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Lincoln Activities

The Abraham Lincoln Association held its annual symposium and banquet on February 12 with the following papers presented: Joel H. Silbey, "'Always a Whig in Politics': The Partisan Life of Abraham Lincoln", and Thomas F. Schwartz, "'An Egregious Political Blunder': Justin Butterfield, Lincoln and Illinois Whiggery." Governor Mario M. Cuomo of New York presented the banquet address "Abraham Lincoln and Our 'Unfinished Work'" before a standing-room-only crowd; more than 600 people attended. His address discussed the politics of inclusion and the need for all to continue Lincoln's "unfinished work." A reception was held after Illinois Governor James R. Thompson cut the ribbon officially opening the Lincoln-Herndon Law Offices (where Lincoln and his last partner practiced) as a state historic site in Springfield. Richard Sloan presented his multimedia lecture entitled "Lincoln's Assassination and John Wilkes Booth as Depicted in the Theatre" at the Visitors' Center of the Lincoln Home National Historic Site.

The Civil War Round Table (Chicago) meeting on February 14 featured Mark E. Neely, Jr., who delivered his "Lincoln and Douglas: A Relationship to Consider." This group also heard Gordon Whitney deliver his "The President Will Now Make a Few Remarks" (about Lincoln's Gettysburg Declaration) at its May 9 meeting. The Civil War Round Table of New York heard Dr. Hans L. Trefousse deliver "Lincoln's Leadership" on February 12.

E. A. "Bud" Livingston spoke on "Nathan Bedford Forest and the Fort Pillow Massacre" at the April 14 meeting of the Civil War Round Table of South Central Connecticut and the Abraham Lincoln Association of South Central Connecticut. The annual dinner meeting of these groups was held on June 9 with Dr. John Lattimer's "Lincoln Could Not Possibly Have Had the Marfan Syndrome."

Dr. Mitsuo Kodama, president of Meisei University, Tokyo, presented his "The Original and Three Great Historical Persons: Shakespeare, Lincoln and Pestalozzi ..." at the Gleeson Library Associates' annual meeting at the University of San Francisco on May 4.

The Ulysses S. Grant Association (Morris Library, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901) is looking for new members Page  [End Page 55] to help support major projects which include the continued publication of The Papers of Ulysses S. Grant. There is a one-time membership fee of $100, which entitles a member to receive discounts on volumes of The Papers ..., as well as other books which may be published from time to time. Please write to Professor John Y. Simon, executive director of the association.

The annual meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society was held in Decatur May 16–18 and featured a tour of the Lincoln Log Cabin State Historic Site.

The Lincoln Association of Jersey City (the oldest Lincoln group) held its 121st annual dinner on February 12 and featured former New Jersey State Senator Joseph W. Tumulty, who presented his "Lincoln the Politician."

Wendy Wick Reaves, curator of prints at the National Portrait Gallery, discussed "Private Lives of Public Figures: The Nineteenth Century Family Print" at the February 8 meeting of the Lincoln Group of Boston, along with David T. Riedel's presentation, "Walt Whitman and the Spirit of Lincoln." Professor Thomas R. Turner presented "Beware the People Weeping" at the April 12 meeting. Dr. Mark E. Neely, Jr., delivered "Was Lincoln a Cromwell?" and Professor Robert V. Bruce talked about "Technology and the Civil War" at the meeting on October 4. At the November 15 meeting, "Lincoln and the Marfan Syndrome" was presented by Professor Gabor S. Boritt and his brother, Dr. Adam Boritt. Dr. William F. Hannah discussed "The Boston Draft Riot of July 1863."

Professor Richard N. Current delivered the annual address before the Lincoln Club of Delaware on February 12.

Ellen McDowell presented "Mrs. Lincoln and Her Family" at the March meeting of the Lincoln Club of Topeka. The April meeting featured Don Rowland, president of the Lincoln Club of Topeka, who delivered "Lincoln's Legal Education." Dave Leitch discussed Lincoln's "Supreme Court Appointments" at the May meeting.

The annual meeting of the Lincoln Fellowship of Pennsylvania was held on November 19, 1985, in Gettysburg. Rev. Robert MacAskill, pastor of the Gettysburg Presbyterian Church where Lincoln visited, delivered his talk at the luncheon meeting. This was followed by the traditional parade to the National Cemetery for the recital of the Gettysburg Address.

The annual meeting of the Lincoln Fellowship of Wisconsin was held in Madison on April 13 and featured Professor Gordon B. Baldwin, whose paper, "Lincoln, the First American," related to Lincoln's relationship to the law.

The 50th anniversary of the Lincoln Group of the District of Co- Page  [End Page 56] lumbia was celebrated at Ford's Theatre on November 25, 1985, with a presentation of the one-man, two-act play, The Last Lincoln, authored by S. L. Carson, president of this Lincoln group. Dr. Elbert B. Smith presented his "Lincoln: Opportunist or Statesman?" at the January 21 meeting and Edwin C. Bearss presented his "Lincoln and the People: Changing Views Reflected by the National Park Service in the Twentieth Century" at the 50th anniversary banquet held on February 14. The films "Meet Mr. Lincoln" and "Black Friday" were shown on March 18; Cornelius W. Heine delivered his "Lincoln and Grant" at the May 20 meeting; Gabor S. Boritt delivered a slide lecture on "The European Image of Lincoln: An American Hero in Prints Abroad" at the September 16 meeting; Professor Norman Graebner presented his "Seward: Diplomacy Under Lincoln" on October 21; and Professor Hans Trefousse gave his "Lincoln and Andrew Johnson" on November 18.

The second annual dinner meeting of the Lincoln Group of Florida was held on February 22 in Maitland and featured Dr. John K. Lattimer, who presented his "The Lincoln Assassination Revisited."

Historian Hans Trefousse delivered his address on Lincoln and Johnson at the February 18 meeting of the Lincoln Group of New York, and Steve Carson presented "The Other Lincoln — Robert Todd Lincoln" at the April 10 meeting.

Dr. Wayne Temple spoke at the annual meeting of the New Salem Lincoln League in Springfield on February 7 about the Lincoln Home and its construction.

John A. Lloyd delivered his 20th annual address on the life of Abraham Lincoln to the Queen City Optimists Club (Cincinnati) on February 8.

Oscar Handlin delivered the annual Fortenbaugh Lecture at Gettysburg College on November 19.

The Lincoln Home National Historic Site

Actor R. Frederick "Fritz" Klein portrayed Abraham Lincoln on the 177th birthday at the Visitors' Center of the Lincoln Home in Springfield.

The Lincoln Home National Historic Site hosted, on October 11, its first annual "Lincoln Colloquium" sponsored by the Sangamon County Historical Society. Dr. Richard N. Current spoke about "Lincoln on the Circuit"; Dr. Al Larson delivered "Temples of Justice: County Courthouses in Mid-Nineteenth Century Illinois"; and Dr. George Curtis spoke about the Law Practice of Abraham Lincoln Page  [End Page 57] project, which he serves as chief editor.

The National Park Service presented "Preserving the Past at Lincoln Home National Historic Site" on June 8.

Dr. Ephraim Fischoff talked of "Lincoln and the Meaning of the Statue of Liberty" on July 4, "Harriet Beecher Stowe: Shaper of American Idealism" on September 21 and "Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes: Shaper of American Idealism" on September 28.

The National Park Service announced that the Lincoln Home will be closed for approximately fifteen months (from December 1986) for repair and replacement of fabric and reinforcement of structural beams. The Visitors' Center, however, will remain open.

Tours

The 36th Annual Battlefield Tour of the Civil War Round Table (Chicago) followed the 1862 Peninsula/Richmond campaigns from May 1–4.

Chippewa Trails Travel 'N' Tours of Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin, conducted a 12-day tour of the Lincoln Heritage Trail June 8–19.

The National Park Service is still offering guided tours of the cave below the Lincoln Memorial. You will need reservations: (202) 426-6841.

The Illinois State Historical Society's fall tour followed the Lincoln Heritage Trail in Illinois, Indiana and Kentucky October 9–13.

Conferences

The 1st Annual Gulf Coast Civil War Conference sponsored by Civil War Round Table Associates was held on March 28 and 29.

The 8th Annual Conference of the Confederate Historical Institute was held from April 10–12 in Kansas City, Missouri, with "Civil War on the Border" as the theme.

Professor Allan G. Bogue delivered the Carl Becker Lectures at Cornell on April 14, 15 and 16, one of which was entitled "'Lincoln and the Disorderly Schoolboys': A Chapter in Legislative-Executive Relations."

The Civil War Institute of Gettysburg College was held from June 30 to July 5 and featured papers by Robert V. Bruce ("How an Unthinkable War Came to Pass" and "Science and Technology in the Civil War"), John T. Hubbell ("John Brown"), Ed Bearss ("The Page  [End Page 58] Harper's Ferry Campaigns") and Gabor Boritt, Harold Holzer and Mark E. Neely, Jr. ("The European Image of Lincoln").

The 12th Annual Congress of Civil War Round Tables was held October 2–5 in Marietta, Georgia.

The 9th Annual R. Gerald McMurtry Lecture was held on May 1 and featured Dr. Frank E. Vandiver, president, Texas A & M University, who delivered "The Long Loom of Lincoln."

Professor John L. Thomas conducted a conference at Brown University entitled "The Literature of the Civil War" for high school social studies teachers, in an attempt to discuss and encourage the best ways to rekindle the interest of students and teachers in Lincoln and the Civil War period. The conference was held from June 23 through July 11. The last week was devoted to "Lincoln: Fact and Fiction" and featured much audio visual material on Lincoln, including discussions of Stephen Oate's With Malice Toward None and Gore Vidal's Lincoln.

Dr. Lee C. Moorehead directed the 1986 Lincoln Seminar and Tour to Springfield and New Salem, which included a presentation by Dr. Wayne Temple.

Mark E. Neely, Jr., delivered "Arbitrary Arrests in the Civil War" at the Pacific Coast branch meeting of the American Historical Association on August 15. Hans Trefousse presented his paper on Andrew Johnson at the same conference.

The Stephen A. Douglas Association and the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency observed the 125th anniversary of the senator's death (June 25) at his Chicago tomb. Dr. Roger D. Bridges spoke on "The Compromise of Stephen A. Douglas." The Douglas Association was founded in 1975 to study and honor Lincoln's political nemesis. There is a one-time membership fee of $50. Those interested can write to association president, Ralph Geoffrey Newman, 175 East Delaware Place, Chicago, IL 60611.

Virginia Country Magazine offered a three-day seminar (September 25–28) scrutinizing all aspects of the 1862 Richmond Campaign, called "The Seven Day Campaign."

Under the direction of David C. Sheldon and board chairman Oscar V. Johnson, Jr., the Friends of Hildene presented "Abraham Lincoln and His Family," a three-day symposium (July 24–26) at the newly restored Equinox Hotel, Manchester, Vermont. Dr. Mark E. Neely, Jr., presented the keynote address, "The Insanity File: The Case of Mary Todd Lincoln." The session speakers were Harold Holzer ("The Image of the Lincoln Family"), John S. Goff ("Robert Todd Lincoln and His Father"), Betty Mitchell ("Robert Todd Lincoln After 1865"), Oscar V. Johnson, Jr. ("Recollections of Mary Lin- Page  [End Page 59] coln Beckwith"), Dr. John K. Lattimer ("Abraham Lincoln and His Descendants Clearly Did Not Have Marfan's Syndrome"), Thomas F. Schwartz ("The Tribe of Abraham: Writings on the Lincoln Family"), James T. Hickey and Ralph G. Newman ("Robert Todd Lincoln Beckwith: The Re-entry of the Lincoln Family into the Mainstream of the Lincoln Story") and Frank J. Williams at the closing banquet ("The Lincoln Family — Where Do They Stand: A Comparison to Other First Families".

On November 1, Arthur Kincaid portrayed John Wilkes Booth in "Tell Mother I Died For My Country" at Thayer Academy. This was sponsored by the Civil War Round Table of Greater Boston and Thayer Academy.

Editorials

Russell Baker's "Air Today, Gone Tomorrow," which appeared in the November 3, 1985, issue of the The New York Times Magazine, was hilarious. He discussed being "an air collector." This kind of collecting, as the Sunday Observer notes, has not been a big money-making sport. After all, "You never read about a can of air from the Lincoln Administration being knocked down for $2 million at auction. This is only because nobody has yet found a can of air from the Lincoln Administration. Maybe nobody ever will. Canning processes didn't produce especially good seals in Lincoln's time. If one turns up, though, you can bet somebody will pay a fortune for it...."

Anthony Lewis's "The Party of Lincoln" appeared in the November 7, 1985, issue of The New York Times. He asks whether the Republican Party is now the political organization supporting the watering down of the Voting Rights Act or will the party remain that of Abraham Lincoln and resist such tampering.

Martin Tolchin, in his "As Laws are Flouted (by Presidents and their Administrations), Congress Seethes," joins a long list of people who wrongly accuse President Lincoln of violating the law in his suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, especially since the Constitution permits such suspension "in cases of rebellion," but does not clearly state who has the power: the Congress or the president (The New York Times, November 13, 1985). In the cause of reducing the rebellion, Lincoln may have violated other laws, e.g., appropriation of monies for the purchase of arms abroad without congressional authorization, but not the prohibition against suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus. Page  [End Page 60]

Workaholic Henry Steele Commager took Attorney General Edwin Meese 3d to task in his editorial "Meese Ignores History in Debate With Court," which appeared in The New York Times on November 20, 1985. Grousing about Meese's interpretation of the Constitution, Commager cites Lincoln as properly interpreting our Constitution to be "flexible" during the "greatest crisis of our history." The document "was flexible enough to enable him to do whatever was necessary to save the Union." Attorney General Meese, we will recall, has been known to criticize judges who he believes interpret the Constitution too broadly.

Controversial defense attorney William Kunstler is the author of Trials and Tribulations. In it, Kunstler asserts his belief that Abraham Lincoln "was dose to being a racist,..." Kunstler commits the same fatal mistake made by many, i.e., judging a major historic figure by present day standards.

Apparently the Russians now see Abraham Lincoln as a hero of the people, whose death was caused by the Southern autocracy and "Northern capitalists." This is how Russia's "new history" treats the assassination:

On April 14, five days after the surrender of Lee, during a celebratory show in Washington, Lincoln, a true son of the American people, was killed in his loge. He was killed by an actor, the hireling of the slave-owning South and, it is assumed, of big Northern capitalists. In the power struggle that went on after Abraham Lincoln's death, the big bourgeoisie won. (From "How We See Each Other" which appeared in The New York Times Magazine on November 10, 1985.)

"An Awful Event" was the banner headline of The New York Times on the occasion of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Tom Wicker, in The New York Times of January 31, used the same phrase when he lamented the explosion of the Challenger. It was an apt and poignant analogy.

Senator Paul Simon, in an article that was carried in many newspapers, including The Boston Globe (February 12), indicated that Lincoln really espoused the ideals of today's Democratic Party and, while he would "not feel completely at home with Democratic speechmakers ...," he would be chagrined at the Republican leadership today. He goes on to discuss what he perceives as differences between the present administration and Lincoln on such issues as racial justice, women's rights, generosity of spirit, Central America, help for the less fortunate, the religious right-wing and Page  [End Page 61] the budget. I guess Carl Sandburg was correct in saying: "There are many other people who now take Lincoln for their own."

The annual Lincoln editorial of The State Journal-Register (Springfield, Illinois) emphasized, as did Governor Cuomo in his banquet address, that Lincoln's strong character traits are still essential for today and that the interest in Lincoln never wanes.

William Safire, in his essay, "Lincoln the Party Hack?" on February 14, expressed his belief that Governor Cuomo misconstrued President Lincoln's record in the governor's address to the Abraham Lincoln Association. It is this author's view that Safire's opinion of Lincoln and that of Governor Cuomo are compatible. Safire believes that Lincoln waged war "for disciplined democratic Union." Governor Cuomo believes that President Lincoln expected hard work from all American citizens (a form of discipline) so that everyone in our country might have the right to rise.

To commemorate Memorial Day, James Reston in his "The Curse of War" (Weekend Review, The New York Times, May 25) quoted from Lincoln's letter to Horace Greeley (a/k/a the letter to 20 millions) as an example of moderation and conciliation. Ironically, however, this famous letter was really Lincoln's state paper in defense of his determination to see the war through in order to reestablish the Union.

The centennial of the Statue of Liberty raised the question of its pertinence for black Americans. In three very good letters to the editor of The New York Times which appeared on June 15, it was encouraging to note that in two of them the deeds of Mr. Lincoln were cited as being representative of the "freedom" symbolized by the statue. Is that not exactly what the French had in mind when they made this great gift to our country?

The New York Times "Editorial Notebook" for August 17 corrected President P. W. Botha, who, attempting to support apartheid, quoted Abraham Lincoln from the 1858 debates with Stephen Douglas, where Lincoln stated: "There is a physical difference between the white and black races...." This disingenuous argument skirts the truth in that: "It was Douglas, not Lincoln, who rationalized one race's subjugation of another." In the words of the writer, Karl E. Meyer, Lincoln "repeatedly affirmed the universal values that made white supremacy morally indefensible." Lincoln said: "I adhere to the Declaration of Independence. If Judge Douglas and his friends are not willing to stand by it, let them come up and amend it. Let them make it read that all men are created equal except Negroes...." Page  [End Page 62]

The Arts

The Kentucky Historical Society, Old State House, Frankfort, 40602, has produced a new teaching unit entitled "The Civil War in Kentucky: A Supplemental Teaching Unit," which explores the period using facsimiles of 1860s documents. It is available for $2.00.

At least two performances of Aaron Copland's "A Lincoln Portrait" were given during 1985 on the occasion of the composer's 85th birthday. The first at the Felt Forum featured Walter Cronkite as narrator. The second at the Golden Center on the Queens College campus featured former vice presidential candidate Geraldine Ferraro.

The November 1985 floods of the Shenandoah and Potomac Rivers caused the National Park Service to remove some 5,000 historical artifacts from Harper's Ferry, West Virginia.

John Jake's "North and South," a TV mini-series presented by ABC in November 1985, received horrendous reviews, as it was overpriced, oversexed and overdone. Hal Holbrook portrayed Lincoln in "North and South, Book II," a six-part mini-series. His performance was the show's only saving grace.

The Office of Public Affairs Communication, Sangamon State University, Springfield, IL 62794-9243, with funding by the Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs, produced a half-hour video documentary entitled "Mr. Lincoln of Illinois." With Judge Harlington Wood, Jr.'s voice as Lincoln, a moving and informative evocation of the Illinois period in Lincoln's life is presented. The project director was Charles B. Strozier, and Richard N. Current, John Y. Simon, Mark E. Neely, Jr., and James T. Hickey acted as consultants. The documentary may be purchased from the Office of Public Affairs Communication for $40.

The New Hutchinson Family Singers (1001 W. William, Champaign, Illinois, 61820) have produced the Abraham Lincoln Song Book, a long-playing record of music Lincoln heard. The jacket contains notes by James Hurt, director, narrator and bass violinist of the group.

Roland A. White of Champaign, Illinois, taught a course on "Abraham Lincoln in Champaign County" from September through December, 1985.

The sculptor that gave us "our iconic sense of Abraham Lincoln as statesman," Augustus Saint-Gaudens, was the subject of a retrospective at New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art entitled "Augustus Saint-Gaudens: Master Sculptor."

F. Murray Abraham, best known for his portrayal of Scalieri in "Amadeus," will now play Abraham Lincoln in the CBS mini-series Page  [End Page 63] "Dream West."

Anyone visiting Ford's Theatre has noted the uncomfortable chairs reproduced for the theatre. New reproductions which are to be more comfortable have been ordered and the original reproductions are now being sold to raise money for the theatre at $500 each.

The reader will be surprised to learn that illustrator John Tenniel's Cheshire cat from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland was really anticipated by his earlier drawing "Up a Tree" from Punch (January 11, 1862) in which he depicted Lincoln as a Yankee raccoon treed by John Bull as an example of the tensions between America and Great Britain over the Trent Affair.

The 1986 Attendance Award of the Lincoln Library and Museum for Boy Scout pilgrimages on February 12 featured sculptor John Rogers' "Abraham Lincoln" located in Manchester, New Hampshire.

During the week of July 14, Representative Peter H. Kostmayer of Pennsylvania convinced his colleagues to purchase an additional 31-acre tract as part of the Gettysburg National Military Park by a "Dear Colleague" letter:

Four weeks and one day ago, the Interior Committee brought before the Congress H.R. 4259, a new bill dedicated to the proposition that a portion of the Gettysburg Battlefield should be saved.

We are now engaged in a modest debate, testing whether this Congress, so empowered, can long preserve the Gettysburg National Military Park. We have come today to protect a portion of that historic battlefield known as the Taney Farm. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

The U.S. Coast Guard Academy Library in New London believes it has discovered an 1864 photograph showing Mr. Lincoln on a boat on the Potomac River in Washington. The Associated Press made much of this discovery, especially since Lincoln photograph expert, Lloyd Ostendorf, believes it to be genuine, despite the indistinct features of the man's face. What disturbs this author is an attempt by some to explain Lincoln's presence on this vessel as preparation for fleeing from the Confederate troops who, at the time, were threatening Washington. This is totally at odds with Lincoln's recorded behavior, especially since he travelled to Fort Stevens on the outskirts of Washington and endangered his life by watching Confederates approaching the defenses.

The 53rd Annual Pilgrimage for Scouts was held in Fort Wayne Page  [End Page 64] on February 5 with 1,200 Boy Scouts, Cub Scouts and Girl Scouts attending in 10 degree weather. The annual patch for this pilgrimage was entitled "Lincoln the President 1861–1865" and it included an embroidery of the Executive Mansion.

The bells rang for Lincoln's 177th birthday at the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial Carillon at the Riverside Church, New York City, on February 12. The program included Civil War songs, songs by Black Americans and Steven Foster, as well as a composition entitled "Paraphrase on the Battle Hymn of the Republic."

Four cartoonists remembered Lincoln at the time of his birthday: Jack Lanigan in the February 17 issue of the The Standard Times (New Bedford), Lloyd Ostendorf in the February 12 issue of The Kettering-Oakwood Times (Ohio); Doc Goodwin of The Columbus Dispatch, who follows the long tradition of Lincoln admirer and cartoonist, Eugene Craig, who died in 1984; and of course, Jim Dobbins in The Manchester Union Leader.

The Great American People Show at Lincoln's New Salem once again produced, from June 21 through August 23, John Ahart's "Your Obedient Servant, A. Lincoln" and "Even We Here," with James Hurt's "Abraham Lincoln Walks at Midnight." A new production, "Portrait of a Prairie Capitol," has been added to the repertoire. Performed in the Hall of Representatives in the Old State Capitol, Springfield, this work includes a 13-piece chamber orchestra and three actors. It explores and brings to life the history of the Old State Capitol through the time of Lincoln's death, and Lincoln's own associations with the building.

As part of the international stamp show "Ameripex," the U.S. Postal Service issued a set of four miniature sheets depicting the portraits of all deceased United States presidents. Fleetwood, in addition to first-day covers, produced a complete collection of maximum cards honoring the presidents of the United States with the new stamps.

The Illinois Historic Preservation Agency has prepared a Time Traveler's Guide to Illinois, a pictorial map describing many of the historic sites in Illinois.

Sculptor Marshall Mitchell has created a three-foot bust of Sarah Bush Lincoln. Those interested in contributing to this memorial to Lincoln's stepmother should send contributions to The Lincoln Artist's Fund, Citizens Savings and Loan, 301 Broadway, Normal, IL 61761.

Barbara Gamarekian's article "The Willard is Restored as a Jewel of Pennsylvania Avenue" appeared in the September 4 issue of The New York Times. Page  [End Page 65]

For those who have not had enough fiction in Gore Vidal's Lincoln, the author has recorded two cassettes containing an abridgment of the novel for the Book of the Month Club (Random House).

A major collection of 75 manuscripts of Illinois Civil War governor, Richard J. Yates, Sr., were donated to the Illinois State Historical Library.

A little known occurrence took place on the bicentennial of our Declaration of Independence in the State of Israel. Leon L. Gildesgame and the Gildesgame Foundation presented a statue of President Abraham Lincoln to the United States for presentation to the State of Israel. The statue was gratefully received by Israel and placed in the City of Ramat Gan.

Exhibits

"A Nation Divided: The War Between the States, 1861–1865" was held by the Chicago Public Library Special Collections Division from February 1 through July 19 at the library's Cultural Center.

The exhibition "Bury Me in a Free Land: The Abolitionist Movement in Indiana, 1816–1865" opened on February 7 at the Indiana State Library.

Artist Chuck Levitan displayed twelve giant, 6 foot by 10 foot, charcoal drawings of Lincoln in his exhibit entitled "Lincoln Split Drawings" at his gallery in New York City (February 12–28).

Models of Abraham Lincoln's Springfield home were on display at the Illinois Benedictine College during the month of February. Both models were constructed by Thomas Dyba.

The Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum, Austin, Texas, presented the major exhibition devoted to Ulysses S. Grant, formerly housed at the National Portrait Gallery, Washington.

In celebration of the 150th anniversary of the 1836 Patent Act, the Museum of American History of the Smithsonian presented "Patent Pending: Model of Invention," containing more than 100 miniature working models, including Abraham Lincoln's 1849 model of a "device for lifting vessels over shoals." Judging by its lack of commercial success, it appears that Abraham Lincoln was a better statesman than inventor.

From May through September, the Joseph Regenstein Library of the University of Chicago prepared and sponsored an exhibit "In Lincoln's Time: Sources on 19th Century America and the William E. Barton Collection." A catalogue was published to accompany the exhibit. Page  [End Page 66]

Auctions

Many auctioneers complained of fewer sales during 1986, partly due to competition and consignors' belief that the items they leave for auction are worth more than they actually are.

In any case, it is appropriate to report that a daguerreotype of Mathew B. Brady was purchased by the National Portrait Gallery for $54,000 at a photograph auction conducted by Swann Galleries on November 14, 1985, which included the William J. Kaland Collection of Mathew Brady. For many years, the NPG has presented a spurious daguerreotype of Brady in their collection. This new purchase assures the National Portrait Gallery's ownership of a genuine photograph of the famous Brady.

The Knob Creek Farm, where Lincoln spent five and a half years before moving to Indiana, was offered for sale for $1,000,000 and sold for $120,000.

Riba-Mobley Auctions, Inc., conducted an auction on February 21 containing many Lincoln items.

An auction of Civil War and Confederate States postal history was conducted on February 22 by Richard C. Frajola, Inc., in Danbury, Connecticut.

Dan Weinberg of the Abraham Lincoln Book Shop, Chicago, was featured in Rudolph Unger's article, "Appomattox Furniture Has Way of Fetching a Price," when he purchased for $16,500 a small tri-level wood table which was part of the furniture at the McLean House, Appomattox, at the time of the surrender. However, it was not one of the tables used by Grant or Lee.

Awards

Thomas J. Dyba, executive vice president of Illinois Benedictine College and editor of The Lincoln Chronicle, has been named the recipient of the Illinois State Historical Society's Award of Superior Achievement for 1985 as a result of his work promoting public interest in Abraham Lincoln's Springfield home.

The 1985 Lincoln Era Essay Contest by the Social Studies Development Center, Indiana University, published the winners for 1985. There were 13 winners from junior high/middle schools and high schools who covered such topics as "Lincoln Presidency and Foreign Affairs," "The Trent Affair, Diplomacy During the Civil War" and "Charles Dickens' Influence on British Public Opinion."

Judge Augustus Robert C. Underwood, retired from the Supreme Page  [End Page 67] Court of Illinois, received the second annual Lincoln the Lawyer Award from the Abraham Lincoln Association.

Edwin Bearss, chief historian of the National Park Service, received the Bell I. Wiley Award, and the Lincoln Memorial Shrine, Redlands, California, received the Barondess/Lincoln Award of the Civil War Round Table of New York on February 12.

Dr. Harold M. Hyman received the 1986 Nevins-Freeman Award from the Civil War Round Table (Chicago) on September 12.

Jerry L. Russell of The Civil War Round Table Digest was selected as the recipient of the 5th Annual Frank E. Vandiver Award of Merit presented by the Houston Civil War Round Table.

The Dispatch (Illinois State Historical Society) honored Illinois and Lincoln historian, Robert P. Howard, in its March–April issue.

The winner of the 1986 Author's Prize awarded by Civil War Times Illustrated went to James O. Hall for his "The Spy Harrison."

The Fletcher Pratt Award of the Civil War Round Table of New York was presented to Joseph T. Glatthaar for his Sherman's Troops in the Savannah and Carolinas Campaigns.

Gary R. Planck, Esq., received the prestigious Lincoln Diploma of Honor from Lincoln Memorial University on June 7.

The 1986 Schwengel Lincoln Contest winners, sponsored by Northeast Missouri State University, were as follows:

Author Title
Laura Edge "Perceptions of Lincoln"
Teri Mayhew "Young Abe"
Mary Ann Shramek "The Life and Times of our Sixteenth President Abraham Lincoln"
Louis Cohn "Lincoln Oration"
Koleta Schoenig "Today's Problem; Yesterday's Answer"
Steve Martin "The Lincoln Legacy"
Carla Bates "The Immortal Role Model"
Tasha Cogan "Lincoln: Leader of His People"
Rusty Henke "Abraham Lincoln Through the Eyes of Others"
Kim Vonnahme "Future in Jeopardy"
David Dufer "A Presidential Press Conference" Page  [End Page 68]

Periodicals

The Summer-Fall issue of Winterthur Portfolio contained "The European Image of Abraham Lincoln" by Gabor S. Boritt, Mark E. Neely, Jr. and Harold Holzer.

The substantive and thought-provoking Lincoln Lore included in its issues "Hostages in the Civil War" (June and July 1984), "Grant's Image 100 Years Later" (August 1984), "The Emancipation Proclamation as an Act of Foreign Policy: A Myth Dispelled" (September 1984), "Some Contours of European Sympathy for Lincoln" (October 1984) and "Andrew C. McLaughlin on Lincoln and the Constitution" (November 1984) — all published in 1985. Because of copyright restrictions, there will be no Lincoln Lore issues dated in 1985. The January 1986 issue was entitled "Lincoln and Jefferson Davis." The April and May issues featured Marilyn Tolbert's Bibliography of Works by Foreign Travelers in Lincoln's America, 1860–1865. The June and July 1986 issues related to Edward A. Pollard, editor of the Richmond Daily Examiner ("A Confederate in the North"), who spent some time in one of the "Northern Bastilles." They are based on information uncovered by Mark E. Neely, Jr., in his research on civil liberties in the North.

Laura Smith Porter's "'The Last, Best Hope of Earth': Abraham Lincoln's Perception of America 1830–1854" appeared in the Autumn 1985 issue of The Illinois State Historical Journal. The Spring 1986 issue featured Mark A. Plummer's "The Civil War Concluded in the Papers of Ulysses S. Grant." The Winter issue contained Thomas Schwartz's "Lincoln Handbill of 1837."

The Fall 1985 issue of Southern Partisan featured "The Dark Side of Abraham Lincoln" with a review of Gore Vidal's Lincoln by M. E. Bradford.

The Fall 1985 issue of Lincoln Herald featured Neill F. Sanders' "Lincoln's Appointment of James O. Putnam as Counsel at Le Havre," and the Spring 1986 issue contained Ed Wilhite's "Lincoln and His Cabinet." The Lincoln Herald continues to carry Gary R. Planck's informative "Lincoln News Digest."

The Pentagram on October 31, 1985, published Tim Liszewski's article about the ghosts which still walk in Building 20 at Fort McNair. This building was the site of the trial of the Lincoln conspirators.

Donald Bellows' "A Study of British Conservative Reaction to the American Civil War" appeared in the November 1985 issue of The Journal of Southern History. The February 1986 issue contained Richard N. Current's excellent review essay "Fiction as History ..." Page  [End Page 69] in which he took to task those who write "fictional history." He particularly points to Gore Vidal and his Lincoln, which pretends to be history, but is far from it. Paul C. Nagel's "Reconstruction, Adams Style" also appeared in this issue. The May 1986 issue of The Journal ... contained the very useful selected bibliography "Southern History in Periodicals, 1985" and a complete report of the 51st annual meeting of the Southern Historical Association. The August issue contained Paul D. Escott and Jeffrey A. Crow's "The Social Order and Violent Disorder: An Analysis of North Carolina in the Revolution and the Civil War."

James Butcher's "Religious Faith Touched Many Facets of Lincoln's Life" appeared in the November–December 1985 issue of The Lincoln Times. The January–February 1986 issue featured articles on "Bleeding Kansas" and "How the South Might Have Won."

Frank L. Klement's "Ward H. Lamon and the Dedication of the Soldiers' Cemetery at Gettysburg" appeared in the December 1985 issue of Civil War History. The March 1986 issue contained Ludwell H. Johnson, III's "The Confederacy: What Was It? A View From the Federal Courts" and Edward G. Longacre's "Inspired Blundering: Union Operations Against Richmond During the Gettysburg Campaign." The June issue contained Mark E. Neely, Jr.'s "The Perils of Running the Blockade: The Influence of International Law in an Era of Total War," William C. McDonald's "The True Gentleman: On Robert E. Lee's Definition of the Gentleman" and Samuel T. McSeveney's "Re-electing Lincoln: The Union Party Campaign and the Military Vote in Connecticut." The September issue contained Larry Gata's "Anti-Slavery Congressmen, 1848–1856: Their Contribution to the Debate Between the Sections" and James W. Geary's "Civil War Conscription in the North: A Historiographical Review."

Jordan D. Fiore's "When General Grant to Ireland Came" appeared in the December 1985 issue of the Bridgewater Review.

The January–February issue of The Lincolnian contained William Hanchett's "Another Look at Lincoln's 1837 'Protest.'" The May–June and July–August issues contained Elbert B. Smith's "Lincoln: Opportunist or Statesman?"

The Sun (Baltimore) on January 19 contained Ernest B. Furgurson's "Church and State: Reflections on Lincoln's Statue at the National Cathedral."

Lisa Pegnato's most interesting article about Civil War theatre, "Produced in Magnificent Style," about the Booth family, appeared in the February issue of Civil War Times Illustrated. The May issue contained John Eastman's "U. S. Grant Slept Here" along with Page  [End Page 70] Howard Westwood's "Mr. Smalls — A Slave No More." The September issue inaugurated an annual edition discussing the best books of the year. There was also an article about the 50th anniversary of Gone With the Wind ("The Golden Anniversary of a Classic") by Roy Meador.

The January–February issue of Dispatch (Illinois State Historical Society) featured a report of the Springfield events occurring for the 177th birthday of Mr. Lincoln. The July–August issue contained Thomas Schwartz's "Lincoln — The Troubled Lawyer," about Lincoln as a defendant in a Kentucky lawsuit.

Harold Holzer's 13th consecutive Lincoln birthday cover feature appeared in the February 5 issue of The Antique Trader Weekly, "Period Prints of the Lincolns at Home."

The annual Lincoln issue of Illinois Times (February 6–12) featured Lincoln the lawyer as a theme with articles by Mark Mathewson: "The Great Litigator," "The Lincoln-Herndon Law Offices Doing Business in Victorian America" and "Uncommon Law"; James Hurt, "Who's Buried in Lincoln Tomb?"; and Glenrose Nash, "Charlestown's Lincoln Legacy."

"Lincoln as Myth: Beyond Analysis by Historians" by Barbara Burns Patrick appeared in the "New Jersey Opinion" section of The Sunday New York Times on February 9. She talked on the durability of Abraham Lincoln and indicated that Richard Current was not really looking for the Lincoln nobody knows and neither are we. We are satisfied with Lincoln's availability and usefulness, she believes.

Herbert Mitgang's "New Lincoln Insights Emerge From Letters" appeared in the February 12 issue of The New York Times. Mr. Mitgang, a long-time student of Lincoln, noted that two letters at the Illinois State Historical Library illuminate Lincoln's firmness and decisiveness in issuing the Emancipation Proclamation. The cabinet did not even have a chance to question whether or not it would be issued, as the president had already made up his mind.

The Sunday New York Times of February 23 contained Nina Darnton's "Restored Glory" about the renovated Equinox Hotel in Manchester, Vermont.

Can it be that the suspicion that Lincoln suffered from Marfan's syndrome (also called "Lincoln's disease") has finally been put to rest? A disavowal of this theory is found in Jane E. Brody's article on personal health in The New York Times on March 12. Nardi Reeder Campion's "The Contents of Lincoln's Pockets, And What They Suggest About Him" appeared in the March 29 issue. William Serrin's "Away From Fast-Food Joints, Some Find a Special Get- Page  [End Page 71] tysburg" appeared in the July 3 issue. Richard Halloran's piece "Appomattox, Where a Peace is Enshrined" appeared in the Travel section on Sunday, July 6. Stephen Holden's article about Henry Ward Beecher, "Brooklyn Pastor With a Vivid Past," appeared in the Sunday New York Times for August 10.

Troy Cozad discussed Mark E. Neely, Jr., and the Louis A. Warren Lincoln Library and Museum in his "Museum-Library Settles Curiosity About Lincoln" which appeared in the Journal-Gazette (Fort Wayne) on February 11.

Jill Brooke's "Will the Real Abe Lincoln Please Stand Up — Again?" appeared in the February 12 issue of The New York Post and discussed the various actors who have portrayed Lincoln.

The annual Lincoln issue (February 1986) of Illinois History featured Lincoln curator, Tom Schwartz's "A Curator Looks at Lincoln" and twelve Lincoln articles by Illinois high school students.

Martin D. Tullai's "Alas, Young Abe and Ann Rutledge Weren't Valentines" appeared in the February 12 issue of The Evening Sun (Baltimore). The St. Louis Post-Dispatch also featured Mr. Tullai's "Lincoln was Tall in His Tales But Towering in His Humor" in its February 12 edition.

An article in the Chicago Tribune for February 12, by Kurt Greenbaum, discussed the work being performed by the Lincoln Legals Project at the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency in Springfield. The project is now known as "The Law Practice of Abraham Lincoln" and is intended to collect copies of all known Lincoln legal documents and letters as well as other documents about cases in which Lincoln was involved. Publication of some or all of these is anticipated.

Judge Henry B. McFarland's article "Abraham Lincoln, Lawyer-Statesman" appeared in the February 13 issue of the New Jersey Law Journal.

Jill Kunka's article "Model Behavior: the only home Lincoln ever owned" which appeared in the Chicago Reader for February 14 discussed Tom Dyba and his model of the Lincoln Home.

United Technologies of Hartford, Connecticut, took out a full-page ad in The Wall Street Journal on February 18 outlining the trials and tribulations of Abraham Lincoln with the idea of making the reader optimistic about life.

The Lincoln Group of Florida initiated its Newsletter in March.

The Spring 1986 issue of the Lincoln Newsletter (Lincoln College) featured two reminiscences of Robert Todd Lincoln Beckwith by Ralph G. Newman and James T. Hickey. The Summer issue featured Paul Beaver's "Visiting Lincoln Country." Page  [End Page 72]

Mark Katz (P.O. Box 765, Gettysburg, PA 17325) has commenced publication of Incidents of War. The first issue appeared in Spring 1986 and featured a fine photo journal essay by the editor entitled "The Final Solution." Lloyd Ostendorf's "Signed Lincoln Photographs" appeared in the Summer issue.

Bert Shanas's "Lincoln's Home on the Prairie" appeared in the Daily News (New York) on March 30.

Mark E. Neely, Jr., contributed his "John G. Nicolay and John Hay" to Volume 47 of the Dictionary of Literary Biography.

David Hein's "Interpretations of the Divine Presence in History," which briefly discussed Lincoln's understanding of divine providence, appeared in the March issue of St. Luke's Journal of Theology.

The Lincoln National Life Insurance Company has published Mark E. Neely, Jr.'s The Emancipation Proclamation, Our Second Declaration of Independence, and director emeritus R. Gerald McMurtry's Lincoln Highlights in Indiana History.

Randy and Karen Mink's "On History's Trail in Lincoln's Illinois" appeared in the Travel section of The Providence Sunday Journal on April 20.

Edward Noyes's paper entitled "Wisconsin's Reaction to Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation With Especial Reference to Editorial Opinion," which he delivered on April 14, 1985, before the Lincoln Fellowship of Wisconsin, has been published as Historical Bulletin No. 41 by this group.

The Autumn 1985 issue of Inland, The Magazine of the Middle West contained "Chicago Introduces Lincoln" by Harold Holzer, Gabor S. Borritt and Mark E. Neely, Jr.

The Winter 1986 issue of Manuscripts contained articles by Lloyd Ostendorf ("Signed Lincoln Photographs"), Frank Williams and Mark E. Neely, Jr. ("Lincoln Collecting, What's Left to Collect?") and Jennifer B. Lee ("Lincoln at the John Hay Library").

Joseph George, Jr.'s "'A True Childe of Sorrow.' Two Letters of Mary E. Surratt" was published by Maryland Historical Magazine in its Winter 1985 issue.

The Civil War Magazine, formerly the "Civil War Forum" in Virginia Country, publishes four issues a year and in addition, subscribers receive six issues per annum of Virginia Country (2 N. Liberty Street, Box 432, Middleburg, VA 22117).

Paul J. Beaver's presentation before the 54th Annual Lincoln Dinner of the Lincoln Memorial Shrine, Redlands, California, on February 12, "Lincoln's Political Rise in Logan County, Central Illinois," was published by the Lincoln Memorial Shrine. Page  [End Page 73]

Colonel Alexander K. McClure's 1980 article "Lincoln as a Politician" appeared in the Spring issue of Sino-American Relations published by the China Academy, Taiwan. The Summer issue contained Shaw Yu-Ming's "What Abraham Lincoln Means to Me."

The August–September issue of Blue & Gray magazine contained Henry W. Ludman's "Lincoln in Alaska."

The Surratt Society (9110 Brandywine Road, Clinton, MD 20735) has a new brochure, The Surratt House and the Saga of Mary Surratt.

The Summer issue of Prologue: Journal of the National Archives was chock-full of articles covering the era in which we have interest. Michael K. Honey received the 1985 Charles Thompson Prize for his "The War Within the Confederacy: White Unionist of Carolina" which is in this issue. Barry A. Crouch and Larry Maderas discussed "Reconstructing Black Families: Perspectives From the Texas Freedmen's Bureau Records."

Last, but loudly, the National Inquirer for May 13 printed Webb Garrison's article about Lincoln's representation of a slave owner to regain possession of his "property" — Lincoln lost the case ("Shocker! Lincoln Defended a Slave Owner in Court").

Books

Another quiet year for Lincoln books.

R. Gerald McMurtry and Mark E. Neely, Jr.'s long-awaited The Insanity File — The Case of Mary Todd Lincoln was published by Southern Illinois University Press (Carbondale). The authors answer these questions: Was Mrs. Lincoln insane? Yes, at least in 1875. Did she receive a fair trial? Yes, the fact that she had a jury trial was remarkable. Did Robert Todd Lincoln act correctly in seeking her commitment to a sanitorium? Yes! The authors discuss these issues in a lively, readable style.

The University of Massachusetts Press (Amherst, MA 01004) published Abraham Lincoln and the American Political Tradition. Originally delivered at the symposium of the same name sponsored by the Lincoln Group of Boston and the Brown University Libraries in June 1984, these essays discuss to what extent Lincoln was shaped by the political culture he inherited and how he managed, in turn, to redirect the politics of his era and develop a new doctrine of liberal nationalism. Professor John L. Thomas edited this volume which examines this and other issues from a variety of perspectives, ranging from subtle analysis of Lincoln's rhetorical skills to a statistical Page  [End Page 74] survey of those who elected him. Contributors are Don E. Fehrenbacher, William E. Gienapp, Michael F. Holt, James M. McPherson, Robert Wiebe and Stephen B. Oates.

The American Scene (10941 Strathmore #24, Los Angeles, CA 90024) has republished in a limited edition Walter C. Brenner's The Ford Theatre Lincoln Assassination Playbills, originally published in 1937.

Larry Waldron has authored a beautiful, oversized pamphlet full of color photographs, entitled Lincoln Parks — The Story Behind the Scenery (Eastern National Park & Monument Association).

The Philosophical Library (200 West 57th Street, New York, 10019) has republished Ralph B. Winn's Lincoln Dictionary containing a select number of Lincoln's best quotations. A caveat though: not all are quoted correctly, so be sure to check the quotations with The Collected Works....

Adler's Foreign Books, Inc. (915 Foster Street, Evanston, IL 60201) has available Jurgen Kuczynski's new German biography entitled Abraham Lincoln-Eine Biographie.

Scholastic, Inc., has reprinted Ann McGovern's popular children's book,... If You Grew Up With Abraham Lincoln (illustrated by Brinton Turkle). Troll Associates has published another book for children, Abraham Lincoln by Rae Bains, with illustrations by Dick Smolinski. Garry De Young (Box 7252, Spencer, Iowa), tired of some people accusing Lincoln of being a racist, put together quotations from Lincoln to refute these arguments (Abraham Lincoln — Apostle of Freedom).

Time-Life Books has published the latest volumes in its attractive series, The Civil War. These are The Fight For Chattanooga by Jerry Korn and The Struggle For Tennessee by James Street, Jr.

Richard E. Beringer, Herman Hattaway, Archer Jones and William N. Still, Jr., authored Why the South Lost the Civil War (University of Georgia). Unfortunately, it is based on a faulty premise, i.e., the loss of the will to fight. How can that be, with the number of Southerners who served their "cause"?

Richard Wheeler continues his Civil War series (The Siege of Vicksburg and Sherman's March) with Sword Over Richmond: An Eyewitness History of McClellan's Peninsula Campaign (Harper & Row).

Rita Mae Brown's Civil War fiction novel entitled High Hearts was published by Bantam.

Emory M. Thomas authored Travels to Hallowed Ground: A Historian's Journey to the American Civil War (University of South Carolina Press) and Bold Dragoon — The Life of J.E.B. Stuart (Harper Page  [End Page 75] & Row), an August History Book Club selection.

After 50 years and 25 million copies, the Book of the Month Club produced an anniversary edition of Margaret Mitchell's Gone With the Wind, with a splendid introduction by Tom Wicker, part of which was adapted for the May 25 issue of The New York Times Book Review.

The Library of Congress published an authoritative subject guide to the Civil War material in its Manuscript Division. The 391-page volume, Civil War Manuscripts: A Guide to the Collections and the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress, was compiled by John R. Sellers and describes 1,064 collections.

John Diggins' The Lost Soul of American Politics (Basic) bemoans American materialism. His last chapter discusses the need for another Lincoln as head of state to negate this shallow view of ourselves.

Treasures of the Tokyo Lincoln Center, published by the Kodama Memorial Library, Meisei University, Tokyo, features many recently acquired items, most of which were acquired through the auspices of Ralph Geoffrey Newman.

C. Vann Woodward's Thinking Back: The Perils of Writing History, published by LSU, gives us this distinguished historian's retrospective view of his experience as a historian. LSU also published A Master's Due: Essays in Honor of David Herbert Donald, edited by William J. Cooper, Jr., Michael F. Holt and John McCardell.

Carroll & Graf have reprinted Margaret Leech's Pulitzer Prizewinning Reveille in Washington.

Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., published Michael Kammen's A Machine That Would Go of Itself, The Constitution in American Culture. Professor Kammen is also the author of Spheres of Liberty: Changing Perceptions of Liberty in American Culture (University of Wisconsin Press).

William H. Reicher's The Art of Political Manipulation (Yale) includes the story of Lincoln at Freeport and his question to Stephen Douglas, in which Douglas antagonized one part of the Democratic coalition with his answer that the people of a territory can effectively exclude slavery before its formation as a state.

James H. Madison authored a new history of Indiana entitled The Indiana Way: A State History, published by Indiana University Press through the auspices of the Indiana Historical Society.

Soldiers: A History of Men in Battle (Viking) by John Keegan and Richard Holmes was the Spring History Book Club selection.

M. E. Bradford, no friend of Lincoln's, has his essays published by University of Georgia Press as Remembering Who We Are: Ob- Page  [End Page 76] servations of a Southern Conservative.

For encyclopedias, there were two good ones published during the year: Historical Times Encyclopedia of the Civil War, edited by Patricia L. Faust (Harper & Row), an October History Book Club selection, and a new edition of The Encyclopedia of Military History: From 3000 B.C. to the Present by R. Ernest Duprey and Trevor N. Duprey (Harper & Row).

Greenwood Press continues to publish fine bibliographies with Sam G. Riley's Magazines of The American South and Index to Southern Periodicals. Noteworthy, too, is Norman E. Tutorow's The Mexican-American War: An Annotated Bibliograph.

The best photographic volume of the Civil War during the year was Volume Two of William C. Davis's Touched by Fire ... (Little, Brown).

Catalogues

Gisela Terrell, Rare Books & Special Collections librarian, Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana, has prepared Addendum I to the library's February 1983 catalogue Lincolniana.

Goodspeed's Catalogue 599 featured books on the Confederacy and the South.

The Abraham Lincoln Book Shop has published its Catalogue III entitled Americana, Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War/American Presidency.

Catalogue 20 of the Morningside Book Shop (258 Oak Street, Dayton, OH 45410) features John Hennessy's article "The Fight for Henry Hill, Manassas, Virginia, July 21, 1981."

Reviews

Ralph G. Newman's review of Stephen B. Oates's Abraham Lincoln: The Man Behind the Myths, Harold Holzer's review of George Tice's Lincoln and Floyd S. Barringer's review of The Reprint of Twenty Days: A Narrative and Text and Pictures of the Assassination of Abraham Lincoln ... by Dorothy Meserve Kunhardt and Philip B. Kunhardt, Jr., appeared in the Autumn 1985 issue of The Illinois Historical Journal.

Emory M. Thomas, historian of the Confederacy, reviewed Richard N. Current's Speaking of Abraham Lincoln: The Man and His Meaning for Our Times in the October 1985 issue of The Filson Club Page  [End Page 77] History Quarterly. John W. Rowell reviewed Stair's Volume Three of his Union Cavalry in the Civil War in the Summer issue of Indiana Magazine of History.

Michael R. Belknap reviewed Frank L. Klement's Dark Lanterns: Secret Political Societies, Conspiracies, and Treason Trials in the Civil War; James L. Nichols reviewed Larry J. Daniel's Cannoneers in Gray: The Field Artillery of the Army of Tennessee, 1861–1865;; Thomas F. Schilz reviewed Revels on the Rio Grande: The Civil War Journal of A.B. Peticolas by Don E. Alberts; Robert G. Mangrum reviewed Senator James Lemuel Clark's Civil War Recollections of James Lemuel Clark, including previously unpublished material on the great hanging at Gainesville, Texas, in October 1862; William L. Shea reviewed David C. Edmonds' The Guns of Port Hudson (Volume 2): The Investment, Siege, and Reduction; and Charles Reagan Wilson reviewed Virginius Dabney's The Last Review: The Confederate Reunion, Richmond, 1932, in the November 1985 issue of The Journal of Southern History. Richard M. McMurry reviewed Joseph T. Glatthaar's The March to the Sea and Beyond: Sherman's Troops in the Savannah and Carolinas Campaigns and John R. McKivigan reviewed C. C. Goen's Broken Churches, Broken Nation: Denominational Schisms and the Coming of the American Civil War in the August issue.

John H. Schroeder reviewed Robert Johannsen's first-rate To the Halls of the Montezumas; Judith Fenner Gentry reviewed Buck Yearns's The Confederate Governors; and Charles G. Sellers reviewed Volume Eight of The Papers of Henry Clay in the February issue of The Journal of Southern History.

Fred Somkin reviewed Robert W. Johannsen's To the Halls of the Montezumas; Phillip S. Paludan reviewed Frank L. Klement's Dark Lanterns: Secret Political Societies, Conspiracies and Treason Trials in the Civil War; Marvin R. Kane reviewed Robert Garth Scott's Into the Wilderness With the Army of the Potomac; James Lee McDonough reviewed Joseph T. Glatthaar's The March to the Sea and Beyond: Sherman's Troops in the Savannah and Carolinas Campaigns; William L. Barney reviewed The Confederate Governors, edited by W. Buck Yearns; and Palmer H. Boeger reviewed Phil Sheridan and His Army by Paul Andrew Hutton in the March issue of Civil War History.

Roger A. Fischer's review of The Lincoln Image ..., Steve Davis's review of Five Tragic Hours: The Battle of Franklin and Walter D. Kamphoefner's review of A German in the Yankee Fatherland: The Civil War Letters of Henry A. Kircher appeared in the September 1985 issue of Civil War History. David T. Courtwright's review Page  [End Page 78] of Gore Vidal's Lincoln and Donald E. Reynold's review of Walter L. Buenger's Secession and the Union in Texas appeared in the December issue. Major L. Wilson's review of Martin Van Buren and the American Political System by Donald B. Coles, Allan G. Bogue's review of The Civil War Party System: The Case of Massachusetts, 1848–1876 by Dale Baum and David R. Wrone's review of John K. Lattimer's Lincoln and Kennedy: Medical and Ballistic Comparisons of Their Assassinations appeared in the March issue. The June issue contained Frank L. Byrne's review of Grant and Lee: The Virginia Campaigns, 1864–1865 by William A. Frassanito; Mark E. Neely, Jr.'s, review of The End of an Era: Volume VI of the Image of War, 1861–1865, edited by William C. Davis; and Larry Gara's review of Richard N. Current's Speaking of Abraham Lincoln.... Ronald D. Rietveld reviewed Professor Oates's Lincoln: The Man Behind the Myths and Ray Fischer reviewed James W. Milgram's Abraham Lincoln Illustrated Envelopes and Letter Paper, 1860–1865 in the September issue.

William F. Hanna reviewed Andy Van Meter's Always My Friend: A History of the State Journal-Register in Springfield, and Michael W. Kauffman reviewed William F. Hanchett's The Lincoln Murder Conspiracies in the Summer 1984 issue of the Lincoln Herald. Gary R. Planck reviewed William F. Hanna's Abraham Among the Yankees: Abraham Lincoln's 1848 Visit to Massachusetts in the Fall issue. William F. Hanna reviewed Gore Vidal's Lincoln, Thomas R. Turner reviewed Richard N. Current's Speaking of Abraham Lincoln ... and Gary R. Planck reviewed Mark E. Neely, Jr.'s, Escape From the Frontier: Lincoln's Peculiar Relationship With Indiana in the Winter 1984 issue. Gary R. Planck reviewed George Tice's Lincoln and Thomas R. Turner reviewed Stephen B. Oates's Abraham Lincoln: The Man Behind the Myths in the Summer 1985 issue of Lincoln Herald.

Volumes 13 and 14 of The Papers of Ulysses S. Grant (John Y. Simon, editor) were reviewed by Lowell H. Harrison in the Spring issue of The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, and Robert Garth Scott's Into the Wilderness With the Army of the Potomac was reviewed by William C. Davis. Joseph T. Glatthaar's The March to the Sea and Beyond ... was reviewed by Marian B. Lucas.

Richard and Kellie Gutman's John Wilkes Booth Himself was reviewed in the Summer issue of Incidents of War.

Leon F. Litwack reviewed (New York Times Book Review, September 14) Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation, 1861–1867 — Selected From the Holdings of the National Archives of the United States. Series I, Volume I: The Destruction of Slav- Page  [End Page 79] ery, edited by Ira Berlin, et al. The reviewer states, "Enslaved black men and women, more than any Government proclamation, undermined the authority of the master class." Let us not put too fine a point on it. The hope and acts of blacks to seek freedom rested very much on "Government proclamations." The Confiscation Act of July 17, 1862 and Lincoln's three emancipation proclamations were like a beacon in the night for all black people, even those initially omitted from the effect of such resolutions. David M. Kennedy reviewed Michael Kammen's A Machine That Would Go of Itself: The Constitution in American Culture in the same issue. The September 21 issue contained Richard Snow's review of Emory Thomas's Bold Dragoon: The Life of J.E.B. Stuart.

The September issue of Reviews in American History featured three very good essays. Robert W. Johannsen's "The Mind of a Secessionist: Social Conservatism or Romantic Adventure?" discussed, in part, Robert E. May's John A. Quitman: Old South Crusader. Brooks D. Simpson in his discussions of Stephen W. Sears's Landscape Turned Red: The Battle of Antietam and Robert Garth Scott's Into the Wilderness With the Army of the Potomac compared the generalship of Ulysses S. Grant and George B. McClellan. John T. Hubbell, editor of Civil War History, accentuated the loyalty of General Sherman's troops to the Union and President Lincoln as pointed out in Joseph T. Glatthaar's The March to the Sea and Beyond: Sherman's Troops in the Savannah and Carolinas Campaigns.

The September issue of Civil War History contained Stephen E. Maizlish's review of Abraham Lincoln and the American Political Tradition, edited by John L. Thomas; Michael C. C. Adams' review of Emory M. Thomas's Bold Dragoon: The Life of J. E. B. Stuart; Arvarah E. Strickland's review of John Hope Franklin's George Washington Williams: A Biography; and Frank J. Wetta's review of Charles B. Strozier's Lincoln's Quest for Union: Public and Private Meanings.

Ulysses S. Grant Centenary

In addition to the publication of the final Civil War papers of Ulysses S. Grant and the exhibition "U.S. Grant: The Man and the Image" at the National Portrait Gallery, the centennial of General Grant's death was commemorated in other appropriate ways — all under the urging and leadership of Professor John Y. Simon. Professor Simon delivered his "Ulysses S. Grant 100 Years Later" at the National Archives Building on July 22. The Ulysses S. Grant As- Page  [End Page 80] sociation and the Commandery of the District of Columbia of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States, in cooperation with the United States Capitol Historical Society, held a ceremony at the Capitol Rotunda on July 23. The secretary of the army had his own ceremony on July 23 at the General U.S. Grant Memorial. Ceremonies at Galena, Illinois, where Grant lived, and Mt. McGregor, New York, where he died, were also held.

The third annual assembly of the Civil War Round Table took place on March 15, entitled "Lt. General U.S. Grant: The Civil War Years." This symposium included John Y. Simon's "Grant as Commander," Thomas Arliskas' "Grant at Belmont," Wiley Sword's "Grant at Shiloh," Marshall Krolick's "Grant at Vicksburg," Gordon Whitney's "Grant at Chattanooga," Robert K. Krick's "Grant From the Rapidan to the James" and Richard J. Sommers' "Grant at Petersburg."

Lance Morrow's essay "Who is Buried in Grant's Tomb?" (Time, September 16, 1985) is a telling analysis of the General and his place in our pantheon of heroes.

People and Things

This author was elected president of the Abraham Lincoln Association. Harold Holzer, Stephen B. Gates, Richard E. Hart and Richard N. Current were elected members of the board of directors of the association and John Hope Franklin was elected an honorary member of the board.

The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a computer run of presidential names, and the results showed that Lincoln was the most popular presidential place name in the United States, followed closely by George Washington.

The Willard Hotel, Washington, where Lincoln tarried before his inauguration, has been reopened after 18 empty years and 120 million dollars. Although a different building, it is on the site of the old Willard. Hugh Sidey discussed Lincoln's connections to the hotel in Time (August 25).

Arthur F. Loux, former member of the Lincoln Group of New York, has been elected president of the Lincoln Club of Topeka, 5805 West 164th Street, Stilwell, KS 66085.

After two tries, the Union League (Philadelphia) overwhelmingly voted to accept female members.

Donald McCue has become the new archivist at the A. K. Smiley Public Library, which includes the Lincoln Memorial Shrine, suc- Page  [End Page 81] ceeding Dr. Larry E. Burgess, who has become the library's director.

Virginia Country Civil War, in publication for five years, has created the Virginia Country Civil War Society (2 North Liberty Street, Box 432, Middleburg, VA 22117).

The War Library and Museum is now the Civil War Library and Museum. Located in Philadelphia, the museum dates from 1888 when the Pennsylvania Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States secured a charter to create such a library and museum. Friends of the Civil War Library and Musesum are seeking members (1805 Pine Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103).

Professor William S. McFeely of Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, MA 01075, is in search of material relating to Frederick Douglass. I erroneously gave his address as Amherst College in my last column.

The 99th session of Congress — at least a few of its —attempted to "reinvigorate" the 1863 False Claims Act supported by President Lincoln to prevent the swindling of the government. The present proposed amendment would create a fine of $10,000 per infraction, a penalty of between two and three times the amount of the fraud and a reward to an informer of the fraud.

Necrology

Robert Todd Lincoln Beckwith, the last surviving descendant of Abraham Lincoln, died on Christmas Eve, 1985.

Bert Sheldon, a founder of the Lincoln Group of the District of Columbia, died on November 25, 1985.

Richard P. Condie, who led the Mormon Tabernacle Choir to greatness, in part with the group's recording of "The Battle Hymn of the Republic," a hit single in 1959, died on December 22, 1985.

Actress Una Merkel, who portrayed Ann Rutledge in D. W. Griffith's 1930 film "Abraham Lincoln," died on January 2, 1986.

Lincoln Borglum, son of Mt. Rushmore sculptor, Gutzon Borglum, and principal sculptor of his namesake on the mountain, died January 27.

Artist Charles Turzak, known for his Lincoln engravings, died January 31 at the age of 86.

Adele Gutman Nathan, author of two children's books about Abraham Lincoln, died on July 24. Her cameo role in the motion picture Reds gave her more notoriety than her good books. Page  [End Page 82]

Works in Progress

Jean Baker's biography of Mary Todd Lincoln will be published in the spring of 1986 by Norton. Betty E. Mitchell is working on a biography of Robert Todd Lincoln to be published by the University of Illinois Press. She is utilizing the recently discovered copy books of the president's eldest son.

The Surratt Society is preparing a pamphlet containing its "best articles" on Lincoln, which appeared in this group's Newsletter.

Due to be published in March 1987 is Robert V. Bruce's The Launching of Modern American Science, 1846–1876 (Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.) as part of the Civil War Impact Series.

Louisiana State University's Representative American Speeches for 1985–86 will include Governor Cuomo's address before the Abraham Lincoln Association.

W. Emerson Reck's Lincoln's Last Twenty-Four Hours will be published by McFarland & Co., Inc. (Box 611, Jefferson, NC 28640).

Don E. Fehrenbacher is the editor of the forthcoming volume of Lincoln's writings to be published in 1988 as part of the Library of America series (Viking Press). Professor Fehrenbacher's Lincoln essays, Lincoln in Text and Context, will be published by Stanford University Press in February 1987.

Allan Bogue's essays on Congress in the mid-19th century with a chapter on Lincoln will be published by Cornell University Press.

Professor John Y. Simon, executive director of the Ulysses S. Grant Association, will celebrate the 10th anniversary of the R. Gerald McMurtry Lectures of the Louis A. Warren Lincoln Library and Museum on May 21, 1987, with his paper about Lincoln's relationship to his father.

The Confederate Image: Prints of The Lost Cause by Mark E. Neely, Jr., Harold Holzer and Gabor S. Boritt will be published by the University of North Carolina Press in June 1987. An exhibit of the many prints included and discussed in the book will open at Gettysburg College with appearances at the Gettysburg National Military Park Visitors' Center, Brown University (Providence), Museum of the Confederacy (Richmond) and the Newberry Library (Chicago).

In honor of the bicentennial of the Constitution and the 150th anniversary of Abraham Lincoln's admission to the bar, the Abraham Lincoln Association with the Illinois State Historical Library will conduct "Lincoln, the Law and the Constitution" on February 12 and 13, 1987. The opening luncheon speaker will be G. M. ("Jim") Curtis, III, senior editor of the Papers of the Law Practice of Abraham Page  [End Page 83]

CONSULTING THE ORACLE
President Lincoln. "And, what next?" Columbia. "First be sure
you're right, then go ahead!"
CONSULTING THE ORACLE President Lincoln. "And, what next?" Columbia. "First be sure you're right, then go ahead!"Page  [End Page 84]
Lincoln, who will present "Lincoln the Lawyer: A Preliminary Assessment of the Man, the Profession and the Era." At the Hall of Representatives in the Old State Capitol, Michael Les Benedict will present "Lincoln and the Federal System," Herman J. Belz will present "The Conception of Constitutionalism in Lincoln's Political Thought," Dr. Mark E. Neely, Jr., will present "Lincoln and Arbitrary Arrest: The Fate of Civil Liberties in Times of Total War" and Phillip Paludan will give his "Lincoln, the Constitution, and the Political Conversation." The closing luncheon speaker will be Professor Don E. Fehrenbacher with "Lincoln's Wartime Leadership: The First Hundred Days."

Acknowledgment

Success of this annual article depends on contributions of information which go into its making. For that, the author wishes to thank all of those who have kept him informed during the year. Special thanks go to George M. Craig, secretary-treasurer of the Civil War Round Table of New York, Inc.; the Lincoln Group of New York; Dr. Mark E. Neely, Jr., director of the Louis A. Warren Lincoln Library and Museum; and Harold Holzer.

Editor's Note

Mr. Williams would welcome any news concerning Abraham Lincoln to be considered for publication in the next issue of the Papers. You may write to him at R.F.D. Hope Valley Road, Hope Valley, Rhode Island, 02832. Page  [End Page 85]