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Author: Amy Schleigh
Title: At the Intersection of History and Technology: A Bibliography for Historians and Information Professionals
Publication info: Ann Arbor, MI: MPublishing, University of Michigan Library
September 2002

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Source: At the Intersection of History and Technology: A Bibliography for Historians and Information Professionals
Amy Schleigh

vol. 5, no. 3, September 2002
Article Type: Article

At the Intersection of History and Technology: A Bibliography for Historians and Information Professionals

Amy Schleigh

MLS Student in the School of Information Science and Policy

University at Albany

Albany Ny 12222


In this paper examines some of the essential sources, both print and electronic, for studying the relationship between historians and their computers. The focus is on historians at post-secondary educational institutions, and their use of computer and Internet technologies in their research, publishing, and teaching processes. My intent was to make this bibliography as comprehensive as possible. However, at several points I believed myself to be finished, only to happen upon another wealth of relevant resources. Thus, the list of citations that follows, while perhaps not all-inclusive, will certainly be of use to historians already versed in multimedia applications, to those wishing to incorporate technology into their courses or research, and particularly to those remaining technophobes, unsure of how, or even whether, to begin.

Demographic Details

The source list given here consists of 173 citations, most of which were published after 1995. This was not by design, but is merely indicative of greater interest and awareness on the part of historians and universities in recent years, as well as a reflection of the growth in popularity and functionality of the World Wide Web since that year. The oldest source, dating to 1953, is a monograph describing the relationship between historians and libraries, written by a pioneer of mechanized library information retrieval (Shera 1953). The most recent inclusions are two articles from the May 2002 issue of the American Historical Association's Perspectives newsletter, both addressing issues pertaining to scholarly electronic journals (Townsend, Wittenberg). Although most of the citations here are written from an American or British perspective, a few are representative of elsewhere around the world (Borovickova, Celik, Davison, Karisiddappa et al., Metz et al., Tiew, and Turnbull et al.). Please refer to Roger Middleton's bibliography for an extensive look at the British literature on the subject - most of his citations do not appear here (Middleton 1995).

Searching Strategies

Rather new to the study of history and computers, I began my search by browsing the current and past issues of the two relevant journals with which I was already familiar: The Journal of the Association for History and Computing, and The Journal of MultiMedia History. From these journals, both electronic only, I collected several appropriate articles. The bibliographies of these articles provided me with additional sources and pointed me to two more very useful journals: History Computer Review (the continuation of History Microcomputer Review), and the United Kingdom's History and Computing. Done browsing, I then turned to searching databases. My initial searches featured only three general topics: the information-seeking behavior of historians, their use of technology in research, and their use of technology in teaching. After a bit of searching, a few more search concepts emerged: historical research, historical databases, and historical resources online. I performed searches in several of the major databases for library and information science, history, and education, as well as less specialized databases like Dissertation Abstracts, OCLC WorldCat, Dialog, and LexisNexis Academic Universe.

Research Needs & Behaviors of Historians

The manners in which historians use technology are often dependent, to some degree, upon their particular research interests and their individual behavioral inclinations when it comes to conducting research. Several of the articles here focus on the information-gathering patterns of particular types or groups of historians, with groupings according to subject specialization or ethnic and cultural background (Stam 1984, Straw 1993, Karisiddappa et al. 1989, Tiew 1999). Others address historians' research habits with respect to libraries (Gilmore & Case 1992, Shera 1953, Tucker 1984). Historians still unimpressed with web resources often place greater emphasis on the thought process and imagination involved in writing historical interpretations. Thus, some of the articles here are devoted to a deeper analysis of the cognitive processes of historical inquiry and information use (Case 1991, Case 1991, Johnson 1996, Smith 2000).

Electronic Journals, Research & Writing

Some in academia do not perceive electronic journals as having the same legitimacy and stature as their print counterparts. This misconception has become an issue during tenure reviews (Andersen & Trinkle 2001, Speier, Palmer, Wren & Hahn 1999). This lack of respect accorded to electronic journals by historians is also apparent from citation analyses, which indicate that most historians cite the print versions of articles, even if they view them online (Graham 2001, Graham 2000). Several articles also debate the future of scholarly historical journals (Fairbairn 1996, Minner 1998, Ransel 1995, Rosenzweig 2000, Tomlins 1998).

Technology and Teaching

A large number of the works listed here relate to teaching and technology. A web-based course can be a very effective means of attracting the interest of students who are not history majors, but are required to take a history survey (Rickman 1999, Reynolds 1997). Similarly, the convenience of online courses appeals to students with job commitments (Kubricht 2000). Many historians are adopting a hybrid approach to teaching, integrating the web, multimedia, and the traditional textbook (Berman 2001, Blake 1998, Fitch 1997, Igartua 1998, Ringrose 2001). Some historians have also assumed the role of web designer, creating departmental or course pages for the web (Brown 1997, Kornblith 1998, Schick 1997, Woestman 1998). Technology and teaching also intersect when it comes to research and bibliographic instruction (D'Aniello, ed. 1993, Gutmann 1988, Hunter 1998).

Databases, Systems & Software

The advent of the relational database expanded accessibility in historical research (Greenstein 1989, Peatling & Baggs 2001, Slatta 1985). This development also brought about the necessity of learning database searching strategies (Grinell 1987, Penrod 1994, Lloyd-Jones & Lewis 1994, Tibbo 1993). Technology has also provided for the creation of CD-ROMs and software programs for teaching and learning history (Rosenzweig 1995, DelGaudio 1999, Anderson 2000).

Guides to Internet Resources for Historians

For those still subscribing to the notion that there are no quality history sites on the web, several of these works provide compelling evidence to the contrary. From databases to discussion lists and digital libraries, the historical information available online is astounding. Extensive descriptions of Internet resources for historians are available, many of them online (Griffith 2000, Kitchens 2000, O'Malley & Rosenzweig 1997, Trinkle, Auchter, Merriman & Larson 1997). The World Wide Web Virtual Library also devotes space to cataloging historical resources on the web. Several historical journals, both web and print-based, offer reviews of electronic resources for historians.


Technology is, in some ways, changing the nature of the academic historian's work. While networked information and online databases have made the research process more convenient, it has also become more complicated. Multimedia appeals to students, but requires much more ingenuity and initiative on the part of the instructor. Many historians do not see the necessity, or the benefit, of high-tech history classes. One area that must be addressed is teaching undergraduates how to evaluate information from the many types of sources available. Much literature has been written concerning these issues, as is evidenced below. Whether historians regard technology as a blessing or a curse, they must at least follow its developments, if only for the sake of preserving information for the historians of tomorrow.

.10. Bibliography

Wherever possible, URLs were included for sources available online. All links were tested successfully as of August __, 2002.

American Association for History and Computing. 2000. "AAHC Suggested Guidelines for Evaluating Digital Media Activities in Tenure, Review, and Promotion." The Journal of the Association for History and Computing 3(3)

Andersen, Deborah Lines, and Dennis A. Trinkle. 2001. "One or Two is not a Problem, Or, Technology in the Tenure, Promotion, and Review Process: A Survey of Current Practices in U.S. History Departments." The Journal of the Association for History and Computing 4(1)

Andersen, Deborah Lines. 2000. "Historians on the Web: A Study of Academic Historians' Use of the World Wide Web for Teaching." The Journal of the Association for History and Computing 3(2)

Andersen, Deborah Lines. 1998. "Academic Historians, Electronic Information Access Technologies, and the World Wide Web: A Longitudinal Study of Factors Affecting Use and Barriers to that Use." The Journal of the Association for History and Computing 1(1)

Andersen, Deborah Lines. 1996. "User-Driven Technologies: Assessing the Information Needs of History Faculty as a Special User Population." Ph.D. Dissertation, The University at Albany, State University of New York.

Andersen, Deborah Lines. 1993. "Can Electronic Libraries Work for History Faculty at the University at Albany: An Ethnographic Investigation of Barriers to Information Access." Unpublished working paper, The University at Albany, State University of New York.

Anderson, Ian G. 2000. "Developing Multimedia Courseware for Teaching History: A UK Perspective." The Journal for MultiMedia History 3(1)

Ballagh, Michael. 1998. "Getting the Joke: Cats, Thick Description, and Hypertext." History Computer Review 14(2): 13-19.

Bassett, Jonathan. 1998. "Keeping a Perspective on Computer Technology." Organization of American Historians Magazine of History 12(4): 74-76.

Berman, Marjorie K. 2001. "Why Teach Hybrid History?" History Computer Review 17(1): 31.

Blake, Corinne. 1998. "Teaching Islamic Civilization with Information Technology." The Journal for MultiMedia History 1(1)

Blaschke, Stefan. 2002. The History Journals Guide. World Wide Web Virtual Library <

Borovickova, Jana. 2000. "Historical Computing in the Czech Republic." The Journal of the Association for History and Computing 3(1)

Brown, Thomas I. 1997. "The Purposes of Course Web Sites: A Case Study." The History Teacher 31(1): 61-68.

Burton, Orville Vernon. 1993. "Teaching Historians with Databases." History Microcomputer Review 9(1): 9-17.

Burton, Orville Vernon. 1991. "Computers, History, and Historians: Converging Cultures?" History Microcomputer Review 7(2): 11-23.

Burton, Orville Vernon, and Terence Finnegan. 1989. "New Tools for 'New' History: Computers and the Teaching of Quantitative Historical Methods." History Microcomputer Review 205(1): 13-18.

Cardis, Richard J., and C. Frederick Risinger. 1994. "Computers, History and the Social Sciences: An ERIC/ChESS Sample." History Microcomputer Review 10(1): 27-29.

Case, Donald O. 1991. "The Collections and Use of Information by Some American Historians: A Study of Motives and Methods." Library Quarterly 61(1): 61-82.

Case, Donald O. 1991. "Conceptual Organization and Retrieval of Text by Historians: The Role of Memory and Metaphor." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 42(9): 657-668.

Celik, Birten. 2001. "Web-based History Education In Turkey." The Journal of the Association of History and Computing 4(3)

Cole, Charles. 2000. "Inducing Expertise in History Doctoral Students Via Enabling Information Retrieval Design." Library Quarterly 70(1): 86-109.

Corbeil, Pierre. 1999. "A Horseless Carriage for the Historian, Or, What Do Computers Really Add to Our Craft?" History Computer Review 15(2): 31-38.

Corley, Julie A. 1998. "Can the Web Really Do It All? Perceptions of Historical Research on the Internet." Public Historian 20(1): 49-57.

D'Aniello, Charles A., Editor. 1993. Teaching Bibliographic Skills in History: A Sourcebook for Historians and Librarians. Westport Conn.: Greenwood Press.

Darnton, Robert. 1999. "A Historian of Books, Lost and Found in Cyberspace." The Chronicle of Higher Education. March 12: B4.

Davis, Ben H. 1996. "Teacher of the Future." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 47(11): 849-853.

Davison, Graeme. 1997. "History and Hypertext." The Electronic Journal of Australian and New Zealand History

De Graaf, Lawrence B. 1991. "Bibliographical Resources in History: A Review and Commentary on Their Place in the Disciplines." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Organization of American Historians.

Delgadillo, Roberto, and Beverly P. Lynch. 1999. "Future Historians: Their Quest for Information." College & Research Libraries 60(3): 245-259.

DelGaudio, Julian J. 1999. "Should Historians Become Programmers? Limitations and Possibilities of Computer-Assisted Instruction in the United States History Survey." The History Teacher 33(1): 66-78.

DeLoughry, Thomas J. 1994. "History, Post-Print." The Chronicle of Higher Education. January 12: A19, A20.

Denley, Peter, Stefan Fogelvik, and Charles Harvey, eds. 1989. History and Computing II. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Denley, Peter, and Deian Hopkin. 1987. History and Computing. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Eakin, Emily. 2002. "Stop, Historians! Don't Copy That Passage! Computers Are Watching; 'Plagiarism Machines' Are Humming Away Throughout Academe, Eager to Pounce." The New York Times January 26: A19(N), B9(L).

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Fischer, David Hackett. 1970. Historians' Fallacies: Toward a Logic of Historical Thought. New York: Harper & Row.

Fitch, Nancy. 1997. "History After the Web: Teaching with Hypermedia." The History Teacher 30(4): 427-441.

Friedheim, William, and David Jaffee. 1999. "From the Electronic Classroom." Academe 85(5): 56-60.

George Mason University. 2002. Center for History and New Media [website]. George Mason University and the American Social History Project.

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Gilmore, Matthew B., and Donald O. Case. 1992. "Historians, Books, Computers, and the Library." Library Trends 40(4): 667-86. Special issue on Electronic Information and the Humanities.

Graham, Suzanne R. 2001. "Historians and Electronic Resources: A Second Citation Analysis." The Journal of the Association for History and Computing 4(2)

Graham, Suzanne R. 2000. "Historians and Electronic Resources: A Citation Analysis." The Journal of the Association for History and Computing 3(3).

Greenstein, Daniel. 1996/1997. "Bringing Bacon Home: The Divergent Progress of Computer-Aided Historical Research in Europe and the United States." Computers and the Humanities 30(5): 351-364.

Greenstein, Daniel. 1994. A Historian's Guide to Computing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Greenstein, Daniel. 1993. "Electronic Information Sources and Historians: A Consumer's View." Proceedings of the workshop: Electronic Information Resources and Historians: European Perspectives, organized by the British Library, Research and Development, British Academy, and the International Association for History and Computing, June 25-26, 1993.

Greenstein, Daniel. 1989. "A Source-Oriented Approach to History and Computing: The Relational Database." Historical Social Research 24: 9-16.

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Grinell, S.F. 1987. "Reference Service, Online Bibliographic Databases, and Historians: A Review of the Literature." RQ 27(1): 106-111.

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