ARTABILITATION ICMC PANEL PAPER DENMARK 2007: NON-FORMAL REHABILITATION VIA IMMERSIVE INTERACTIVE MUSIC ENVIRONMENTS Anthony Brooks, Aalborg University Esbjerg, Denmark; Barry Eaglestone, University of Sheffield, UK; Phil Ellis, University of Sunderland, UK; Rolf Gehlhaar, Coventry University, UK; Luis Miguel Girdo, Artshare, Aveiro, Portugal and Coventry University, UK; Wendy Magee, Institute of Neuropalliative Rehabilitation, Royal Hospital for Neuro-disability, UK; Eduardo Miranda, University of Plymouth, UK; Eva Petersson, Aalborg University Esbjerg, Denmark; Paulo Rodrigues, Casa Da Musica, Porto, Portugal Contact author: tonybrooks@aaue.dk ABSTRACT This paper brings together perspectives of the ICMC 2007 ArtAbilitation Panel on non-formal rehabilitation via immersive interactive music environments. Issues covered are sound therapy and music therapy, musical topologies, brainwave control and research methodology. 1. INTRODUCTION Enabling interactive music-making for people with complex needs provides opportunities for them to knowingly become active agents in musical dialogues. Music technologies, sensitive to tiny or inconsistent gestures, enable self-expression, heighten self-awareness in relation to others and contribute to identity development on many levels [12]. Thus, music technologies are understood as a motivational tool in wider rehabilitation and care of people with complex needs. Also, these tools have the advantage of being used independently by people otherwise heavily dependent, thus empowering and enhancing feelings of achievement. This paper brings together insights of the ICMC 2007 ArtAbilitation panel, to provoke discussion of the embodied aesthetic and related issues. Section 2 motivates this area of research from sound therapy [7] and music therapy perspectives. Sections 3 and 4 respectively focus on design of the 'musical instrument' and the means of 'playing' it. Section 5 presents an information science perspective on further research. Concluding remarks are given in section 6. 2. A SOUND THERAPY AND MUSIC THERAPY PERSPECTIVE New technology has increasing importance for people with disabilities. Designing interactive music environments for inclusion, involvement and enjoyment implies interactive experiences, which concern active participation in activities, leading to knowledge or skill [16]. These experiences encourage engagement in the activity out of self-interest and curiosity (intrinsic) rather than an activity introduced by another (extrinsic). Thus, design configures learning resources and interaction [10]. Aesthetic resonance [5] [6] has a clear focus on participants in their making and transformation of meaning through action cycles. Designing for aesthetic resonance emphasises action cycles as intertwined aspects of non-formal rehabilitation processes. In doing so, we transcend mere use of interactive music environments towards exploration and transformation, thus considering action cycles as new creations [2]. Patterns of action that emerge through exercise become constituents for new patterns of action directed at more complex tasks [2]. Exploration goes with play, but is not the same. [3] describes how play involving manipulation of tools, requires competence achieved through a learning process starting with exploration of characteristics of the tools. Through action cycles, participants experience and play with sensation offered by interactive attributes. This exploration-to-play process facilitates discovery of interesting and surprising content. Therefore, the interface must be flexible enough to facilitate participants' unanticipated desires. Absence of negative consequences encourages exploration, which in turn, can result in a sense of involvement (immersion) and development of unemployed skill. By this, the focus is on the attributes of the interactive music environment and the rehabilitation process/outcome [14]. This offers a new approach to rehabilitation by emphasising participant's creation of meaning and production of expressions. This approach does not take aspects of the rehabilitation process and outcome for granted, neither being coerced, but rather strategised into play and creative activities that are inherent to e.g. art making [1] [9]. By this, play and creativity at the participant level conceal embedded training and learning available from the designed interactions with the feedback media. Thus, learning is subliminal for a user engaged in the responsive environment. Motivation is suggested as optimised through action cycles where the user iteratively explores and transforms the feedback media. This process contains choices and decisions that indicate learning, e.g. as increased repertoire of expressions, changes of skills, new patterns of social interaction. Action cycles, comprising iterative loops of exploring and transforming, constitute part of a theoretical map for analysing critical incidents in a non-formal rehabilitation process. These cycles are related to participant's learning experience. The other part of the theoretical map concerns design issues in the form of 77
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