ï~~Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference (ICMC 2009), Montreal, Canada August 16-21, 2009 WOMEN INNOVATORS: TECHNOLOGY-BASED MUSIC THERAPY Jaclyn Heyen Florida International University School of Music 11200 SW 8th Street Miami FL 33199 ABSTRACT 2. FINDINGS Women in music technology have made many advances both in representation and in becoming innovators in a male-dominated field. In contrast, women dominate music therapy, and yet there is very little integration or documentation of the use of music technology in this field. This paper examines some of the issues facing women in music therapy when they utilize music technology and how this intersects and resonates with historical issues of gender and technology. 1. INTRODUCTION Women in music technology have made many advances both in representation and in becoming innovators in a male-dominated field. "It was not until the late 20th century that women in the United States were able to establish themselves as important developers and innovators in music technology"' Nevertheless, women continue to be underrepresented in audio engineering and music technology. In contrast, women dominate music therapy, and yet there is very little integration or documentation of the use of music technology in this field. With women becoming innovators in music technology, why is there an enduring lack of technology in music therapy? Where is the technological training in music therapy coursework? This paper addresses these questions by examining some of the issues facing women in music therapy when they utilize music technology and how these issues intersect and resonate with the historical issues of gender and technology. This paper also examines how recent innovative projects for the special needs population, such as the work of Pauline Oliveros' Adaptive Use Instruments and Adele Drake's Drake Music Project, challenge and question contemporary practices in music therapy. 1 Kristine H. Burns, "Music Technology," in Women and Music in America Since 1900, ed. Kristine H. Burns (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2002): 457. The study of women in technology has been researched since the beginning of the feminist revolution. Though women have made progress, they still lack in numbers in technological careers and degree programs. This underrepresentation persists in part because as children, girls are less likely to be interested in gaming and are not as encouraged by parents and teachers to go into technological careers. Girls are often less interested in developing computer skills because it is considered a more masculine territory and girls have limited access to technologies in comparison to boys.2 Women also have less affirmative experiences within the technology field. The lack of female role models and the male-dominated learning environment reinforce gender inequity. As a result of gender stereotypes, some women are scared of technology or believe that it is difficult to understand or use. In contrast, music therapy has predominately female practitioners, occupying over eighty percent of the practitioners with very little integration of technology in clinical practice. Before examining technology in music therapy, it is necessary to first examine basic tenets of music therapy. According to The Handbook of Music Therapy, music therapy "utilizes sound and music within an evolving relationship between client/patient and therapist to support and develop physical, mental, social and spiritual well-being."3 Training in music therapy is designed for someone interested in music education but also in the health care field to put his or her talents to good use. Music therapy has existed since the early 1900s with the first journal of music therapy. During World War II, groups of musicians performed in war hospitals for injured soldiers.4 Through these interactions, the healing potential 2 Kip Pegley, "'Like Horses to Water': Reconsidering Gender and Technology within Music Education Discourses," Women and Music 10, (2006), pp 62. 3 Leslie Bunt and Sarah Hoskyns, The Handbook of Music Therapy (New York: Brunner-Routledge, 2002), 10-11. 4 Jayne Standley, "Music Technology," in Women and Music in America Since 1900, ed. Kristine H. Burns (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2002): 462. 191
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