a particular harbour, as a Bull-dog guards his master's door.

April 4, 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADS, CtLHi. Mr. Browne has not been identified, but may have been the well-known boatbuilder Joseph Brown. See Lincoln to Joseph Smith and others, March 28, 1862, supra.

To Isaac Newton [1]

Executive Mansion
Dear Sir: Washington, April 4th. 1863.

You will please detail Dr. C. M. Wetherill Chief Chemist and F. G. Murray, Esq both of your Department for special service, to report to Capn. I. R. Diller at Philadelphia Pa for one month from date, also giving Dr. Wetherill permission to close his laboratory in the Agricultural Department during that period, and to take its key with him for the security of its contents during his absence. Yours Truly ABRAHAM LINCOLN

The Commissioner of Agriculture

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DLC-RTL. On the same day, Secretary Newton wrote Wetherill as follows: ``Agreeably to the request of the President . . . I detail you for special service for the period of one month from date, to report to Capt. I. R. Diller, at Philadelphia Pa. You will close your laboratory for that period, taking the key with you.'' (DLC-RTL). See further Lincoln to Newton, August 5, infra.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

April 4, 1863

Sec. of War please see Hon. Mr. Marvin, who recommends J. P. Butler, for Provost-Marshal for his Dist. I think attention to this case is necessary. A. LINCOLN

April 4, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, owned by Charles W. Olsen, Chicago, Illinois. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Edwin D. Morgan, April 3, 1863, introducing Representative-elect James M. Marvin, of the Eighteenth Congressional District ofPage  164

New York, who ``wishes to confer with you in relation to the appointments from his district under the conscription act.'' James P. Butler was appointed captain and provost marshal as recommended.

Appointment of Charles E. Mix [1]

Executive Office April 6th. 1863.

I hereby appoint Charles E. Mix to be Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs, during the temporary absence of the Hon. William P. Dole, from the Seat of Government. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA NR RG 75, Office of Indian Affairs, Letters Received, Miscellaneous, p. 27. Mix was chief clerk in the Office of Indian Affairs.

Memorandum of Army Strength [1]

[c. April 6, 1863]

Technically Present for duty 136,724 ---

On other duty 33,188 --- 169,912

Sick, absent & in arrest 44,855

-------

214,767

Annotation

[1]   AE, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's memorandum, jotted down on his visit to Hooker's headquarters, accompanies a confidential report submitted by Brigadier General Henry J. Hunt, chief of artillery of the Army of the Potomac, April 6, 1863.

Memorandum on Joseph Hooker's Plan of Campaign Against Richmond [1]

[c. April 6-10, 1863]

My opinion is, that just now, with the enemy directly ahead of us, there is no eligible route for us into Richmond; and consequently a question of preference between the Rappahannock route, and the James River route is a contest about nothing. Hence our prime object is the enemies' army in front of us, and is not with, or about, Richmond---at all, unless it be incidental to the main object.

What then? The two armies are face to face with a narrow river between them. Our communications are shorter and safer than are those of the enemy. For this reason, we can, with equal powers fret him more than he can us. I do not think that by raids towards Washington he can derange the Army of the Potomac at all. He has no distant opperations which can call any of the Army of the Potomac away; we have such operations which may call himPage  165 away, at least in part. While he remains in tact, I do not think we should take the disadvantage of attacking him in his entrenchments; but we should continually harrass and menace him, so that he shall have no leisure, nor safety in sending away detachments. If he weakens himself, then pitch into him.

Annotation

[1]   ADf, DLC-RTL. This undated memorandum written on lined note paper is given the date April 11 by Nicolay and Hay, but since Lincoln returned to Washington on April 11, it is highly probable that the memorandum was written during his visit at Hooker's headquarters some time between April 6 and 10. Hooker's letter of April 11 (see note to Lincoln's letter to Hooker, April 12, infra) suggests that the plan of attack was developed in accordance with Lincoln's views as expressed in the memorandum.

Authorization for Peter H. Watson [1]

April 7. 1863.

Peter H. Watson, Esq, Assistant Secretary of War is authorized to perform the duties of Secretary of War during the temporary absence of Secretary Stanton from Washington

ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADS-P, ISLA. Stanton left Washington on April 7 to attend the funeral of his brother-in-law C. P. Walcott. Peter H. Watson sent a despatch to Lincoln, who had not yet returned to the city (see Lincoln to Hooker, April 3, supra), notifying him of Stanton's departure and requesting that the authorization be sent by special messenger (DLC-RTL).

Endorsement Concerning William Berdine [1]

[April 8, 1863?]

Lieut. William Berdine---a curious case, to be shown to Gov. Newell.

Annotation

[1]   AE, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is on an envelope from the War Department which contained the record in Berdine's case (see Lincoln to Stanton, March 7, supra). The date April 8, 1863, is written on the envelope but not by Lincoln. It is possible that Lincoln carried the papers with him to Hooker's headquarters in order to discuss the case.

To Gideon Welles [1]

Hon. Sec. of Navy Falmouth April 8. 1863

I have Richmond papers of the 7th. They contain nothing of interest to us except a despatch as follows---

``Charleston, April 5---

Important movements are taking place here; but for military reasons no particulars can yet be telegraphed.''

Page  166And an editorial in these words.

``On yesterday morning eight Monitors and iron-clads were off the bar at Charleston. This brief, but significant telegram, which we received early in the day tells of work. The storm so long prepared for Charleston has burst at last. We await the issue with buoyant hopes but not without the solicitude due so important a struggle. May Heaven shield Charleston from all the rage of her enemies and ours.'' A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, NHi. Rear Admiral Samuel F. Du Pont reported to Welles on April 8 that his attack on Fort Sumter on April 7 had been unsuccessful:

``This vessel [New Ironsides] could not be brought into such close action as I endeavored to get her. Owing to the narrow channel and rapid current she became partly unmanageable, and was twice forced to anchor to prevent her going ashore, once owing to her having come into collision with two of the monitors. She could not get nearer than 1,000 yards. . . . Toward evening, finding no impression made upon the fort, I made the signal to withdraw the ships, intending to renew the attack this morning. But the commanders of the monitors came on board and reported verbally the injuries to their vessels, when . . . I determined not to renew the attack, for, in my judgment, it would have converted a failure into a disaster, and I will only add that Charleston can not be taken by a purely naval attack, and the army could give me no cooperation. . . .'' (Naval Records, I, XIV, 3).

To Gideon Welles [1]

Office of U.S. Military Telegraph,
War Department. Hd Qrs Army Potomac
Hon Secy of Navy--- Apl 9 1863.

Richmond Whig of the 8th has no telegraphic despatches from Charleston but has the following as editorial.

``All thoughts are now centred upon Charleston. Official intelligence was made public early yesterday morning that the enemies iron clad fleet had attempted to cross the bar & failed but later in the day it was announced that the gun boats & transports had succeeded in crossing and were at anchor---our iron clads lay between the forts quietly awaiting the attacks. Further intelligence is looked for with eager anxiety. The Yankees have made no secret of their vast preparation for an attack on Charleston & we may well anticipate a desperate conflict. At last the hour of trial has come for Charleston. The hour of deliverance or destruction for no one believes the other alternative, surrender, possible. The heart of the whole country yearns towards the beleagured city with intense solications [solicitude?] yet with hopes amounting to confidence. Charleston knows what is expected of her and what is due to her fame and to the relation she sustains to the cause.

Page  167The devoted, the heroic, the great hearted Beauregard is there & he too knows what is expected of him & will not disappoint that expectation. We perdict a Sarragossa defense and that if Charleston is taken it will be only a heap of ruin.''

The rebel pickets are reported as calling over to our pickets today that we had taken some rebel fort. This is not very intelligible and I think is entirely unreliable. A LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   Copy (telegram received), DNA WR NB RG 45, Executive Letters, No. 33. See Lincoln to Welles, April 8, supra.

Endorsement Concerning William Kellogg [1]

[c. April 11, 1863]

I understand my friend Kellogg is ill-natured---therefore I do not read his letter. A L

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on the envelope containing ex-congressman Kellogg's letter of April 8, 1863, which reads in part:

``I am in receipt of a note from your private secretary informing me that as a `mark' of your `confidence and esteem' you had appointed me Consul at Valaparaiso, Chile.

``Certainly the Honor, attached to the office ought to satisfy the ambition of the most aspiring, and the salary (which would but little if any more than defray the expenses of myself and family to & from the place of duty,) is as much as a reasonable man should desire. Yet I feel myself compelled to decline the appointment.

``At one time, I was indiscreet enough to indicate to your Excellency a desire for an appointment to an office, for which, I was vain enough to believe I was qualified but from the position now offered, I am forced to conclude, that your Excellency held a decidedly different opinion from my own on that subject, or that my political status was such that the administration would suffer by my appointment to an office of the grade of those held by Peck, Wilmot, Olin, Fisher, Swett, Gurley and Carter and many other recent appointees.

``If I have lost the confidence and regard of those for whom I have had a most ardent esteem and whom I have most faithfully served, I must not loose my own self respect. I am therefore compelled to decline the position tendered.''

Ebenezer Peck and David Wilmot had been appointed to the U.S. Court of Claims; Abraham B. Olin, George P. Fisher, and David K. Cartter to the U.S. Court, District of Columbia; John A. Gurley as governor of Arizona; and Leonard Swett as commissioner on Peruvian claims.

To Robert B. Mitchell [1]

Officer in Command Executive Mansion,
at Nashville, Tenn. Washington, April 11. 1863.

Is there a soldier by the name of ``John R. Minnick'' of Wynkoop's Cavalry, under sentence of death, by a Court-Martial, or

Page  168Military Commission, in Nashville? and, if so, what was his offence? and when is he to be executed? A. LINCOLN

If necessary let the execution be staid till I can be heared from again. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Brigadier General Robert B. Mitchell was in command at Nashville. John R. Minick was a private in Company K, Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, commanded by Colonel George C. Wynkoop. Minick served until discharged January 6, 1865, at expiration of his term of enlistment. No reply to Lincoln's telegram has been found.

To Carl Schurz [1]

Major General Schurz Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir, Washington, April 11. 1863.

I can not comply with your request to take your Division [2] from the Army of the Potomac. Gen. Hooker does not wish it done. I do not myself see a good reason why it should be done. The Division will do itself, and it's officers, more honor; and the country more service, where it is. Besides these general reasons, as I understand, the Army of the Potomac will move, before these proposed changes could be conveniently made. I always wish to oblige you, but I can not in this case. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, DLC-Schurz Papers; ALS copy, DLC-RTL. Schurz's letter to Lincoln of April 6, reads in part:

``You remember that I received the command of the 11th Corps by your order under the Grand Division arrangement. When the latter was abolished, Gen. Sigel resumed command of the Corps. Soon afterwards he left it on leave of absence and . . . I assumed the command. But Gen. Hooker assigned Maj. Gen. Howard to the command of the Corps, which reduced me to my old Division. . . . I do not want to interfere with the arrangements already made but should be happy to be assigned to another Department, but I cannot go without my old troops. . . . I should be glad to be ordered off to Gen. Burnside or Gen. Rosecrans, and I am sure every man in my command would hail the order with enthusiasm. We have always been outsiders in this Army . . . and I have no doubt this Army will see us leave without regret, provided our place be filled by an equal number of American troops. . . . Gen. Howard agrees with me . . . and Gen. Hooker . . . will have no objection, if the gap left by my Division, which is one of the smallest anyhow, can be filled with other troops. . . . If you send me West with my boys, which I sincerely hope you will, I will take my chance without asking for anything more, except a good opportunity to fight.'' (DLC-RTL).

That Schurz did not speak for all his men is indicated by a letter from Brigadier General Adolph von Steinwehr to Major General Oliver O. Howard, April 5, ``I am informed, that General Schurz endeavors to obtain the command of the German troops of this corps & to be ordered with them to Kentucky or elsewhere. . . . I . . . earnestly beg you, that you will retain us in this Corps & under your command. I hope the time is not far of[f], when these political moves may cease. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

[2]   The copy in the Lincoln Papers has the word ``away'' at this point.

Page  169

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

I decline to interfere in behalf of Lieut. Williams

April 11. 1863. A LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, IHi. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Joseph Holt to Stanton, March 30, 1863, summarizing the facts in the case of West Point graduate, First Lieutenant John Benson Williams of the Third Infantry, dismissed from service on February 11, 1863, for deserting his company in the presence of the enemy. An unsigned endorsement preceding Lincoln's indicates that Holt's letter is ``Respectfully submitted to . . . the President as requested by his note of the 18th. Ulto.'' Lincoln's note of March 18 has not been located.

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Washington, D.C., April 12, 1863.

Major-General Hooker: Your letter, by the hand of General Butterfield, is received, and will be conformed to. The thing you dispense with would have been ready by midday to-morrow.

A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   OR, I, XXV, II, 200. Hooker's letter of April 11, 1863, brought by Major General Daniel Butterfield, reads as follows:

``After giving the subject my best reflection, I have concluded that I will have more chance of inflicting a serious blow upon the Enemy by turning his position to my right, and if practicable to sever his communication with Richmond with my Dragoon force, and such Batteries as it may be deemed advisable to send with them. I am apprehensive that he will retire from before me the moment I should succeed in crossing the river, and over the shortest line to Richmond, and thus escape being seriously crippled.

``I hope that when the Cavalry have established themselves on the line between him and Richmond, they will be able to hold him and check his retreat until I can fall on his rear---or if not that, I will compel him to fall back by the way of Culpepper, and Gordonsville over a longer line than my own with his supplies cut off.

``The Cavalry will probably cross the river above the Rappahannock bridge, thence to Culpepper and Gordonsville, and across to the Aquia Railroad somewhere in the vicinity of Hanover Court House. They will probably have a fight in the vicinity of Culpepper, but not one that should cause them much delay or embarrassment.

``I have given directions for the Cavalry to be in readiness to commence the movement on Monday morning next. While the Cavalry are moving, I shall threaten the passage of the river at various points, and after they have passed well to the Enemies rear, shall endeavor to effect the crossing.

``I hope Mr. President, that this plan will receive your approval. It will obviate the necessity of detaching a force from Washington in the direction of Warrenton, while I think it will enhance my chances for inflicting a heavy blow upon the enemies forces.

``We have no news from over the river today, the enemy refusing to let us have the newspaper.

``I sincerely trust that you reached home safely, and in good time yesterday.

``We all look back to your visit with great satisfaction.'' (DLC-RTL).

Page  170

To Andrew G. Curtin [1]

Hon. Andrew G. Curtin Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir: Washington, April 13. 1863.

If, after the expiration of your present term as Governor of Pennsylvania, I shall continue in office here, and you shall desire to go abroad, you can do so with one of the first class missions. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADfS, DLC-RTL; ALS-F, ISLA. Governor Curtin's letter of April 14 seems to be in reply to this letter although referring to a letter of ``the 12th instant,'' as follows: ``I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt from your own hands of your letter of the 12th instant. . . . I am urged by many of our personal and political friends in Penna. to become a candidate for relection, but the condition of my health and considerations of public policy admonish me to accept your generous offer and devote my whole energies to the discharge of my duties and the support of the Government until the close of my official term when I will be prepared to enter upon the new official position to which you have been pleased to assign me. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

To Samuel F. Du Pont [1]

Executive Mansion,
Admiral Dupont Washington, April 13. 1863.

Hold your position inside the bar near Charleston; or if you shall have left it, return to it, and hold it till further orders. Do not allow the enemy to erect new batteries or defences, on Morris-Island. If he has begun it, drive him out. I do not, herein, order you to renew the general attack. That is to depend on your own discretion, or a further order. A LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. For Du Pont's report on the Charleston operation, see note to Lincoln's despatch to Welles, April 8, supra. On April 13, Halleck notified General David Hunter as follows: ``Dispatches have been sent to Admiral Du Pont to continue operations against Charleston. You will co-operate with your forces with Admiral Du Pont as you and he may deem best. It is the President's desire that these operations be continued.'' (OR, I, XIV, 440). See further Lincoln to Hunter and Du Pont, April 14, infra.

To Frederic, Grand Duke of Baden [1]

April 13, 1863

Abraham Lincoln.

President of the United States of America

To His Royal Highness Frederic,

Grand Duch of Baden

Great and Good Friend: I have received the letter which Your Royal Highness was pleased to address to me on the 28th of FebruaryPage  171 last announcing the marriage of His Grand Ducal Highness the Prince William of Baden with Her Imperial Highness the Princess Mary of Leuchtenberg.

I participate in the satisfaction afforded by this happy event and pray Your Royal Highness to accept my sincere congratulations upon the occasion together with the assurances of my highest consideration. Your Good Friend ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Washington April 13. 1863

By the President

WILLIAM H. SEWARD Secretary of State.

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DNA FS RG 59, Communications to Foreign Sovereigns and States, III, 228.

To Montgomery C. Meigs [1]

April 13, 1863

I will be personally obliged, if the Quarter-Master-General can conveniently arrange to have the change made, as within requested. A. LINCOLN

April 13. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, IHi. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Governor Richard Yates, April 2, 1863, recommending Second Lieutenant James R. Hosmer of the Eighth Maryland Volunteers for appointment as assistant quartermaster. Hosmer was appointed with rank of captain on May 12, 1863.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Hon. Sec. of War Executive Mansion,
Dear Sir Washington, April 13, 1863

You remember my calling on you some time ago with the bearer, Mr. Asbury Waddell of Arkansas. I feel warranted to believe him a reliable man. Francis Springer who signs a letter he will show you, is one of my best friends, & than whom there is no more reliable man. Mr. Waddell says he can easily raise a regiment in his state---we need the regiment; and I therefore think you better fix him out with some authority to raise the regiment. Yours truly

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, owned by Edward C. Stone, Boston, Massachusetts. The letter from Reverend Francis Springer has not been located, but a letter from Major General Francis J. Herron, St. Louis, March 17, 1863, introduced Waddell as ``just through from the Rebel lines and has important information concerning matters in the South West, and also in regard to the Indians. . . .'' (DLC-RTL). No record has been found of Waddell's appointment to raise troops.

Page  172

To John P. Usher [1]

Hon. Sec. of Interior Executive Mansion,
My Dear Sir Washington, April 13. 1863.

Please see Mr. Dickey a friend, and son of a friend, of mine. He is a gentleman of very high standing; and I will be glad if you will hear him patiently, and oblige him if possible. Yours truly

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, owned by Oliver J. Keller, Springfield, Illinois. Oliver J. Dickey was the law partner of Representative Thaddeus Stevens at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, and son of John Dickey, who had been a member of congress with Lincoln in 1847-1849 and lived at the same boarding house. No reference has been found concerning Oliver J. Dickey's business with the Department of Interior.

To John E. Bouligny [1]

Executive Mansion,
Hon. J. E. Bouligny Washington, April 14. 1863.

My dear Sir: I did not certainly know the object of your call yesterday, but I had a strong impression in regard to it. When our national troubles began you and I were not personally acquainted; but all I heard of you placed you, in my estimation, foremost among Louisianians, as a friend of the Union. I intended to find you a position, and I did not conceal my inclination to do so. When, last autumn, you bore a letter from me to some parties at New-Orleans, you seemed to expect, and consequently I did expect, you would return here as a member of one or the other branch of Congress. But you were not so returned; and this negative evidence, with other of like character, brings me to think that the Union people there, for some reason, prefer others for the places there [here?]. Add to this that the Head of the Department here, in which finding a place for you was contemplated, is not satisfied for the appointment to be made, and it presents, as you see an embarrassing case for me. My personal feelings for Mr. Bouligny are not less kind than heretofore. Yours very truly

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADfS, DLC-RTL. On April 23, Bouligny wrote Lincoln in part as follows:

``Domestic affliction has prevented me from complying with the request indicated by your memorandum on my note of the 16th inst. in which I requested a personal interview in answer to the contents of your favor of the 14th.

``Whilst I avail myself of your kind suggestion to reply by letter, still I would have much preferred to meet you and give a full explanation. . . . All the sacrifices I have made . . . were not made for the hope . . . of reward, but for the sake of the union. . . . Yet I complain . . . that some insidious enemy should be permitted to poison the mind of those who have all power; that simplePage  173justice should be denied me. I most solemnly assert . . . that I received a majority of the loyal votes cast at that election. I did not contest the same, because I did not desire to embarass my government. . . . When I went to New Orleans in the autumn (alluded to by you) it was at the earnest request of my friend Gen Jno A. McClernand---but I had no hopes of being elected upon my personal popularity, and so expressed myself to you. It was for that reason, I requested your letter, expecting to get assistance from the parties to whom you wrote. I was at the time of the canvass very sick. . . . My tickets were [gath] ered up at the polls and destroyed, yet I repeat that I received a majority of the loyal votes, of my district. . . . You had promised to appoint me to the position of Surveyor of the Port of N. Orleans, & I did not suppose my being a Candidate for a short term of Congress . . . would prejudice my claims. . . . Through the frankness of Hon W. H. Seward . . . I believe I know the cause of Mr. Chase's opposition . . . Mr Seward has informed me that it has been represented to you & Mr Chase, that I was a dissipated man. I do not deny that sometimes in times past, I have acted imprudently, but that I was ever . . . addicted to drink . . . is a most base . . . falsehood. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Washington, D.C.,
April 14, 1863-5.30 p.m.

Major-General Hooker: Would like to have a letter from you as soon as convenient. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   OR, I, XXV, II, 209. Hooker replied to Lincoln's telegram at 11 P.M. ,``I had supposed the enemy were attacking [John J.] Peck to prevent his reenforcing [John G.] Foster; but if with the numbers alleged, it must be for a more important purpose. As soon as [George] Stoneman's designs are discovered to the enemy, Peck will be relieved. The enemy have not to exceed 30,000 men between Richmond and Suffolk, including both of those towns.''(Ibid.). On April 12, Hooker had ordered Stoneman to take his cavalry force to turn the enemy's position on his left and cut communications with Richmond. See further Lincoln to Hooker, April 15, infra.

To David Hunter and Samuel F. Du Pont [1]

Private
Executive Mansion, Washington,
Gen. Hunter & Admiral Dupont April 14, 1863.

This is intended to clear up an apparent inconsistency between the recent order to continue operations before Charleston, and the former one to move to another point in a certain contingency. No censure upon you, or either of you, is intended. We still hope that by cordial and judicious co-operation, you can take the batteries on Morris Island and Sullivan's Island, and Fort-Sumpter. But whether you can or not we wish the demonstration kept up for a time, for a colatteral and very important object. We wish the attemptPage  174 to be a real one, (though not a desperate one) if it affords any considerable chance of success. But if prossecuted as a demonstration only, this must not become public, or the whole effect will be lost. Once again before Charleston, do not leave till further orders from here. Of course this is not intended to force you to leave unduly exposed, Hilton Head, or other near points in your charge. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

P.S. Whoever receives this first, please send a copy to the other immediately. A. L.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, CSmH. See Lincoln's communication to Du Pont, April 13, supra. The ``apparent inconsistency'' to which Lincoln refers indicated by Welles' communication to Du Pont on April 2, ``The exigencies of the public service are so pressing in the Gulf that the Department directs you to send all the ironclads that are in a fit condition to move, after your present attack upon Charleston, directly to New Orleans, reserving to yourself only two.'' (OR, I, XIV, 436).

John Hay delivered Welles' order of April 2, and on April 16 he wrote Nicolay from Hilton Head, South Carolina, of the reception of Lincoln's order of April 13, as follows:

``The General and the Admiral this morning received the orders from Washington, directing the continuance of operations against Charleston. The contrast was very great in the manner in which they received them. The General was absolutely delighted. . . . He said, however, that the Admiral seemed in very low spirits about it. . . . Whether the intention of the Government be to reduce Charleston now . . . or by powerful demonstration to retain a large force of the enemy here, he is equally anxious to go to work again. . . .'' (Tyler Dennett, ed., Lincoln and the Civil War in the Diaries and Letters of John Hay, pp. 60-61).

Du Pont wrote Welles on April 16 as follows:

``I am . . . painfully struck by the tenor and tone of the President's order, which seems to imply a censure, and I have to request that the Department will not hesitate to relieve me by an officer who . . . is more able to execute that service in which I have had the misfortune to fail---the capture of Charleston. . . .'' (Daniel Ammen, The Navy in the Civil War, II, 108).

To William H. Seward [1]

April 14, 1863

This petition asks me to appoint the petitioner to the ``regular mechanical department'' I know of no such Department, with which I, by law, as President, have anything to do.

April 14. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, NAuE. Lincoln's endorsement appears on the back of a petition of William R. Nevins of New York, an inventor of machinery and baking ovens who had brought a regiment of bakers and engineers to Washington in 1861, but failing to get it mustered had been compelled to disband his regiment. He asked for a commission or ``appointment into the Regular mechanical Department.'' No record has been found of Nevins' appointment.

Page  175

To Salmon P. Chase [1]

Hon. Sec. of Treasury, please give Louis, whom you know, an audience of a few minutes. A. LINCOLN

April 15, 1863

Annotation

[1]   Thomas F. Madigan, A Catalogue of Lincolniana (1929), p. 24. ``Louis'' was Louis Bargdorf, doorkeeper at the White House.

Endorsement [1]

I have no sufficient time to hear appeals in cases of this sort.

A. LINCOLN Apl. 15. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, RPB. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a portion of an envelope, without clue to its original contents.

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Executive Mansion,
Major General Hooker Washington, April 15. 1863

It is now 10-15.P.M. An hour ago I received your letter of this morning, and a few minutes later your despatch of this evening. The latter gives me considerable uneasiness. The rain and mud, of course, were to be calculated upon. Gen. S. is not moving rapidly enough to make the expedition come to any thing. He has now been out three days, two of which were unusually fine weather, and all three without hindrance from the enemy, and yet he is not twentyfive miles from where he started. To reach his point, he still has sixty to go; another river, the Rapidan, to cross, and will be hindered by the enemy. By arithmetic, how many days will it take him to do it? I do not know that any better can be done, but I greatly fear it is another failure already. Write me often. I am very anxious. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS-F, ISLA. Hooker's letter of April 15 is as follows:

``A letter from Maj Genl. Stoneman dated 1 o'clock P.M. yesterday, informs me that his command will be across the river before daylight this morning the 15th. It was his intention to cross at three points, all above the Rappahannock Station. I sent him six days rations, for men and animals, by wagons to be distributed just before his passage of the river. The wagons are now on their return. From the Rappahannock, if he should meet with no unusual delay, he will strike the Aquia and Richmond Rail Road on the night of the second day. Meanwhile I shall do what I can to keep the Enemy up to their works in my front and if they should fall back shall pursue with all the vigor practicable.

``Up to late last night the Enemy appeared to have no suspicion of our designs. This morning I can see nothing, from the storm.

Page  176``I am rejoiced that Stoneman had two good days to go up the river and was enabled to cross it before it had become too much swollen.

``If he can reach his position the storm and mud will not damage our prospects.

``He has been furnished with a copy of Maj. Genl Peck's despatch regarding the Enemy in his immediate front. If it should be true Richmond can have no soldiers in the city at this time.'' (DLC-RTL).

Hooker's telegram of 8 P.M. the same day is as follows:

``Just heard from Genl. S[toneman]. His Artillery has been brought to a halt by the mud One Division only having crossed the river. If practicable, he will proceed without it. All the streams are swimming.'' (Ibid.).

On April 17 Hooker replied to Lincoln's letter of the 15th:

``I have the honor to acknowledge your communication of the night of the 15th inst. and in compliance with your request, transmit herewith a letter from Genl. Stoneman dated the 16th inst, as it will fully inform you of the circumstances attending his march up the river. . . . The letter was this moment received.

``His failure, to accomplish speedily the objects of his expedition, is a source of deep regret . . . but I can find nothing in his conduct . . . requiring . . . censure. We cannot control the elements.

``From your letter I conclude that you had misapprehended the position of his advance the night of the second day out . . . which was on the South Side of the Rappahannock and fifty miles from this camp. . . .

``I have given directions for him to remain in his present position, holding himself in readiness to march as soon, after, the roads and rivers will permit. . . . I still hope to turn his movement to some good account. . . .

``No one, Mr President can be more anxious, than myself to relieve your cares and anxieties and you may be assured that I shall spare no labor, and suffer no opportunity to pass unimproved, for so doing.

``We have no reason to suppose that the enemy have any knowledge of the design of Genl. Stoneman's movement.'' (Ibid.).

Resolution on Slavery [1]

[April 15, 1863]

Whereas, while heretofore, States, and Nations, have tolerated slavery, recently, for the first in the world, an attempt has been made to construct a new Nation, upon the basis of, and with the primary, and fundamental object to maintain, enlarge, and perpetuate human slavery, therefore,

Resolved, That no such embryo State should ever be recognized by, or admitted into, the family of christian and civilized nations; and that all ch[r]istian and civilized men everywhere should, by all lawful means, resist to the utmost, such recognition or admission.

Annotation

[1]   AD-F, ISLA. The resolutions are written on the back of a page of Executive Mansion stationery. On the front page appears the following notation by John Bright:

``Extract from a letter from the Honble. Chas. Sumner, dated Washington April 17th. 1863.

`` `Two days ago the President sent for me to come to him at once. When IPage  177 arrived, he said that he had been thinking of a matter on which we had often spoken, the way in which English opinion should be directed, & that he had drawn up a resolution embodying the ideas which he should hope to see adopted by public meetings in England. I inclose the resolution, in his autograph, as he gave it to me. He thought it might serve to suggest the point which he regarded as important.' ''

No record has been found of the adoption of these resolutions in England. On November 30, 1863, Sumner wrote Lincoln concerning articles in the London Post which threatened ```recognition' of the rebel slave-mongers, in the event of any reverse to the national arms.'' Sumner suggested that ``in yr message you should refer to the resolutions of Congress [reported by Sumner on February 28, 1863, expressing regret that foreign powers had not informed the confederate States that they could not expect recognition], and mention that they have been sent to Foreign Courts;---and then add to this statement the enunciation of the principle you so well expressed in the memdm. you gave to me last spring---to the effect, that, while in times past there have been nations where slavery was an incident, now, for the first time in human history a new Power presents itself & asks `recognition' in the Christian Family, whose only declared reason of separate existence is the support of slavery --- & that no such power can expect any such `recognition,' but that Christian states are bound to set their faces against it.'' (Copy, DLC-Nicolay Papers). Lincoln did not follow Sumner's suggestion by incorporating the reference in his Annual Message to Congress of December 8, 1863.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

I do not remember about this case. How is it?

Apl. 15. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Ezra Webb, Washington, April 11, 1863, ``On 14th. ult. my friend Senator Wade who attended to my restoration, as Paymaster, informed me you had (through him restored me some 10 days previously). I then said I would return to Cincinnati and return here and file my accounts and vouchers with as little delay as possible. . . . I was paying troops on big Sandy in Jany & could not file accts as early as those who quit in Nov & Decr.'' Stanton endorsed ``I know nothing about the case.'' Ezra Webb's appointment as additional paymaster of Volunteers was confirmed by the Senate on June 30, 1862. No further reference to his removal or restoration has been found.

Memorandum
Concerning William H. W. Horner [1]

William H. W. Horner--- [c. April 16, 1863]

For West-Point.

A very excellent recommendation. Born March 23. 1845.

Annotation

[1]   AE, DNA WR RG 94, U.S. Military Academy, 1861, No. 392, Box 78. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Governor Oliver P. Morton, April 16, 1863, recommending appointment of William H. W. Horner of Wisconsin, at the request of General John Love of Indiana. No appointment is of record.

Page  178

Memorandum Concerning Patronage in St. Louis, Missouri [1]

April 16, 1863

In answer to the within question ``Shall we be sustained by you?'' I have to answer that at the beginning of the administration I appointed one whom I understood to be an editor of the ``Democrat'' to be Post-Master at St. Louis [2]---the best office in my gift within Missouri. Soon after this, our friends at St. Louis, must needs break into factions, the Democrat being, in my opinion, justly chargeable with a full share of the blame for it. I have stoutly tried to keep out of the quarrel, and so mean to do. As to contracts, and jobs, I understand that, by the law, they are awarded to the best bidders; and if the government agents at St. Louis do differently, it would be good ground to prossecute them upon. A. LINCOLN

April 16. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter of April 9, 1863, from Truman Woodruff, newly elected auditor of St. Louis. Woodruff enclosed a newspaper clipping showing results in the city election of April 6 and complained that the government was neglecting loyal Republicans in favor of secessionists, with particular reference to printing contracts which had not been given to the Missouri Democrat.

[2]   Peter L. Foy.

Proclamation Cancelling Contract with bernard Koch [1]

April 16, 1863

Abraham Lincoln,

President of the United States of America.

To all to whom these presents shall come: Greeting.

Know ye that, Whereas a paper bearing date the thirty first day of December, last, purporting to be an agreement between the United States and one Bernard Kock, for immigration of persons of African extraction to a dependency of the Republic of Hayti; was signed by me on behalf of the party of the first part; but whereas the said instrument was and has since remained incomplete, in consequence of the seal of the United States not having been thereunto affixed; And whereas I have been moved by considerations, by me deemed sufficient, to withhold my authority for affixing the said seal;

Now, therefore, be it known, that I, Abraham Lincoln, PresidentPage  179 of the United States, do hereby authorize the Secretary of State to cancel my signature to the instrument aforesaid.

[L.S.]

Done at Washington, this sixteenth day of April, in the year of our Lord, 1863.

By the President: ABRAHAM LINCOLN

WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA FS RG 11, Proclamations. See Lincoln to Seward, January 6, supra.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Hon. Sec. of War. Executive Mansion,
Sir. Washington, April 16, 1863.

I understand that Major Easton, Q.M. in regular Army, and now serving at Leavenworth, Kansas, is sought to be dismissed on a charge of disloyalty. The present Governor of Kansas, [2] Senator Pomeroy, and U.S. Judge Williams, [3] (the latter of whom I have known nearly thirty years) all say he is not disloyal, but is a worthy and efficient officer. I therefore think we better not act without positive evidence. Perhaps better wait to hear from the Governor after he shall have reached home. Yours truly

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, NHi. No reply from Stanton has been found. Major Langdon C. Easton served as quartermaster at Fort Leavenworth until December 3, 1863. when he became chief quartermaster of the Army of the Cumberland.

[2]   Thomas Carney.

[3]   Lincoln's old friend Archibald Williams.

Memorandum Concerning D. M. Leatherman [1]

I shall not be ready for Mr. Leatherman till 9. o'clock to-morrow morning A LINCOLN

April 17. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   ADS, owned by George P. Leatherman, Hot Springs, Arkansas. General Stephen A. Hurlbut wrote Lincoln on March 28, 1863, introducing ``Mr D. M. Leatherman of Memphis who represents many persons largely interested in lands in this neighborhood. . . .'' (DLC-RTL). No indication is given of Leatherman's business with the president, but see Lincoln to Stanton, July 11, infra.

Appointment of George Harrington [1]

Washington April 18th. 1863

George Harrington, is hereby appointed to discharge the duties of Secretary of the Treasury, during the absence of Salmon P. Chase, the Secretary. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Page  180

Annotation

[1]   DS, CSmH. An endorsement indicates that ``The Secretary resumed his duties on the 9th of May 1863.'' Chase was in New York and Philadelphia ``to ascertain if a loan, say of fifty millions, to pay off all arrears cannot now be obtained. . . .'' (Chase to Lincoln, April 22, 1863, DLC-RTL).

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Executive Mansion,
Washington, April 18. 1863.

This man, Rosenberg, who, it seems was with Fremont & Sigel, in several battles, can get no pay in any way. Gen. Hooker testifies to have seen him doing efficient service at the 2nd. Bull-Run.

A. LINCOLN

[Endorsement]

Submitted to the Sec. of War. A LINCOLN

April 20. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   ADS and AES, NHi. Rosenberg has not been identified, but was probably one of several officers appointed by Fremont and Sigel who never received commissions.

To Edward Bates [1]

Hon. Attorney General. Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir Washington, April 20. 1863.

I have promised this lady to ask your attention to the application of her husband, James E. Dunawin, for a pardon---the application said to now be before you. Yours truly

April 20. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, DNA RG 204, U.S. Pardon Attorney, A 411. James E. Dunawin has not been identified.

To Heads of Departments and Bureaus [1]

April 20, 1863

This young man, or boy, rather, asks a Messengership; and I think, by the letters of Gov. Cannon & Hon John W. Houston, he is shown to have peculiar claim to so small a place. I will thank any Head of a Department or Bureau, who can & will find it for him. A. LINCOLN

April 20. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   ADS, DeWI. The young man recommended by Governor William Cannon and former congressman from Delaware, John W. Houston, has not been identified.

Page  181

Proclamation Admitting West Virginia into the Union [1]

April 20, 1863

By the President of the United States of America.

A Proclamation.

Whereas, by the Act of Congress approved the 31st. day of December, last, the State of West Virginia was declared to be one of the United States of America, and was admitted into the Union on an equal footing with the original States in all respects whatever, upon the condition that certain changes should be duly made in the proposed Constitution for that State;

And, whereas, proof of a compliance with that condition as required by the Second Section of the Act aforesaid, has been submitted to me;

Now, therefore, be it known, that I Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, do, hereby, in pursuance of the Act of Congress aforesaid, declare and proclaim that the said act shall take effect and be in force, from and after sixty days from the date hereof.

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the Seal of the United States to be affixed.

[L.S.]

Done at the city of Washington, this twentieth day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, and of the Independence of the United States the eighty-seventh.

By the President: ABRAHAM LINCOLN

WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA FS RG 11, Proclamations. The Act of December 31, 1862, provided that West Virginia be admitted when the people had ratified a change in the seventh section of the eleventh article of the proposed constitution. The change ratified was the substitution of the following in place of the original section seven: ``The children of slaves born within the limits of this State after the fourth day of July, eighteen hundred and sixty-three, shall be free; and that all slaves within the said State who shall, at the time aforesaid, be under the age of ten years, shall be free when they arrive at the age of twenty-one years; and all slaves over ten and under twenty-one years shall be free when they arrive at the age of twenty-five years; and no slave shall be permitted to come into the State for permanent residence therein.''

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

April 20, 1863

The conditions of this note being complied with by the attached letters of Senators Wilson & Nesmith, it is hereby directed that

Page  182William Lilley be re-appointed a Quarter Master; and, if not inconsistent, let the appointment date with the original appointment

April 20. 1863 A LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on his letter to William Lilley, April 2, supra. Accompanying letters from James W. Nesmith, April 12, and Henry Wilson, April 20, state that Lilley's rejection had been based on misinformation and that if he were renominated they would vote to confirm him. See further Lincoln's letter to Stanton, May 9, infra.

To Calvin Truesdale [1]

Calvin Truesdale, Esq Executive Mansion,
Post-Master Washington,
Rock-Island, Ills. April 20, 1863.

Thomas J. Pickett, late agent of the Quarter-Master's Department for the Island of Rock-Island, has been removed, or suspended from that position, on a charge of having sold timber and stone from the Island for his private benefit. Mr. Pickett is an old acquaintance and friend of mine; and I will thank you if you will set a day or days, and place, on & at which, to take testimony on the point; notify Mr. Pickett, and one J. B. Danforth Jr. (who, as I understand, makes the charge) to be present with their witnesses; take the testimony in writing, offered by both sides, [2] and report it in full to me. Please do this for me. Yours truly

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, owned by John H. Hauberg, Rock Island, Illinois; ADfS, DLC-RTL. This letter is misdated in the Complete Works (X, 80) April 20, 1864. See Lincoln to Usher, April 3, supra, and to Meigs, May 4, infra.

[2]   The autograph draft in the Lincoln Papers has ``parties'' instead of ``sides.''

To Frederic VII [1]

April 21, 1863

Abraham Lincoln,

President of the United States of America

To His Majesty Frederic VIII [VII]

King of Denmark

Great and Good Friend: I have received the letter which Your Majesty was pleased to address to me on the 12th. ultimo, announcing the marriage of Her Royal Highness the Princess Alexandra Caroline Mary Charlotte Louisa Julia, of Denmark, with His Royal Highness Albert Edward Prince of Wales.

I participate in the satisfaction which this happy event has affordedPage  183 to Your Majesty, and to Your Majesty's Royal House and offer to you my sincere congratulations upon the occasion.

May God have Your Majesty always in His safe and holy keeping Your Good Friend ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Washington, 21st April, 1863

By the President

WILLIAM H. SEWARD Secretary of State

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DNA FS RG 59, Communications to Foreign Sovereigns and States, III, 229.

To William H. Seward and Gideon Welles [1]

Hon. Secretaries of Executive Mansion,
State & of the Navy. Washington, April 21. 1863.

Gentlemen: It is now a practical question for this government, whether a government mail of a neutral, power, found on board a vessel captured by a beligerent power, on charge of breach of blockade, shall be forwarded to it's designated destination, without opening; or shall be placed in custody of the prize court, to be in the discretion of the court, opened and searched for evidence to be used on the trial of the prize case. I will thank each of you to furnish me

First, a list of all cases wherein such question has been passed upon, either by a diplomatic, or a judicial decision.

Secondly, all cases wherein mails, under such circumstances, have been without special decision, either forwarded unopened; or detained, and opened, in search of evidence.

I wish these lists to embrace as well the reported cases in the books generally, as the cases pertaining to the present war in the United States.

Thirdly, a statement, and brief argument, of what would be the dangers and evils, of forwarding such mails unopened.

Fourthly, a statement and brief argument, of what would be the dangers and evils of detaining and opening such mails, and using the contents, if pertinent, as evidence.

And lastly, any general remarks that may occur to you, or either of you. Your Obt. Servt. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ADfS, DLC-RTL; LS, DNA WR NB RG 45, Executive Letters, No. 79. Welles' Diary on April 27 states that he delivered his thirty-one page reply, as did Seward on that day. Neither of the replies has been located. The questions concerning the Peterhoff were a major issue between Welles and Seward---Welles insisting that opening the mails was the only way to get concrete evidence of the intentions of the vessel, and Seward dissenting from that view. The problem was settled before the secretaries rendered their arguments, however, when on April 23, U.S. District Attorney E. Delafield Smith asked thePage  184

court to release the mails to the British government. Editorials from the Chicago Tribune and Boston Transcript of April 24, attacking Smith's action, are filed in the Lincoln Papers along with the autograph draft of Lincoln's letter of April 21.

Memorandum Concerning John G. Foster [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, April 22. 1863.

To-day, Gov. Stanley, calls and asks that Gen. Foster, may have his commission dated back. Gen. F.'s conduct at Washington N.C. I think, entitles him to additional consideration. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADS, NHi. On April 19 Brigadier General John G. Foster in command of the Department of North Carolina drove Confederate forces under Major General Daniel H. Hill from Washington, North Carolina, which the Confederates had taken on March 30, 1863. Foster's appointment as major general, dated from July 18, 1862, was confirmed by the Senate on March 10, 1863. Governor Edward Stanly's request therefore seems to have been unnecessary.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

April 22, 1863

The vouchers within, of Col. Bendix, by Gens. French, Couch, Butterfield, Hooker, Wool, & Butler, are ample. Whether what Col. Bendix desires, can be done, consistently with the service, I must refer to the Secretary of War. In considering the case, Gen. Hooker's late order, and also the Gov. of New-York, must be rem[em]bered, as well as general principles and regulations.

April 22. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, owned by Solomon Foster, East Orange, New Jersey. Colonel John E. Bendix of the Tenth New York Infantry was mustered out of service May 7, 1863, the term of his regiment's enlistment being expired. The vouchers referred to are no longer with Lincoln's endorsement, but they probably were concerned with Colonel Bendix's desire to retain his commission after his regiment was mustered out. General Orders No. 44, Army of the Potomac, April 20, 1863, provided that all officers were to be mustered out with their regiments, but if the regiment re-enlisted officers were to be retained.

To Edwin M. Stanton [2]

April 22, 1863

Let nothing be done to the detriment of Joseph Kitchen, until the case is better understood, nor without letting me know.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DNA WR RG 107, Register of Secretary of War, Letters Received, P 80. The copy is preserved in the Register, indicating referral of a medical certificate of disability for Joseph Kitchen endorsed by Ward H. Lamon. The original document and attendant papers have not been located in the file, and Joseph Kitchen has not been identified.

Page  185

To Charles Sumner [1]

Hon. Charles Sumner Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir Washington, April 22, 1863.

Mrs. L. is embarrassed a little. She would be pleased to have your company again this evening, at the Opera, but she fears she may be taxing you. I have undertaken to clear up the little difficulty. If, for any reason, it will tax you, decline, without any hesitation; but if it will not, consider yourself already invited, and drop me a note. Yours very truly A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS-P, ISLA. No reply from Sumner has been found.

To Simon Cameron [1]

Hon. Simon Cameron Washington City,
Harrisburg, Penn. April 23. 1863

Telegraph me the name of your candidate for West-Point.

A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Cameron replied to Lincoln's telegram on the same day, ``His name is John Cameron.'' (DLC-RTL). A letter from Cameron dated January 27, 1862, mentions John Cameron as ``a remote connexion of mine.'' (Ibid.). See Lincoln's list, infra.

To Salmon P. Chase [2]

Hon. S. P. Chase Washington City,
Philadelphia, Penn. April 23. 1863

Telegraph me the name of your candidate for West-Point.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Chase replied to Lincoln's telegram on the same day, ``His name is Washington Hunt Walbridge of Toledo Ohio.'' (DLC-RTL). See Lincoln's list, infra.

List of Recommendations for West Point [1]

[c. April 23, 1863]

Bishop Hughes --- William A. Cunningham

Gen. Cameron --- John Cameron

Speaker Grow --- Henry W. Streeter.

Gen. Heintzelman --- Charles S. Heintzelman

Gen. Sumner. --- George Sumner Jenkins.

Gen. Taylor --- John J. D. Kingsbury.

Gov. Chase --- William H. Walbridge,

Mrs. Blair --- Charles Harrod Campbell,

Senator Foote. --- William H. Hodges,

Mr. Stanton. --- Christopher Wolcot, O.

Page  186

Annotation

[1]   AD, DLC-RTL. This document is misdated [1861] in the Lincoln Papers. A similar autograph list of the names of the persons making the recommendations, but without names of candidates, is written on a letter from Galusha Grow, February 10, 1863, asking appointment of Henry W. Streeter. Lincoln's telegrams to Chase and Cameron on April 23 indicate that the present list was made up about April 23. Of the ten boys listed six entered West Point in 1863: Charles H. Campbell, Charles S. Heintzelman, William H. Hodges, John J. D. Kingsbury, and Christopher C. Walcott and Washington H. Walbridge, about whose last and first names respectively, Lincoln was in error.

To William S. Rosecrans [1]

Major General Rosecrans. Executive Mansion, Washington,
Murfreesboro, Tenn. April 22 [23rd] 1863. [10:10 A.M.]

Your despatch of the 21st. received. I really can not say that I have heard any complaints of you. I have heard complaint of a Police corps at Nashville; but your name was not mentioned in connection with it so far as I remember. It may be that by inference, you are connected with it; but my attention has never been drawn to it in that light. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Lincoln's dating of this telegram has been corrected by the clerk. Rosecrans telegraphed Lincoln on April 21 as follows: ``Thrice has notice directly come to me that some complaint has been lodged in the minds of persons high in authority or in records in the War office against the working of my army policy or that there was a conflict of authority between the civil & military each time I have stated that I know of none & asked for the specification that I might remedy the evil No reply has been given No information of what this all means. Can There be anything wrong I want to know it & appeal to you to please order the complaints to be communicated to me fully. If the Fox is unearthed I will promise to skin him or pay for his hide.'' (DLC-RTL).

To Joseph Segar [1]

Executive Mansion,
Hon. Joseph Segar Washington, April 23, 1863.

My dear Sir: My recollection is that Accomac and Northampton counties (Eastern Shore of Va.) were not exempted from a Proclamation issued some short while after the adjournment of Congress; that some time after the issuing of the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, in September, and before the issuing of the final one on January 1st. 1863, you called on me and requested that ``Eastern Shore of Va'' might be exempted from both the Summer Proclamation, & the final emancipation Proclamation. I told you that the non-exemption of it from the former, was a mere omission, which would be corrected; and that it should also be exempted from the final emancipation Proclamation. The preliminary

Page  187Emancipation Proclamation does not define what is included, or excluded; but only gives notice that this will be done in the final one. Both yourself and Gen. Dix, at different times, (Gen. Dix in writing) called my attention to the fact that I had omitted to exempt the ``Eastern Shore of Virginia'' from the first proclamation; and this was all that was needed to have me correct it. Without being reminded by either him or yourself, I do not think I should have omitted to exempt it from the final Emancipation Proclamation; but at all events, you did not allow me to forget it. Supposing it was your duty to your constituents to attend to these matters, I think you acted with entire good faith and fidelity to them. Yours truly A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ADfS, DLC-RTL. No correspondence has been found from Joseph Segar which has bearing on this letter, but see Lincoln to Dix, November 20, 1862, supra.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

April 25, 1863

Gov. Johnson thinks it would be well to have the within added to his letter of instruction. If the Secretary of War sees no objection, I see none. A. LINCOLN

April 25. 1863

Annotation

[1]   AES, IHi. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a page of instructions corrected by Stanton. Deleted words are in italics and Stanton's changes are bracketed:

``In fine he is hereby [As a general instruction to guide your administration you are] authorized to exercise any and all [such] powers [as may be] necessary and proper to carry into full and fair effect the 4th. Section of the 4th. Article of the Constitution of the United States which declares `The United States shall guarantee to every state in this Union a republican form of Government, and further all [whatever] power necessary [may be necessary] in restoring to the people of Tennessee their civil and political rights under the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of Tennessee and the laws made in pursuance thereof.''

The orders issued by Peter H. Watson, April 2, and Edwin M. Stanton, April 18, defining Andrew Johnson's authority as military governor of Tennessee may be found in the Official Records, III, III, 115, 122-23. See further Lincoln's letters to Johnson on September 19, infra.

To Benjamin B. French [1]

Comr. of Public Buildings please see the bearer

April 27. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADS, Perke-Bernet, Feb. 17, 1970. The bearer has not been indentified.

Page  188

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Washington, D.C.,
April 27, 1863-3.30 p.m.

Major-General Hooker: How does it look now?

A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   OR, I, XXV, II, 263. Hooker replied at 5 P.M., ``I am not sufficiently advanced to give an opinion. We are busy. Will tell you all as soon as I can, and have it satisfactory.'' (Ibid.).

To James H. Lane [1]

Hon. James H. Lane Executive Mansion,
Leavenworth, Kansas--- Washington, April 27. 1863.

The Governor of Kansas is here, asking that Lieut. Col. J. M. Williams, of a colored regiment there, shall be removed; and also complaining of the military interference of Gen. Blunt in the late election at Leavenworth. I do not know how, if at all, you are connected with these things; but I wish your assistance to so shape things that the Governor of Kansas may be treated with the consideration that is extended to Governors of other States. We are not forcing a Regimental officer upon any other governor, against his protest. Can not this matter be somehow adjusted? A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, DLC-RTL. The envelope addressed by Lincoln ``To go by Telegraph'' bears Lincoln's further endorsement ``Not sent because Gov. Carney thought it best not be.'' Major General James G. Blunt declared martial law in Leavenworth as the result of disturbances attendant upon the city elections on April 6, and on April 18, abolished martial law upon request of the newly elected Mayor, Daniel R. Anthony (OR, I, XXII, II, 218, 226). James M. Williams was colonel of the Seventy-ninth U.S. Colored Infantry.

To Joseph G. Totten [1]

Gen. Totten, please see Judge Mott, now Territorial Delegate for Nevada. A. LINCOLN

April 27, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   Tracy, p. 223. No further reference has been found to Gordon N. Mott's business with General Totten.

To Peter H. Watson [1]

Hon. P.H. Watson Executive Mansion,
Asst. Sec. of War Washington, April 27, 1863.

My dear Sir: I have attentively considered the matter of the ``Republican'' in regard to which you called on me the other day; and the result is that I prefer to make no change, unless it shall again give just cause of offence, in which case I will at once withdraw the patronage it is enjoying at my hand. I believe it will notPage  189 offend again; and if not, it is better to let the past go by quietly. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADfS, DLC-RTL. See further Lincoln to Stanton, July 2, infra.

Commutation of Sentence of John A. Chase [1]

April 28, 1863.

The sentence of death in this case is commuted to imprisonment at hard labor, with ball and chain attached to his leg, during the remainder of the present war; all to be in Fort Delaware.

A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   AGO General Orders No. 107, April 28, 1863. Lincoln's endorsement is in the court-martial record of Sergeant John A. Chase, Company A, Twenty-fourth New York Volunteers, convicted on April 21, 1863, of striking and using threatening language toward his superior officer.

To Andrew G. Curtin [1]

Hon. A. G. Curtin Washington City,
Harrisburg, Penn. April 28. 1863

I do not think the people of Pennsylvania should be uneasy about an invasion. Doubtless a small force of the enemy is flourishing about in the Northern part of Virginia on the ``Scew-horn'' principle, on purpose to divert us in another quarter. I believe it is nothing more. We think we have adequate forces close after them.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Governor Curtin telegraphed Stanton on April 28 as follows:

``The following dispatch just received:

`` `Governor Curtin: Pittsburgh, 28th.

`` `An express messenger from Morgantown, by express train from Uniontown, arrived here at 2 o'clock this morning, with intelligence that 4,000 rebel cavalry were within 2 miles of Morgantown at 2 o'clock yesterday, coming into Pennsylvania. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, between Grafton and Cumberland, is torn up.

`` `All the foregoing is confirmed by intelligence from Wheeling. We are without arms, artillery, or ammunition here. What can you do for us?

`` `THOMAS M. HOWE,

`` `Assistant Adjutant-General, Pennsylvania.'

``Have you any information? If it is reliable, what force, if any, can you oppose to the rebels? We have no force in the State of any kind, as you are aware. Be pleased to telegraph me as soon as possible, as there is much alarm in this part of Pennsylvania threatened.'' (OR, I, XXV, II, 278).

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Executive Mansion,
Major General Hooker Washington, April 28, 1863.

The maps, newspapers, and letter of yesterday are just received, for all which I thank you. While I am anxious, please do not suppose

Page  190I am impatient, or waste a moment's thought on me, to your own hindrance, or discomfort. Yours as ever A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, CSmH. Hooker's letter of April 27 is as follows:

``I fully appreciate the anxiety weighing upon your mind, and hasten to relieve you from so much of it as lies in my power. You know that nothing would give me more pleasure than to keep you fully advised of every movement and every intended movement made and to be made by this Army, as is my duty to do. But the country is so full of traitors, and there are so many whose desire it is to see this Army meet with no success, that it almost makes me tremble to disclose a thing concerning it to anyone except yourself. Not that there are not many as true to the cause as yourself; but all have friends and their fidelity I am not so sure of. The following is what I have done and what I propose to do. The 11th 12th & 5th Corps marched this morning, with instructions to take posts at Kelley's Ford at 4 P.M. tomorrow. The Ford being still deep for Artillery, a Ponton train will be in readiness to be thrown across the river, in season I hope, for one or two Corps to cross before morning and take the route to cross the Rapidan at Germania hills and the other Corps to cross at Ely's Ford about the same time and both to march on Chancellorsville and meet there the second night from Kelly's Ford. The Corps march light, with their pack trains of small ammunition, leaving their wagon trains to be crossed on a more direct line when they become opened.

``Simultaneous with this the 6th, 1st & 3rd Corps will cross in the vicinity of Franklin's crossing and make honest demonstrations on the Telegraph and Bowling Green roads, where the main Rebel bodies behind their defences are posted. Keeping them in their places, and if they should detach heavy forces to attack the troops coming down the river, to storm and carry those works and take possession of the enemy's short line of retreat. At the same time, Stoneman will cross with his cavalry to carry out the instructions, a copy of which has already been furnished you. This is an outline, you will be able to fill up the plan. The object in crossing high up the river is to come down in rear of the enemy holding strong positions at the U.S. and Banks Fords, and so strongly fortified that they can only be carried with great loss of life if at all, from a front attack. They are held, as you will see by the accompanying map, by a small force, but the crossings are rendered formidable by the character of the defences.

``The only element which gives me apprehension with regard to the success of this plan is the weather. How much will depend upon it. The details will readily suggest themselves to you.

``After crossing the Rapidan I can hear from the column descending the rivers, by the troops now at Bank's Ford, where I shall throw over two bridges as soon as the development of the battle will permit.

``I write in great haste as I leave for Kelley's Ford tomorrow morning and am busy in making the necessary preparations.

``I send you the Richmond papers last received. The remarkable feature in them is that they write from Fredericksburg that in their opinion we are quitting this line.'' (DLC-RTL).

Memorandum Concerning Francis L. Capen's Weather Forecasts [1]

April 28, 1863

It seems to me Mr. Capen knows nothing about the weather, in advance. He told me three days ago that it would not rain again tillPage  191 the 30th. of April or 1st. of May. It is raining now & has been for ten hours. I can not spare any more time to Mr. Capen.

April. 28. 1863. A LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Francis L. Capen, April 25, 1863. In the center of Capen's one-page letter appears his card, inscribed as follows: ``Thousands of lives & millions of dollars may be saved by the application of Science to War. Francis L. Capen. Certified Practical Meteorologist & Expert in Computing the Changes of the Weather.'' The letter requests a favorable reference to the War Department and concludes, ``I will guarantee to furnish Meteorological information that will save many a serious sacrifice.'' Other letters from Capen in the Lincoln Papers demonstrate that he was more of a crank than a scientist.

To William A. Newell [1]

Hon. W. A. Newell. Executive Mansion,
Allentown, New-Jersey. Washington, April 29. 1863.

I have some trouble about Provost-Marshal in your first district. Please procure Hon. Mr. Starr to come with you and see me; or, come to an agreement with him, and telegraph me the result.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. No reply from Governor Newell, nor reference to a conference with Representative John F. Starr, has been found. Robert C. Johnson was appointed provost marshal for the First District of New Jersey on May 2, 1863. A letter from James M. Scovel, May 3, 1863, reads in part:

``On Saturday I had a long & friendly talk with Mr Starr about the Provost Marshalls appointment. He will I think adhere to his slate. You, I hope will not. Mr. Starr is thoroughly loyal and will sustain the Government in all measures. . . . Like other congressmen he is not without his own aspirations. . . . A combination of Trenton politicians with a few in our own district, always opposed to a young man who wants to rise,---have induced Mr Starr to name Col. Johnson for the Marshalship. He is a respectable gentleman without family and of considerable fortune.

``Mr Starr tells me he thinks I want to advance too fast. . . . No man in or out of New Jersey has suffered more from the Copperheads than I have. . . .

``Of course, after I know that I have done my whole duty, it is unpleasant to be asked to take a subordinate position on the Military board. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

On May 9 Scovel wrote again to express his appreciation of ``the appointment of Commissioner &c notice of which I have just received from the Secretary of War.'' (Ibid.).

To David Hunter [1]

PRIVATE Executive Mansion,
Major General Hunter Washington, April 30, 1863.

My dear Sir This morning I was presented an order of yours dismissing from the service, subject to my approval, a Captain

Page  192Schaadt, of one of the Pennsylvania regiments. Disloyalty, without any statement of the evidence supposed to have proved it, is assigned as the cause of the dismissal; and he represents at home, as I am told, that the sole evidence was his refusal to sanction a resolution (indorsing the emancipation proclamation I believe); and our friends assure me that this statement is doing the Union cause great harm in his neighborhood and county, especially as he is a man of character, did good service in raising troops for us last fall, and still declares for the Union & his wish to fight for it. On this state of case I wrote a special indorsement on the order, which I suppose he will present to you; and I write this merely to assure you that no censure is intended upon you; but that it is hoped that you will inquire into the case more minutely, and that if there be no evidence, but his refusal to sanction the resolution, you will restore him. Yours as ever A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADfS, DLC-RTL; LS, IHi. David Schaadt was captain of Company D, One Hundred Seventy-sixth Pennsylvania, a regiment of nine-months drafted militia, mustered in on November 8, 1862, and mustered out on August 18, 1863. See Lincoln's endorsement, infra.

Regarding the Case of David Schaadt [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, April 30, 1863.

Such facts are brought to my notice as induce me to withhold, [2] my approval of the dismissal of Capt. Schaadt, named within. He is satisfactorily proved to me to be of good character for candor and manliness, and generally; and that he was most active and efficient, in Pennsylvania last autumn, in raising troops for the Union. All this should not retain him in the service, if, since then, he has given himself, in any way, to the injury of the service. How this is I must understand better than I now do, before I can approve his dismissal. What has he done? What has he said? If, as is claimed for him, he is guilty of nothing, but the withho[l]ding his vote or sanction, from a certain resolution or resolutions, I think his dismissal is wrong, even though I might think the resolution itself right, and very proper to be adopted by such as choose. Capt. Schaadt will report himself to Gen. Hunter, and deliver him this paper, for his further action. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADfS, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's draft of this endorsement is on Executive Mansion stationery, on the back of which is a copy of Hunter's General Orders No.28, March 30, 1863, dismissing Captain Schaadt for disloyalty ``unanimously certified to the Major Genl. Commanding by the Colonel, Lt. Col, Major &Page  193

Surgeon of the 176th. Regt. of Pa M.'' No further references to the case have been found.

[2]   ``For the present,'' deleted at this point by Lincoln.

To Timothy P. Andrews [1]

May 1, 1863

Pay Master General, please see Rev. Dr. Van Santvoord who has a question about his pay. He only asks that it commence with the date of his commission, whereas he has served ever since & long before. A. LINCOLN.

May 1, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   Herbert W. Fay, Week-by-Week in Springfield, May 16, 1936. Reverend Cornelius Van Santvoord was chaplain of the Eightieth New York Infantry, October 10, 1861 to November 18, 1862, and hospital chaplain of Volunteers February 2, 1863 to July 15, 1865. See also Lincoln to William A. Hammond, infra.

To Andrew G. Curtin [1]

Gov. Curtin Executive Mansion, Washington,
Harrisburg, Pa. May 1. 1863. [10:55 P.M.]

The whole disposable force at Baltimore & elsewhere in reach have already been sent after the enemy which alarms you. The worst thing the enemy could do for himself would be to weaken himself before Hooker, & therefore it is safe to believe he is not doing it; and the best thing he could do for himself, would be to get us so scared as to bring part of Hooker's force away, and that is just what he is trying to do. I will telegraph you in the morning about calling out the militia A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Two telegrams from Governor Curtin, received at 4:25 P.M. and 10 P.M., reported despatches from Pittsburgh and Western Pennsylvania importuning protection against a reported invasion (OR, I, XXV, II, 346).

To Henry W. Halleck [1]

Major Gen. Halleck, Executive Mansion
My dear Sir Washington May 1, 1863.

Please see & confer with Gen. Totten. He thinks the public service might be advanced by Gen. Cullum going to Boston; and if you can spare him for a few days, I wish him to go. Yours truly

A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Copy, ISLA. Lieutenant Colonel George W. Cullum of the Corps of Engineers, a brigadier general of Volunteers, served May 2-22 on a special board to examine the defenses of Boston harbor.

Page  194

To William A. Hammond [1]

May 1, 1863.

The Surgeon General will oblige me, if he can consistently assign Chaplain Van Santvoord, to the Covalesent Camp for a few months. A. LINCOLN

May 1. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. See Lincoln to Andrews, supra.

To S. Johnson Salisbury [1]

S. Johnson Salesbury Washington, D.C.,
Elgin, Illinois. May 1 1863

Yours of the 28th. ult. about Post-Master at Elgin was received; and being upon a subject to which my attention had not been called, I refered the Despatch to the Post-Master General, since which I have not heared from it A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. S. Johnson Salesbury (Salisbury?) has not been identified, and his telegram of April 28 has not been located. George B. Raymond was postmaster at Elgin, Illinois.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Let this appointment be made at once. A. LINCOLN

May 1. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, IHi. Lincoln's endorsement appears on a letter from John Crowell, Cleveland, Ohio, April 28, 1863, asking appointment of ``John Crowell Jr. to the office of Asst. Adjutant General under Brigadier Genl. William B. Hazen, 2d Brigade, 2d Division Army of the Cumberland.'' On December 31, 1863, John Crowell, Jr., was nominated assistant adjutant general with rank of captain dating from May 1, 1863, and was confirmed by the Senate on March 8, 1864.

To Edward Bates [1]

May 2, 1863

Will the Attorney General please make out the proper document remitting the remainder of the imprisonment in this case, letting the pecuniary punishment stand. A. LINCOLN

May 2. 1863

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA RG 204, U.S. Pardon Attorney, A 471. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Montgomery Blair and Gideon Welles May 1, 1863,Page  195

asking that William Wormley and William Ringgold, sentenced in the District of Columbia Criminal Court on May 1, 1863, to fifty dollar fines and ten days in jail, be released from the remainder of the jail sentence.

To Salmon P. Chase [1]

Sec. of Treasury, please see this lady, a moment.

May 2. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, CtLHi. The lady has not been identified.

To Andrew G. Curtin [1]

Gov. Curtin Executive Mansion,
Harrisburg, Pa. Washington, May 2. 1863.

Gen. Halleck tells me he has a despatch from Gen. Schenck this morning, informing him that our forces have joined, and that the enemy menacing Penn. will have to fight or run to-day. I hope I am not less anxious to do my duty to Pennsylvania, than yourself; but I really do not yet see the justification for incurring the trouble and expense of calling out the militia. I shall keep watch and try to do my duty. A. LINCOLN

P.S. Our forces are exactly between the enemy and Pennsylvania.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. General Robert C. Schenck telegraphed from Baltimore, ``Railroad clear and working to Grafton. . . . [John R.] Kenly has advanced tonight to Clarksburg and joined [Benjamin S.] Roberts. They will fight to-day, or the rebels must run.'' (OR, I, XXV, II, 372).

Governor Curtin's reply to Lincoln's telegram was received at 1:45 P.M.: ``I have no doubt my dispatch to Pittsburg . . . sent since yours recd will quiet the excitement in western Penna. All the movements of the Government are perfectly satisfactory & your conclusion as to calling militia force in harmony with my views. I have not been seriously alarmed & in my despatches only reflected a part of the excitement & all from west.'' (DLC-RTL).

To William H. Seward [1]

Hon. Sec of State. Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir, Washington. May 2. 1863.

Have we any committal as to the vacant consulate at Havanna? If we have not, I am for giving it to Hon. Caleb Lyon, and of doing it at once. Yours truly. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DLC-RTL. Seward replied the same day that he had communicated with two other candidates and had as yet no answer (DLC-RTL). Former congressman (1853-1855) from New York, Caleb Lyon was not appointed to the Havana consulate, but in 1864 became the first governor of Idaho Territory.

Page  196

To Daniel Butterfield [1]

Washington City,
Major General Butterfield. May 3. 1863.

Where is Gen. Hooker? Where is Sedgwick? where is Stoneman?

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS-F, ISLA. Major General Butterfield, Hooker's chief of staff, telegraphed Lincoln at 8:50 A.M. on May 3 that ``a battle is in progress'' (OR, I, XXV, II, 377). Stanton replied ``The President thanks you for your telegrams, and hopes you will keep him advised as rapidly as any information reaches you.'' (Ibid., p. 378). Butterfield replied to Lincoln's query at 4:40 P.M., ``General Hooker is at Chancellorsville. General Sedgwick, with 15,000 to 20,000 men, at a point 3 or 4 miles out from Fredericksburg, on the road to Chancellorsville. Lee is between. Stoneman has not been heard from. This is the situation at this hour from latest reports, 4.30 p.m.'' (Ibid.).

To Ambrose E. Burnside [1]

Major General Burnside Executive Mansion,
Cincinnati, Ohio Washington, May 4, 1863.

Our friend, Gen. Sigel claims that you owe him a letter. If you so remember, please write him at once. He is here.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. No answer from Burnside, nor clue as to the implications of this letter, has been found.

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Washington, D.C.,
Major-General Hooker: May 4, 1863---3.10 p.m.

We have news here that the enemy has reoccupied heights above Fredericksburg. Is that so? A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   OR, I, XXV, II, 401. As printed in Report of the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War (1865) I, 226, this telegram is addressed to General Daniel Butterfield. Hooker replied, ``I am informed that it is so, but attach no importance to it.'' (Ibid.).

To Montgomery C. Meigs [1]

It appearing to me that Mr. Picketts fault is more apparant than real, it is my wish that he be restored to his place.

May 4, 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA WR RG 92, Quartermaster General, P 211. Lincoln's endorsement is written on an envelope containing papers in defense of Thomas J. Pickett. Meigs endorsed, ``Let it be done by order of the President.'' See Lincoln to Usher, April 3, and to Truesdale, April 20, supra.

Page  197

Memorandum Concerning Rufus Ingalls [1]

May 4, 1863

1. It appears Ingalls is not with Hooker, and therefore may not be acting under his special direction.

2. He may consider it a proper precaution, in view of what he knows is going on at Fredericksburg.

3. He may not know that we know about Fredericksburg, and, to keep it from us, may say `My reasons are good'

May 4. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, NHi. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a note from Stanton, misdated May 5, 1862, as follows:

``Ingalls despatch was sent from U S Ford the extreme point to which the telegraph wire extends. It is as follows

`` `5.10 PM US. Ford May 4

`` `Col D H Rucker

`` `Ship no more horses or other stores until further notice. Please advise Capt [William] Stoddard & [Colin B.] Ferguson (Quarter Masters at Alexandria) My reasons are good.

RUFUS INGALLS.

Chf Q M'

``There is nothing else new. Yours truly EMS''

To James B. Fry [1]

Dear Sir: Washington May 5, 1863.

Please appoint the following Provost Marshals and members of Enrolling Boards for the State of Illinois:

1st District:

Provost Marshal, William James

2d Dist.

Provost Marshal, Amos B. Coon

Enrolling Board Col. Wm Shaffer

3d Dist.

Provost Marshal John V. Eustace.

4th Dist.

Provost Marshal James Woodruff

5th Dist.

Provost Marshal James M. Allen

6th Dist.

Provost Marshal, Capt. Abel Longworth

7th Dist.

Provost Marshal Wm Fithian

Enrolling Board Capt. J. S. Wolf [2]

8th Dist

Provost Marshal Isaac Keys.

Enrolling Board Clinton Jones [3]

9th Dist

Provost Marshal Benj. F. Westlake.

Page  19810th Dist

Provost Marshal, Wm M. Fry

Enrolling Board Hon. S. W. Moulton

11th Dist.

Provost Marshal Hon. Mortimer O'Kean

Enrolling Board Hon. Wm B. Archer

12th Dist.

Provost Marshal Geo. Abbott

John E. Deitrich comr.

13th Dist

Provost Marshal Capt Wm C. Carroll. [4]

Enrolling Board A. J. Kuykendall

Yours Truly

Col. J. B. Fry ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Provost Marshal General.

Annotation

[1]   LS, IHi. Colonel James B. Fry had been appointed provost marshal general on March 17, 1863. The appointments for Illinois were made as listed except for Colonel William Shaffer who was replaced by William D. Barry.

[2]   John S. Wolf's appointment was revoked on June 15, 1863, and his place filled by Samuel Frazier.

[3]   Replaced on May 27 by Burrel T. Jones.

[4]   Replaced on May 7 by Isaac N. Phillips.

To Joseph Hooker [1]

War Department Washington City,
Major General Hooker [May 6] 1863.

Are you suffering with dust this morning?

Annotation

[1]   ADf, DLC-Nicolay Papers. This telegram was not sent, because the telegraph lines were down until later in the morning. On the bottom of the page is a note in shorthand, probably by Nicolay, and a longhand transcription as follows: ``Written by the President, but not sent out in the morning of May 6th., after a pouring rain all night and during the morning. Subsequently turned out that on the 6th Hooker had recrossed the river.''

To Joseph Hooker [2]

War Department Washington City, D.C.
My dear General May 6. 9/40. AM. 1863

The great storm of yesterday and last night, has interrupted the telegraph; so that we think fit to send you Gen. Dix despatch of the contents of Richmond papers. I need not repeat the contents. We also try to get it to you by Telegraph. We have nothing from your immediate whereabouts since your short despatch to me, of the 4th. 4/20. P.M. We hear many rumors, but do not exactly know what has become of Sedgwick. We have heard no word of Stoneman, except what is in Dix's despatch about Col. Davis which looks well. It is no discourgement that you have alreadyPage  199 fought the bulk of Longstreet's force, nor that Jackson is severely wounded. And now, God bless you, and all with you. I know you will do your best. Waste no time unnecessarily, to gratify our curiosity with despatches. Yours as ever A. LINCOLN

Maj. Genl. Hooker.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, owned by Mrs. Arthur L. Bates, Meadville, Pennsylvania. This despatch and General Dix's despatch of May 5, 11:50 P.M., were carried by Gustavus V. Fox. The telegraph lines were reopened later, and Lincoln sent the message of 11:40 A.M., infra.

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Washington City, D.C.
Major General Hooker. May 6. 11/40 1863

We have, through Gen. Dix, the contents of Richmond papers of the fifth (5th) Gen. Dix's despatch in full, is going to you by Capt. Fox of the Navy. The substance is Gen. Lee's despatch of the third (3rd) Sunday claiming that he had beaten you, and that you were then retreating across the Rappahannock; distinctly stating that two of Longstreet's Divisions fought you on Saturday; and that Gen. Paxton [2] was killed, Stonewall Jackson severely wounded, and Generals Heth [3] and A. P. Hill slightly wounded. The Richmond papers also state, upon what authority, not mentioned, that our Cavalry have been at Ashland, Hanover Court-House and other points, destroying several locomotives, and a good deal of other property, and all the Railroad Bridges to within five (5.) miles of Richmond. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, IHi. For Hooker's reply, see note to Lincoln's telegram of 12:30 P.M., infra.

[2]   Elisha F. Paxton was killed on May 3.

[3]   Henry Heth.

To Joseph Hooker [2]

Washington, D.C. May 6, 1863--- 12.30 p.m.

General Hooker: Just as I had telegraphed you contents of Richmond papers, showing that our cavalry has not failed, I received General Butterfield's of 11 a.m. yesterday. [2] FOOTNOTES}>(2) This, with the great rain of yesterday and last night, securing your right flank, I think puts a new face upon your case; but you must be the judge.

A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   OR, I, XXV, II, 434. Hooker replied at 4:30 P.M., as follows:

``Have this moment returned to camp. On my way received your telegrams of 11 a.m. and 12.30. The army had previously recrossed the river, and was on its return to camp. As it had none of its trains of supplies with it, I deemed this advisable. Above, I saw no way of giving the enemy a general battle withPage  200 the prospect of success which I desire. Not to exceed three corps, all told, of my troops have been engaged. For the whole to go, there is a better place nearer at hand. Will write you at length to-night. Am glad to hear that a portion of the cavalry have at length turned up. One portion did nothing.'' (Ibid., p. 435).

Stanton replied, ``The President and General-in-Chief left here this afternoon at 4 o'clock to see you. They are probably at Aquia by this time.'' (Ibid.).

[2]   General Daniel Butterfield's despatch to Lincoln is as follows:

``General Hooker is not at this moment able, from pressing duties, to write of the condition of affairs. He deems it his duty that you should be fully and correctly advised. He has intrusted it to me. These are my words, not his.

``Of his plans you were fully aware. The cavalry, as yet learned, have failed in executing their orders. [William W.] Averell's division returned; nothing done; loss of 2 or 3 men. [John] Buford's Regulars not heard from. General [John] Sedgwick failed in the execution of his orders, and was compelled to retire, and crossed the river at Banks' Ford last night; his losses not known.

``The First, Third, Fifth, Eleventh, Twelfth, and two divisions of Second Corps are now on south bank of Rappahannock, intrenched between Hunting Run and Scott's Dam. Trains and Artillery Reserve on north bank of Rappahannock. Position is strong, but circumstances, which in time will be fully explained, make it expedient, in the general's judgment, that he should retire from this position to the north bank of the Rappahannock for his defensible position. Among these is danger to his communication by possibility of enemy crossing river on our right flank and imperiling this army, with present departure of two-years' and three months' [nine-months'] troops constantly weakening him. The nature of the country in which we are prevents moving in such a way as to find or judge position or movements of enemy. He may cross to night, but hopes to be attacked in this position.'' (Ibid., pp. 421-22).

To Rufus Ingalls [1]

Washington City,
Col. Ingalls May 6. 1863 [1.45 P.M.].

News has gone to Gen. Hooker which may change his plans. Act in view of such contingency. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. See Lincoln to Hooker, 11:40 A.M., supra.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

May 6 and 8, 1863

About attaching a part of Ky, now, under Grant, to Burnside.

May 6. 1863. A.L.

Submitted to Sec. of War, & asking special attention.

May 8. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, THaroL. Lincoln's endorsements have been removed from the petition on which they were originally written. On June 11, 1863, James F. Robinson telegraphed Lincoln as follows: ``The Public Interests will be greatly promoted & the Peace & Quiet of the State will be secured by adding to the Dept of the Ohio under the Command of Genl. Burnside all that part of Kentucky lying South & West of the Tennessee which is now in Gen Grants Dept I most earnestly desire that this change shall be made'' (DLC-RTL).

Page  201

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Major General Hooker. Head-Quarters, Army of the Potomac,
My dear Sir May. 7 1863.

The recent movement of your army is ended without effecting it's object, except perhaps some important breakings of the enemies communications. What next? If possible I would be very glad of another movement early enough to give us some benefit from the fact of the enemies communications being broken, but neither for this reason or any other, do I wish anything done in desperation or rashness. An early movement would also help to supersede the bad moral effect of the recent one, which is sure to be considerably injurious. Have you already in your mind a plan wholly, or partially formed? If you have, prossecute it without interference from me. If you have not, please inform me, so that I, incompetent as I may be, can try [to] assist in the formation of some plan for the Army. Yours as ever A LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS-F, ISLA. Copies of this letter and of Hooker's reply are preserved in the Lincoln Papers in an envelope endorsed by Lincoln ``Gen. Hooker. Visit to camp, May 7 1863.'' Hooker's reply is as follows:

``I have the honor to acknowledge your communication of this date, and in answer have to state that I do not deem it expedient to suspend operations on this line from the reverse we have experienced in endeavoring to extricate the army from its present position. If in the first effort we failed it was not from want of strength or conduct of the small number of the troops actually engaged, but from a cause which could not be foreseen, and could not be provided against. After its occurrence the chances of success were so much lessened that I felt another plan might be adopted in place of that we were engaged in, which would be more certain in its results. At all events, a failure would not involve disaster, while in the other case it was certain to follow the absence of success. I may add that this consideration almost wholly determined me in ordering the army to return to its old camp.

``As to the best time for renewing our advance upon the enemy, I can only decide after an opportunity has been afforded to learn the feeling of the troops. They should not be discouraged or depressed, for it is no fault of theirs---if I may except one Corps---that our last efforts were not crowned with glorious victory. I suppose details are not wanted of me at this time.

``I have decided in my own mind the plan to be adopted in our next effort, ---if it should be your wish to have one made. It has this to recommend it---It will be one in which the operations of all the Corps, unless it be a part of the Cavalry, will be within my personal supervision.'' (DLC-RTL).

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Hon Secretary of War. Head Quarters A.P. May 7, 1863.

Have you any news? and if any what is it? I expect to be up to-night. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   Tracy, p. 223. Stanton's reply, if any, has not been located.

Page  202

To Edward Bates [1]

May 8, 1863

This resignation is accepted; and the Attorney General will please send me immediately an appointment of Joshua Tevis, to fill the vacancy. A. LINCOLN

May 8. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA GE RG 60, Papers of Attorney General, Segregated Lincoln Material. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter of resignation from U.S. District Attorney Thomas E. Bramlette of Kentucky, May 4, 1863. Bramlette had accepted the nomination of the Union Central Committee as candidate for governor of Kentucky. Joshua Tevis of Louisville was appointed.

To Salmon P. Chase [1]

Executive Mansion,
Hon. S. P. Chase Washington, May 8. 1863.

My dear Sir. I address this to you personally, rather than officially, because of the nature of the case. My mind is made up to remove Victor Smith as Collector of the Customs at the Puget Sound District. Yet, in doing this, I do not decide that the charges against him are true. I only decide that the degree of dissatisfaction with him there is too great for him to be retained. But I believe he is your personal acquaintance & friend; and if you shall desire it, I will try to find some other place for him. Yours as ever,

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. ADfS, DLC-RTL. See Lincoln to Chase, March 21, supra. Anson G. Henry telegraphed Lincoln on April 27. ``Has Victor Smith been removed. Am very anxious to know.'' (DLC-RTL). See further Lincoln to Chase, May 11, infra.

To Salmon P. Chase [2]

Hon. Secretary of Treasury: May 8, 1863

My dear Sir: Please send me, at once, an appointment of Henry Clay Wilson, of Washington Territory, to be collector of customs for the Puget Sound district, in place of Victor Smith. Yours truly,

A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB the Private Life and Public Services of Salmon Portland Chase (1874), p. 527.

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Executive Mansion,
Major General Hooker. Washington, May 8. 1863.

The news is here, of the capture, by our forces of Grand Gulf---a large & very important thing. Gen. Willich, [2] an exchangedPage  203 prisoner, just from Richmond, has talked with me this morning. He was there when our cavalry cut the roads in that vicinity. He says there was not a sound pair legs in Richmond, and that our men, had they known it, could have safely gone in and burnt every thing & brought us Jeff. Davis. We captured and parold three or four hundred men. He says, as he came to City point, there was an army three miles long (Longstreet's he thought) moving towards Richmond. Milroy has captured a despatch of Gen. Lee, in which he says his loss was fearful, in his late battle with you. [3]. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, IHi.

[2]   Brigadier General August Willich had been captured December 31, 1862, at Stone River near Murfreesboro, Tennessee.

[3]   General Milroy's telegram to General Schenck of 8 P.M., May 6, reads in part: ``A telegraphic dispatch was received at Edenburg an hour before my forces took this place, addressed to Major Myers [Samuel B. Myers] rebel commander . . . signed by General Lee, stating that they (the rebels) had gained a glorious victory, but with fearful loss on both sides. . . .'' (OR, I, XXV, II, 437).

Proclamation Concerning Aliens [1]

May 8, 1863

By the President of the United States of America:

A Proclamation.

Whereas the Congress of the United States, at its last Session, enacted a law, entitled ``An Act for enrolling and calling out the National Forces and for other purposes,'' which was approved on the 3d. day of March, last: and whereas it is recited in the said act that there now exist in the United States an insurrection and rebellion against the authority thereof, and it is, under the constitution of the United States, the duty of the Government to suppress insurrection and rebellion, to guaranty to each state a republican form of Government, and to preserve the public tranquillity; and whereas, for these high purposes, a military force is indispensable, to raise and support which all persons ought willingly to contribute; and whereas no service can be more praiseworthy and honorable than that which is rendered for the maintenance of the Constitution and Union, and the consequent preservation of free government: and whereas, for the reasons thus recited, it was enacted by the said statute that all able bodied male citizens of the United States, and persons of foreign birth who shall have declared on oath their intention to become citizens under and in pursuance of the laws thereof, between the ages ofPage  204 twenty and forty-five years, (with certain exceptions not necessary to be here mentioned,) are declared to constitute the national forces, and shall be liable to perform military duty in the service of the United States when called out by the President for that purpose:

And whereas it is claimed by and in behalf of persons of foreign birth, within the ages specified in said act, who have heretofore declared on oath their intentions to become citizens under, and in pursuance of, the laws of the United States, and who have not exercised the right of suffrage or any other political franchise under the laws of the United States, or of any of the States thereof, that they are not absolutely concluded by their aforesaid declaration of intention from renouncing their purpose to become citizens, and that, on the contrary, such persons, under treaties or the law of nations, retain a right to renounce that purpose, and to forego the privileges of citizenship and residence within the United States, under the obligations imposed by the aforesaid Act of Congress:---

Now, therefore, to avoid all misapprehensions concerning the liability of persons concerned to perform the service required by such enactment, and to give it full effect, I do hereby order and proclaim that no plea of alienage will be received or allowed to exempt from the obligations imposed by the aforesaid Act of Congress, any person of foreign birth who shall have declared on oath his intention to become a citizen of the United States under the laws thereof, and who shall be found within the United States at any time during the continuance of the present insurrection and rebellion, at or after the expiration of the period of sixty-five days from the date of this proclamation; nor shall any such plea of alienage be allowed in favor of any such person who has so, as aforesaid, declared his intention to become a citizen of the United States, and shall have exercised, at any time, the right of suffrage, or any other political franchise, within the United States under the laws thereof, or under the laws of any of the several States.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand, and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.

[L.S.]

Done at the city of Washington, this eighth day of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, and of the Independence of the United States the eighty-seventh. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

By the President:

WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA FS RG 11, Proclamations.

Page  205

To Charles W. Rand [1]

May 8, 1863

To C. W. Rand, Esq., Marshal of the United States for the Northern District of California:

Whereas, it has come to my knowledge that one Andres Castillero, and divers persons acting or claiming to act under him as his agents or assigns, have, under and by virtue of a pretended grant or grants from the lawfully constituted authorities of the Republic of Mexico, occupied and taken possession of, and made settlement on a portion of the public lands of the United States situate in the Country of Santa Clara and State of California, commonly called and known as the New Almaden Quicksilver mining property, and embracing about three thousand varas of land in all directions from the mouth of the mine commonly called and known as the New Almaden Quicksilver Mine, and have, for a long time past, by extracting valuable minerals therefrom and converting the same to their own use; by erecting buildings and other improvements thereon, and by other unauthorized acts, used and enjoyed the said portion of the public lands as if they were the lawful owners thereof, all of which acts have been without the consent, and against the rights of the United States: And whereas, by the decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in the case of Andres Castillero against the United States, at the December Term of the said Court last past, it has been adjudged that the grant or grants from the lawfully constituted authorities of the Republic of Mexico, under which the said Andres Castillero and the persons claiming under him as agents or assigns, have claimed and pretended to hold the said described portion of the public lands, is or are fraudulent and void, and conferred no right whatever to the said described portion of the public lands or to the minerals therein, whereby it appears that the said Andres Castillero and the persons claiming under him as agents or assigns, now in possession of the said described premises, are intruders thereon without right: And whereas, the said described portion of the public lands has never been surveyed and opened to settlement and sale under the laws of the United States:

Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, by virtue of the power and authority in me vested by the Act approved the 3d day of March, A.D. 1807, Chap. 46, entitled ``An Act to prevent settlements being made on lands ceded to the United States until authorized by law,'' do hereby order and direct you to enter upon that portion of the public lands situate in Santa

Page  206Clara County, in the State of California, commonly called and known as the New Almaden mining property, embracing about three thousand varas of land in all directions from the mouth of the mine commonly called and known as the New Almaden Quicksilver Mine, and to remove therefrom any and every person or persons who shall be found on the same, and deliver the said premises, with all the appurtenances of whatsoever kind to the possession of Leonard Swett, an agent who has been duly authorized by me to take possession of and hold the same for the United States, and also that you take such measures and call to your assistance such military force of the United States in California as may be necessary to execute this order.

In witness whereof, I have hereunto affixed my hand, this eighth day of May, A.D. 1863. ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Gregory Yale, Legal Titles to Mining Claims and Water Rights, in California . . . (1867), pp. 401-402; copy, DLC-RTL. The copy in the Lincoln Papers is undated, but Yale dates this order as above. The original is apparently lost since the San Francisco fire. For a discussion of the surrounding circumstances of this order, see Samuel C. Wiel, Lincoln's Crisis in the Far West (1949). See also Lincoln to Leonard Swett and Frederick F. Low, July 9, infra.

To Peter H. Watson [1]

May 8, 1863

Will Mr. Watson please act upon this case as soon as possible.

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DNA WR RG 107, Register of Secretary of War, Letters Received, P 96. The original documents are missing, but the register indicates that Lincoln's note referred ``Mr. Peckham's proposal to sell patent rifles and his method of making cartridges.'' No further reference has been found.

To Hiram Barney [1]

Hon. Hiram Barney Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir. Washington, May 9. 1863.

This introduces Gov. Wright, of Indiana, whose name, if not his person, you certainly know. He is trying to raise a little money, not for himself, but to carry some articles to the World's Fair at Hamburg. I shall be glad if, by your acquaintance with the rich men, you can render him some assistance. Yours truly

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, owned by Arthur Wendell, Rahway, New Jersey. Joseph A. Wright, Governor of Indiana 1849-1857, was commissioner to the exposition at Hamburg.

Page  207

To Edward Bates [1]

May 9, 1863

In speaking of the discretion which the District Attorney might use, I alluded to such discretion as is conferred by the law; and I certainly did not mean to say, I would undertake to confer an enlarged discretion upon him. A. LINCOLN

May 9. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA GE RG 60, Papers of Attorney General, Segregated Lincoln Material. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Charles W. Prentiss, New York attorney, May 7, 1863, endorsed by Solomon Foot in concurrence, asking that the president put in writing a verbal statement made to Prentiss to the effect that U.S. District Attorney E. Delafield Smith was ``at liberty to use his discretion'' in settling the case of the John Gilpin, a vessel seized as a prize for running the blockade loaded with cotton. Welles' Diary on May 12 records the cabinet discussion on the case, ``There has been a good deal of outside engineering in this case. Chase thought if the parties were loyal it was a hard case. I said all such losses were hard, and asked whether it was hardest for the wealthy, loyal owners, who understood to run the blockade with their cotton, or the brave and loyal sailors who made the capture and were by law entitled to the avails, to be deprived. I requested him to say which of these parties should be the losers. He did not answer. I added this was another of those cases that belonged to the courts exclusively, with which the Executive ought not to interfere. All finally acquiesced in this view.''

To John A. Dix [1]

Washington City, May 9. 1863

Major General Dix It is very important for Hooker to know exactly what damage is done to the Railroads, at all points between Fredericksburg and Richmond. As yet we have no word as to whether the crossings of the North and South Ana, or any of them, have been touched. There are four of these crossings, that is, one on each road on each stream. You readily perceive why this information is desired. I suppose Kilpatrick or Davis [2] can tell. Please ascertain fully what was done, & what is the present condition, as near as you can, and advise me at once. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Colonel Judson Kilpatrick of the First Brigade, Third Cavalry Division, reported to Dix at 6:50 P.M., ``General [David M.] Gregg was ordered to destroy the bridges referred to. I only burned those over the Chickahominy. I do not know that he succeeded, but was told by prisoners that he did.'' (OR, I, XXV, II, 456).

Dix replied to Lincoln's query on May 11, ``Mr. Ould [Robert Ould, Confederate agent for exchange of prisoners] says neither of the two bridges over the South Anna nor the bridge over the North Anna was destroyed. The railroad communication is uninterrupted. . . .'' (Ibid., p. 465).

[2]   Colonel Hasbrouck Davis of the Twelfth Illinois Cavalry.

Page  208

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Hon. Sec. of War Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir--- Washington, May 9. 1863.

I wish you would make out the appointment of Lilley at once. He has my word in writing, and I can not afford to break it. I appreciate your opposition to him; but you can better afford to let him be appointed, than I can afford to break my word with him. Yours as ever A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS (copy?), DLC-RTL. See Lincoln to Stanton, April 20, supra. On May 11, Montgomery C. Meigs transmitted the papers in the case of William Lilley to Stanton, and cited the following statement from General Rufus Saxton:

``With regard to the treatment of the poor, defenceless blacks . . . I can only say that W. Lilly's course was such as to outrage all the common feelings of humanity, characterised by the most cowardly and brutal treatment, and apparently in one or two instances by criminal indecency. Habitually in a state of partial intoxication, he grossly insulted the wife of the only loyal white man in South Carolina who claimed our protection, while her husband and herself were in his house.

``Unanimously rejected by the Senate as an Assistant Quartermaster, a Court Martial held on the spot where he performed his `efficient service,' after a long and impartial trial, justly sentenced him to be cashiered.'' (DLC-RTL).

On May 15, Senator Henry Wilson wrote Lincoln, ``I am constrained by a sense of duty, after reading papers in the War office, to withdraw my letter in favor of Mr Lilley for Quarter Master. I had not examined the matter, and relied . . . upon the opinion of Mr. King, but I find I have made a mistake, and desire to right it.'' (Ibid.).

Presumably Lincoln dropped the matter, although Lilley wrote a further plea on June 8.

To Edwin M. Stanton [2]

Hon. Sec. of War Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir Washington, May 9. 1863.

Please inform me on what ground Dr. Worster of this City has been arrested. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's letter was returned with an endorsement by Captain Henry B. Todd, headquarters provost marshal, May 11, 1863, stating that Dr. R. J. Worster ``was arrested for obtaining money from Soldiers and assisting them in obtaining fraudulent & illegal Discharges. . . .''

To John P. Usher [1]

Executive Mansion, May 9, 1863.

The Secretary of the Interior will send me a temporary commission for the within named Alfred R. Elder, as Indian Agent at Olympia, Washington Territory. A. LINCOLN

Page  209

Annotation

[1]   ES, DNA NR RG 48, Appointments, Indian Agencies, Box 1274. The endorsement is written on a letter from Usher transmitting recommendations for Alfred R. Elder of Washington Territory. Elder was appointed agent of Medicine Creek Agency.

To Peter H. Watson [1]

Mr. Watson, Assistant Secretary of War, please see the bearer, who is the man of whom I spoke in reference to a diving invention.

May 9, 1863. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Hertz, II, 866. The bearer has not been identified.

To Daniel Butterfield [1]

War Department, Washington City,
Major General Butterfield: May 11, 1863.

About what distance is it from the Observatory, we stopped at last Thursday to the line of enemys works you ranged the glass upon for me? A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Thirty-eighth Congress, Second Session, Report of the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War (1865), I, 237. General Butterfield replied at 6:15 P.M., ``About two miles in a direct line.'' (DLC-RTL).

To Salmon P. Chase [1]

Hon. Secretary of Treasury: May 11, 1863

My dear Sir: I have just learned that Henry C. Wilson, whom I had appointed as the successor of Victor Smith, at Puget Sound, is dead. Please send me a commission for Frederick A. Wilson. Yours truly, A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB and Public Services of Salmon Portland Chase (1874), p. 527. See Lincoln's letters to Chase, May 8, supra. On May 11, Chase wrote Lincoln as follows:

``Some weeks ago you verbally directed me to investigate the papers connected with the case of the Collector for the Puget Sound District. . . .

``Almost immediately afterwards important business . . . called me to the Eastern Cities. On leaving I directed the Assistant Secretary to examine all the papers . . . so that, on my return, I could at once make the investigation you required.

``I came back on Friday night (8th) & was informed . . . that you had already directed him to make out . . . a Commission for a new Collector.

``This information surprised and greatly pained me; for I had not thought it possible that you would remove an officer of My Department, without awaiting the result, although somewhat delayed, of an investigation directed by yourself; and appoint a successor . . . without even consulting me. . . .

``Today I have received your note stating that the person for whom, in myPage  210 absence, a commission was prepared, is deceased; and directing one to be made out for another person of whom I know absolutely nothing. . . .

``I can ask, of course, nothing more than conference. The right of appointment belongs to you; and if . . . your judgment . . . differs from mine, it is my duty to acquiesce, cheerfully; unless, indeed, the case be one of such a character, as to justify my withdrawal from my post. I have, however, a right to be consulted. . . .

``The blank commission which you direct me to send . . . is enclosed. . . . It is enclosed, however, with my most respectful protest against the precedent; and with the assurance that if you find anything in my views to which your own sense of duty will not permit you to assent, I will, unhesitatingly, relieve you from all embarrassment so far as I am concerned by tendering you my resignation.'' (DLC-RTL).

Lincoln endorsed on the envelope, ``First offer of resignation.'' Lewis C. Gunn of California was appointed to replace Victor Smith, but in 1865 Frederick A. Wilson received the post following Gunn's resignation. See Lincoln to Chase, May 13, infra.

To John A. Dix [1]

Washington City,
Major General Dix. May 11. 1863

Do the Richmond papers have anything about Grand Gulf or Vicksburg? A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Dix replied (received at 4:35 P.M.), ``I had but a moment to examine the papers. I have enclosed them to the Secretary of War I saw nothing of Grand Gulf or Vicksburg'' (DLC-RTL).

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Hon. Sec. of War. Executive Mansion.
Dear Sir: Washington. May 11th. 1863.

I have again concluded to relieve Genl Curtis. I see no other way to avoid the worst consequences there. I think of Gen. Schofield for his successor; but I do not wish to take the matter of a successor out of the hands of yourself and Genl Halleck. Yours truly. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DNA WR RG 108, HQA, Letters Received, 428, Box 62. A communication signed by Samuel T. Glover and others, May 1, 1863, reads as follows:

``The disorders in this Military department are frightful. Crime in almost every from is committed with impunity. These disorders are not accidental but result from party principles and organization encouraged and assisted by the Military power which instead of being exerted for our protection is being used to promote the evils of which we complain. ``The `Revolutionists' as they boastfully style themselves . . . whose avowed purpose is the immediate abolition of Slavery, regardless of the constitutional rights of our citizens are assisted in their operations by the Chief of this department. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

Page  211On May 2 Governor Gamble pressed for the removal of General Curtis (ibid.). Bates' Diary records on May 11 that Austin A. King and John B. Henderson ``are here, urging upon the Prest the necessity to make a change of commander in Mo., and at once.'' See also Lincoln to Stanton, March 9, supra.

To Edward Bates [1]

Hon. Attorney General Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir: Washington, May 12. 1863.

Please get me up a pardon similar to the one we gave to the son of Gen. Sterling Price, for John Orcutt Carpenter, of Kentucky. Yours truly A LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, DNA RG 204, U.S. Pardon Attorney, A 472. See Lincoln to Bates, November 19, 1862, supra, concerning pardon of Edwin R. Price. No further reference has been found concerning John Orcutt Carpenter.

To Joseph Holt [1]

Sentence commuted to suspension of two months rank and pay proper, to commence March 30th. 1863 A. LINCOLN

May 12, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA WR RG 153, Judge Advocate General, MM 187. Lincoln's endorsement is written on the court-martial record of Lieutenant Adelbert S. Eddy, Fourth New York Heavy Artillery, dismissed from service for absence without leave and neglect of duty. Generals Abercrombie and Heintzelman recommended the commutation as given by Lincoln. See further Lincoln to Stanton, September 11, infra.

To Horatio Seymour [1]

Gov. Seymour Executive Mansion,
Albany, N. Y. Washington, May 12. [1863]

Dr. Swinburne and Mr. Gillett are here having been refused, as they say, by the War Department, permission to go to the Army of the Potomac. They now appeal to me, saying you wish them to go. I suppose they have been excluded by a rule which experience has induced the Department to deem proper; still they shall have leave to go, if you say you desire it. Please answer.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Letters from former Governor Edwin D. Morgan, May 5, and Governor Seymour, May 4, introduced Dr. John Swinburne and his assistant Mr. J. T. Gillett, who volunteered their services to the Army following the Battle of Chancellorsville (DLC-RTL). Seymour replied to Lincoln's telegram on May 13, ``I have great confidence in Dr. Swinbourn's skill but I cannot ask the Gov't. to violate its rules. You know best the interest of the Army & I shall be contented with your decision. I am obliged to you for your courtesy.'' (Ibid.).

Page  212

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

May 12, 1863

Sec. of War, please see Mr. Dole & others about the first colored regiment. Please do the best for them you can. . . .

Annotation

[1]   Parke-Bernet Catalog 939, March 1-2, 1948, No. 267. This partial text is all that is available. William P. Dole and others represented the Union League of Washington, D.C., in recommending Reverend J. D. Turner and W. G. Raymond who had applied for ``permission to raise a colored Regiment in this District'' (W. G. Raymond to Lincoln, April 25, 1863, DLC-RTL).

To Edwin M. Stanton [2]

May 12, 1863

The within is presented with a very praiseworthy object, and is submitted to the War Department, asking the best attention that can be consistently given to it. A. LINCOLN

May 12. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, IHi. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a memorial from the Union League of Philadelphia recommending employment of disabled veterans in ``the lighter military and civil duties connected with the Provost Guard, the Arsenals of construction . . . ordnance department. . . .'' etc.

To Gideon Welles [1]

Hon. Sec. of Navy, please see & hear Hon. Mr. Casey.

May 12. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, Ct. On the back of the card bearing Lincoln's note is Welles' pencilled endorsement, ``Mr C. wanted special favor to trade for cotton &c &c. not granted.'' Mr. Casey has not been identified, but may have been Samuel L. Casey of Kentucky.

To Pedro Diez Canseco [1]

May 13, 1863

Abraham Lincoln,

President of the United States of America,

To His Excellency

Senor Don Pedro Diez Canseco,

Second Vice President of the Republic of Peru, charged with Executive Power.

Sir: I have been deeply touched by the announcement, contained in the letter which you addressed to me under date of thePage  213 eleventh ultimo, of the decease of the Most Excellent President of the Republic of Peru, the Grand Marshal, Don Miguel San Roman.

Regarding the interests of the Spanish American Republics with no common concern, I have not failed to observe the incidents of the brief administration of the Grand Marshal, Senor San Roman, with admiration and respect, and to anticipate for the Republic a most prosperous and brilliant future in the developmement [sic] of his wise and sagacious policy.

I offer to your Excellency and to the Peruvian Nation my sincere sympathy and condolence in this painful event.

As your Excellency has entered upon the duties of the Presidency, ad interim, under Constitutional sanction, prescribing to yourself such a course as must invite the approval and cooperation of other Powers, I cannot but believe that the Supreme Ruler of the Universe will guide the counsels of Your Excellency to a happy issue.

And so commending you to His safe and Holy Keeping. I remain, Your Excellency's Good Friend, ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

By the President:

WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.

Washington, May 13, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DNA FS RG 59, Communications to Foreign Sovereigns and States, III, 207-208.

To Salmon P. Chase [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington,
Hon. Secretary of the Treasury: May 13, 1863.

My dear Sir: I return the letters of General Garfield and Mr. Flanders. I am sorry to know the general's pet expedition under Colonel Streight, has already been captured. Whether it had paid for itself, as he hoped, I do not know. If you think it proper to fill the agency mentioned by Mr. Flanders, by all means let Mr. F. be the man. [2]

Please send me over the commission for Lewis C. Gunn, as you recommend, for collector of customs at Puget Sound. [3] Yours truly,

A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB, Account of the Private Life and Public Services of Salmon Portland Chase (1874), p. 528. The letters of General James A. Garfield and Benjamin F. Flanders have not been located. Colonel Abel D. Streight commanding a raiding party sent from Tuscumbia, Alabama, to cut railroads,Page  214

was captured with 1,600 men by General Nathan Bedford Forrest near Rome, Georgia, on May 3, 1863.

[2]   Flanders was appointed supervising special agent of the Treasury Department at New Orleans.

[3]   See Lincoln to Chase, May 11, supra.

To Salmon P. Chase [2]

May 13, 1863

I understand there are, or have been, some charges against Lieutenant Merryman, of which I know nothing. I only wish to say, he was raised from childhood in the town where I lived, and I remember nothing against him as boy or man.

His father, now dead, was a very intimate acquaintance and friend of mine. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB Lieutenant James H. Merryman of the revenue service was the son of Dr. Elias H. Merryman. Concerning Merryman's difficulties with Victor Smith, collector of customs at Port Townsend, Washington Territory, see OR, I, L, I, 1099, and I, L, II, 70-72. Merryman remained in the service for over twenty years. See Lincoln to Welles, April 8, 1864, infra.

To Salmon P. Chase [1]

Hon. Sec. of Treasury: Please see Capt. Martin, well vouched as a good man who seeks a position in the Marine Revenue service

May. 13. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Mr. Martin has not been identified and is not listed in the U.S. Official Register, 1863.

To John W. Forney [1]

Col. Forney Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir Washington, May 13. 1863.

I wish to lose no time in thanking you for the excellent and manly article in the Chronicle on ``Stonewall Jackson'' Yours truly

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, ORB. Forney had on May 12 written Lincoln a letter of apology for ``a most ungenerous criticism upon Generals Halleck and Hooker'' which had appeared in the Philadelphia Press. The editorial on the death of Stonewall Jackson in the Washington Chronicle of May 13 was as generous to the enemy as the Press had been ungenerous to the Union leaders. Forney acknowledged Lincoln's note as follows, ``Thanks for your kind letter, by the young gentleman who bears your name. I have been deeply chagrined by the error in my Phila. paper a few days ago, in my absence, and am therefore glad to find that you can see also what is right and just. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

Page  215

To Anson G. Henry [1]

Dr. A. G. Henry Executive Mansion, Washington,
Metropolitan Hotel New-York. May 13. 1863.

Governor Chase's feelings were hurt by my action in his absence. Smith is removed, but Gov. Chase wishes to name his successor, and asks a day or two to make the designation.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. See Lincoln to Chase, May 11, supra.

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Washington, D.C., May 13, 1863- 1 p.m.

Major-General Hooker: If it will not interfere with the service, nor personally incommode you, please come up and see me this evening. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   OR, I, XXV, II, 474. Hooker replied at 2:30 P.M., ``Will see you at Eight this Evening.'' (DLC-RTL).

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington,
Hon. Secretary of War May 13, 1863.

My dear Sir Since parting with you I have seen the Secretaries of State and the Treasury, and they both think we better not issue the special suspension of the Writ of Habeas Corpus spoken of. Gov. Chase thinks the case is not before Judge Swaine, [2] that it is before Judge Levett, that the writ will probably not issue, whichever the application may be before; and that, in no event, will Swaine commit an imprudence. His chief reason for thinking the writ will not issue, is that he has seen in a newspaper that Judge Levett [3] stated that Judge Swaine & he refused a similar application last year. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, DLC-Stanton Papers. On May 4, Clement L. Vallandigham had been arrested, on orders of General Burnside. On May 8, Burnside telegraphed in reply to a non-extant telegram from Lincoln, ``Your dispatch just rec'd. I thank you for your kind assurance of support & beg to say that every possible effort will be made on my part to sustain the Govt of the United States in its fullest authority.'' (DLC-RTL). The furor in Ohio and throughout the North over the arrest and ensuing trial was such that Secretary Stanton feared the impact on Union morale if the U.S. district judge should ignore the general proclamation suspending the writ of habeas corpus. On May 13, he therefore prepared an order especially suspending the writ in Vallandigham's case and drafted an accompanying despatch to Burnside. Both documents, unsigned, arePage  216

preserved in the Lincoln Papers. On May 19, Stanton ordered Burnside, at the direction of the president, to ``send C. L. Vallandigham under secure guard to the headquarters of General Rosecrans to be put by him beyond our military lines and in case of his return within our lines he be arrested and kept in close custody for the term specified in his sentence.'' (OR, II, V, 657).

[2]   Noah H. Swayne, associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court from Ohio, who with the U.S. district judges constituted the U.S. Circuit Court for Ohio.

[3]   Humphrey H. Leavitt, judge of the U.S. District Court for Southern Ohio, who later denied the motion for habeas corpus in a decision generally upholding not only Lincoln's power to suspend the writ but also General Burnside's order for the arrest of Vallandigham.

To Edwin M. Stanton [2]

Hon. Sec. of War please see Mr. Diggs. A. LINCOLN

May 13. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Mr. Diggs has not been identified.

To Joseph G. Totten [1]

Gen. Totten Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir Washington, May 13, 1863.

I wish to appoint William Whipple, son of the General who fell in the recent battle on the Rappahannock, to West-Point, next Spring, and I wish to file this with you as a remembrance upon the subject. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, DNA WR RG 94, U.S. Military Academy, 1863, No. 466, Box 83. General Amiel W. Whipple was killed at Chancellorsville; Charles W. Whipple is listed in the Official Register (1865) as in the third class at West Point.

To William C. Bryant [1]

Executive Mansion,
Mr. W. C. Bryant. Washington, May 14, 1863.

My dear Sir Yours requesting that Gen. Sigel may be again assigned to command, is received. Allow me to briefly explain. I kept Gen. Sigel in command for several months, he requesting to resign, or to be relieved. At length, at his urgent & repeated solicitation, he was relieved. Now it is inconvenient to assign him a command without relieving or dismissing some other officer, who is not asking, and perhaps would object, to being so disposed of. This is one of a class of cases; and you perceive how embarrassing they are. Yours very truly A. LINCOLN

Page  217

Annotation

[1]   ALS, in custody of Conrad G. Goddard, Roslyn, Long Island, New York. Bryant wrote on May 11, 1863, ``You will . . . pardon the liberty which I take in representing to you the universal desire of our German fellow citizens that General Sigel should be again placed in command of that part of the army of the Rappahannock which is composed of German soldiery and which has suffered some loss of credit in the recent battles. The enthusiasm in his favor among our German population is unanimous. . . . It is impossible, Sir, for you, where you are, to concieve of the strength and fervor of this wish of our German population. . . . The other day when it was said that General Sigel had been called to join the army under General Hooker it was the common exclamation that that single step `was equal to the addition of ten thousand men to the army.' '' (DLC-RTL).

On July 6, 1863, Sigel was assigned to command of militia and volunteer forces at Reading, Pennsylvania (OR, I, XXVII, III, 563).

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington,
Major General Hooker May 14. 1863.

My dear Sir: When I wrote you on the 7th. I had an impression that possibly, by an early movement, you could get some advantage from the supposed facts that the enemies communications were disturbed and that he was somewhat deranged in position. That idea has now passed away, the enemy having re-established his communications, regained his positions and actually received re-inforcements. It does not now appear probable to me that you can gain any thing by an early renewal of the attempt to cross the Rappahannock. I therefore shall not complain, if you do no more, for a time, than to keep the enemy at bay, and out of other mischief, by menaces and occasional cavalry raids, if practicable; and to put your own army in good condition again. Still, if in your own clear judgment, you can renew the attack successfully, I do not mean to restrain you. Bearing upon this last point, I must tell you I have some painful intimations that some of your corps and Division Commanders are not giving you their entire confidence. This would be ruinous, if true; and you should therefore, first of all, ascertain the real facts beyond all possibility of doubt. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADfS, DLC-RTL. Hooker wrote Lincoln on May 13:

``My movements have been a little delayed by the withdrawal of many of the two-years' and nine-months' regiments, and those whose time is not already up it will be expedient to leave on this side of the river. This reduction imposes upon me the necessity of partial reorganization. My marching force of infantry is cut down to about 80,000, while I have artillery for an army of more than double that number. It has always been out of proportion, considering the character of the country we have to campaign in, and I shall be more efficient by leaving at least one-half of it in depot. In addition, Stoneman's cavalry returnedPage  218 to camp day before yesterday, and will require a day or two more to be in readiness to resume operations.

``I know that you are impatient, and I know that I am, but my impatience must not be indulged at the expense of dearest interests.

``I am informed that the bulk of Longstreet's force is in Richmond. With the facilities at hand, he can readily transfer it to Lee's army, and no doubt will do so if Lee should fight and fall back, as he will try to do.

``The enemy's camps are reported to me as being more numerous than before our last movement, but of this I have no positive information. They probably have about the same number of troops as before the last battle, but with these and Longstreet's they are much my superior, besides having the advantage of acting on the defensive, which, in this country, can scarcely be estimated.

``I hear nothing of Peck's movements and of the force at West Point, which is too small to be of much importance in the general movement. If it is expected that Peck will be able to keep Longstreet's force in and about Richmond, I should be informed of it, and if not, a reserve infantry force of 25,000 should be placed at my disposal in this vicinity. I merely state this for your information, not that I know even that you have such a force, or, if you have, that you would be disposed to make use of it in this way. I only desire that you should be informed of my views. In my opinion, the major part of the troops on the Upper Potomac, in and around Washington and Baltimore, are out of position, and if great results are expected from the approaching movement, every man and vessel at the disposal of the Government should be assigned their posts. I hope to be able to commence my movement to-morrow, but this must not be spoken of to any one. . . .'' (OR, I, XXV, II, 473).

To Henry T. Blow, Charles D. Drake and Others [1]

Hon. H. T. Blow Executive Mansion,
C. D. Drake & others Washington,
St. Louis, Mo May 15, 1863. [9 P.M.]

Your despatch of to-day is just received. It is very painful to me that you in Missouri can not, or will not, settle your factional quarrel among yourselves. I have been tormented with it beyond endurance for months, by both sides. Neither side pays the least respect to my appeals to your reason. I am now compelled to take hold of the case. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. The telegram to which Lincoln replied reads as follows: ``The Telegraph reports the probable appointment of Gen Schofield to command this Dept. We a committee last Monday by the largest meeting of Union people ever held in St Louis pray to suspend that appointment until you hear from us'' (DLC-RTL).

In reply to a despatch from Major General Francis J. Herron, commanding at Rolla, Missouri, threatening to resign rather than serve under Schofield, Stanton replied on May 17 that the president ``directs me to say that he is unaware of any valid objection to General Schofield, he having recently commanded the Department of the Missouri, giving almost universal satisfaction so far as the President ever heard. He directs me to add that he has appreciated the services of General Herron and rewarded them by rapid promotions, but that, even in him, insubordination will be met as insubordination, and that your resignation will be acted upon as circumstances may require whenever it is tendered.'' (OR, I, XXII, II, 285).

Page  219

To James Guthrie [1]

Hon. James Guthrie Washington City,
Louisville, Ky. May 16 1863 [8:35 P.M.]

Your despatch of to-day is received. I personally know nothing of Col. Churchill; but months ago; [2] and more than once, he has been represented to me as exerting a mischievous influence at St. Louis, for which reason I am unwilling to force his continuance there against the judgment of our friends on the ground. But if it will oblige you, he may come to, and remain at Louisville, upon taking the oath of allegiance, and your pledge for his good behavior. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. See Lincoln to Stanton, infra. Guthrie telegraphed Lincoln on May 16 as follows: ``Col. Samuel B. Churchill, of Saint Louis, formerly of this city, has been banished South with his wife and seven children, five of them very small. Colonel Churchill is a man of intelligence and high character, of moderate fortune. It will utterly ruin him to have to go South. I respectfully request that his sentence be commuted. He will take the oath and give bond if allowed. I ask this because I know him and rely on his honor, and he is a cousin of my children.'' (OR, II, V, 627).

[2]   See Lincoln to Lazarus W. Powell, February 4, 1862, supra.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Hon. Sec. of War. War Department
My dear Sir. Washington City, May 16. 1863

The commander of the Department at St. Louis, has ordered several persons South of our military lines, which order is not disapproved by me. Yet, at the special request of Hon. James Guthrie, I have consented to one of the number, Samuel Churchill, remaining at Louisville, Ky, upon condition of his taking the oath of allegiance, and Mr. Guthrie's word of honor for his good behavior. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, IHi. See Lincoln to Guthrie, supra, and to Stanton, May 19, infra.

To Edwin M. Stanton [2]

Executive Mansion May 16th. 1863

The Secretary of War will please instruct Major General Burnside to parole Major Clarence Prentice now a rebel prisoner in Camp Chase, Ohio, to remain outside the limits of both the loyal and disloyal States, or so-called ``Confederate States,'' of the United States of America, during the present rebellion, and to abstain from in any wise aiding or abetting said rebellion. A LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ES-F, ISLA. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from George D. Prentice, May 6, 1863, requesting that the president reply to an earlier letter of April 28 which reads:Page  220

``Mr. Lincoln, I have a great favor to ask of you. Hear me! My only child, Clarence J. Prentice, God help him, is a major in the Confederate service. A few weeks ago he came into Kentucky and being cut off from his command he came by night to his home to see me and his mother and his baby. He was seen coming and in a few hours arrested. He is now at Camp Chase and his mother in Columbus. He desires I know to serve no longer in the war. He would be a great loss to the Confederates, for he has been one of their most effective officers.

``I do not suppose . . . that you can parole my boy upon his taking the noncombatant's oath to remain in the United States though I should be most happy if you could; but I fervently appeal to you to let him go upon his taking that simple oath anywhere outside of the United States and of the rebel Confederacy. I know his plans. His mother will go with him and he will never bear arms against us again. I will be surety for this with fortune and life. I have written to General Burnside to let my son remain at Camp Chase till I hear from you. Please let it be soon for I am most unhappy.'' (OR, II, V, 527-28).

As printed in the Official Records, Prentice's letter of April 28 bears three endorsements. The first, Joseph Holt to Stanton, May 16, 1863, is as follows: ``Clarence J. Prentice himself has made no communication to the Government purposes. When prisoners of war are willing to take the oath of allegiance it is the practice to permit them to do so. When they are not thus willing they have been invariably exchanged under the cartel. The intermediate course now proposed has not been pursued because the Government would thereby lose the advantage of the exchange and because no satisfactory . . . guaranty would exist that the prisoner thus tenderly dealt with would not at the first opportunity reenter the rebel military service. . . . He left his home in a State then and still loyal and voluntarily and wantonly banded with traitors. . . . It is for the Secretary to determine whether the established policy . . . shall be modified in his favor.''

The second endorsement, Brigadier General Edward R. S. Canby to Colonel William Hoffman, commissary general of prisoners, is dated May 22: ``Colonel: I submitted this paper to the Secretary of War yesterday and he said that he was under the impression that the President had given an order permitting Prentice to go abroad. Has it been done?''

The third endorsement, Hoffman to Canby, undated, is as follows: ``There is no record in this office of any special orders in the case of Major Prentice. On the 13th instant he was sent from Camp Chase to City Point for exchange.''

One infers that Prentice's letter of May 6, bearing Lincoln's order of May 16 endorsed on the verso, was ``lost'' in the War Department. Major Clarence Prentice was exchanged and fought on until the end of the war as major and later colonel in the Confederate Army.

To Joseph Holt [1]

Judge Advocate General please examine, and report upon, this case.

May 17. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA RG 153, Judge Advocate General, General Court Martial, MM 187. See Lincoln to Holt, May 12, supra. On June 22 Nicolay returned the papers in the case of Lieutenant Adelbert S. Eddy to Holt with the notation that the case had already been decided by the president (ibid.). See also Lincoln to Stanton, September 11, infra.

Page  221

Memorandum:
Appointment of Ernest L. Kinney [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, May 17, 1863.

Ernest L. Kinney seeks the appointment of a 2nd. Lieutenant in the Regular Army. He has been five years at Churchill's Military School---not West-Point. He is a Lieutenant in the 54th. N.Y. Vols, and was assigned to Gen. Tyler's Staff last December, in which service he has continued till now, & still is. His regiment is about being disbanded by consolidation, & he fears being thrown out of service thereby. For this reason he seeks the appointment. He is a family relation of Senator Dixon of Connecticut.

Annotation

[1]   AD, DLC-RTL. Second Lieutenant Ernest L. Kinney remained in the Volunteers until he resigned on November 14, 1864, to enlist as private in the First Cavalry on November 17, where he was commissioned second lieutenant on January 2, 1865.

Memorandum:
Appointment of Thomas J. Bishop [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, May 18. 1863.

Hon. John S. Phelps recommends Thomas J. Bishop, to be P. Marshal, in the now, 4th. Springfield District Mo. He fought at Springfield last winter & is a good man.

Annotation

[1]   AD, DLC-RTL. No record of Bishop's appointment has been found.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

PRIVATE
Hon. Secretary of War Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir Washington, May 18. 1863.

You will greatly oblige me, because it will be a matter of personal relief to me, if you will allow Hanscom's (the Republican's) accounts to be settled and paid. Yours truly A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, NHi. See Lincoln to Peter H. Watson, April 27, supra. The National Republican was designated by Lincoln as the official organ to print official government notices (see April 11, 1861, supra). Following a change of ownership Lincoln confirmed the designation on February 16, 1863, but for some reason the War Department failed to settle its accounts with the paper.

To Edwin M. Stanton [2]

[c. May 18, 1863]

Secretary of War please see Mr. Gibbs, with this letter from Gov. Andrew. A. LINCOLN.

Page  222

Annotation

[1]   Stan. V. Henkels Catalog 1494, November 20, 1935, No. 51. According to the catalog description Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Governor John A. Andrew, May 18, 1863. No further reference has been found and Mr. Gibbs has not been identified.

To Queen Victoria [1]

May 18, 1863

Abraham Lincoln

President of the United States of America

To Her Majesty Victoria

Queen of the United Kingdom

of Great Britain and Ireland.

&c &c. &c. Sendeth Greeting:

Great and Good Friend: I have received the letter which Your Majesty addressed to me on the 31st. day of March last, announcing the pleasing intelligence of the Marriage on the 10th. of that month of Your Majesty's dearly beloved son His Royal Highness Albert Edward Prince of Wales, Duke of Saxony, Prince of SaxeCoburg and Gotha &c. &c. with Her Royal Highness the Princess Alexandra Caroline Maria Charlotte Louisa Julia, eldest Daughter of His Royal Highness the Prince Christian of Denmark. Feeling a lively interest in whatever concerns the Welfare and happiness of Your Majesty's illustrious House, I pray Your Majesty to receive my cordial congratulations on this auspicious event, and my fervent Wishes that it may signally promote your own happiness and that of the Prince your son and his young spouse: And so I recommend Your Majesty and Your Majesty's Royal Family to the protection of the Almighty.

Written at Washington, the 18th day of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three. Your Good Friend, ABRAHAM LINCOLN

By the President

WILLIAM H. SEWARD Secretary of State.

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DNA FS RG 59, Communications to Foreign Sovereigns and States, III, 216-17.

To Joseph Holt [1]

May 19, 1863

Judge Advocate General, please examine and report upon this case. The young man is nephew of Ex. President Fillmore, who writes the within letter A. LINCOLN

May 19, 1863.

Page  223

Annotation

[1]   AES, owned by Charles W. Olsen, Chicago, Illinois. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Millard Fillmore, May 16, 1863, asking a court of inquiry for his nephew, First Lieutenant George M. Fillmore of the Third Artillery, dismissed on April 17, 1863, for intemperance. The register of letters received by the judge advocate general lists a missing letter or endorsement dated May 25 from John G. Nicolay (No. 410), that the president will take no action on the enclosed papers of Lieutenant Fillmore (DNA WR RG 153).

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

May 19, 1863

Sec. of War, please make up an order & send to Mr. Guthrie according to the despatches pro & con, in the case of Samuel B. Churchill. A. LINCOLN

May 19, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, NHi. See Lincoln to Guthrie, and to Stanton, May 16, supra. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a telegram from Joshua F. and James Speed, May 19, 9:10 A.M., ``Did you get our dispatch of Sunday about Churchill of St Louis The time is so short & we so anxious must be our apology for this message.'' The telegram of Sunday, May 17, is as follows: ``Samuel B. Churchill, of Saint Louis, was arrested in this city by order of General Curtis and taken to Saint Louis. We understand that he with his family . . . are ordered to leave for the South on Wednesday. We know Churchill well, being an old schoolmate and intimate friend to both of us. His father. . . . died a few months ago leaving a large estate and the prisoner one of his executors, with important and indispensable duties to discharge in which many of our and your friends are deeply interested, none of which can be discharged without his discretion. In view of all the circumstances we ask a revocation of this order, and we will hold ourselves bound for the faithful performance of any obligation which may be imposed on him. . . . The duties alluded to in connection with his father's estate are here. If his presence is hurtful in Saint Louis can he be allowed to remain here? If this is granted we will hold ourselves in honor bound to inform on him and arrest him should he do anything wrong. If this cannot be done can a respite be granted till one of us can see you or the Secretary of War?'' (OR, II, V, 631).

Following receipt of Lincoln's note on May 19, Stanton caused Special Orders No. 223 to be issued, allowing Churchill ``to reside at Louisville upon condition that he take the oath of allegiance to the Government of the United States and that the Hon. James Guthrie pledge himself to the officer commanding at Louisville that Colonel Churchill shall be of good behavior and do no act of hostility to the United States and communicate no information nor give any aid or comfort to the enemy. . . .'' (Ibid., pp. 663-64).

To Edward Bates [1]

Attorney General, please send me commissions according to the within. A. LINCOLN

May 20, 1863

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA RG 60, Papers of Attorney General, Appointments, Louisiana, Box 504 Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Benjamin F. FlandersPage  224

and Michael Hahn, May 9, 1863, recommending appointment of Edward H. Durell, Rufus Waples, and James Graham, as U.S. district judge, attorney, and marshal, respectively, for the Eastern District of Louisiana. The appointments were made accordingly.

To Edwin D. Morgan [1]

Hon. E.D. Morgan Washington, D.C.,
New-York May 20 1863

I presume the Commission of Hiatt has already gone forward, as the Sec. of the Treasury told me day-before yesterday he would send it forward. I wish the first time it is convenient you would call on me, as I feel sure I can give you some views in regard to this case which you do not think of A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Senator-elect Morgan had telegraphed at 10 P.M. on May 19, ``I hope you will not think it is asking too much to withhold the commission for Abrahm Hiatt until the friends of Depew can be heard.'' (DLC-RTL). Chauncey M. Depew, living at Peekskill, had actively supported Morgan for the Senate, but Abrahm Hyatt of Sing Sing, is listed in the U.S. Official Register, 1863, as assessor for the Tenth District in New York.

To William S. Rosecrans [1]

Major General Rosecrans Executive Mansion, Washington,
Nashville, Tenn. May 20, 1863. [9:50 A.M.]

Yours of yesterday in relation to Col. Haggard is received. I am anxious that you shall not misunderstand me. In no case have I intended to censure you, or to question your ability. In Col. Haggard's case I meant no more than to suggest that possibly you might have been mistaken, in a point that could be corrected. I frequently make mistakes myself, in the many things I am compelled to do hastily. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Rosecrans' telegram of May 19 is as follows: ``The autograph letter of your Excellency dated May first . . . respecting the case of Col. David R. Haggard has just been handed me by the colonel. It seems to me . . . that my action . . . is not properly understood. My duty as comdr of troops is to see that they are kept at their maximum of efficiency . . . officers exist only to effect this . . . this duty is just recognized . . . by Genl Order Number one hundred war Dept. of 1862 which requires . . . commanders to report all officers who by reason of ill health or other cause have been absent from duty over sixty days. This was Col. Haggard's case when I assumed the command of this Dept. but he was in ill health when I saw him. He continued in ill health & absent . . . more than sixty days & I reported the facts to the War Dept. . . . the War Dept. dismissed him instead of mustering him out . . . now the Col. appears here & has not a doubt of his health & physical ability to command his Regiment. . . . His former place has not as yet been filled. . . . I have no objection whatever to the revocation of the order wherebyPage  225

he was mustered out. . . . I have thought it proper & due to you as well as to my official action to say this much in this case because the note of your Excellency seemed to imply that his being mustered out of the service was an official mistake of the Comdr. of this Dept. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

No further reference has been found to the case of Colonel David R. Haggard of the Fifth Kentucky Cavalry, and Lincoln's letter to Rosecrans of May 1 has not been located. See further Lincoln to Haggard, May 25, infra.

To Ambrose E. Burnside [1]

Major General Burnside Washington City,
Cincinnati, Ohio, May 21. 1863.

In the case of Thomas M. Campbell, convicted as a Spy, let execution of the sentence be respited until further order from me, he remaining in custody meanwhile. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Thomas T. Eckert added a postscript to Lincoln's message, ``Please acknowledge receipt of the above telegram and time of delivery.'' Burnside replied at 4:30 P.M., ``The Telegram in relation to Thos M. Campbell was received at ten (10) minutes past four (4) and will be obeyed'' (DLC-RTL).

Thomas M. Campbell, captured on April 11, 1863, at Ruggles Mills, Kentucky, was tried by a military court at Cincinnati and sentenced to be hanged. He was not executed, but was held in close confinement on Johnson's Island, Ohio, until exchanged circa February, 1865. See Lincoln to Burnside, May 26, infra.

To William S. Rosecrans [1]

Major General Rosecrans Washington City,
Murfreesboro, Tenn. May 21. 1863 [4:45 P.M.]

For certain reasons it is thought best for Rev. Dr. Jaques not to come here. Present my respects to him, and ask him to write me fully on the subject he has in contemplation. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Rosecrans telegraphed Lincoln at 1:15 P.M., ``The Rev. Dr Jaques Col of Seventy third (73) Illinois, a man of high character & great influence in the Methodist Church has proposed a mission to the South which in my judgment is worthy of being laid before you. Will you authorize me to send him to Washington for that purpose.'' (DLC-RTL).

On May 19, Colonel James F. Jaquess, a Methodist minister of Quincy, Illinois, wrote General James A. Garfield, proposing to go into Confederate territory to seek out members of the Methodist Church and others opposed to war and to effect terms for their return to allegiance which would be acceptable to the government. On May 23, Jaquess wrote Lincoln, assuring the president that his proposed mission could not fail. Both letters were carried to Washington by James R. Gilmore, who enclosed them with his own letter of May 27, requesting an interview on the proposed mission and other matters in Tennessee (DLC-Nicolay Papers). See further Lincoln's letter to Rosecrans, May 28, infra.

Page  226

To Stephen A. Hurlbut [1]

Major General Hurlbut Washington, D.C.,
Memphis Tenn. May 22. 1863

We have news here in the Richmond newspapers of 20th. & 21st. including a despatch from Gen. Joe Johnson himself, that on 15th. or 16th. (a little confusion as to the day) Grant beat Pemberton & Loring [2] near Edwards' Station, at the end of a nine hours fight, driving Pemberton over the Big Black & cutting Loring off, & driving him South to Chrystal-Springs 25 miles below Jackson. Joe Johnson telegraphed all this, except about Loring, from his camp between Brownsville & Lexington, on the 18th. Another despatch indicates that Grant was moving against Johnson on the 18th.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Hurlbut replied on May 23:

``I forward the following, just received from Col. John A. Rawlins, assistant adjutant-general, rear of Vicksburg, 20th:

`` `The Army of the Tennessee landed at Bruinsburg on 30th April.

`` `On 1st May, fought battle of Port Gibson; defeated rebels under [John S.] Bowen, whose loss in killed, wounded, and prisoners was at least 1,500; loss in artillery, five pieces.

`` `On 12th May, at the battle of Raymond, rebels were defeated, with a loss of 800.

`` `On the 14th, defeated Joseph E. Johnston, captured Jackson, with loss to the enemy of 400, besides immense stores and manufactories, and seventeen pieces artillery.

`` `On the 16th, fought the bloody and decisive battle of Baker's Creek, in which the entire Vicksburg force, under [John C.] Pemberton, was defeated, with loss of twenty-nine pieces of artillery and 4,000 men.

`` `On the 17th, defeated same force at Big Black Bridge, with loss of 2,600 men and eleven pieces of artillery.

`` `On the 18th, invested Vicksburg closely. To-day General [Frederick] Steele carried the rifle-pits on the north of the city. The right of the army rests on the Mississippi above Vicksburg.'

``I learn further that there are from 15,000 to 20,000 men in Vicksburg, and that Pemberton lost nearly all his field artillery; that the cannonading at Vicksburg ceased about 3 p.m. of 20th. Grant has probably captured nearly all.'' (OR, I, XXIV, III, 344).

[2]   William W. Loring.

Remarks to ``The One-Legged Brigade'' [1]

May 22, 1863

The President complimented the Chaplain, and said there was no need of a speech from him, as the men upon their crutches were orators; their very appearance spoke louder than tongues. As their Chaplain had alluded to the work he was at present very busy about, viz. in cleaning the devil out of Washington, the President hoped that when we could present that famous adversary at the

Page  227White House on his stumps, and therefore somewhat incapable of further rebellion against constituted and divine authority, that we would let him know. Whereupon the Chaplain informed the President that he would send him word when the funeral of that arch rebel and great secessionist was to take place.

Annotation

[1]   Washington National Intelligencer, May 25, 1863. Other papers give brief mention of the visit to the White House of ``The One-Legged Brigade,'' convalescent veterans at St. Elizabeth Hospital. The veterans were introduced by their chaplain, the Reverend J. C. Richmond, in a short speech to which Lincoln replied.

To Joseph Holt [1]

Judge Advocate General Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir Washington, May 23. 1863.

Please send me, (if you have it) the record of the trial & conviction as a Spy, of William B. Compton, now in custody at Fort. Mc.Henry. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, owned by Carl Sandburg, Flat Rock, North Carolina. See Lincoln to Schenck, May 27, infra.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Hon. Sec. of War. Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir Washington, May 23. 1863.

In order to construct the Illinois Central Railroad, a large grant of land was made by the United States to the State of Illinois, which land was again given to the Railroad Company by the State, in certain provisions of the Charter. By the U.S. grant, certain previleges were attempted to be secured from the contemplated Railroad to the U.S., and by the charter certain per centage of the income of the road was to be from time to time paid to the State of Illinois. At the beginning of the present war the Railroad did certain carrying for the U.S. for which it claims pay; and, as I understand, the U.S. claims that at least part of this the road was bound to do without pay. Though attempts have been made to settle the matter, it remains unsettled; meanwhile the Road refuses to pay the per-centage to the State. This delay is working badly; and I understand the delay exists because of there being no definite decision whether the U.S. will settle it's own account with the Railroad, or will allow the State to settle it, & account to the State for it. If I had the leisure which I have not, I believe I could settlePage  228 it; but prima facie it appears to me we better settle the account ourselves, because that will save us all question as to whether the State deals fairly with us in the settlement of our account with a third party---the R.R.

I wish you would see Mr. Butler, late our State Treasurer, and see if something definite can not be done in the case. Yours truly

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS-P, ISLA. Lincoln endorsed the envelope, ``Please see Mr. Butler/May 23, 1863. A. Lincoln.'' An endorsement by Stanton referred the letter to the quartermaster general. Montgomery C. Meigs reported on May 27 (copy, IHi-Parsons Papers). On June 3 Meigs instructed the chief quartermaster Colonel Robert Allen of the Department of the West at St. Louis to settle all accounts with the railroad prior to May 3, 1862.

To Edwin M. Stanton [2]

May 23, 1863

There is a mistake somewhere in this case. By the accompanying copy of Gov. Curtin's letter, with my indorsement on it, it is seen that I removed the disability of Lt. Colonel Witherell, for the express purpose of allowing him to be appointed Lieut. Col. of the 82nd. Regt. & not, as the writer of this assumes, to allow him to be appointed to any regiment, other than the 82nd. Will the Sec. of War please have the matter corrected? or explain to me wherein the hitch is? A. LINCOLN

May 23. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, NHi. Lincoln's endorsement is written on the following letter from Assistant Adjutant General Thomas M. Vincent to John M. Wetherill, late major of the Eighty-second Pennsylvania Volunteers, May 13, 1863:

``Your application of date the 5th instant, in reference to your commission as Lieutenant Colonel of the 82d. Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, has been submitted to the Secretary of War and he directs me to inform you that you cannot be authorized to be mustered into that regiment.

``Your attention is invited to the telegram from this office of March 16. 1863, to the Governor of Pennsylvania, which removed the disability in your case, so far as any other regiment is concerned.''

Wetherill was appointed lieutenant colonel of the Eighty-second Pennsylvania on June 20, 1863.

To Anson Stager [1]

Anson Stager Washington, D.C.,
Cleveland, O. May 24 1863 [10:40 P.M.]

Late last night Fuller telegraphed you, as you say, that ``the stars and stripes float over Vicksburg, and the victory is complete''

Page  229Did he know what he said, or did he say it without knowing it? Your despatch of this afternoon throws doubt upon it.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Stager's telegram quoting from a telegram sent by William G. Fuller at Memphis on May 23 has not been located, but Stager's answer to Lincoln's query, received at 9:25 A.M. on May 25, reads: ``Fullers message to his wife was no doubt based upon the hopeful feeling expressed in the despatches from Below and also at Head Quarters in Memphis. He would have sent me the information direct if it had been based upon later advices---that was my reason for holding for confirmation'' (DLC-RTL).

To David R. Haggard [1]

Col. Haggard Executive Mansion,
Nashville. Tenn. Washington, May 25. 1863.

Your despatch to Green Adams has just been shown me. Gen. Rosecrans knows better than we can know here, who should be in charge of the (5th.) Fifth Cavalry. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. See Lincoln to Rosecrans, May 20, supra. Haggard's despatch to Green Adams has not been located. The Fifth Kentucky Cavalry was at the time commanded by Lieutenant Colonel William T. Hoblitzell.

To Joseph Holt [1]

Judge Advocate General Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir Washington, May 25. 1863.

Please send me the record, if you have it, of the conviction of John R. Syles, of Ky, as a Spy. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's letter was returned on May 26 by the judge advocate general's office with an endorsement, ``The record in the above case has not been received at this office.'' Lincoln undoubtedly misspelled the spy's name. On May 25, Halleck ordered General Burnside to suspend execution of John R. Lyle ``till further orders'' (OR, II, V, 696). See Lincoln to Burnside, May 26, infra.

To Richard Yates [1]

May 25, 1863

If the Governor of Illinois, in his discretion, see fit to reappoint Lieut. Gray to the place he was dismissed from, if it is still vacant, or to appoint him to any other Military Office, the disability now resting upon him to be so appointed, is hereby removed.

May 25, 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   Tracy, p. 224. Of the several lieutenants named Gray who are of record, none seems to have been dismissed so far as has been ascertained, and no further reference has been found to the case.

Page  230

To Isaac N. Arnold [1]

Private & confidential
Hon. I. N. Arnold. Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir: Washington, May 26. 1863.

Your letter advising me to dismiss Gen. Halleck is received. If the public believe, as you say, that he has driven Fremont, Butler, and Sigel from the service, they believe what I know to be false; so that if I were to yield to it, it would only be to be instantly beset by some other demand based on another falsehood equally gross. You know yourself that Fremont was relieved at his own request, before Halleck could have had any thing to do with it--- went out near the end of June, while Halleck only came in near the end of July. I know equally well that no wish of Halleck's had any thing to do with the removal of Butler or Sigel. Sigel, like Fremont, was relieved at his own request, pressed upon me almost constantly for six months, and upon complaints that could have been made as justly by almost any corps commander in the army, and more justly by some. So much for the way they got out. Now a word as to their not getting back. In the early Spring, Gen. Fremont sought active service again; and, as it seemed to me, sought it in a very good, and reasonable spirit. But he holds the highest rank in the Army, except McClellan, so that I could not well offer him a subordinate command. Was I to displace Hooker, or Hunter, or Rosecrans, or Grant, or Banks? If not, what was I to do? And similar to this, is the case of both the others. One month after Gen. Butler's return, I offered him a position in which I thought and still think, he could have done himself the highest credit, and the country the greatest service, but he declined it. [2] When Gen. Sigel was relieved, at his own request as I have said, of course I had to put another in command of his corps. Can I instantly thrust that other out to put him in again?

And now my good friend, let me turn your eyes upon another point. Whether Gen. Grant shall or shall not consummate the capture of Vicksburg, his campaign from the beginning of this month up to the twenty second day of it, is one of the most brilliant in the world. His corps commanders, & Division commanders, in part, are McClernand, McPherson, [3] Sherman, Steele, Hovey, [4] Blair, & Logan. And yet taking Gen. Grant & these seven of his generals, and you can scarcely name one of them that has not been constantly denounced and opposed by the same men who are now so anxious to get Halleck out, and Fremont & Butler & Sigel in. I believe no one of them went through the Senate easily, and certainlyPage  231 one failed to get through at all. [5] I am compelled to take a more impartial and unprejudiced view of things. Without claiming to be your superior, which I do not, my position enables me to understand my duty in all these matters better than you possibly can, and I hope you do not yet doubt my integrity. Your friend, as ever A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, ICHi. Isaac N. Arnold's letter of May 18 reads in part: ``I desire as one of your old & true friends to respectfully suggest whether in view of the condition of military affairs . . . the office of General in Chief should not either be discontinued, or filled by a person other than Halleck. . . . The people generally believe that it is his personal hostility & prejudice that has driven from the public service, & keeps out of employment such men as Butler, Fremont, & Sigel . . . .

``Whether this opinion is right or wrong a change is needed to inspire confidence. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

[2]   See Lincoln's letter to whom it may concern, February 11, supra.

[3]   Major General James B. McPherson.

[4]   Brigadier General Alvin P. Hovey of Indiana was a division commander under Grant.

[5]   Lincoln's reference is not entirely clear. Of the men named all were confirmed by the Senate in March, 1863, except Sherman, McClernand, and Hovey. No one of these three, however, appears in the Executive Journal as being up for re-appointment or promotion at this time. It is possible that Lincoln was confusing Alvin P. Hovey with Colonel Charles E. Hovey of the Thirty-third Illinois Volunteers, whose appointment as brigadier general expired on March 4, 1863, without having had confirmation by the Senate.

To Ambrose E. Burnside [1]

Major General Burnside Washington, D.C.,
Cincinnati, O. May 26. 1863

Your despatch about Campbell, Lyle & others received & postponement ordered by you, approved. I will consider & telegraph you again in a few days. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Burnside's despatch of May 26 is as follows: ``The extension of time to [Thomas M.] Campbell and [John R.] Lyle in justice requires the same extension to the others condemned to be hung on Johnson's Island next Friday, and I have therefore ordered that the executions be postponed one week till I can hear more definitely from you.'' (OR, II, V, 707).

To William T. Otto [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, May 26, 1863.

The Acting Secretary of the Interior will transmit to me a protempore commission for the appointment of Levi Bashford, of Wisconsin, to be Surveyor General of the U.S. for the Territory of Arizona. A. LINCOLN

Page  232

Annotation

[1]   ES, DNA NR RG 48, Applications, Surveyor General, Arizona, Box 1261. Lincoln's endorsement is on a letter from William T. Otto, May 26, 1863, submitting recommendations of Levi Bashford. Bashford's appointment was finally tabled by the Senate on July 4, 1864. He is listed as surveyor general, however, in the U.S. Official Register for 1863.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Let Isaac N. Phil[l]ips be appointed in place of William C. Carroll. A. LINCOLN

May 26. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, IHi. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from James B. Fry to Stanton, May 26, 1863, recommending that William C. Carroll's appointment as provost marshal of the Thirteenth District of Illinois be revoked because Carroll was not a resident of the district.

To Edwin M. Stanton [2]

Submitted to the Secretary of War, for his edification & consolation. A. LINCOLN

May 26. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, MH. Lincoln's endorsement is written on an envelope addressed ``President Lincoln/Washington D C.''

To William A. Buckingham [1]

Gov. Buckingham Executive Mansion, Washington,
Hartford, Conn. May 27. 1863. [2:50 P.M.]

The execution of Warren Whitmarch is hereby respited or suspended, until further order from me, he to be held in safe custody meanwhile. On receiving this, notify me. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Governor Buckingham's telegram, received at 9:45 A.M., is as follows:

``Warren Whitmarch is condemned to be shot at New London on friday next for desertion.

``I trust he will be reprieved until a full investigation can be made.'' (DLC-RTL).

No record has been found of the name as spelled by Lincoln or Buckingham, but Warren Whitmarsh of Company C, First Connecticut Cavalry is listed as captured on June 8, 1862, at Cross Keys, Virginia, and discharged on November 15, 1864, at the expiration of his term (Record of Connecticut Men in the War of the Rebellion).

To Salmon P. Chase [1]

Executive Mansion, May 27, 1863.

My dear Sir: The office of second comptroller is vacant by the death of Mr. Cutts. Of course I wish your concurrence whenever IPage  233 shall fill it. I believe the only applicants---whose papers are now before me---are Augustin Chester, late of Connecticut, now of Chicago, and John M. Broadhead, of this city. I herewith inclose their papers to you. I believe they are both competent and worthy gentlemen. Yours truly, A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   NH, VIII, 283-84. Chase replied on May 29, ``I send a commission for Mr. Brodhead. My choice between him and Mr. Chester who is also mentioned in your note . . . is determined by his great experience in the office & by the unanimous testimony of those who know him best to his superior capacity & diligence.'' (DLC-RTL).

John M. Brodhead of New Hampshire and Washington, D.C., is listed in the U.S. Official Register, 1863, as successor to James M. Cutts, Sr.

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Washington, May 27, 1863-11 p.m.

Major-General Hooker: Have you Richmond papers of this morning? If so, what news? A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   OR, I, XXV, II, 529. Hooker replied at 11:20 P.M., ``I have received your telegram of 11 p.m. Rumors, and reports of rumors indicate that important changes are being made by them. Nothing, however, so far as I know, is sufficiently developed to determine what these changes are. The Richmond paper of yesterday I have, but it contains no news. I will keep you fully advised.'' (Ibid.).

To William S. Rosecrans [1]

Major General Rosecrans. Washington City,
Murfreesboro, Tenn. May 27. 1863.

Have you any thing from Grant? Where is Forrest's Head-Quarters? A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Rosecrans replied at 10:15 P.M., ``According to our latest news, Forrest's headquarters were at Spring Hill yesterday, and moved to Riggs' cross-roads, 18 miles southwest of here, to-day. The latest from Grant we have is of the rebel dispatch last night, saying that Johnston had crossed Big Black north of him with 20,000 men. they were not jubilant at 2 o'clock to-day, when our provost-marshal was on their front, talking to Dr. [Benjamin F.] Avent Bragg's chief surgeon.'' (OR, I, XXIII, II, 366).

To Robert C. Schenck [1]

Major General Schenck Executive Mansion,
Baltimore, Md. Washington, May 27, 1863.

Let the execution of William B. Compton be respited or suspended till further order from me, holding him in safe custody meanwhile. On receiving this, notify me. A. LINCOLN.

Page  234

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. See Lincoln to Holt, May 23, supra. No reply from Schenck has been located. Later references to William B. Compton in the Official Records indicate that he was still in confinement at Fort McHenry in January, 1865.

To John M. Schofield [1]

Executive Mansion,
Gen. J. M. Schofield Washington, May 27. 1863.

My dear Sir: Having relieved Gen. Curtis and assigned you to the command of the Department of the Missouri---I think it may be of some advantage for me to state to you why I did it. I did not relieve Gen. Curtis because of any full conviction that he had done wrong by commission or omission. I did it because of a conviction in my mind that the Union men of Missouri, constituting, when united, a vast majority of the whole people, have entered into a pestilent factional quarrel among themselves, Gen. Curtis, perhaps not of choice, being the head of one faction, and Gov. Gamble that of the other. After months of labor to reconcile the difficulty, it seemed to grow worse and worse until I felt it my duty to break it up some how; and as I could not remove Gov. Gamble, I had to remove Gen. Curtis. Now that you are in the position, I wish you to undo nothing merely because Gen. Curtis or Gov. Gamble did it; but to exercise your own judgment, and do right for the public interest. Let your military measures be strong enough to repel the invader and keep the peace, and not so strong as to unnecessarily harrass and persecute the people. It is a difficult role, and so much greater will be the honor if you perform it well. If both factions, or neither, shall abuse you, you will probably be about right. Beware of being assailed by one, and praised by the other. Yours truly

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADfS, DLC-RTL. The envelope in which the draft was filed bears Lincoln's endorsement ``To Gen Schofield---May 27. 1863. & to Gen Curtis June 8. 1863.'' Schofield replied on June 1, ``I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter . . . explaining the reasons which induced you to make a change in the command of this department, and your wish as to the principle which shall guide me. . . . I shall not fail to carry out your wishes to the fullest extent in my power, and shall be thankful for such instructions and advice as you may at any time be pleased to give me. The most serious difficulty I shall have to overcome will arise from the differences to which you allude between the factions into which the Union people are unfortunately divided. It shall be my highest aim, while keeping aloof from either faction, to reconcile their differences so far as my influence should extend, or at least to so conduct my administration as to give neither any just cause of complaint. . . .'' (OR, I, XXII, II, 301).

See further Lincoln to Curtis, June 8, infra.

Page  235

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

May 27, 1863

Submitted to the Secretary of War, with the remark that while very probably Col. Woodroof is a very good man, I do not remember the matter he alludes to, or any promise of mine to him.

May 27. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, owned by Emanuel A. Gardiner, New York City. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from William E. Woodruff, late colonel of the Second Kentucky Infantry, May 9, 1863, reminding the president of the ``facts in my case'' (see Lincoln to Stanton, June 5, 1862, supra), and proposing that he be appointed brigadier general to raise ``an entirely new Command of Mounted Infantry, to operate on the flanks and in rear of the Enemy.''

To Edwin M. Stanton [2]

I would be glad for Dr. Stipp to have the transfer within requested by Judge Davis. A. LINCOLN

May 27, 1863

Annotation

[1]   AES, IHi. Lincoln's endorsement appears on a letter from David Davis, May 19, asking a transfer for medical inspector Dr. George Winfield Stipp who was suffering from diarrhea at Hilton Head, South Carolina. Stanton endorsed ``The Adjt General will relieve Dr Stipp & direct him to report in writing for further orders.'' See further, Lincoln to Townsend, June 24, 1863, infra.

To Erastus Corning [1]

Hon. Erastus Corning Executive Mansion,
Albany, N.Y. Washington, May 28. 1863.

The letter of yourself & others dated the 19th. and inclosing the resolutions of a public meeting held at Albany on the 16th. was received night before last. I shall give the resolutions the consideration you ask, and shall try to find time, and make a respectful response. Your Obt. Servt. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Erastus Corning, wealthy iron manufacturer and Democrat, forwarded on May 19 a lengthy series of resolutions adopted by a public meeting in Albany, New York, on May 16, 1863. The resolutions are too long to quote in full, but may be found in the American Annual Cyclopaedia, 1863, pp. 799-800. In substance the resolutions pledged allegiance to the Union, but denounced ``the recent assumption of a military commander to seize and try a citizen of Ohio, Clement L. Vallandigham, for no other reason that words addressed to a public meeting, in criticism of the course of the Administration, and in condemnation of the military orders of that general,'' and called upon the president to ``be true to the Constitution'' and ``maintain the rights of the States and the liberties of the citizen. . . .'' See Lincoln's reply of June 12, infra.

Page  236

Memorandum: Appointment of Lawrence Kip [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, May 28, 1863.

To-day Senator McDougal asks that 1st. Lieut. Lawrence Kip, now on Gen. Wool's Staff, may be a Brigadier General. The Senator makes this a personal request---almost---and I wish to oblige him.

Annotation

[1]   AD-P, ISLA. First Lieutenant Lawrence Kip had been brevetted captain (as of May 5, 1862), and major (as of July 1, 1862) for meritorious and distinguished service at Williamsburg and Fair Oaks. His appointment as major of Volunteers and aide-de-camp on General Sumner's staff, as of August 20, 1862, was confirmed by the Senate on March 11, 1863. No record has been found of his nomination as brigadier general.

To William S. Rosecrans [1]

Major General Rosecrans Washington D.C.
Murfreesboro, Tenn. May 28. 1863

I would not push you to any rashness; but I am very anxious that you do your utmost, short of rashness, to keep Bragg from getting off to help Johnston against Grant. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Rosecrans' telegram acknowledging receipt of Lincoln's despatch was received May 29 at 1:25 A.M., ``Dispatch rec'd. I will attend to it.'' (DLC-RTL).

To William S. Rosecrans [2]

Major General Rosecrans Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir Washington, May 28. 1863.

I have but a slight personal acquaintance with Col. Jaquess, though I know him very well by character. Such a mission as he proposes I think promises good, if it were free from difficulties, which I fear it can not be. First, he can not go with any government authority whatever. This is absolute and imperative. Secondly, if he goes without authority, he takes a great deal of personal risk---he may be condemned, and executed as a spy. If, for any reason, you think fit to give Col. Jaquess a Furlough, and any authority from me, for that object, is necessary, you hereby have it for any length of time you see fit. Yours very truly

A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS copy, DLC-RTL. See Lincoln to Rosecrans, May 21, supra, and to Schenck, July 14, infra.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Sec. of War, please see Mr. Garrison, about Mo. Railroad.

May 28. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Page  [unnumbered]

Annotation

[1]   ALS, IHi. Lincoln's note is written on a visiting card, the verso of which bears the following in an unidentified handwriting: ``Cant you write a letter to the Board of Directors giving them athoriety to go work.'' Garrison has not been identified.

To Ambrose E. Burnside [1]

``Cypher''
Major General Burnside--- Washington, D.C.
Cincinnati, O. May 29. 1863

Your despatch of to-day received. When I shall wish to supersede you I will let you know. All the cabinet regretted the necessity of arresting, for instance, Vallandigham, some perhaps, doubting, that there was a real necessity for it---but, being done, all were for seeing you through with it. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. General Burnside telegraphed on May 29 at 12:40 P.M.:

``A messenger from Govr. Morton came to me this morning in reference to the arrest, by the military authorities of a citizen of Indiana. I understood from him that my action . . . was not approved by a single member of your Cabinet.

``This, taken in connection with your dispatch to me . . . approving of my course convinces me that my action here has been a source of embarrassment to you. . . . I should be glad to be relieved if the interest of the public service requires it, but at the same time I am willing to remain & assume the responsibility of carrying out the policy which has been inaugurated if it is approved.'' (DLC-RTL).

On May 30, Governor Morton wrote Lincoln a four-page letter protesting that Burnside's General Order No. 38, April 13, 1863, for violation of which Vallandigham had been arrested, had increased the extent and intensity of Democratic opposition to the war. Morton urged that, if military rule were needed for the Northwest, it should be instituted from the highest authority and not from department commanders, and expressed the opinion that state governments, aided by the federal government, should handle such problems. His state legislature, controlled by Democrats, had refused to appropriate funds for administration of the state. (DLC-RTL).

To Jesse K. Dubois and Others [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, May 29. 1863.

Messrs Jesse K. Dubois

O. M. Hatch Charles W. Matheny

John Williams William F. Elkin

Jacob Bunn Francis Springer

John Bunn B. A. Watson

George R. Weber. Eliphalet Hawley &

William Yates James Campbell.

S. M. Cullom.

Gentlemen Agree among yourselves upon any two of your own number, one of whom to be Quarter-Master, and the other toPage  238 be Commissary, to serve at Springfield, Illinois, and send me their names, and I will appoint them. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS-Marine Bank; ALS copy, DLC-RTL. Letters from William Yates (May 22); Jesse K. Dubois (May 23), endorsed in concurrence by William Yates, Charles W. Matheny, John W. Smith, John Armstrong, Benjamin A. Watson, Francis Springer, William F. Elkin, Gershom Jayne, and Pascal P. Enos; Jacob Bunn (May 25), Shelby M. Cullom (May 25), and Ozias M. Hatch (May 25)---all requested removal of Ninian W. Edwards, commissary, and William H. Bailhache, quartermaster, at Springfield, Illinois. Charges against the two men were that they had used their positions to amass personal fortunes and had made countless enemies for the administration. On June 22, George R. Weber was appointed commissary of subsistence with rank of captain to replace Edwards, and James Campbell was appointed assistant quartermaster with rank of captain to replace Bailhache. See Lincoln to Baker, June 15 and memorandum, June 22, infra.

To Andrew Johnson [1]

Governor Andrew Johnson Washington, D.C.
Louisville, Ky. May 29. 1863.

Gen. Burnside has been frequently informed lately that the Division under Gen. Getty can not be spared. I am sorry to have to tell you this, but [it] is true, and can not be helped.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Governor Johnson telegraphed on May 29 at 10:40 A.M., ``It is believed that the third Division of ninth (9) Army Corps at Suffolk Genl [George W.] Getty comdg had better be added to Burnside's command. We hope this can be done as it will enable him to prosecute with success the expedition into East Tenn. . . . Genl Burnside is in high spirits & confident of being able to enter the State I have received much encouragement in getting up forces & think I shall succeed'' (DLC-RTL).

To Edwin M. Stanton and Henry W. Halleck [1]

Hon. Sec. of War. & Executive Mansion,
Genl. in-Chief. Washington, May 29. 1863.

I concur with Gov. Curtin and Gen. Schenck that an increased Cavalry force upon & South of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, is very desirable. Please see them, and if you can devise an eligible mode of getting such force, let it be done. Yours truly

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, IHi. On May 18, General Schenck wrote Governor Curtin as follows:

``My conviction is briefly this: The only sure way to defend and guard the border is to keep all rebel forces out of West Virginia, or, rather, out of all the northern portion of Virginia, and this can only be done by a sufficient force of cavalry, to be kept south of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The late rebel raid . . . should be a lesson. . . .

``Cavalry is, I repeat, needed; 10,000 well-mounted men would give more effective security than three times the number of infantry.

Page  239``I have represented time and again to the military authorities at Washington my want . . . but it occurs to me to endeavor to enlist your efforts also, as the Executive of your great State, so much concerned in the endeavor to have this command supplied with more of this arm of defense and aggression. Will you co-operate with me? . . .'' (OR, I, XXV, II, 503).

Remarks to New York Committee [1]

May 30, 1863

The President declared that he would gladly receive into the service not ten thousand but ten times ten thousand colored troops; expressed his determination to protect all who enlisted, and said that he looked to them for essential service in finishing the war. He believed that the command of them afforded scope for the highest ambition, and he would with all his heart offer it to Gen. Fremont.

Annotation

[1]   New York Tribune, June 1, 1863. The members of the committee are not named, but are designated as ``originating in Dr. Cheever's church, and endorsed by such men as Horace Greeley, George Opdyke, William Cullen Bryant, and Daniel S. Dickinson.'' Reverened George B. Cheever was pastor of the Church of the Puritans. The committee is reported as requesting that Lincoln ``give a command to Gen. Fremont at some point where he can rally around him the colored men of the country.'' A three-page memorial dated May 28, 1863, presented by the committee and signed by Bryant, Greeley, Dickinson, and others, urged the assignment of Fremont to command 10,000 colored troops. (DLC-RTL). See Lincoln to Sumner, June 1, infra.

To Robert C. Schenck [1]

Private
Major Gen. Schenck Executive Mansion,
Baltimore, Md. Washington, May 31, 1863.

I have been requested to say, what I very truly can, that I esteem Gov. Francis Thomas, as an able, and very true man. I do not know that he agrees with me in everything---perhaps he does not; but he has given me evidence of sincere friendship, & as I think, of patriotism. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS-P, ISLA. Representative Francis Thomas had served one term as governor of Maryland, 1841-1844.

Form Draft Order [1]

[June, 1863]

Executive Mansion,

Washington, D.C.,---, 1863.

I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States of America and Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy thereof, havingPage  240 taken into consideration the number of volunteers and militia furnished by and from the several States, including the State of --- and the period of service of said volunteers and militia since the commencement of the present rebellion, in order to equalize the numbers among the districts of the said States, and having considered and allowed for the number already furnished as aforesaid, and the time of their services aforesaid, do hereby assign --- as the first proportional part of the quota of troops to be furnished by the --- district of the State of ---, under this, the first call made by me on the State of ---, under the act approved March 3, 1863, entitled, ``An act for enrolling and calling out the national forces, and for other purposes,'' and, in pursuance of the act aforesaid, I order that a draft be made in the said --- district of the State of ---, for the number of men herein assigned to said district, and 50 per cent. in addition.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed. Done at the city of Washington this --- day of ---, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, and of the Independence of the United States the eighty-eighth.

Annotation

[1]   OR, III, V, 625. Numerous original signed copies of this printed order are extant. Each of these documents has the blanks properly filled in by a War Department clerk and bears Lincoln's full signature, ``Abraham Lincoln.'' The earliest extant order of which we have record is that for the Seventeenth District of Pennsylvania, dated June 23, 1863, and the latest is that for the Second District of Minnesota, dated September 24, 1863. These signed documents have not been reproduced individually in the following pages.

[2]   Although the printed form was obviously prepared for use after July 4, 1863, a scrupulous War Department clerk was careful to correct the printed text to ``eighty-seventh'' for at least some of the orders issued prior to July 4. Such a one is the order for the Seventh District of Pennsylvania, July 1, 1863 (DS, owned by Foreman M. Lebold, Chicago, Illinois).

To Edward Bates [1]

June 1, 1863

As the Judge, Jury, Marshal, District Attorney & Post-Master General, join in asking a pardon in this case, I have concluded to grant it. The Attorney General will please make it out & send it to me. A. LINCOLN

June 1. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA RG 204, U.S. Pardon Attorney, A 474. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a petition for pardon of Jacob Varner of West Virginia, sentenced to three years' imprisonment for robbing the mails. The petition, signed by the jurors in Varner's case, sets forth that Varner was ``an ignorant man . . . the victim of designing politicians who deluded such as himself into the belief of the priority of State allegiance to that of the Government of the Country.''

Page  241

To Joseph Holt [1]

June 1, 1863

It appears that Martin Davis, of Co. G. 85th. N.Y. Vols. has been convicted of something, as he is applying to me for a pardon. Will the Judge Advocate General please send me the record?

June 1. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from William S. Briggs, Penn Yan, New York, May 18, 1863, introducing Ezekiel Clark, attorney for Private Martin Davis of the Eighty-fifth New York Volunteers, under sentence ``for an offense committed against an officer.'' Holt endorsed, ``The record in the above case has not been recvd, in this office.'' No further reference to this case has been found.

To Joseph Holt [2]

I can not interfere in this case. A. LINCOLN

June 1. 1863

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA WR RG 153, Judge Advocate General, Letters Received, No. 425. Lincoln's endorsement is written on the envelope containing petitions and letters in behalf of Thomas Lewis of Tennessee, sentenced to be sent out of the Department of the Tennessee for bribery of a U.S. detective.

To William H. Ludlow [1]

``Cypher''
Col. Ludlow Executive Mansion,
Fort-Monroe. Washington, June 1. 1863.

Richardson & Browne, correspondents of the Tribune, captured at Vicksburg, are detained at Richmond. Please ascertain why they are detained, & get them off if you can. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. On May 26, Sydney H. Gay, editor of the New York Tribune, wrote Lincoln as follows:

``Two of the correspondents of The Tribune, Messrs. A. D. Richardson & Junius Browne, with a Mr. [Richard T.] Colburn of The World, were taken prisoners, not long ago, in an attempt to run by Vicksburg in a tug. They were . . . paroled . . . in due form, & sent forward to Richmond. There the World correspondent was permitted to pass on unmolested, doubtless, because he belonged to the World, while the Tribune men, in spite of the parole, were thrust into prison & are still detained there.

``A word of remonstrance from the Government on so flagrant a breach of faith, might, perhaps, right this wrong. . . .''

Lieutenant Colonel Ludlow, agent for exchange of prisoners, replied the same day that ``Everything will be done that can be done to obtain the release of the parties named.'' (OR, II, V, 723). Later references in the Official Records show that Browne and Richardson were still imprisoned in January, 1865.

Page  242

To William T. Otto [1]

June 1, 1863

I must repeat now in writing what I have told Mr. Kelly verbally, that the courts and not the President, must decide questions of land titles. There may be some questions in regard to pre-emptions, which by law, are to be decided through the Department, with appeal to me, and when such a case shall come regularly to me, I shall hear it. But I must now say, once for all, that mere vague assertions that the decisions of the Courts are fraudulent, with appeals to me to reverse them, can [not] be entertained.

June 1, 1863 A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Edward Eberstadt & Sons, Catalog 129, April, 1951, No. 159. According to the catalog description, this communication is an endorsement on an appeal from George Fox Kelly, agent for California settlers. William T. Otto, acting secretary of Interior, wrote George F. Kelly on June 16, 1863:

``The affidavits which you have laid before the President, in which complaint is made against the action of the District Court for the Northern District of California in its approval of the survey of the land claim of Joaquin Carillo . . . the lines of which include . . . certain tracts . . . claimed by yourself and others as preemptors---have been referred to this Department.

``The President instructs me to state to you, that he cannot decide the questions which you submit, or any other relating to a contested title to land, where, as in the present instance, jurisdiction over the subject matter is visited by law in the Courts. The affidavits contain vague charges of fraud in certain judicial proceedings now concluded, but as the President has no appellate or supervisory power over them, it would, in his opinion, be improper for him to assume to take action, especially as the United States have no interest in the matter.'' (Copy, DLC-RTL).

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Sec. of War please inform me what there is of this case.

June 1. 1863 A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, owned by William Herzog, Chicago, Illinois. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Captain Franklin P. Ash, commissary of subsistence, Second Brigade, Second Division, Twelfth Army Corps, May 28, 1863, asking a hearing on his dismissal. Stanton endorsed ``Referred to Major [Thomas M.] Vincent for Report.'' No further reference has been found.

To Charles Sumner [1]

Hon. Charles Sumner Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir. Washington, June 1. 1863.

In relation to the matter spoken of Saturday morning, and this morning, towit, the raising of colored troops in the North, withPage  243 the understanding that they shall be commanded by Gen. Fremont, I have to say

That while it is very objectionable, as a general rule, to have troops raised on any special terms, such as to serve only under a particular commander, or only at a particular place or places, yet I would forego the objection in this case, upon a fair prospect that a large force of this sort could thereby be the more rapidly raised

That being raised, say to the number of ten thousand, I would very cheerfully send them to the field under Gen. Fremont, assigning him a Department, made or to be made, with such white force also as I might be able to put in.

That with the best wishes towards Gen. Fremont, I can not now give him a Department, because I have not spare troops to furnish a new Department; and I have not, as I think, justifiable ground to relieve the present commander of any old one.

In the raising of the colored troops, the same consent of Governors would have to be obtained as in case of white troops, and the government would make the same provision for them during organization, as for white troops.

It would not be a point with me whether Gen. Fremont should take charge of the organization, or take charge of the force only after the organization.

If you think fit to communicate this to Gen. Fremont you are at liberty to do so. Yours truly A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, DLC-RTL. See Lincoln's remarks to the New York Committee, May 30, supra. On June 9, Fremont wrote Sumner as follows: ``I have delayed a few days my reply to your kind note. . . . I was pressingly reminded of your note by a visit from the committee which had called upon Mr. Lincoln & to which he had promised this letter to you. I beg you will say to the President that this movement does not, in the remotest way originate with me. On the contrary when the Committee called . . . I declined positively to enter into it, or to consent to having my name mentioned to the President in connection with it. . . . I disapproved the project of raising and sending to the field, colored troops in scattered and weak detachments. . . . I told them that if I had been placed in the Dept. which the President & Secretary arranged for me when I was last in Washington & in which I should have had a suitable field for this organization and white troops to protect it and ensure its success---I could have undertaken it & have undoubtedly organized a formidable force. But these views were mearly in answer to the committee and ended my relation to the subject. I beg you to say to the President that I have no design to embarrass him with creating a Dept. for me. . . . this whole business is as dangerous and difficult as it is important. . . . It demands . . . some officer of ability and judgment in whom the President would be willing to give the necessary powers. He must have power and the Presidents confidence---therefore I do not propose myself for this work. . . . Will the President realize that if this summer's campaigns are not successful the Confederacy is well nigh established? I think not. . . . But pray don't let him think that I am moving in any direction, or by any persons to get this command. Enclosed I return thePage  244

President's letter---which I have shown to no one. I informed the Committee that I had rec'd it through yourself but could not communicate its purport without the authority of the President. Will you please make my thanks to the President for his friendly expressions in my favor and accept my very warm thanks to yourself. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

To Ulysses S. Grant [1]

``Cypher''
Major Gen. Grant Washington, D.C.,
Vicksburg, via Memphis. June 2. 1863

Are you in communication with Gen. Banks? Is he coming towards you, or going further off? Is there, or has there been anything to hinder his coming directly to you by water from Alexandria? A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Grant telegraphed on June 8 that Banks, ``has Port Hudson closely invested,'' and that he would forward by mail a letter from Banks of June 4 (DLC-RTL). Banks' letter of June 4 reads in part: ``It seems to me that I have no other course than to carry my object here thus crippling the enemy, and to join you with my whole strength as soon as possible This I hope to accomplish in a few days. . . .'' (Ibid.).

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Executive Mansion,
Major General Hooker: Washington, June 2, 1863.

It is said that Philip Margraff, in your army, is under sentence to be shot on Friday, the 5th instant, as a deserter. If this be so, please send me up the record of his case at once. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Thirty-eighth Congress, Second Session, Report of the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War (1865), I, 244. No reply from Hooker has been located. See Lincoln to Hooker, June 4, infra.

Reply to Members of the Presbyterian General Assembly [1]

June 2, 1863

It has been my happiness to receive testimonies of a similar nature, from I believe, all denominations of Christians. They are all loyal, but perhaps not in the same degree, or in the same numbers; but I think they all claim to be loyal. This to me is most gratifying, because from the beginning I saw that the issues of our great struggle depended on the Divine interposition and favor. If we had that, all would be well. The proportions of this rebellion were not for a long time understood. I saw that it involved the greatest difficulties,Page  245 and would call forth all the powers of the whole country. The end is not yet.

The point made in your paper is well taken as to ``the Government'' and the ``administration'' in whose hands are those interests. I fully appreciate its correctness and justice. In my administration I might have committed some errors. It would be, indeed, remarkable if I had not. I have acted according to my best judgment in every case. The views expressed by the Committee accord with my own; and on this principle ``the Government'' is to be supported though the administration may not in every case wisely act. As a pilot, I have used my best exertions to keep afloat our ship of State, and shall be glad to resign my trust at the appointed time to another pilot more skillful and successful than I may prove. In every case, and at all hazards, the Government must be perpetuated. Relying, as I do, upon the Almighty Power, and encouraged as I am by these resolutions which you have just read, with the support which I receive from Christian men, I shall not hesitate to use all the means at my control to secure the termination of this rebellion, and will hope for success.

I sincerely thank you for this interview, this pleasant mode of presentation, and the General Assembly for their patriotic support in these resolutions.

Annotation

[1]   Edward McPherson, The Political History of the United States . . . (1865), p. 471. Although McPherson's source seems to have been a newspaper report, no contemporary source of Lincoln's reply has been located. McPherson gives no date for the reply, and Nicolay and Hay supply ``May [30?]'' in error (NH, VIII, 287). The Washington Evening Star, June 2, 1863, and a Washington despatch of June 2 (New York Tribune, June 3) both reported that ``A Committee of sixty-five from the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church . . . waited upon the President this morning, and presented him with the resolutions of that body.'' Resolutions in support of the administration, adopted by the General Assembly on May 27, were read to the president by John A. Foote of Cleveland, Ohio, and were followed by Lincoln's reply. A copy of the lengthy resolutions clipped from a newspaper and provided with a holograph heading, is preserved in the Lincoln Papers.

To Edward Bates [1]

Hon. Attorney General Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir Washington, June 3, 1863.

It has been suggested to me, and readily adopted by, to tender the Judgeship of Florida, to Hon John A. Bingham of Ohio. Please send me a commission for him. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, DNA GE RG 60, Papers of Attorney General, Segregated Lincoln Material. Representative Bingham had not been re-elected to the Thirty-eighth Congress. Lincoln's proposal did not work out. See Lincoln to Bingham, August 4, infra.

Page  246

Endorsement Concerning Henry W. DePuy [1]

June 3, 1863

Some time ago I said I was willing to appoint Mr. DePuy to an Indian Agency when there should be a vacancy; & I remember nothing coming to my knowledge since to change my mind in this respect. A. LINCOLN

June 3. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, ICHi. Lincoln's endorsement has been clipped from the document on which it was originally written. Henry W. DePuy's appointment as Indian agent on the Upper Missouri, made during the recess of the Senate, was submitted for confirmation under date of December 31, 1863, but was returned to the president on March 21, 1864, DePuy having declined the appointment. DePuy had served from 1861 to 1862 as agent of the Pawnee Agency until replaced by Benjamin F. Lushbaugh. See Lincoln to Caleb B. Smith, December 27, 1862, supra.

To Henry W. Halleck [1]

Will Gen. Halleck please glance over the within, & tell me whether there is anything in it which can be turned to account?

June 3. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on an envelope containing papers submitted by Ambrose W. Thompson, June 2, 1863, proposing that immigrants and Negroes be organized into military units to work on the proposed Metropolitan Railroad of which Thompson was president and which was to be built from Washington to Pittsburgh. The proposal was that the government pay the troops for four months to work for the corporation eight hours, with two hours daily drill. Following this period the troops would be sent to regular duty, and the funds expended by the government would be repaid by the corporation when its railroad was in operation.

Halleck returned the papers on the same day with the following endorsement: ``It has been found impossible to procure sufficient labor of enlisted men or `contrabands' to complete the forts around Washington or at Harpers Ferry. I think that any emigrants or Negroes who are paid out of the public Treasury had better be employed on the forts rather than let out to work for corporations. Moreover, working on fortifications is a much better military training than working on Rail Roads.''

To Joseph Holt [1]

Can the Judge Advocate General make any suggestion as to what should be done in this, or any similar case? A LINCOLN

June 3. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, owned by David L. Salisbury, Dunbar, West Virginia. This endorsement has been clipped from attendant papers, and no further reference has been found.

Page  247

To Edward Bates [1]

Attorney General, please preserve. Judge Foot is cousin to the Admiral, & is vouched as an excellent man. A. LINCOLN.

June 4, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, The Rosenbach Company, Philadelphia and New York. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Samuel A. Foot, former Judge of the Court of Appeals of New York (1844-1852), offering himself for appointment as U.S. district judge for South Carolina until ``the Government can find a suitable person, a citizen of that state, to take the position.'' No judges for South Carolina are listed in the U.S. Official Register for 1863 or 1865.

To Daniel Butterfield [1]

War Department,
Major General Butterfield: Washington, D.C., June 4, 1863.

The news you send me from the Richmond Sentinel of the 3d must be greatly if not wholly incorrect. The Thursday mentioned was the 28th, and we have dispatches here directly from Vicksburg of the 28th, 29th, 30th and 31st, and while they speak of the siege progressing, they speak of no assault or general fighting whatever, and in fact they so speak as to almost exclude the idea that there can have been any since Monday the 25th, which was not very heavy. Neither do they mention any demand made by Grant upon Pemberton for a surrender. They speak of our troops as being in good health, condition and spirits. Some of them do say that Banks has Port Hudson invested. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Tarbell (Appendix), p. 367. On June 4, General Butterfield telegraphed as follows: ``Richmond Sentinel June 3d. says---Jackson June 1st. Grant demanded the surrender of Vicksburg on Thursday giving three days to Pemberton to consider the demand. Pemberton replied that he did not want 15 minutes & that his troops would die in the trenches before they would surrender. The federal troops are demoralized & refused to renew the attack on Saturday. The enemys Gunboats are firing hot shot at the City the federal loss is estimated at 25,000 or 30,000. . . . Port Hudson is invested Nothing in Enquirer of June 4.'' (DLC-RTL).

Endorsement
on Application of Richard Middleton [1]

June 4, 1863

I understand that Richard Middleton, named within, has an application before Col. Long, [2] for employment; and while I do not personally know him, the within names are so good and ample, that I do not hesitate to say I shall be very glad if he can get the employment. A. LINCOLN

June 4, 1863

Page  248

Annotation

[1]   AES, RPB. The endorsement has been cut off the attendant papers. See Lincoln to James Cooper and others, March 8, 1862, supra.

[2]   Probably Stephen H. Long of the Corps of Engineers.

To Joseph Hooker [1]

``Cypher''
Executive Mansion,
Major General Hooker Washington, June 4. 1863.

Let execution of sentences in the cases of Daily, Margraff, and Harrington, be respited till further order from me, they remaining in close custody meanwhile. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, owned by Edward C. Stone, Boston, Massachusetts. See Lincoln to Hooker, June 2, supra. On June 3, Alfred J. Bloor wrote Charles Sumner as follows: ``Understanding you are with the President and not feeling it my duty to intrude again . . . I yet feel it to be my duty to Margraf---whose son is condemned to be shot to-morrow---to ask you . . . to urge upon the President, that, however desirable it may be to put an end to the lax discipline of the army, it is not best to commence with such an example as young Margrave---a German by birth---very young---and this his first offence---committed under a misunderstanding. He thought it an oppression that, enlisted, as he supposed, for 6 or 8 months, he should be required to serve for 3 years. . . . It is notorious among New-Yorkers that a regular system of deceit was practised by recruiting officers, through their verbal statements---the public papers and show bills posted all over the City---as in this case. . . . I trouble you with this because I understand you are interceding for one of the other men condemned. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

Privates Enos Daily, Philip Margraff, and Carlos Harrington of the One Hundred Forty-sixth New York Volunteers, were all sentenced to be shot for desertion. Hooker's telegram acknowledging receipt of Lincoln's order was received at 9:20 P.M., June 4 (DLC-RTL), but no further reference has been found.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Executive Mansion,
Hon. Secretary of War: Washington, D.C., June 4, 1863.

My dear Sir: I have received additional dispatches which, with former ones, induce me to believe we should revoke or suspend the order suspending the Chicago Times, and if you concur in opinion, please have it done. Yours, truly, A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   OR, III, III, 252. Edward D. Townsend promptly telegraphed Burnside a copy of Lincoln's letter and instructed him to revoke the order suspending publication of the Chicago Times (ibid.). On the same day Burnside issued an order revoking not only the suspension of the Times but also the suppression of the New York World, circulation of which had been prohibited in his department (ibid., II, V, 741). Both papers had bitterly criticized Burnside and the administration for the arrest of Vallandigham.

Page  249

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Washington, D.C., June 5, 1863.

Major-General Hooker: Would you like to have Capt. Treadwell Moore, now in California, to report to you for duty?

A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Tarbell (Appendix), p. 367. Hooker telegraphed on the same day that he would ``like to have Captain Moore ordered to this army.'' (DLC-RTL). On June 20, 1863, Tredwell Moore, West Point graduate in 1847, assumed quartermaster duties at Wheeling, West Virginia.

To Joseph Hooker [2]

Washington, D.C.,
Major General Hooker June 5. 1863

Yours of to-day was received an hour ago. So much of professional military skill is requisite to answer it, that I have turned the task over to Gen. Halleck. He promises to perform it with his utmost care. I have but one idea which I think worth suggesting to you, and that is in case you find Lee coming to the North of the Rappahannock, I would by no means cross to the South of it. If he should leave a rear force at Fredericksburg, tempting you to fall upon it, it would fight in intrenchments, and have you at disadvantage, and so, man for man, worst you at that point, while his main force would in some way be getting an advantage of you Northward. In one word, I would not take any risk of being entangled upon the river, like an ox jumped half over a fence, and liable to be torn by dogs, front and rear, without a fair chance to gore one way or kick the other. If Lee would come to my side of the river, I would keep on the same side & fight him, or act on the defence, according as might be my estimate of his strength relatively to my own. But these are mere suggestions which I desire to be controlled by the judgment of yourself and Gen. Halleck.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, IHi. Hooker's telegram of June 5, is as follows:

``Yesterday morning appearances indicated that during the night the Enemy had broken up a few of his camps and abandoned them. These changes were observed on the right of his line in the vicinity of Hamilton Crossing. So far as I was enabled to judge from all my means of information it was impossible for me to determine satisfactorily whether this movement had been merely a change of camps---the Enemy had moved in the direction of Richmond, or up the river, but taken in connection with the fact that some deserters came in from the divisions of [John B.] Hood and [George] Pickett I conclude that those divisions had been brought to the front from their late positions at Gordonsville and Taylorville and that this could be for no other purpose but to enable the Enemy to move up the river with a view to the execution of a movement similar to that of Lee's last year. He must either have it in mind toPage  250 cross the Upper Potomac or to throw his army between mine and Washington. In case I am correct in my conjecture, to accomplish either he must have been greatly reinforced and, if making this movement, the fair presumption is that he has been by the troops from Charleston

``Of this I have no evidence farther than that furnished me by Gen Dix that they had come to Richmond

``This morning some more of their camps have disappeared. Their picket line along the river is preserved and as strong as ever. Gen Buford with three divisions of Cavalry and ten pieces of Artillery is on the Alexandria and Orange Rail Road and yesterday was along the river beyond Sulphur Springs and reports no Enemy. As I am liable to be called on to make a movement with the utmost promptitude I desire that I may be informed as early as practicable of the views of the Government concerning this Army. Under instructions from the Maj Genl Com'd'g the army dated Jany 31st. I am instructed to keep in view always the importance of covering Washington and Harpers Ferry either directly or by so operating as to be able to punish any force of the Enemy sent against them.

``In the event the Enemy should move, as I almost anticipate he will the head of his column will probably be headed towards the Potomac via Gordonsville or Culpepper while the rear will rest on Fredericksburg. After giving the subject my best reflections I am of opinion that it is my duty to pitch into his rear although in so doing the head of his column may reach Warrenton before I can return. Will it be within the spirit of my instructions to do so? In view of these contemplated movements of the Enemy I cannot too forcibly impress upon the mind of His Excellency The President the necessity of having one commander for all of the troops whose operations can have influence on those of Lee's army. Under the present system all independent commanders are in ignorance of the movements of the others at least such is my situation.

``I trust that I may not be considered in the way to this arrangement as it is a position I do not desire and only suggest it as I feel the necessity for concerted as well as vigorous action. It is necessary for me to say this much that my motive may not be misunderstood. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

Halleck's answer was telegraphed at 4:40 P.M., as follows:

``The President has directed me to reply to your telegram to him of . . . to-day. My instructions of January 31 . . . left you entirely free to act as circumstances, in your judgment, might require, with the simple injunction to keep in view the safety of Washington and Harper's Ferry. In regard to the contingency which you suppose may arise of General Lee's leaving a part of his forces in Fredericksburg, while, with the head of his column, he moves by Gordonsville or Culpeper toward the Potomac, it seems to me that such an operation would give you great advantages upon his flank to cut him in two, and fight his divided forces. Would it not be more advantageous to fight his movable column first, instead of first attacking his intrenchments, with your own forces separated by the Rappahannock? Moreover, you are aware that the troops under General Heintzelman are much less than the number recommended . . . for the defenses of Washington. Neither this capital nor Harper's Ferry could long hold out against a large force. They must depend for their security very much upon the co-operation of your army. It would, therefore, seem perilous to permit Lee's main force to move upon the Potomac while your army is attacking an intrenched position on the other side of the Rappahannock. Of course your movements must depend in a great measure upon those made by Lee. There is another contingency not altogether improbable---that Lee will seek to hold you in check with his main force, while a strong force will be detached for a raid into Maryland and Pennsylvania. The main force of the enemy in North Carolina have probably come north, but I think all available troops in South Carolina and Georgia have been sent to re-enforce Johnston in Mississippi. Such is the information here. General HeintzelmanPage  251 and General Dix are instructed to telegraph directly to you all the movements which they may ascertain or make. Directions have also been given to forward military information which may be received from General Schenck's command. Any movements you may suggest of troops in these commands will be ordered, if deemed practicable. Lee will probably move light and rapidly. Your movable force should be prepared to do the same.

``The foregoing views are approved by the President.'' (OR, I, XXVII, I, 31-32).

Anonymous Letter to the Editor of the Washington Chronicle [1]

Executive Mansion,
Editor of the Chronicle. Washington, June 6. 1863.

In your issue of this morning, you have an article on the ``Chicago Times.'' Being an Illinoisian, I happen to know that much of the article is incorrect. As I remember, upon the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, the democratic newspapers at Chicago went over to the opposition. Thereupon the Times was established by the friends of the administration, Senator Douglas being the most prominent in establishing it. A man by the name of James Sheahan, from this city, was it's first, and only editor, nearly if not quite all the remainder of the Senator's life. On the political separation between Mr. Buchanan and Senator Douglas, the Times adhered to the Senator, and was the ablest paper in his support through his senatorial contest with Mr. Lincoln. Since the last Presidential election certainly, perhaps since Senator Douglas' death, Mr. Sheahan left the Times; and the Times since then, has been identical with the Times before then, in little more than the name. [2] The writer hereof is not well enough posted to say but that your article in other respects is correct.

Annotation

[1]   ADf, DLC-RTL. The article headed ``THE CHICAGO TIMES'' appeared in the Daily Chronicle for Saturday, June 6, 1863. Lincoln's anonymous letter, of which the above is obviously a first draft, appeared in the Chronicle on Sunday, June 7, considerably revised, or edited by the Chronicle, as follows:

``A correspondent corrects an error of date in the article in Saturday's CHRONICLE on the Chicago Times, and adds some items of interesting information. He says:

`` `Upon the repeal of the Missouri Compromise the democratic newspapers of Chicago went over to the Opposition. Thereupon the Times was established by the friends of the Administration, Senator Douglas being the most prominent in establishing it. Mr. James Sheahan, from this city, was its editor from its first foundation up to the election in 1860. On the political separation between Mr. Buchanan and Senator Douglas, the Times adhered to the Senator, and was the ablest paper in his support through his senatorial contest with Mr. Lincoln. During the last Presidential election Mr. Sheahan left the Times, which had been bought, as you state, by Mr. McCormick; and a man named McComas, a bitter pro-slavery man and a Virginian, became its editor. SheahanPage  252 for awhile edited the Springfield Register, and then went back to Chicago and established the Post, which he still conducts. From the period that the Times passed into its present hands it has borne little resemblance, but in name, to the Times which supported Senator Douglas in his contest with the corrupt and cowardly Administration of Mr. Buchanan. ILLINOISIAN

[2]   Lincoln's recollection does not exactly fit the report in the Springfield Illinois State Register, September 1, 1860, which announced that James W. Sheahan, editor of the ``late Chicago Times'' was visiting Springfield for several months, and that readers of the Register would have ``the assistance of his pen during the present canvass.''

To Salmon P. Chase [1]

June 6, 1863

. . . see Mr. Powell, and do for him any thing that you may think is safe for the government to do.

Annotation

[1]   Thomas Madigan, Autograph Album, October, 1935, No. 67. According to the catalog description this partial text is written on a card. Mr. Powell has not been identified.

To John A. Dix [1]

Major Gen. Dix Washington, D.C.,
Fort-Monroe, Va. June 6. 1863

By noticing the news you send from the Richmond Despatch of this morning you will see one of the very latest despatches says they have nothing reliable from Vicksburg since Sunday. Now, we here, have a despatch from there of Sunday, and others of almost every day preceding, since the investment; and while they show the siege progressing, they do not show any general fighting, since the 21st. and 22nd. We have nothing from Port-Hudson later than the 29th. when things looked reasonably well for us. I have thought this might be of some interest to you. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB.

To Mrs. Elizabeth J. Grimsley [1]

Mrs. Elizabeth J. Grimsely Washington, D.C.
Springfield, Illinois June 6. 1863

Is your John ready to enter the Naval-School? If he is, telegraph me his full name. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. No reply has been located. John T. Grimsley, son of Harrison J. and Elizabeth J. Todd Grimsley, is not of record as appointed to the U.S. Naval Academy.

Page  253

To Joseph Holt [1]

These papers reached me at 1. PM. June 6th. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AE, DNA WR RG 153, Judge Advocate General, LL 422, John C. Schore (Schorr). LINCOLN's endorsement is written on an envelope which contained papers in the case of John C. Shore, Company F, One Hundred Ninth Illinois Volunteers, sentenced to be shot for desertion. On recommendation of the judge advocate general the sentence was commuted to hard labor for one year. On August 31, 1864, Shore's sentence was extended to ``discharge from the United States service, with forfeiture of all pay and allowances due, and imprisonment at the Dry Tortugas, Florida. . . .'' (AGO Special Orders No. 287).

Order Assigning Daniel Tyler to Middle Department [1]

War Department, Washington City, June 6, 1863.

Ordered, that Brig. Gen. D. Tyler be assigned to duty in the Middle Department, as senior brigadier in the Middle Department, without regard to priority in date of commission.

A. LINCOLN,

President of the United States

Annotation

[1]   OR, I, XXVII, III, 37. LINCOLN's order was issued by Major General Robert Schenck, Headquarters Eighth Army Corps, Baltimore, June 8, 1863, General Orders No. 37. Schenck's Special Orders No. 159, June 13, sent Brigadier General Daniel Tyler to Harper's Ferry and Martinsburg, to ``assume command of all forces, including brigade at Martinsburg, which can be sent to the support of Major-General Milroy, and cover the march of that general's forces to Harper's Ferry.''

To Samuel R. Curtis [1]

Major General Curtis Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir: Washington, June 8. 1863.

I have scarcely supposed it possible that you would entirely understand my feelings and motives in making the late change of commander for the Department of the Missouri. I inclose you a copy of a letter which I recently addressed to Gen. Schofield, & which will explain the matter in part. It became almost a matter of personal self-defence to somehow break up the state of things in Missouri. I did not mean to cast any censure upon you, nor to indorse any of the charges made against you by others. With me the presumption is still in your favor that you are honest, capable, faithful, and patriotic. Yours very truly A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, IHi; LS copy, DLC-RTL. See LINCOLN to Schofield, May 27, supra. General Curtis wrote LINCOLN on June 5, ``While a little rest after two years care and toil may be very useful to me, I hope your Excellency will not hesitate to use my services on any occasions: and especially do not make me appearPage  254

as a special object of your displeasure, since as a faithful soldier and personal friend I have devoted myself to your support, and the cause of our unhappy country since the origin of our troubles.'' (DLC-RTL).

To John A. Dix [1]

Major Genl. Dix Executive Mansion,
Fort-Monroe. Washington, June 8. 1863.

We have despatches from Vicksburg of the 3rd. Siege progressing. No general fighting recently. All well. Nothing new from Port-Hudson. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Dix telegraphed at 3 P.M. in reply, ``Steamer `Cahawba' has just arrived from New Orleans with the 6th N.Y. Vols. Left on 2nd June Port Hudson was attacked on the (27th) twenty seventh. Gen Sherman was brought to New Orleans severely wounded and little hopes of his recovery. He was speechless when Col [William] Wilson saw him. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

The reports of General Sherman's condition were somewhat exaggerated.

To John A. Dix [2]

Major Gen. Dix. Washington, D.C.,
Fort-Monroe June 8 1863

The substance of the news sent of fight at Port-Hudson on the 27th. we have had here three or four days, and I supposed you had it also, when I said this morning ``No news from Port-Hudson.'' We knew that Gen. Sherman was wounded; but, we hoped, not so dangerously as your despatch represents. We still have nothing of that Richmond newspaper story of Kirby Smith crossing & of Banks losing an arm. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

June 8, 1863

Let Capt. Robert LeRoy, be appointed Assistant Adjutant General, with the rank of Captain, to report to Gen. Palmer, as within suggested by him. A. LINCOLN

June 8. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, IHi. LINCOLN's endorsement is written on a letter from Brigadier General Innis N. Palmer, New York City, May 29, 1863:

``The enclosed is a copy of an endorsement made by His Excellency the President, on a communication of mine to the Adjutant General of the Army in relation to the case of Mr. Robert LeRoy, formerly Assistant Adjutant General of Volunteers. The original communication with endorsement having beenPage  255 forwarded to me at New Berne North Carolina, while I was on my way from that place to this [on] a short leave. Without waiting for these originals, I will respectfully state that His Excellency is in error in supposing that Mr. LeRoy was dismissed. His name was not sent in for confirmation by the Senate, as it was withdrawn at my request.

``In my communication to the Adjutant General I expressed a desire to see Mr. LeRoy restored to his position of Assistant Adjutant General of Volunteers which I suppose could only be done by a re-appointment. I know from personal observation that Mr. LeRoy has not relapsed into any kind of dissipation and I still hope that he may receive a reappointment. In my command---comprised of the 1st. Division of the 18th. Army Corps, are two Brigades neither of which has any regularly appointed Assistant Adjutant General of Volunteers and should Mr. LeRoy receive a reappointment and report to me I should assign him to duty with my command.

``All of which is respectfully submitted. . . .''

The copy of Lincoln's earlier endorsement is not with Palmer's letter, and no further reference to it has been found. On December 31, 1863, LeRoy was nominated assistant adjutant general with rank of captain, to date from June 8, 1863, and his appointment was confirmed by the Senate on March 8, 1864.

To John P. Hale [1]

Hon. John P. Hale Executive Mansion,
Dover N.H. Washington, June 9, 1863.

I believe it was upon your recommendation that B. B. Bunker was appointed Attorney for Nevada Territory. I am pressed to remove him on the ground that he does not attend to the office, nor, in fact, pass much time in the territory. Do you wish to say anything on the subject? A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. No reply has been located. Benjamin B. Bunker of New Hampshire, appointed U.S. attorney for Nevada Territory in 1861, was replaced by Theodore D. Edwards of Kentucky, who was confirmed by the Senate on January 20, 1864.

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Washington D.C.
Major Genl. Hooker June 9, 1863

I am told there are fifty incendiary shells here at the Arsenal made to fit the 100 pdr. Parrott Gun now with you. If this be true, would you like to have the Shells sent to you? A LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, IHi. No answer from Hooker has been located, but Oliver S. Halsted telegraphed Lincoln on June 10, ``I am with the Genl. forty nine shells are at the Arsenal---the Genl. has telegraphed an answer to your dispatch requesting that they be sent down.'' (DLC-RTL).

Halsted was probably Oliver S. Halsted, Jr., a lawyer of Newark, New Jersey, who was promoting the use of incendiary shells invented by his friend Alfred Berney. Letters in the Lincoln Papers from Halsted are signed ``Jr.'' See further Lincoln's telegram to Hooker, June 12, infra.

Page  256

To David Hunter [1]

Executive Mansion,
My Dear General Washington, June 9, 1863.

I find it still impossible to answer at length your communication received through Captain Kinzie. I am unwilling to detain him longer and have directed him to return to Hilton Head. I am very sincerly Your friend A LINCOLN

Maj. Gen. D. Hunter

Annotation

[1]   LS, CSmH. General Hunter wrote from Hilton Head, South Carolina, on May 22, sending the despatch by Captain Arthur M. Kinzie:

``It is more than six weeks since the attack by the iron-clads upon Charleston; an attack in which from the nature of the plans of Admiral DuPont the Army had no active part. . . .

``On the afternoon after the iron-clad attack on Fort Sumter the troops . . . were not only ready to cross Light-House Inlet, but were almost in the act . . . when they were recalled . . . by the announcement of Admiral DuPont that he had resolved to retire, and . . . we could expect no assistance from the Navy. . . .

``A lodgment on Morris Island was thus made impossible for us. . . . the crossing which could have been effected in a couple of hours and with but little sacrifice six weeks ago will now involve . . . protracted operations and a very serious loss of life. . . .

``I fear Admiral DuPont distrusts the iron-clads so much that he has resolved to do nothing with them this summer, and I therefore most earnestly beg you to liberate me from those orders to `co-operate with the Navy' which now tie me down to share the admiral's inactivity. . . . Liberate me from this order . . . and I will immediately place a column of 10,000 . . . in the heart of Georgia. . . .

``I deem this matter of so much importance and am so weary of inactivity that I send this letter by special steamer to Fortress Monroe, and have instructed the captain of the vessel to wait for your reply. . . .'' (OR, I, XIV, 455-57). See LINCOLN to Hunter, June 30, infra.

To Mary Lincoln [1]

Mrs. LINCOLN Executive Mansion,
Philadelphia, Pa. Washington, June 9. 1863.

Think you better put ``Tad's'' pistol away. I had an ugly dream about him. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ATS, IHi. There is no reply to this telegram.

Endorsement Concerning James B. Caryl [1]

June 10, 1863

I personally remember nothing about the case of Capt. Caryl, but if the Governor of New York, in his discretion, chooses to give him a military appointment, the disability resting upon Capt. Caryl is hereby removed, enabling the Governor to so appoint him.

Page  257

Annotation

[1]   Parke-Bernet Catalog 63, November 16-17, 1938, No. 182. According to the catalog description, LINCOLN's endorsement is written on a letter from Edwin D. Morgan, June 8, 1863, asking removal of disability to hold a commission imposed on Captain James B. Caryl, Twenty-sixth New York Infantry, by court-martial conviction on charges of conduct subversive to military discipline. Caryl's offense consisted in writing a protest against the appointment of a major in his regiment, and tendering his resignation when facing the enemy. On July 9, Governor Seymour authorized Caryl to raise the Thirty-fifth Independent Battery of Artillery. The authorization was withdrawn on September 25, and the battery transferred to the Sixteenth New York Artillery where Captain Caryl served until honorably mustered out in August, 1865. His name is spelled ``Caryle'' in some sources.

To Joseph Hooker [1]

United States Military Telegraph
``Cypher'' War Department. Washington DC.
Major General Hooker June 10. 1863. [6:40 P.M.]

Your long despatch of to-day is just received. If left to me, I would not go South of the Rappahannock, upon Lee's moving North of it. If you had Richmond invested to-day, you would not be able to take it in twenty days; meanwhile, your communications, and with them, your army would be ruined. I think Lee's Army, and not Richmond, is your true objective point. If he comes towards the Upper Potomac, follow on his flank, and on the inside track, shortening your lines, whilst he lengthens his. Fight him when oppertunity offers. If he stays where he is, fret him, and fret him. A LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADfS, DLC-RTL. Hooker's telegram of June 10, 2:30 P.M., is as follows:

``General Pleasonton, by telegram . . . reports that he had an affair with the rebel cavalry yesterday near Brandy Station, which resulted in crippling him so much that he will have to abandon his contemplated raid into Maryland, which was to have started this morning.

``I am not so certain that the raid will be abandoned from this cause. It may delay the departure a few days. I shall leave the cavalry . . . where they are, near Bealeton, with instructions to resist the passage of the river by the enemy's forces. If to effect this he should bring up a considerable force of infantry, that will so much weaken him in my front that I have good reason to believe that I can throw a sufficient force over the river to compel the enemy to abandon his present position. If it should be the intention to send a heavy column of infantry to accompany the cavalry on the proposed raid, he can leave nothing behind to interpose any serious obstacle to my rapid advance on Richmond. I am not satisfied of his intention in this respect, but from certain movements in their corps I cannot regard it as altogether improbable. If it should be found to be the case, will it not promote the true interest of the cause for me to march to Richmond at once? From there all the disposable part of this army can be thrown to any threatened point north of the Potomac at short notice, and, until they can reach their destination, a sufficiency of troops can be collected to check, if not to stop, his invasion. If left to operate from my own judgment, with my present information, I do not hesitate to say that I should adopt this course as being the most speedy and certain mode of giving thePage  258 rebellion a mortal blow. I desire that you will give it your reflection. At present the enemy has one corps of infantry at Gordonsville, with the advance at Culpeper, with the manifest tendency of other corps to drift in that direction. I now have two bridges across the Rappahannock, ready to spring over the river below Fredericksburg, and it is this, I believe, that causes the enemy to hesitate in moving forward.

``Major-General Dix informs me that he intends moving two columns up James River to-morrow; but if organized to correspond in numbers to the troops as they have of late been posted, neither column will be successful. The one on the north side of the river will be too small, and on the south side, with his whole column, I question if Richmond can be taken at all, provided 2,000 or 3,000 men could be assembled to defend it. The columns should unite at City Point, or below, and move on the north bank of that river.

``From information, which I deem reliable, the only troops remaining in Richmond is the provost-guard, 1,500, and all the troops between here and there are brought well to the front.

``It would be of incalculable service to this army to be transferred to some more remote point from Washington and Alexandria. The stampedes in those towns, gotten up, no doubt, by people in the rebel interest, have their influence on my men, for many of them have no means of knowing whether they are with or without cause. They think there must be some fire when there is so much smoke.''

On June 11, Halleck telegraphed Hooker, ``The President has just referred to me your telegram and his reply of yesterday, with directions to say to you whether or not I agree with him. I do so fully.'' (OR, I, XXVII, I, 35).

To William H. Seward [1]

Regretting my forgetfulness. of course I will see Mr Molina tomorrow. A. LINCOLN June 10. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DLC-RTL. The copy of LINCOLN's note is on a copy of Seward's letter of June 10, 1863, calling the president's attention to the fact that he had failed to keep an appointment to see ``Mr Molina,'' at twelve o'clock. LINCOLN's caller may have been Luis Molina, minister from Nicaragua, or Cirilo Molina, confirmed on March 12, 1863, as U.S. consul to Cartagena, Spain.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

[c. June 10, 1863]

Let the recommendation of the Judge Advocate General be carried into effect as of the date of his new commission June 10. 1863

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DLC-RTL. The copy of LINCOLN's endorsement is contained in a report from Thomas M. Vincent, assistant adjutant general, in reply to the president's request to Stanton for facts in the case of Colonel John C. Lemmon and other officers of the Tenth New York Cavalry, October 22, infra. Vincent's report quoted an earlier report dated August 25, 1863, from Judge Advocate General Holt, which quoted LINCOLN's endorsement as it appeared on Holt's recommendation that Lemmon be re-mustered in spite of regulations which prohibited resigned officers from re-entering service except upon application of the governor who re-appointed them and upon a certificate from the surgeonPage  259

general. Lemmon had resigned on March 26, 1863, because of ``continued ill health'' while charges were being preferred against him in connection with the insubordination and mutiny of certain officers in his regiment. See LINCOLN's communications to Stanton, October 22, infra.

To Lorenzo Thomas [1]

June 10 and 13, 1863

Will the Adjutant General please inform the bearer, Mr. Wood, what is the condition of L. W. Muzzey, as to being a Commissary of subsistence. Mr. Wood says he has, for a long time been acting as such, & supposing himself to have been appointed as such.

June 10. 1863. A. LINCOLN

If the appointment within sought can be consistently made, let it be done. A. LINCOLN

June. 13. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, owned by Gordon A. Block, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. LINCOLN's endorsements are written on a letter from General Robert Schenck, June 6, 1863, introducing David Wood of Boston, ``who will explain the nature of his business.'' First Lieutenant Loring W. Muzzey, regimental quartermaster of the Twelfth Massachusetts Infantry, was appointed captain and commissary of subsistence March 21, 1864.

Introduction for Richard W. Thompson [1]

June 11, 1863

Col. R. W. Thompson is my friend, whom I would be glad to have obliged in any way not inconsistent with the public interest.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   Chicago Book and Art Auction Catalog 34, June 14-15, 1933, No. 496. On May 1, 1863, Richard W. Thompson had been appointed provost marshal of the Seventh District of Indiana.

To Jesus Jimenez [1]

June 11, 1863

Abraham Lincoln,

President of the United States of America,

To His Excellency

Senor Don Jesus Jimenez,

President of the Republic of Costa Rica.

Great and Good Friend: I have received the letter which you addressed to me on the 8th. ultimo, informing me of your Excellency's elevation to the Presidency of the Republic by the freePage  260 suffrages of your fellow-citizens and offering to me assurances of your desire to cultivate the relations established between our respective Governments.

I congratulate your Excellency upon this token of the confidence of the People of Costa Rica in your sagacity and statesmanship, and feel satisfied that the trust conferred upon you will be discharged for the best interests of that Republic. It shall be my constant endeavor so to conduct the relations between our respective countries as to strengthen the good understanding which now happily subsists.

I pray your Excellency to accept the assurances of my earnest wishes for your personal happiness and for the prosperity of Costa Rica.

And so commending you to the care of the Almighty I remain Your Excellency's Good Friend, ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

By the President:

WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.

Washington, June 11, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DNA FS RG 59, Communications to Foreign Sovereigns and States, III, 209-10.

To Mary LINCOLN [1]

Mrs. LINCOLN Executive Mansion,
Philadelphia Washington, June 11, 1863.

Your three despatches received. I am very well; and am glad to know that you & ``Tad'' are so. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ATS, IHi. The telegrams referred to have not been located.

To Erastus Corning and Others [1]

Executive Mansion
Hon. Erastus Corning & others Washington [June 12] 1863.

Gentlemen Your letter of May 19th. inclosing the resolutions of a public meeting held at Albany, N.Y. on the 16th. of the same month, was received several days ago.

Page  261The resolutions, as I understand them, are resolvable into two propositions---first, the expression of a purpose to sustain the cause of the Union, to secure peace through victory, and to support the administration in every constitutional, and lawful measure to suppress the rebellion; and secondly, a declaration of censure upon the administration for supposed unconstitutional action such as the making of military arrests.

And, from the two propositions a third is deduced, which is, that the gentlemen composing the meeting are resolved on doing their part to maintain our common government and country, despite the folly or wickedness, as they may conceive, of any administration. This position is eminently patriotic, and as such, I thank the meeting, and congratulate the nation for it. My own purpose is the same; so that the meeting and myself have a common object, and can have no difference, except in the choice of means or measures, for effecting that object.

And here I ought to close this paper, and would close it, if there were no apprehension that more injurious consequences, than any merely personal to myself, might follow the censures systematicallyPage  262 cast upon me for doing what, in my view of duty, I could not forbear. The resolutions promise to support me in every constitutional and lawful measure to suppress the rebellion; and I have not knowingly employed, nor shall knowingly employ, any other. But the meeting, by their resolutions, assert and argue, that certain military arrests and proceedings following them for which I am ultimately responsible, are unconstitutional. I think they are not. The resolutions quote from the constitution, the definition of treason; and also the limiting safe-guards and guarrantees therein provided for the citizen, on trials for treason, and on his being held to answer for capital or otherwise infamous crimes, and, in criminal prossecutions, his right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury. They proceed to resolve ``That these safe-guards of the rights of the citizen against the pretentions of arbitrary power, were intended more especially for his protection in times of civil commotion.'' And, apparently, to demonstrate the proposition, the resolutions proceed ``They were secured substantially to the English people, after years of protracted civil war, and were adopted into our constitution at the close of the revolution.'' Would not the demonstration have been better, if it could have been truly said that these safe-guards had been adopted, and applied during the civil wars and during our revolution, instead of after the one, and at the close of the other. I too am devotedly for them after civil war, and before civil war, and at all times ``except when, in cases of Rebellion or Invasion, the public Safety may require'' their suspension. The resolutions proceed to tell us that these safe-guards ``have stood the test of seventysix years of trial, under our republican system, under circumstances which show that while they constitute the foundation of all free government, they are the elements of the enduring stability of the Republic.'' No one denies that they have so stood the test up to the beginning of the present rebellion if we except a certain matter [occurrence] [3] at New-Orleans hereafter to be mentioned; nor does any one question that they will stand the same test much longer after the rebellion closes. But these provisions of the constitution have no application to the case we have in hand, because the arrests complained of were not made for treason---that is, not for the treason defined in the constitution, and upon the conviction of which, the punishment is death---- nor yet were they made to hold persons to answer for any capital, or otherwise infamous crimes; nor were the proceedings following, in any constitutional or legal sense, ``criminal prossecutions.'' The arrests were made on totally different grounds,Page  263 and the proceedings following, accorded with the grounds of the arrests. Let us consider the real case with which we are dealing, and apply to it the parts of the constitution plainly made for such cases. [4]

Prior to my instalation here it had been inculcated that any State had a lawful right to secede from the national Union; and that it would be expedient to exercise the right, whenever the devotees of the doctrine should fail to elect a President to their own liking. I was elected contrary to their liking; and accordingly, so far as it was legally possible, they had taken seven states out of the Union, had seized many of the United States Forts, and had fired upon the United States' Flag, all before I was inaugerated; and, of course, before I had done any official act whatever. The rebellion, thus began soon ran into the present civil war; [5] and, in certain respects, it began on very unequal terms between the parties. The insurgents had been preparing for it more than thirty years, while the government had taken no steps to resist them. The former had carefully considered all the means which could be turned to their account. It undoubtedly was a well pondered reliance with them that in their own unrestricted effort to destroy Union, constitution, and law, all together, the government would, in great degree, be restrained by the same constitution and law, from arresting their progress. Their sympathizers pervaded all departments of the government, and nearly all communities of the people. From this material, under cover of ``Liberty of speech'' ``Liberty of the press'' and ``Habeas corpus'' they hoped to keep on foot amongst us a most efficient corps of spies, informers, supplyers, and aiders and abettors of their cause in a thousand ways. They knew that in times such as they were inaugerating, by the constitution itself, the ``Habeas corpus'' might be suspended; but they also knew they had friends who would make a question [6] as to who was to suspend it; meanwhile their spies and others might remain at large to help on their cause. Or if, as has happened, the executive should suspend the writ, without ruinous waste of time, instances of arresting innocent persons might occur, as are always likely to occur in such cases; and then a clamor [7] could be raised in regard to this, which might be, at least, of some service to the insurgent cause. It needed no very keen perception to discoverPage  264 this part of the enemies' programme, so soon as by open hostilities their machinery was fairly put in motion. Yet, thoroughly imbued with a reverence for the guarranteed rights of individuals, I was slow to adopt the strong measures, which by degrees I have been forced to regard as being within the exceptions of the constitution, and as indispensable to the public Safety. Nothing is better known to history than that courts of justice are utterly incompetent to such cases. Civil courts are organized chiefly for trials of individuals, or, at most, a few individuals acting in concert; and this in quiet times, and on charges of crimes well defined in the law. Even in times of peace, bands of horse-thieves and robbers frequently grow too numerous and powerful for the ordinary courts of justice. But what comparison, in numbers, have such bands ever borne to the insurgent sympathizers even in many of the loyal states? Again, a jury [8] too frequently have at least one member, more ready to hang the panel than to hang the traitor. And yet again, he who dissuades one man from volunteering, or induces one soldier to desert, weakens the Union cause as much as he who kills a union soldier in battle. Yet this dissuasion, or inducement, may be so conducted as to be no defined crime of which any civil court would take cognizance.

Ours is a case of Rebellion---so called by the resolutions before me---in fact, a clear, flagrant, and gigantic case of Rebellion; and the provision of the constitution that ``The previlege of the writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of Rebellion or Invasion, the public Safety may require it'' is the provision which specially applies to our present case. This provision plainly attests the understanding of those who made the constitution that ordinary courts of justice are inadequate to ``cases of Rebellion''---attests their purpose that in such cases, men [9] may be held in custody whom the courts acting on ordinary rules, would discharge. Habeas Corpus, does not discharge men who are proved to be guilty of defined crime; and its suspension is allowed by the constitution on purpose that, men may be arrested and held, who can not be proved to be guilty of defined crime, ``when, in cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.'' This is precisely our present case---a case of Rebellion, wherein the public Safety does require the suspension. Indeed, arrests by process ofPage  265 courts, and arrests in cases of rebellion, do not proceed altogether upon the same basis. The former is directed at the small per centage of ordinary and continuous perpetration of crime; while the latter is directed at sudden and extensive uprisings against the government, which, at most, will succeed or fail, in no great length of time. In the latter case, arrests are made, not so much for what has been done, as for what probably would be done. The latter is more for the preventive, and less for the vindictive, than the former. In such cases the purposes of men are much more easily understood, than in cases of ordinary crime. The man who stands by and says nothing, when the peril of his government is discussed, can not be misunderstood. If not hindered, he is sure to help the enemy. Much more, if he talks ambiguously---talks for his country with ``buts'' and ``ifs'' and ``ands.'' Of how little value the constitutional provision I have quoted will be rendered, if arrests shall never be made until defined crimes shall have been committed, may be illustrated by a few notable examples. Gen. John C. Breckienridge, Gen. Robert E. Lee, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, Gen. John B. Magruder, Gen. William B. Preston, Gen. Simon B. Buckner, and Comodore [Franklin] Buchanan, now occupying the very highest places in the rebel war service, were all within the power of the government since the rebellion began, and were nearly as well known to be traitors then as now. Unquestionably if we had seized and held them, the insurgent cause would be much weaker. But no one of them had then committed any crime defined in the law. Every one of them if arrested would have been discharged on Habeas Corpus, were the writ allowed to operate. In view of these and similar cases, I think the time not unlikely to come when I shall be blamed for having made too few arrests rather than too many.

By the third resolution the meeting indicate their opinion that military arrests may be constitutional in localities where rebellion actually exists; but that such arrests are unconstitutional in localities where rebellion, or insurrection, does not actually exist. They insist that such arrests shall not be made ``outside of the lines of necessary military occupation, and the scenes of insurrection'' In asmuch, however, as the constitution itself makes no such distinction, I am unable to believe that there is any such constitutional distinction. I concede that the class of arrests complained of, can be constitutional only when, in cases of Rebellion or Invasion, the public Safety may require them; and I insist that in such cases, they are constitutional wherever the public safety does require them---as well in places to which they may prevent the rebellion extending,Page  266 as in those where it may be already prevailing---as well where they may restrain mischievous interference with the raising and supplying of armies, to suppress the rebellion, as where the rebellion may actually be---as well where they may restrain the enticing men out of the army, as where they would prevent mutiny in the army---equally constitutional at all places where they will conduce to the public Safety, as against the dangers of Rebellion or Invasion.

Take the particular case mentioned by the meeting. They assert [It is asserted] [10] in substance that Mr. Vallandigham was by a military commander, seized and tried ``for no other reason than words addressed to a public meeting, in criticism of the course of the administration, and in condemnation of the military orders of that general'' Now, if there be no mistake about this---if this assertion is the truth and the whole truth---if there was no other reason for the arrest, then I concede that the arrest was wrong. But the arrest, as I understand, was made for a very different reason. Mr. Vallandigham avows his hostility to the war on the part of the Union; and his arrest was made because he was laboring, with some effect, to prevent the raising of troops, to encourage desertions from the army, and to leave the rebellion without an adequate military force to suppress it. He was not arrested because he was damaging the political prospects of the administration, or the personal interests of the commanding general; but because he was damaging the army, upon the existence, and vigor of which, the life of the nation depends. He was warring upon the military; and this gave the military constitutional jurisdiction to lay hands upon him. If Mr. Vallandigham was not damaging the military power of the country, then his arrest was made on mistake of fact, which I would be glad to correct, on reasonably satisfactory evidence.

I understand the meeting, whose resolutions I am considering, to be in favor of suppressing the rebellion by military force---by armies. Long experience has shown that armies can not be maintained unless desertion shall be punished by the severe penalty of death. The case requires, and the law and the constitution, sanction this punishment. Must I shoot a simple-minded soldier boy who deserts, while I must not touch a hair of a wiley agitator who induces him to desert? This is none the less injurious when effected by getting a father, or brother, or friend, into a public meeting, and there working upon his feeling, till he is persuaded to write the soldier boy, that he is fighting in a bad cause, for a wicked administration of a contemptable government, too weak to arrestPage  267 and punish him if he shall desert. I think that in such a case, to silence the agitator, and save the boy, is not only constitutional, but, withal, a great mercy. [11]

If I be wrong on this question of constitutional power, my error lies in believing that certain proceedings are constitutional when, in cases of rebellion or Invasion, the public Safety requires them, which would not be constitutional when, in absence of rebellion or invasion, the public Safety does not require them---in other words, that the constitution is not in it's application in all respects the same, in cases of Rebellion or invasion, involving the public Safety, as it is in times of profound peace and public security. The constitution itself makes the distinction; and I can no more be persuaded that the government can constitutionally take no strong measure in time of rebellion, because it can be shown that the same could not be lawfully taken in time of peace, than I can be persuaded that a particular drug is not good medicine for a sick man, because it can be shown to not be good food for a well one. Nor am I able to appreciate the danger, apprehended by the meeting, that the American people will, by means of military arrests during the rebellion, lose the right of public discussion, the liberty of speech and the press, the law of evidence, trial by jury, and Habeas corpus, throughout the indefinite peaceful future which I trust lies before them, any more than I am able to believe that a man could contract so strong an appetite for emetics during temporary illness, [12] as to persist in feeding upon them through the remainder of his healthful life.

In giving the resolutions that earnest consideration which you request of me, I can not overlook the fact that the meeting speak as ``Democrats.'' Nor can I, with full respect for their known intelligence, and the fairly presumed deliberation with which they prepared their resolutions, be permitted to suppose that this occurred by accident, or in any way other than that they preferred to designate themselves ``democrats'' rather than ``American citizens.'' In this time of national peril I would have preferred to meet you upon a level one step higher than any party platform; because I am sure that from such more elevated position, we could do better battle for the country we all love, than we possibly can from those lower ones, where from the force of habit, the prejudices of the past, and selfish hopes of the future, we are sure to expend much of our ingenuity and strength, in finding fault with, andPage  268 aiming blows at each other. But since you have denied me this, I will yet be thankful, for the country's sake, that not all democrats have done so. He on whose discretionary judgment Mr. Vallandigham was arrested and tried, is a democrat, having no old party affinity with me; and the judge who rejected the constitutional view expressed in these resolutions, by refusing to discharge Mr. V. on Habeas Corpus, is a democrat of better days than these, having received his judicial mantle at the hands of President Jackson. And still more, of all those democrats who are nobly exposing their lives and shedding their blood on the battle-field, I have learned that many approve the course taken with Mr. V. while I have not heard of a single one condemning it. I can not assert that there are none such.

And [13] the name of President Jackson recalls a bit [an instance] [14] of pertinent history. After the battle of New-Orleans, and while the fact that the treaty of peace had been concluded, was well known in the city, but before official knowledge of it had arrived, Gen. Jackson still maintained martial, or military law. Now, that it could be said the war was over, the clamor against martial law, which had existed from the first, grew more furious. Among other things a Mr. Louiallier [15] published a denunciatory newspaper article. Gen. Jackson arrested him. A lawyer by the name of Morel [16] procured the U.S. Judge Hall [17] to order a writ of Habeas Corpus to release Mr. Louiallier. Gen. Jackson arrested both the lawyer and the judge. A Mr. Hollander [18] ventured to say of some part of the matter that ``it was a dirty trick.'' Gen. Jackson arrested him. When the officer undertook to serve the writ of Habeas Corpus, Gen. Jackson took it from him, and sent him away with a copy. Holding the judge in custody a few days, the general sent him beyond the limits of his encampment, and set him at liberty, with an order to remain till the ratification of peace should be regularly announced, or until the British should have left the Southern coast. A day or two more elapsed, the ratification of the treaty of peace was regularly announced, and the judge and others were fully liberated. A few days more, and the judge called Gen. Jackson into court and fined him a thousand dollars, for having arrested him and the others named. The general paid the fine, and there the matter rested for nearly thirty years, when congress refunded principal and interest. The late Senator Douglas, then inPage  269 the House of Representatives, took a leading part in the debate, in which the constitutional question was much discussed. I am not prepared to say whom the Journals would show to have voted for the measure.

It may be remarked: First, that we had the same constitution then, as now. Secondly, that we then had a case of Invasion, and that now we have a case of Rebellion, and: Thirdly, that the permanent right of the people to public discussion, the liberty of speech and the press, the trial by jury, the law of evidence, and the Habeas Corpus, suffered no detriment whatever by that conduct of Gen. Jackson, or it's subsequent approval by the American congress.

And yet, let me say that in my own discretion, I do not know whether I would have ordered the arrest of Mr. V. While I can not shift the responsibility from myself, I hold that, as a general rule, the commander in the field is the better judge of the necessity in any particular case. Of course I must practice a general directory and revisory power in the matter.

One of the resolutions expresses the opinion of the meeting that arbitrary arrests will have the effect to divide and distract those who should be united in suppressing the rebellion; and I am specifically called on to discharge Mr. Vallandigham. I regard this as, at least, a fair appeal to me, on the expediency of exercising a constitutional power which I think exists. In response to such appeal I have to say it gave me pain when I learned that Mr. V. had been arrested,---that is, [19] I was pained that there should have seemed to be a necessity for arresting him---and that it will afford me great pleasure to discharge him so soon as I can, by any means, believe the public safety will not suffer by it. I further say, that as the war progress, it appears to me, opinion, and action, which were in great confusion at first, take shape, and fall into more regular channels; so that the necessity for arbitrary [strong] [20] dealing with them gradually decreases. I have every reason to desire that it would cease altogether; and far from the least is my regard for the opinions and wishes of those who, like the meeting at Albany, declare their purpose to sustain the government in every constitutional and lawful measure to suppress the rebellion. Still, [21] I must continue to do so much as may seem to be required by the public safety. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ADf, DLC-RTL; New York Tribune, June 15, 1863. The autograph draft in the LINCOLN Papers lacks certain revisions which LINCOLN must have made in the copy prepared for the press, as well as in the original letter sent to Corning, which has not been located. The draft has been followed, with LINCOLN's significant emendations as they appear in the draft and those additional ones which appear in the text of the Tribune indicated in footnotes. The cover page of the draft bears LINCOLN's endorsement, ``Albany letter Manuscript & something about Proclamation.'' The other manuscript referred to has not been located.

On June 23, Corning acknowledged receipt of LINCOLN's letter, ``I have deemed it proper to hand your communication to the Committee who reported the Resolutions, for such action as in their judgment, the case may seem to demand. . . .'' (DLC-RTL). On June 30, Corning and the committee conveyed their reply, which reads in part: `` . . . We have carefully considered the grounds on which your pretensions to more than regal authority are claimed to rest; and if we do not misinterpret the misty and clouded forms of expression in which those pretensions are set forth, your meaning is that while the rights of the citizen are protected by the Constitution in time of peace, they are suspended or lost in time of war, or when invasion or rebellion exist. You do not, like many others in whose minds, reason and love of regulated liberty seem to be overthrown by the excitements of the hour, attempt to base this conclusion upon a supposed military necessity existing outside of and transcending the Constitution, a military necessity behind which the Constitution itself disappears in a total eclipse. We do not find this gigantic and monstrous heresy put forth in your plea for absolute power, but we do find another equally subversive of liberty and law, and quite as certainly tending to the establishment of despotism. Your claim to have found not outside, but within the Constitution, a principle or germ of arbitrary power, which in time of war expands at once into an absolute sovereignty, wielded by one man; so that liberty perishes, or is dependent on his will, his discretion or his caprice. This extraordinary doctrine, you claim to derive wholly from that clause of the Constitution, which, in case of invasion or rebellion, permits the writ of habeas corpus to be suspended. Upon this ground your whole argument is based.

``You must permit us, to say to you with all due respect, but with the earnestness demanded by the occasion, that the American people will never acquiese in this doctrine. . . .'' (Ibid.).

[2]   The date is in Nicolay's handwriting. Welles' Diary on June 5 records that ``The President read to-day a paper which he had prepared in reply to Erastus Corning and others. It has vigor and ability and with some corrections will be a strong paper.''

[3]   The Tribune gives ``occurence.''

[4]   The draft has the following sentence deleted at this point: ``May I be indulged to submit a few general remarks upon this subject of arrests?''

[5]   The first clause of this sentence, emended to the present reading in the draft, was originally as follows: ``The present civil war soon followed;''

[6]   ``Make a question'' is substituted in the draft for ``raise a squabble.''

[7]   ``Clamor'' is substituted in the draft for ``howl.''

[8]   This sentence, emended to the present reading in the draft, originally began as follows: ``Again, a jury can scarcely be empannelled, that will not have at least. . . .''

[9]   The remainder of this sentence, revised in the draft to the present reading, originally read as follows: ``men might be held in custody in spite of the courts, and whom the courts if allowed, would release.''

[10]   The Tribune reads ``It is asserted.''

[11]   An additional phrase is deleted in the draft, ``and a great merit.''

[12]   ``During temporary illness'' is substituted in the draft for ``while temporarily sick.''

[13]   This paragraph and the next are autograph insertions in the draft.

[14]   The Tribune reads ``an instance.''

[15]   Louis Louaillier, member of the Louisiana legislature.

[16]   Pierre L. Morel.

[17]   Dominick A. Hall, U.S. district judge.

[18]   Hollander was a New Orleans merchant.

[19]   The clause set off by dashes appears in the Tribune, but is not in the draft.

[20]   The Tribune has ``strong'' instead of ``arbitrary.''

[21]   The last sentence and signature are from the Tribune and do not appear in the draft.

Page  270

To Henry W. Halleck [1]

June 12, 1863

The within comes in answer to a proposition of mine to visit Gen. Hooker on tomorrow night (Saturday).

I have thought perhaps Gen. Halleck better see it. A. LINCOLN

June 12. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a telegram from General Hooker, 6:20 P.M., June 12, 1863: ``If I am not very much mistaken I shall be constrained to move my Army on to the Alexandria and Orange Rail Road before that time. I have three (3) corps near there at this time. I presume that Gen Halleck showed you my dispatch of this morning. Also please see copy of my dispatch to Gen Dix of today.''

See Lincoln's telegram to Hooker, infra.

To Joseph Holt [1]

June 12, 1863

[Lieut. Garretson]---forged a pass, or furlough.

If the Judge Advocate Genl upon examining this case shall be of opinion that Lt. Garretson can be relieved without detriment to the service, I shall be glad to do it. Will he please examine & report to me A. LINCOLN

June 12. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-RTL. Bracketed name is not in Lincoln's autograph. The endorsement is written on an envelope which bears a note in pencil, not Lincoln's, ``altered the date of a furlough.'' As cataloged in the Lincoln Papers the envelope is incorrectly given the date January 12, 1864. Neither the papers of Lieutenant Garretson nor a reply from Holt has been located. Second Lieutenant John H. Garretson of the Twenty-first New Jersey Volunteers had been dismissed from the service on March 25, 1863. A petition signed by officers of his regiment, April 4, 1863, requested his reinstatement (DLC-RTL).

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Executive Mansion, June 12, 1863---2 p.m.

Major-General Hooker: If you can show me a trial of the incendiary shells on Saturday night, I will try to join you at 5 p.m. that day. Answer. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   OR, I, XXVII, I, 37. For Hooker's reply see Lincoln to Halleck, supra, note. At 9 P.M. Hooker telegraphed Lincoln again, ``At the time of my reply to your telegram of to-day, I supposed that this was Thursday and not Friday. It will give me great pleasure to have the gun on exhibition at 5 p.m to-morrow. I have some good targets in the shape of rebel camps which the gun will enfilade.'' (Ibid.).

Page  271

To Erastus Corning [1]

Private
Hon. Erastus Corning Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir Washington, June 13, 1863.

Herewith I inclose you the promised response to the resolutions of the Albany meeting Your Obt. Servt. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, WHi. This note accompanied the original letter to Corning and others of June 12, supra, which has not been located.

To Joseph Holt [1]

Judge Advocate General please examine & report on this case.

June 13. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, owned by John Davis, Jr., Topeka, Kansas. Lincoln's endorsement has been clipped from the attendant papers, and no further reference has been found.

To Joseph Hooker [1]

``Cypher'' Executive Mansion, Washington,
Major General Hooker June. 13, 1863.

I was coming down this afternoon; but if you would prefer I should not, I shall blame you if you do not tell me so.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, Cherles Hemilton, 1970. Hooker's reply was received at 1 P.M.: ``It may be well not to come.'' (DLC-RTL). Lincoln seems to have departed, however, before Hooker's reply was received, and Stanton telegraphed Captain Colin B. Ferguson at Alexandria, ``Stop the tug on which the president is and ask him to return.'' (DLC-RTL).

To Leopold [1]

June 13, 1863

Abraham Lincoln,

President of the United States of America

To His Majesty, Leopold,

King of the Belgians.

Great and Good Friend: I have received through the minister of the United States accredited to Your Majesty, the award in the case of the claim of certain citizens of the United States upon the Government of the Republic of Chili, which by agreement between this Government and the Government of that Republic, was submittedPage  272 to Your Majesty's arbitrament, a trust was accepted by Your Majesty. The confidence in Your Majesty's uprightness, impartiality and intelligence which led the parties interested to seek from Your Majesty a decision of the long pending controversy adverted to will, it is believed, be regarded by all the parties interested, as justified by the result. In this respect, I can speak with perfect assurance, at least on the part of this Government. I cannot omit to add an expression of my thanks for the pains which Your Majesty must have taken to reach a correct conclusion in so arduos a business, and my belief that Your Majesty's success in this instance will not be regarded as an unimportant proof of the wisdem which has characterized Your Majestys illustrious reign. And so I pray God to have Your Majesty in His safe and holy keeping

Written at the City of Washington the 13th. day of June Anno Domini 1863. Your Good Friend ABRAHAM LINCOLN

By the President

WILLIAM H. SEWARD Secretary of State

Annotation

[1]   Copy, DNA FS RG 59, Communications to Foreign Sovereigns and States, III, 230-31. The convention with Chile of November 10, 1858, provided that the King of Belgium should act as arbiter in the claim to proceeds of the cargo of the U.S. brig Macedonian, consisting of silver in coin and bars, forcibly taken in 1821. On May 15, 1863, Leopold rendered his decision, awarding the U.S. $42,400

To Gideon Welles [1]

Sec. of Navy, please allow the bearer, Mr. Lyman, to take his new cannon into the Navy-Yard where I wish to see it fired next week.

June 13. 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, DNA WR RG 74, Navy Branch, Bureau of Ordnance, Inventions, Rifle and Smooth Bore, Letters Received 1862-1864. Lincoln's note was endorsed by Welles to the Chief of Ordnance and forwarded by Commander Henry A. Wise with an order to Lieutenant Commander William Mitchell to ``mount and prepare for firing the accelerating gun of Mr. [Azel S.] Lyman in accordance with the request. . . .''

To Salmon P. Chase [1]

Executive Mansion, June 14, 1863.

Hon. Secretary of the Treasury.

Sir:---Your note of this morning is received. You will co-operate by the revenue cutters under your direction with the navy in arrestingPage  273 rebel depredations on American commerce and transportation and in capturing rebels engaged therein.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Lapsley, VI, 325. Chase wrote on June 14, requesting the authority granted by Lincoln in this letter, ``in view of the intelligence just received of depredations by rebel cruisers on our Commerce & Navigation near the capes of Virginia.'' (DLC-RTL).

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Washington, June 14, 1863 1.14 p.m.

Major-General Hooker: Do you consider it possible that 15,000 of Ewell's men can now be at Winchester? A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   OR, I, XXVII, I, 38. General Alfred Pleasonton reported to Stanton on June 14, received 6:05 P.M., that a ``negro states that he left Gaines' Cross-Roads last night, and the enemy's column passed there for Harper's Ferry on Friday morning [12th]. . . . Saw [Richard] Ewell . . . also [James] Longstreet and [Jubal A.] Early. . . . I believe this man's report.'' (OR, I, XXVII, III, 101). Hooker's reply to Lincoln of 7:10 P.M. merely referred to Pleasonton's report (OR, I, XXVII, I, 39).

To Joseph Hooker [2]

Washington, June 14, 1863---5.50 p.m.

Major-General Hooker: So far as we can make out here, the enemy have Milroy surrounded at Winchester, and Tyler at Martinsburg. If they could hold out a few days, could you help them? If the head of Lee's army is at Martinsburg and the tail of it on the Plank road between Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, the animal must be very slim somewhere. Could you not break him?

A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   OR, I, XXVII, I, 39.

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington,
Major General Hooker. June 14. 11.55 P.M. 1863.

Yours of 11.30 just received. You have nearly all the elements for forming an opinion whether Winchester is surrounded that I have. I really fear---almost believe, it is. No communication has been had with it during the day, either at Martinsburg, or Harper's Ferry. At 7 P.M., we also lost communication with Martinsburg.

Page  274The enemy had also appeared there some hours before. At 9. PM. Harper's Ferry said the enemy was reported at Berryville & Smithfield. If I could know that Longstreet and Ewell moved in that direction so long ago as you stated in your last, then I should feel sure that Winchester is strongly invested. It is quite certain that a considerable force of the enemy is thereabout; and I fear it is an overwhelming one, compared with Milroys. I am unable to give any more certain opinion. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS-IHi. Hooker proposed to Halleck in a telegram of 7 P.M., June 13, that he transfer operations from the line of Aquia Creek to the Orange and Alexandria Railroad (OR, I, XXVII, I, 38). His telegram to Lincoln of 11:15 P.M., June 14, is as follows: ``Has anything further been heard from Winchester? Will the President allow me to inquire if it is his opinion that Winchester is surrounded by the rebel forces? I make this inquiry for the reason that General [Isaac R.] Trimble was recently assigned, in orders, to the command of that district, and it is not known what command he had. . . . I do not feel like making a move for an enemy until I am satisfied as to his whereabouts. . . . With this feeling, unless otherwise directed, I feel it my duty to execute the movement indicated on yesterday. . . .'' (Ibid., pp. 39-40).

To Benjamin F. Kelley [1]

Major-General Kelley, Washington,
Harper's Ferry: June 14, 1863-1.27 p.m.

Are the forces at Winchester and Martinsburg making any effort to get to you? A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   OR, I, XXVII, III, 108. Kelley replied, ``Dispatch received. I am not advised that the forces at Winchester, under General Milroy, are falling back on this place. The forces of my command at Martinsburg are ordered to fall back on me, if assailed by overpowering numbers.'' (Ibid.).

To Robert C. Schenck [1]

``Cypher''
Gen. Schenck Washington, D.C.,
Baltimore June 14 1863

Get Milroy from Winchester to Harper's Ferry if possible. He will be gobbled up, if he remains, if he is not already past salvation. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. This telegram is misdated July 13, 1863, in Hertz, II, 901. Schenck replied, ``I am doing all I can to get Milroy back toward Harper's Ferry on the railroad. He sent down a courier in the night to say that, if he could not fall back, he could sustain himself, and hold his position five days, but I have no force to support him. The rebels appear to have pushed on beyond him rapidly and impetuously, and are reported approaching Martinsburg.'' (OR, I, XXVII, II, 174).

Page  275

To Daniel Tyler [1]

``Cypher''
Gen. Tyler--- Washington, D.C.,
Martinsburg. June 14 1863

Is Milroy invested, so that he can not fall back to Harper's Ferry? A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Tyler replied at 3 P.M., ``General Milroy is in a tight place. If he gets out, it will be by good luck and hard fighting. Not a straggler from his army is yet in; it is neck or nothing. We are besieged here; have had a little skirmish. I imagine our rebel friends are waiting for grub and artillery.'' (OR, XXVII, II, 174).

To Daniel Tyler [2]

``Cypher''
Gen. Tyler Washington, D.C.,
Martinsburg. June 14 1863

If you are beseiged, how do you despatch me? Why did you not leave, before being besieged? A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. No reply has been located, but Tyler fell back on Harper's Ferry.

To Edward L. Baker [1]

E. L. Baker, Esq Executive Mansion,
Dear Sir Washington, June 15, 1863.

Not to exceed two hours after you left me I received a letter from Springfield, renewing the pressure upon me in the matter we talked of; and, in fact, leaving me no alternative but to make some change there. I can say but little beyond what I then said to you. The appeal to me in behalf of Mr. Edwards and Mr. Bailhasche, [2] for a hearing, does not meet the case. No formal charges are preferred against them, so far as I know; nor do I expect any will be made; or, if made, will be substantiated. I certainly do not suppose Mr. Edwards has, at this time of his life, given up his old habits, and turned dishonest; and while I have not known Mr. Bailhasche so long, I have no more affermative reason to suspect him. The trouble with me is of a different character. Sprinfield is my home, and there, more than elsewhere, are my life-long friends. These, for now nearly two years, have been harrassing me because of Mr. E. & Mr. B. I think Mr. E. & Mr. B. without dishonesty on the other hand, could have saved me from this, if they had cared to doPage  276 so. They have seemed to think that if they could keep their official record dryly correct, to say the least, it was not any difference how much they might provoke my friends, and harrass me. If this is too strong a statement of the case, still the result has been the same to me; and, as a misfortune merely, I think I have already borne a fair share of it.

In what I may do, I shall try to so shape it, as to not seem to mean more than is really intended. Your Obt. Servt.

A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS (copy?), DLC-RTL. See Lincoln to Jesse K. Dubois and others, May 29, supra. On June 18, Ninian W. Edwards wrote Edward Bates, and at ``the advice of Judge Davis of the Supreme Court'' enclosed a letter to Lincoln with the comment, ``I am anxious to do what you and he may think best.'' To Lincoln, Edwards wrote as follows: ``Mr Baker has shown me your letter of the 15th. It pains me very much to hear that I give you any trouble. I know that I have not only kept my record correct, but I have taken extraordinary pains to avoid giving any cause for complaint. . . . When I asked an office from you . . . I needed it very much. I can now do without it. I don't wish to embarrass you. If I am removed from here it will be said that there is good cause for it. Under my present orders I can keep my office at Chicago . . . or rather than give you further trouble I will resign. I will do what you think best. . . .'' (DLC-RTL). See Lincoln's memorandum, June 22, infra.

[2]   William H. Bailhache.

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Major General Hooker Washington City,
Fairfax Station. June 15. 81/2 P.M. 1863

The facts are now known here that Winchester and Martinsburg were both besieged yesterday; the troops from Martinsburg have got into Harper's Ferry without loss; those from Winchester, are also in, having lost, in killed, wounded and missing, about one third of their number. Of course the enemy holds both places; and I think the report is authentic that he is crossing the Potomac at Williamsburg. We have not heard of his yet appearing at Harper's Ferry, or on the river anywhere below. I would like to hear from you. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS-P, ISLA. Hooker acknowledged receipt of Lincoln's telegram as follows: ``Your telegram of 8.30 p.m. received. It seems to disclose the intentions of the enemy to make an invasion, and, if so, it is not in my power to prevent it. I can, however, make an effort to check him until he has concentrated all his forces. I may possibly be able to prevent the junction, and commence the movement during to-morrow. On so short reflection, I am not prepared to say this is the wisest move, nor do I know that my opinion on this subject is wanted. A. P. Hill moved up toward Culpeper this morning, indicating his intention to re-enforce their forces on the Upper Potomac.'' (OR, I, XXVII, I, 43).

At 10 P.M. Hooker telegraphed Lincoln again: ``With regard to the enemy, your dispatch is more conclusive than any I have received. I now feel that invasionPage  277 is his settled purpose. . . . It is an act of desperation on his part, no matter in what force he moves. It will kill copperheadism in the North. I do now know that my opinion as to the duty of this army in the case is wanted; if it should be, you know that I will be happy to give it. I have heard nothing of the movements of the enemy to-day. . . . I have only heard that all of A.P. Hill's forces moved up the river this morning, in the direction of Culpeper. If it should be determined for me to make a movement in pursuit, which I am not prepared to recommend at this time, I may possibly be able to move some corps to-morrow, and can reach the point of the enemy's crossing in advance of A.P. Hill. . . . If they are moving toward Maryland, I can better fight them there than make a running fight. If they come up in front of Washington, I can threaten and cut their communications, and Dix can be re-enforced from the south to act on their rear. . . .'' (Ibid., pp. 43-44).

To Mary Lincoln [1]

Mrs. Lincoln June 15, 1863.

Philadelphia, Pa.

Tolerably well. Have not rode out much yet, but have at last got new tires on the carriage wheels, & perhaps, shall ride out soon. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ATS, IHi. No communication from Mrs. Lincoln has been located.

Proclamation Calling for 100,000 Militia [1]

June 15, 1863

By the President of the United States of America.

A Proclamation.

Whereas the armed insurrectionary combinations now existing in several of the States are threatening to make inroads into the States of Maryland, Western Virginia, Pennsylvania and Ohio, requiring immediately an additional military force for the service of the United States;

Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States and Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy thereof and of the Militia of the several States when called into actual service, do, hereby, call into the service of the United States, one hundred thousand militia from the States following, namely---from the State of Maryland ten thousand, from the State of Pennsylvania, fifty thousand, from the State of Ohio, thirty thousand, from the State of West Virginia, ten thousand, to be mustered into the service of the United States forthwith and to serve for the period of six months from the date of such muster into said service, unless sooner discharged; to be mustered in as infantry, artillery and cavalry, in proportions which will be made known through the

Page  278War Department, which Department will also designate the several places of rendezvous. These militia to be organized according to the rules and regulations of the volunteer service and such orders as may hereafter be issued. The States aforesaid will be respectively credited under the enrolment act for the militia services rendered under this proclamation.

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.

[L.S.]

Done at the City of Washington this fifteenth day of June, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, and of the Independence of the United States the eighty seventh. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

By the President:

WILLIAM H. SEWARD Secretary of State.

Annotation

[1]   DS, DNA FS RG 11, Proclamations. With the official copy is the draft in Seward's handwriting with corrections by Stanton.

To Daniel Tyler [1]

Gen. Tyler, War Department Washington City,
Harper's Ferry. June 15. 8/45. P.M 1863.

It would be useful, if we could tell Hooker, about what number of the enemy is about Winchester and all North of it---also what troops they are. I will be obliged, if you will ascertain as nearly as you can, and inform me. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, NN. No reply has been located, but Tyler telegraphed Hooker on June 17, ``The only rebel force of any amount that I am satisfied of was at Williamsport at 6 o'clock last evening. I think, allowing for exaggerations, there might be 7,000 or 8,000 men of all arms at Williamsport. . . .'' (OR, I, XXVII, II, 23).

To Edward Bates [1]

June 16, 1863

I sought and obtained an interview with the District Attorney in regard to this case, and thereupon concluded to remit the fines in this, and the case of the brother convicted at the same time, leaving the costs, and imprisonment, undisturbed. Will the Attorney General please prepare the proper paper? A. LINCOLN

June 16. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA RG 204, Pardon Attorney, A 476. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a petition signed by Elizabeth Knowles, June 16, 1863, in behalf ofPage  279

her son John Knowles, sentenced to ten days' imprisonment and a fine of one hundred and fifty dollars for assault and battery against ``one Noble,'' who purportedly insulted Knowles' sister.

To Horace Binney, Jr. [1]

Horace Binney, Jr Washington, D.C.,
Philadelphia June 16. 1863

I sent Gen. Cadwallader, some hours ago, to the Sec. of War, & Gen. in-chief, with the question you ask. I have not heard the result. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. A telegram signed by Horace Binney and others, June 16, 1863, asked whether Major General George Cadwalader could be ``sent to Phila with orders to organize a force under the present head of this Dept for the present emergency.'' (DLC-RTL). Cadwalader was assigned to command of troops at Philadelphia.

To William S. Bliss [1]

Col. Wm. S. Bliss. Executive Mansion,
New-York Hotel Washington, June 16 1863.

Your despatch, asking whether I will accept ``the loyal Brigade of the North'' is received. I never heard of that Brigade, by name, and do not know where it is; yet presuming that it is in New-York, I say I will gladly accept it, if tendered by and with the consent and approbation of the Governor of that State---otherwise not.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. On June 16, William S. Bliss telegraphed Lincoln as follows: ``Will you accept the loyal brigade of the North I have four thousand three hundred men which are now ready. I did intend to take a thousand men from each New England state to place at your disposal. I try to serve my country My family do not expect any money from this government I will show you the signatures of all the bank officers of this city Reply immediately.'' No reference has been found indicating either acceptance of the brigade or service by Bliss.

To Augustin Chester [1]

The reports which I have, from the Judge Advocate General, are adverse to Capt Riley and Lieut. Pike A. LINCOLN

June 16. 1863

Annotation

[1]   AES, ICHi. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Augustin Chester, Washington, June 15, 1863, transmitting ``letters of Hon I. N. Arnold in behalf of Capt. Riley. I ask that you will enclose to me the decision in his case & that of Lieut Pike. . . .'' The officers referred to were probably Captain Lawrence Riley and First Lieutenant Edgar M. Pike of the One Hundred Twenty-seventh Illinois, dismissed on March 13, 1863, dismissal later modified to honorable discharge.

Page  280

To Joseph Holt [1]

Sentence remitted & accused ordered to be discharged.

June 16, 1863 A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA WR 153, Judge Advocate General, MM 220. Lincoln's endorsement is written on the papers of Private John Beiser, Company E, Thirty-second Indiana Volunteers, sentenced to be shot for desertion, but reported by medical examiners to be insane.

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Washington, D.C.,
Major General Hooker: June 16, 1863.

Your despatches of last night and this morning are just received. I shall have General Halleck to answer them carefully. Meanwhile, I can only say that, as I understand, Heintzelman commands here in this District; that what troops, or very nearly what number, are at Harper's Ferry I do not know, though I do know that Tyler is in command there. Your idea to send your cavalry to this side of the river may be right---probably is; still, it pains me a little that it looks like defensive merely, and seems to abandon the fair chance now presented of breaking the enemy's long and necessarily slim line, stretched now from the Rappahannock to Pennsylvania. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   Thirty-eighth Congress, Second Session, Report of the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War (1865), I, 266. Hooker's telegram from Fairfax Station, June 15, received at 1:15 A.M. on the 16th, is as follows: ``I have received your despatch of this evening. The army of the Potomac is in this vicinity, excepting the 2nd and 6th corps, and, as they are marching in rear of all the trains, they will not be up before some time during to-morrow. Perhaps the 2d corps will not be here until some time to-morrow night. The 1st and 11th corps were first to arrive on this line, but I have not yet learned whether they have drawn their supplies in readiness to march to-morrow morning or not. As soon as they are provided, they, as well as the others, will be put en route. I have been informed that the enemy nowhere crossed the Rappahannock on our withdrawal from it. But General Hill's troops moved up the river in the direction of Culpeper this morning, for the purpose of, I conclude, re-enforcing Longstreet and Ewell, wherever they may be. I request that I may be informed what troops there are at Harper's Ferry, and who is in command of them, and also who is in command in this district.'' (Ibid., p. 265).

Hooker's later telegram, received at 8:35 A.M., is as follows: ``It appears to me . . . that nearly all of the cavalry of the army of the Potomac should at once be sent into Maryland by the most direct route. General Stahl has an abundance to perform all cavalry duty that will be required south of the Potomac. I merely make this suggestion. If any considerable body of the enemy's infantry should be thrown across the Potomac, they will probably take the direction of his advance pickets, and, in that event, it seems to me that a heavy column of ours should be thrown as speedily as possible to cross the river at Harper's Ferry, while another should be thrown over the most direct linePage  281 covering Baltimore and Philadelphia. I only speak with reference to this army, as I know nothing of the location or numbers of troops at the disposal of the government elsewhere.'' (Ibid.).

To Joseph Hooker [2]

(Private.)
Executive Mansion, Washington, D.C., June 16, 1863.

My dear General: I send you this by the hand of Captain Dahlgren. [2] FOOTNOTES}>(2) Your despatch of 11:30 A.M. to-day is just received. When you say I have long been aware that you do not enjoy the confidence of the major-general commanding, you state the case much too strongly.

You do not lack his confidence in any degree to do you any harm. On seeing him, after telegraphing you this morning, I found him more nearly agreeing with you than I was myself. Surely you do not mean to understand that I am withholding my confidence from you when I happen to express an opinion (certainly never discourteously) differing from one of your own.

I believe Halleck is dissatisfied with you to this extent only, that he knows that you write and telegraph (``report,'' as he calls it) to me. I think he is wrong to find fault with this; but I do not think he withholds any support from you on account of it. If you and he would use the same frankness to one another, and to me, that I use to both of you, there would be no difficulty. I need and must have the professional skill of both, and yet these suspicions tend to deprive me of both.

I believe you are aware that since you took command of the army I have not believed you had any chance to effect anything till now. As it looks to me, Lee's now returning toward Harper's Ferry gives you back the chance that I thought McClellan lost last fall. Quite possibly I was wrong both then and now; but, in the great responsibility resting upon me, I cannot be entirely silent. Now, all I ask is that you will be in such mood that we can get into our action the best cordial judgment of yourself and General Halleck, with my poor mite added, if indeed he and you shall think it entitled to any consideration at all. Yours as ever,

A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   NH, VIII, 320-21. Hooker's telegram of 11 A.M., received at 11:30, is as follows:

``Please accept my suggestions in regard to what should be done in the spirit with which they were given.

``They were suggestions merely, for I have not the data necessary to form an enlightened opinion in the case. Upon general principles, I thought those were the movements to make. You have long been aware Mr President that I havePage  282 not enjoyed the confidence of the Major General Commanding the Army & I can assure you so long as this continues we may look in vain for success. Especially as future operations will require our relations to be more dependent upon each other than heretofore.

``It may be possible now to move to prevent a junction of A P Hills Corps with those of Ewell & Longstreet.

``If so please let instructions to that effect be given me. As will appear to you the chances for my doing this are much smaller than when I was on the Rappahannock for if he should hold the passes stoutly he can cause delay. Your may depend upon it we can never discover the whereabouts of the enemy or divine his intentions so long as he fills the country with a cloud of cavalry. We must break through that to find him.'' (DLC-RTL).

[2]   Ulric Dahlgren.

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington,
Major General Hooker. June 16. 1863. [10 P.M.]

To remove all misunderstanding, I now place you in the strict military relation to Gen. Halleck, of a commander of one of the armies, to the General-in-Chief of all the armies. I have not intended differently; but as it seems to be differently understood, I shall direct him to give you orders, and you to obey them.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, NN. The time of this telegram is taken from the Official Records (I, XXVII, I, 47). Lincoln had received at 9:50 the following telegram from Hooker:

``My orders are out to march at 3 o'clock to-morrow morning. It will be likely to be one of vigor and power. I am prepared to move without communications with any place for ten days. I hope to reach my objective point before the arrival of Hill's corps, should it be moving in that direction. If I do not know this fact, I will shortly, but of information to the north of the Potomac I really have nothing.

``I wish that it might be made the duty of some person in the telegraph office in Washington to keep me informed of the enemy's movements in Maryland.'' (Ibid.).

Throughout the day the exchange of telegrams between Hooker and Halleck up to this time had indicated beyond question that Hooker and Halleck did not understand either the military situation or their respective relations to each other.

To Frederick Kapp and Others [1]

Frederick Kapp & others Washington, D.C.,
New-York June 16. 1863

The Governor of New-York promises to send us troops; and if he wishes the assistance of Gen. Fremont & Gen. Sigel, one or both, he can have it. If he does not wish them, it would but breed confusion for us to set them to work independently of him.

A. LINCOLN

Page  283

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Friedrich (Frederick) Kapp, Sigismund Kaufmann, and Charles Kessman telegraphed on June 16: ``In the present emergency will you allow Genls Fremont & Sigel to issue a call for volunteers to march at once to the defence of Pennsylvania & the Nation.'' (DLC-RTL).

To Mary Lincoln [1]

Mrs. Lincoln Washington City, D.C.
Philadelphia. June 16. 1863

It is a matter of choice with yourself whether you come home. There is no reason why you should not, that did not exist when you went away. As bearing on the question of your coming home, I do not think the raid into Pennsylvania amounts to anything at all A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ATS, IHi. No communication from Mrs. Lincoln has been located.

To Thomas F. Meagher [1]

Gen. T. Francis Meagher Washington, D.C.,
New-York. June 16, 1863

Your despatch received. Shall be very glad for you to raise 3000 Irish troops, if done by the consent of, and in concert with, Governor Seymour. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. General Meagher had resigned on May 14, 1863. His despatch offering to raise 3,000 Irish soldiers was received at 5:30 P.M. (DLC-RTL). No further reference has been found.

To Daniel Tyler [1]

Gen. Tyler, Washington, D.C.,
Harper's Ferry. June 16. 5/35 P.M. 1863

Please answer as soon as you can the following inquiries, which Gen. Hooker makes. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Lincoln forwarded to Tyler a telegram from Hooker to Halleck received at 4:50 P.M., as follows: ``Please inform me whether our forces at Harper's Ferry are in the town or on the heights, and, if the latter, whether we hold Bolivar, Loudon, or Maryland Heights . . . ; what bridges at Harper's Ferry, and where; from what direction is the enemy making his attack? . . .'' (OR, I, XXVII, I, 46).

Tyler's reply received at 9:40 P.M. is in part as follows: ``We have not been attacked at Harper's Ferry. We are threatened from the direction of Charlestown. . . . We hold Maryland Heights strongly; Bolivar Heights with a less force.'' (OR, I, XXVII, III, 159).

Page  284

To Edward Bates [1]

Hon. Attorney General Executive Mansion,
Sir: Washington, June 17, 1863.

I have concluded to tender to Richard S. Cox Esq, of this District, the appointment for codifying the laws of the District, under the 17th. & 18th. sections of the act of Congress entitled ``An act to reorganize the Courts in the District of Columbia, and for other purposes'' Approved March 3. 1863. Please prepare & send me a proper paper to sign for that object. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, DNA GE RG 60, Papers of Attorney General, Segregated Lincoln Material. The U.S. Official Register, 1863, lists Richard S. Coxe as commissioner for revising and codifying the laws of the District of Columbia.

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Washington, D.C.,
Majr. Genl. Hooker June 17. 1863

Mr. Eckert, Superintendent in the Telegraph Office, assures me that he has sent, and will send you everything, that comes to the office. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, owned by Edward C. Stone, Boston, Massachusetts. Hooker had telegraphed Lincoln on the 16th and Halleck on the 17th of his need for ``correct information concerning the enemy on the north side of the Potomac.'' (OR, I, XXVII, I, 48).

Memorandum about Israel D. Andrews [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, June 17. 1863.

Mr. Israel D. Andrews appeals to me, saying he is suffering injury by something I have said of him. I really know very little of Mr. Andrews. As well as I can remember, I was called on by one or two persons, asking me to give him, or aid him in getting some public employment; and, as a reason for declining I stated that I had a very unfavorable opinion of him, chiefly because I had been informed that, in connection with some former service of his to the government, he had presented an enormous, and unjustifiable claim, which I understood he was still pressing the government to pay. I certainly did not pretend to know anything of the matter personally; and I say now, I do not personally know anything which should detract from Mr. Andrews' character

A LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADS, DLC-RTL. Israel D. Andrews had been agent of the United States for drawing up a reciprocity trade treaty with Great Britain, approved June 5, 1854. An appropriation act of June 12, 1858 (Section 16) authorized the secretary of state to ``adjust . . . the accounts of I. D. Andrews . . . for expensesPage  285

and disbursements in connection with the Reciprocity Treaty, and that the same be paid according to said adjustment.''

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Sec. of War, please respond to this. A. LINCOLN

June 17. 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, NHi. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a received telegram from General Burnside, June 17, 1863, ``The twenty seventh (27) Regt New Jersey Vols whose time expires on the 19. inst has been ordered home by me from the interior of Kentucky. They are now here. They are willing to volunteer their services during the present emergency & I have ordered them to report to Gen Brooks at Pittsburg Do you approve of the acceptance.''

The Twenty-seventh New Jersey remained in the vicinity of Pittsburgh and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, for ten days before proceeding to Newark, where it was mustered out of service on July 2.

To A. Dingman [1]

Gen. A. Dingman Washington, D.C.,
Belleville, C.W. June 18. 1863

Thanks for your offer of the fifteenth battalion. I do not think Washington is in danger. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. A telegram signed ``A. Dingman, Brig. Genl. Vols. Canada,'' from Belleville, C. W. [Ontario], was received in cipher from New York on June 18, as follows: ``If Washington is in danger the fifteenth battalion is at your service to drive Lee back to Richmond. Hurrah for the Union---answer.'' (DLC-RTL).

To Joseph Holt [1]

June 18, 1863

Sentence mitigated to a severe reprimand, in accordance with the Judge Advocate General's recommendation, to be published in General Orders by the War Department. A. LINCOLN

June 18, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   ES, DNA WR RG 153, Judge Advocate General, MM 575. On April 22, 1863, Surgeon Alfred Wynkoop was sentenced to dismissal by a court-martial for communicating information concerning troop movements to William Pollock of Virginia, known to be friendly to the enemy. AGO General Orders No. 281, August 11, 1863, remitted the sentence with a reprimand as follows: ``The President, in reviewing the record, is willing to believe there was less intentional criminality than there was indiscretion in the conduct of Surgeon Wynkoop; but he does not find any excuse for so grave an offence in the fact that the information conveyed by him was not proved to have been put to an improper use. Surgeon Wynkoop was visiting professionally a family residing near the rebel lines, when he conversed with them in reference to the movements of the United States troops. An officer who justly appreciates his military obligations would require no reminder that such indiscretion, admitting it to be nothing worse, is reprehensible in the highest degree, and might have caused serious disaster to the Army.Page  286

``In order that Surgeon Wynkoop may have an opportunity to justify the opinion of the members of the Court as to his loyalty, and to retrieve what he has lost in the estimation of his fellow officers by reason of his culpable disregard of the confidential trust belonging to his official position, the President directs that his sentence be remitted with this reprimand.''

To James K. Moorhead [1]

``Cypher''
Hon. J. K. Moorehead Washington City,
Pittsburgh, Penn. June 18. 1863.

If Gen. Brooks, now in command at Pittsburgh, finds any person or persons, injuriously affecting his military operations, he is authorized to arrest him, or them, at once, if the case is urgent; if not urgent, let him communicate the particulars to me. Gen. Brooks is the man to now manage this matter at Pittsburgh. Please show this to him. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. A telegram from Representative James K. Moorhead and other citizens of Pittsburgh, June 17, 1863, requested that Major General William T. H. Brooks be authorized to declare martial law (DLC-RTL).

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Hon. Sec. of War Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir. Washington, June 18. 1863.

Could you, without too much trouble, have sent to me a statement of the case of John Steele, who, it seems, has been banished to Canada. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, DLC-RTL. On June 24, General Edward R. S. Canby returned Lincoln's letter together with a statement of Judge Advocate Levi C. Turner summarizing the case of John Steele, native of Canada and resident of the U.S., arrested for fraud and treasonable practices while employed as a detective by the provost marshal and released on his own request to return to Canada (DLC-RTL).

To Joshua Tevis [1]

Joshua Tevis, Esq Executive Mansion,
U.S. Attorney Washington,
Frankfort, Ky. June 18. 1863.

A Mr. Buckner is here, showing a record, and asking to be discharged from a suit in Scire-Facias, as bail for one Thompson. Unless the record shown me is defectively made out, I think it can be successfully defended against. Please examine the case carefully; and if you shall be of opinion it can not be sustained, dismiss it, and relieve me from all trouble about it. Please answer.

A. LINCOLN

Page  287

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Joshua Tevis telegraphed from Louisville on June 20, ``Your dispatch of eighteenth . . . inst. to me at Frankfort just received I will examine record in Scire Facias against Buckler Cant you get rid of Buckler by suggesting that the Attorney General has decided that you have no power to remit in case of France.'' (DLC-RTL).

No further reference has been found, and the confusion of names has not been clarified.

To David Tod [1]

``Cypher''
Gov. D. Tod. Executive Mansion,
Columbus, O. Washington, June 18, 1863.

Yours received. I deeply regret that you were not re-nominated---not that I have ought against Mr. Brough. On the contrary, like yourself, I say, hurrah, for him. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Governor Tod lost his re-nomination to John Brough, also a railroad executive, 216 to 193 votes, less on national issues than on local considerations involving Brough's advocacy of a scheme for consolidation of east-west railroad lines, to which Tod was cool. Tod telegraphed Lincoln on June 18, ``The opponents of the administration will attempt to attribute my defeat to the advocacy of the leading measures of your administration. Do not for a moment believe it. Personal considerations alone was the cause of my defeat. No man in Ohio will do more to secure the triumphant election of the ticket nominated than I will'' (DLC-RTL).

To Joseph Holt [1]

June 19, 1863

Sentence in this case commuted to imprisonment at hard labor for the term of one year. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA WR RG 153, Judge Advocate General, MM 333. Lincoln's endorsement is written on the papers of Samuel D. Crumb, drummer in the Eighty-ninth New York Volunteers, sentenced to be shot for desertion.

To E. E. Malhiot, Bradish Johnson, and Thomas Cottman [1]

Messrs E. E. Malhiot, Executive Mansion,
Bradish Johnson, & Washington,
Thomas Cottman June 19, 1863.

Gentlemen Your letter, which follows, has been received, and considered.

``To His Excellency Abraham Lincoln

President of the United States:

The undersigned, a committee appointed by the Planters of the State of Louisiana, respectfully represent, that they have beenPage  288 delegated to seek of the General Government a full recognition of all the rights of the State, as they existed previous to the passage of an act of secession, upon the principle of the existence of the State Constitution unimpaired, and no legal act having transpired that could in any way deprive them of the advantages conferred by that Constitution. Under this constitution the State wishes to return to its full allegiance, in the enjoyment of all rights and privileges exercised by the other states under the Federal Constitution. With the view of accomplishing the desired object, we farther request that your Excellency will as Commander-in-chief of the Army of the United States direct the military Governor of Louisiana to order an election in conformity with the constitution and laws of the State, on the first Monday of November next, for all State and Federal Officers.

``With high consideration and respect we have the honor to subscribe ourselves Your Obt Servts. E. E. MALHIOT

BRADISH JOHNSON

THOMAS COTTMAN.''

Since receiving the letter, reliable information has reached me that a respectable portion of the Louisiana people desire to amend their State constitution, and contemplate holding a convention for that object. This fact alone, as it seems to me, is a sufficient reason why the general government should not give the committal you seek, to the existing State constitution. I may add that, while I do not perceive how such committal could facilitate our military operations in Louisiana, I really apprehend it might be so used as to embarrass them.

As to an election to be held next November, there is abundant time, without any order, or proclamation from me just now. The people of Louisiana shall not lack an oppertunity of a fair election for both Federal and State officers, by want of anything within my power to give them. Your Obt. Servt. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ADfS and LS copy, DLC-RTL. The original letter from Malhiot, Johnson, and Cottman is undated, but it was presented to Lincoln prior to Monday, June 15. On June 18, Thomas Cottman wrote Lincoln as follows: ``My colleagues have departed leaving me to receive the response that your Excellency was kind enough to promise us for Monday last. I hope it will not be regarded as impertinent to ask attention to the matter at earliest convenience. . . .'' (DLC-RTL). The meeting of planters at New Orleans, which appointed the committee to present Lincoln with their request, was held on May 1, at the St. Charles Hotel, and the letter was probably delivered by the committee prior to June 1. On June 6, Michael Hahn wrote Lincoln, ``The Union people of this State (except, of course, office-holders) are all in favor of a re-organization of a loyal State government. The only question on which they are divided is as to whether a new Constitution should be made, or the old Constitution of 1852 adhered to. Those in favor of a Convention and a new Constitution arePage  289

the more radical or free-soil Union men. . . . Others, whose interests are in . . . slavery . . . are strongly opposed . . . and are satisfied with the Constitution of 1852, which unjustly gives the country parishes a very large preponderance over the City in the number of members of the legislature. . . .'' (DLC-RTL).

Memorandum [1]

[June 19, 1863]

If the military force of the rebellion were already out of the way, so that the people of Louisiana could now practically enter upon the enjoyment of their rights under the present State and National Constitutions, your request would stand before me in a different aspect.

Annotation

[1]   AD, DLC-RTL. Written on a slip of paper filed with the draft and copy of Lincoln to Malhiot and others, supra, this memorandum was probably a sentence intended for inclusion in the letter, but rejected. It restates substantially a draft by Seward which is also filed with the other papers, as follows: ``In whatever I may do or say on the subject at the present time, I cannot ignore the fact that in view of military operations outside of the state of Louisiana the presence of the land and naval forces of the United States in that now loyal state cannot yet be discontinued.''

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Washington, June 21, 1863-9 a.m.

Major-General Hooker: Operator at Leesburg just now tells us that firing commenced about 7 this morning in direction from here of Aldie's Gap and Middleburg; has continued all day, and has receded from him, and is apparently now about White Plains; was very heavy this morning, but lighter now. A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   OR, I, XXVII, I, 54.

To John M. Schofield [1]

Gen. Schofield. Washington D.C.
St. Louis, Mo June 21. 1863.

I write you to-day in answer to your despatch of yesterday. If you can not await the arrival by mail, telegraph me again.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. General Schofield's telegram of June 20 is as follows: ``The action of the Missouri state convention upon the question of Emancipation will depend very much upon whether they can be assured that the action will be sustained by the General Government & the people protected in their slave property during the short time that slavery is permitted to exist. Am I authorized in any manner directly or indirectly to pledge such support & protection? This question is of such vital importance to the peace of Missouri that I deem it my duty to lay it before your Excellency.'' (DLC-RTL).

See Lincoln's letter to Schofield, June 22, infra.

Page  290

Assignment of Stephen J. Field [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, June 22, 1863.

Whereas the act of Congress approved the 3d day of March, A.D. 1863, entitled ``An act to provide circuit courts for the districts of California and Oregon, and for other purposes,'' authorized the appointment of one additional associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, and provided that the districts of California and Oregon should constitute the tenth circuit and that the other circuits should remain as then constituted by law; and

Whereas Stephen J. Field was appointed the said additional associate justice of the Supreme Court since the last adjournment of said court, and consequently he was not allotted to the said circuit according to the fifth section of the act of Congress entitled ``An act to amend the judicial system of the United States,'' approved the 29th day of April, 1802:

Now I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, under the authority of said section, do allot the said associate justice, Stephen J. Field, to the said tenth circuit.

Attest: ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Titian J. Coffey

Attorney-General ad interim.

Annotation

[1]   James D. Richardson, ed., Messages and Papers of the Presidents, VI, 175. Stephen J. Field, chief justice of the California Supreme Court, was nominated associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court on March 6 and confirmed by the Senate on March 10, 1863.

To Joseph Hooker [1]

Washington, June 22, 1863.

Major-General Hooker: Operator at Leesburg just now says:

``I heard very little firing this a.m. about daylight, but it seems to have stopped now. It was in about the same direction as yesterday, but farther off.'' A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   $$$ OR, I, XXVII, I, 55.

Memorandum [1]

June 22, 1863

Appointments within recommended, made this 22nd. June 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, DLC-RTL. Lincoln's endorsement is written on a letter from Jesse K. Dubois and others, June 4, 1863, in reply to Lincoln's letter of May 29, supra. The letter recommended appointment of George R. Weber as commissary and James Campbell as quartermaster.

Page  291

To John M. Schofield [1]

Gen. John M. Schofield. Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir: Washington, June 22, 1863.

Your despatch, asking in substance, whether, in case Missouri shall adopt gradual emancipation, the general government will protect slave owners in that species of property during the short time it shall be permitted by the State to exist within it, has been received. Desirous as I am, that emancipation shall be adopted by Missouri, and believing as I do, that gradual can be made better than immediate for both black and white, except when military necessity changes the case, my impulse is to say that such protection would be given. I can not know exactly what shape an act of emancipation may take. If the period from the initiation to the final end, should be comparatively short, and the act should prevent persons being sold, during that period, into more lasting slavery, the whole would be easier. I do not wish to pledge the general government to the affirmative support of even temporary slavery, beyond what can be fairly claimed under the constitution. I suppose, however, this is not desired; but that it is desired for the Military force of the United States, while in Missouri, to not be used in subverting the temporarily reserved legal rights in slaves during the progress of emancipation. This I would desire also. I have very earnestly urged the slave-states to adopt emancipation; and it ought to be, and is an object with me not to overthrow, or thwart what any of them may in good faith do, to that end.

You are therefore authorized to act in the spirit of this letter, in conjunction with what may appear to be the military necessities of your Department.

Although this letter will become public at some time, it is not intended to be made so now. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS copy, DLC-RTL. See Lincoln to Schofield June 21, supra. The Missouri Constitutional Convention summoned by Governor Gamble's proclamation of April 15, 1863, to meet on June 15, adopted an ordinance abolishing those provisions of the Missouri Constitution which restricted the legislature's power over slavery and providing a plan for gradual emancipation.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Hon. Sec. of War Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir Washington, June 22, 1863.

Do you not remember the french officer, Col. Duffie, whom we saw at Gen. McDowell's Head Quarters near Fredericksburg, last May a year ago? I rem[em]ber he was then well spoken of. OnPage  292 the night of the 17th. Ist. he was surrounded by Stuart's cavalry near Millersburg, and cut his way out with proportionate heavy loss to his then small command. Please see and hear him. I think you have strong recommendations on file in his behalf. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS---P, ISLA. Colonel Alfred N. Duffie First Rhode Island Cavalry, was appointed brigadier general on June 23, 1863.

To Joseph Holt [1]

[c. June 23, 1863]

Sentence commuted to imprisonment at hard labor during the war.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA WR RG 153, Judge Advocate General, MM 763. LINCOLN's endorsement is written on the papers of Private James G. Lyon, Fifth Vermont Volunteers, sentenced to be shot for cowardice and absence without leave.

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington, D.C., June 23, 1863.

My dear Sir: You remember that Hon. W.D. Kelley and others are engaged in raising or trying to raise some colored regiments in Philadelphia. The bearer of this, Wilton M. Herpert [Milton L. Hupert?], is a friend of Judge Kelley as appears by the letter of the latter. He is a private in the 112th Penn. and has been disappointed in a reasonable expectation of one of the smaller offices. He now wants to be a Lieutenant in one of the colored regiments. If Judge Kelley will say in writing he wishes to so have him, I am willing for him to be discharged from his present position and be so appointed. If you approve, so endorse and let him carry this letter to Kelley. Yours truly, A. LINCOLN.

Annotation

[1]   NH, VIII, 331. No further reference has been located. The roster of the One Hundred Twelfth Pennsylvania lists no soldier of the name Wilton M.Herpert, but Private Milton L. Hupert of Battery A is listed as deserting on August 8, 1863.

To Stewart Van Vliet [1]

Major Van Vliet. Washington, D.C.,
New. York June 23 1863

Have you any idea what the news is, in the despatches of Gen. Banks to Gen. Halleck? A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. No reply has been located, and LINCOLN's reference to despatches from Banks to Halleck remains unexplained. Since Major Van Vliet was quartermaster at New York, it may be inferred that the despatches were sent by boat to New York care of the quartermaster.

Page  293

To Darius N. Couch [1]

Major Genl. Couch June 24. 1863.

Harrisburg, Pa.

Have you any reports of the enemy moving into Pennsylvania? and if any, what? A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. This telegram is misdated June 23 in the Complete Works (VIII, 332). General Couch, in command of the Department of the Susquehanna, replied at 9:30 a.m.: ``Rebel cavalry are this side of Chambersburg. Scouts from Gettysburg report 7,000 at Greencastle. Deserters say A. P. Hill and Longstreet are across the Potomac; 40,000.

``Ten deserters in at McConnellsburg from Ewell's forces, say the latter is at Greencastle, with 30,000 men and thirty pieces of artillery. Two lieutenants taken prisoners say that Lee's headquarters are at Millwood, 12 miles from Winchester.'' (OR,I, XXVII, III, 295).

A copy of Couch's telegram in the LINCOLN Papers is endorsed by LINCOLN ``Please forward this to Gen. Hooker/A. LINCOLN/June 24. 1863.'' and by Thomas T. Eckert ``This was forwarded to Gen Hooker at 12.25 P.M.''

To John A. Dix [1]

Major Genl. Dix Washington
York Town, Va [June 24---1863] [9 P.M.]

We have a despatch from Gen. Grant of the 19th. Dont think Kirby Smith took Miliken's Bend since, allowing time to get the news to Joe Johnston & from him to Richmond. But it is not absolutely impossible. Also have news from Banks to the 16th. I think. He had not run away then, nor thought of it. A LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS James Roddy, Rencho Mirage, CA. The telegram is written in pencil. The time appears to have been written as given in brackets, but was erased and ``905 p.m.'' written in the upper left---hand corner, presumably by the clerk. No communication from General Dix has been located to which this seems to be a reply. Grant's despatch to Halleck of June 19 reported his removal of General John A. McClernand ``for his publication of a congratulatory address calculated to create dissension and ill---feeling in the army. I should have relieved him long since for general unfitness for his position.'' (OR, I, XXIV, I, 43).

To Joseph Holt [1]

[June 24, 1863]

Let Capt. Eagan be dishonorably dismissed the service in accordance with the recommendation of the Judge Advocate General.

A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ES,DNA WR RG 153, Judge Advocate General, MM 268. LINCOLN's endorsement is written on the papers of William P. Eagan, Twenty---third Kentucky Volunteers, dismissed for cowardice.

Page  294

To Edwin M. Stanton [1]

Sec. of War, please see the bearer, Mr. Lucky, who is introduced by the Sec. of State. A. LINCOLN

June 24, 1863.

Annotation

[1]   AES, NHi. LINCOLN's endorsement is written on the envelope of a letter from Seward, June 22, 1863, introducing T. B. Luckey of New York. First Lieutenant Theron B. Luckey of the One Hundred Forty---third New York Infantry had been discharged on May 24, 1863.

To Edward D. Townsend [1]

Dr. Stipp is my old personal friend, and I shall be very glad if he can, consistently with the public service, be assigned as he desires.

June 24, 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, Cherles Hemiton 1970. See LINCOLN to Joseph R. Smith, October 6, 1862, supra. LINCOLN's endorsement is written on a letter from Medical Inspector George Winfield Stipp to Townsend, June 22, 1863, asking that ``in consideration of my bad health . . . I may be assigned for duty, to the Department of Ohio, for a few months, in the hope & belief that a change of climate, water and diet, will aid materially, in restoring to me a measure of former health.'' Townsend referred the letter to Surgeon General Hammond, who recommended a leave of absence instead of the transfer, and on June 25 Townsend directed that a leave be granted. Lieutenant Colonel Stipp was assigned as medical inspector of the Department of the Gulf on December 19, 1863(OR, I, XXVI, I, 867).

To Edward Bates [1]

Let a pardon be granted in this case on the ground that the party was used by the government as a witness, & testified fairly.

June 25, 1863. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   AES, DNA RG 204, U.S. Pardon Attorney, A 455. LINCOLN's endorsement is written on a letter from U.S. District Attorney Richard H. Dana, Jr., to lawyer Milton Andros, Boston, June 23, 1863, concerning the pardon application of Samuel P.Skinner, convicted of fitting out a slave ship.

To Salmon P. Chase [1]

Executive Mansion, Washington,
Hon.Secretary of Treasury: June 25, 1863.

My Dear Sir: Hon. William Kellogg will tell you plainly what he wants; and I wish him obliged so far as you can consistently do it. Please strain a point for him, if you do not have to strain it too far. Yours truly, A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB the Private Life and Public Services of Salmon Portland Chase (1874),p.530. See LINCOLN to Kellogg, June 29, infra.

Page  295

To John J. Peck [1]

Gen. Peck Washington, D.C.,
Suffolk, Va June 25, 1863

Col. Derrom, [2] of the 25th. N---J. Vols, now mustered out, says there is a man in your hands, under conviction for desertion, who formerly belonged to the above named regiment, and whose name is Templeton---Isaac F. Templeton, I believe. The Colonel & others appeal to me for him. Please telegraph to me what is the condition of the case, & if he has not been executed send me the record of the trial & conviction. A LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. Brigadier General Michael Corcoran replied to LINCOLN's telegram at 3 p.m., ``Isaac Templeton . . . has not yet been executed. The proceedings were reviewed by Maj Genl Dix and the record is in his hands. I will advise him that you wish it sent to you. Genl Peck is absent'' (DLC-RTL).

See LINCOLN to Holt, June 26, infra.

[2]   Andrew Derrom.

To Henry W. Slocum [1]

Major General Slocum Washington, D.C.,
Leesburg, Va. June 25 1863

Was William Gruvier Co. A. 46th. Penn, one of the men executed as a deserter last Friday? A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. No reply has been located, but the roster of the Forty---sixth Pennsylvania lists William Gruver, enlisted September 2, 1861; deserted June 4, 1863, and executed at Leesburg, Virginia, June 19, 1863.

To Robert K. Stone [1]

Dr. Stone Executive Mansion,
My dear Sir Washington, June 25, 1863.

Herewith is the note of Mrs.Stone to Mrs. L. You percieve I have put an endorsement upon it. By presenting the note and endorsement to the Sec. of War, he will oblige Mrs. S. as she requests. He already understands the case. Yours truly A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ALS-P, ISLA. The enclosed letter with endorsement has not been located.

To Ambrose E. Burnside [1]

``Cypher''
Major Gen.Burnside Washington,
Cincinnati, O. June 26. 1863.

What is the case of ``Willie Waller'' at Maysville, Kentucky?

A LINCOLN

Page  296

Annotation

[1]   ALS, RPB. On June 11, 1863, Montgomery Blair enclosed a letter from Harrison Blanton, Frankfort, Kentucky, June 8, requesting mitigation of the sentence of William Waller, whom Blair described as ``a kinsman of my mothers . . . & of my fathers,''and added ``I can not imagine that he would do any thing deserving other punishment than ordinary rebels. . . . I hope you will order his execution to be suspended till the case can be looked into.'' (DLC-RTL).

William Waller had been convicted as a spy and sentenced to be hanged. The court recommended clemency, and Burnside telegraphed LINCOLN on June 27, recommending commutation to imprisonment for duration of the war. On June 30 LINCOLN endorsed Burnside's telegram, ``Let the sentence be commuted as Gen. Burnside recommends. The name is Willie Waller. A. LINCOLN.'' (DNA WR RG 153, Judge Advocate General, MM 315).

To Joseph Holt [1]

June 26, 1863

Sentence commuted to imprisonment at hard labor during the remainder of the war, in some military prison. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ES, DNA WR RG 153, Judge Advocate General, MM 356. LINCOLN's endorsement is written on the papers of Private Andrew Brower, New York Battery, Fifth Corps, Army of the Potomac, sentenced to be shot for mutiny.

To Joseph Holt [2]

June 26, 1863

Sentence commuted to loss of six months pay in accordance with the recommendation of Maj. Genl. Rosecrans. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ES, DNA WR RG 153, Judge Advocate General, MM 355. LINCOLN's endorsement is written on the papers of Private John H. Clark, Eighty---sixth Indiana Volunteers, sentenced to be shot for desertion.

To Joseph Holt [1]

June 26, 1863

Sentence commuted to confinement at hard labor on government works during the war. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ES, DNA WR RG 153, Judge Advocate General, MM 350. LINCOLN's endorsement is written on the papers of Private George Felsinger, One Hundred Fortieth New York Volunteers, sentenced to be shot for violence to a superior officer.

To Joseph Holt [2]

June 26, 1863

Sentence commuted to imprisonment at hard labor for one year. A. LINCOLN

Page  297

Annotation

[1]   ES, DNA WR RG 153, Judge Advocate General, MM 354. LINCOLN's endorsement is written on the papers of Private Patrick McLaughlin, Twentyninth Pennsylvania Volunteers, sentenced to be shot for drunkenness on duty and insubordination.

To Joseph Holt [1]

June 26, 1863

Sentence commuted to imprisonment at hard labor during the war in accordance with the recommendation of the Judge Advocate General. A. LINCOLN

Annotation

[1]   ES, DNA WR RG 153, Judge Advocate General, MM 349. LINCOLN's endorsement is written on the papers of Private Henry H. Moore, Twentieth Maine Volunteers, sentenced to be shot for disobedience and insubordination. AGO Special Orders No.135, April 2, 1864, ordered that Private Moore be released from confinement and returned to duty with his regiment.

To Joseph Holt