Page  00000001 ENP Musical Notation Library based on Common Lisp and CLOS Mika Kuuskankare and Mikael Laurson Center for Music and Technology, Sibelius Academy, P.O.Box 86, 00251 Helsinki, Finland email:, Abstract to pr In this paper, we investigate the present state of Expressive user Notation Package (ENP). ENP is a musical notation library comp realized inside PatchWork (PW). PW, in turn, is a general- the tr purpose visual language with an emphasis on producing LISP and analyzing musical material. The current features of provi ENP are discussed with the help of some musical examples. notat Furth 1 Introduction defin El Along with commercial music publishing programs const there have been several attempts to create systems capable 2000 of representing complex musical data - such as Common based Music Notation (CMN, Schottstaedt) and PW RhythmEditor (RTM, Laurson 1996) - within LISP-based 2 compositional environments. While being useful in some respects, they still lack many properties required by a T professional notation package. When considering user- edite interface issues the commercial notation programs have a the s clear edge. For example CMN lacks a graphical interface expre and allows textual input only. The RTM editor is mainly all meant to represent musical raw material and thus the editing speci capabilities are limited. brea Nowadays several commercial notation programs allow funct the user to control the system via scripting languages. Often these scripting capabilities, however, are far too limited for Men compositional use. Another disadvantage is that the user notat must learn a new programming language (ManuScriptTM in some Sibelius7 or C++ in Finale) to be able to use this feature. funct tepl --_________________________ he purpose of ENP (Kuuskankare and Laurson 2000) is ovide professional notational capabilities, a graphical interface and powerful object structures for )ositional use. ENP is aimed at displaying scores using raditional western notation. ENP is programmed with and CLOS thus being extendible and open. It also des full access to the musical structures behind the ion allowing ENP to be controlled algorithmically. lermore, ENP provides both standard and user able expressions. NP has already been used to describe musical data for raint-based applications (Laurson and Kuuskankare ) and to produce control information for several modelI instruments (Laurson et al. 1999 and 2001). ENP he graphical user interface allows musical objects to be d with the mouse. The performed operation depends on elected object. Notes and chords can be transposed and:ssions can be repositioned or reshaped. Furthermore, )bjects and their properties are editable through alized editors. Expressions containing for example k-point functions can be edited with a break-pointion editor. lusical data can be represented in different modes.;ural-mode is used when working with traditionally ed metric music (figure 1). This example shows also ENP specific expressions containing break-pointions J gI I-~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ^ _______ ^ ~ ~ - - ~^ f vb5 A 1 I7I,s,, s s s s s r--ý\ STI I I IIIll"" 1 1 1 1 1 1 (2 Figure 1. A mensural-mode example. J.S. Bach: Prelude.

Page  00000002 1~)II giublioso A I I I [Ii LJI L J I I Figure 2. An example written in the non-mensural mode. This excerpt is taken from the soprano part of a piece called Reality by Paavo Heininen. J=72 AL 4- IL J=96 J nv ^ -m i JSim r" 'i r f I I 1 1 11 1111 I ##q! infif fff Figure 3. A passage with different types of expressions. Non-mensural-mode is used when writing music that is improvisatory and where the start times and durations of events are not exactly defined. A non-mensural notation example is given in figure 2 (above). This passage was entered as a sequence of chords with start times and durations given in milliseconds. The beaming information is not provided automatically by the system. The user can add the beams afterwards by hand. In this mode notes can be freely grouped and beamed to create the desired rhythmic structures. The user can drag the notes horizontally to edit the timing information (both start times and duration). The third mode, aleatoric-mode, is suitable when working with scores that are written in the style of aleatoric counterpoint. In this mode, musical events are displayed as groups surrounded by boxes that, in turn, can be positioned relational to each other. These groups can internally be written in either mensural or non-mensural style (an example of this mode can be found in figure 3). 3 ENP Expressions ENP provides a comprehensive collection of standard tempo-, dynamics- and articulation-symbols. Furthermore, it includes a set of non-standard notational attributes that can be used, for example, to describe control information for physical instrument models. Expressions can be applied either to a single note or to a group of notes. Standard expressions include articulations, tempo indications, lyrics and so on. These have typically a more or less established graphical representation. Non-standard expressions include special objects like groups. Groups are entities containing one or more musical objects. They can be used to give a set of objects a common identity. Groups can overlap freely. Thus, groups are useful in representing structures other than the ones provided by the beat structure. Every expression is attached to some musical object or to a group of objects. This allows the expressions to move with the related objects. Once an expression is applied, ENP takes care of the correct placement of the musical symbols according to the notational conventions (Read 1982). New expressions can be created through inheritance using a simple protocol. ENP builds automatically the needed user interface tools for any user created expressions. 4 ENP Examples Figure 3 (above) gives a complex example that demonstrates some of the notational capabilities of ENP. The first beat of the figure contains three expressions. First, there is a tempo expression. It can be freely positioned inside the measure by dragging the tempo-marking symbol. The second expression is a slur. The slur can be named in order to distinguish between slur objects or between different types of slurs (articulation or phrase). Third, we have a crescendo. It is a relatively complex object since it contains internally a break-point-function (figure 4). In addition, the initial and final dynamic levels can be defined symbolically (from mftoffin this case).

Page  00000003 Figure 4. A partial view of the editor window crescendo expression. The desired dynamic function be drawn over the selected musical phrase. The second beat of the example contains a chord wil accent and a 'let vibrate' expression. When applied chord the latter expression dynamically adjusts its grap representation according to the size of the chord. The next two beats contain some special note-h (clusters). In the beginning of the second line, we can see a sp beaming ('feathered beam'). In ENP s 'accelerando/ritardando' rhythms are given as proporti durations according to which the beat is divided. ENP 1 care of the graphical representation automatically. The example ends with a gesture marked insi, repetition box = 72, 112, S I I I I I I I I I I I I Next, we give a transposed version of the previous example (figure 5). Here we can see how ENP handles automatically the correct placement of the musical symbols. For example, when a note is transposed all the expressions attached to it are automatically moved to their for corresponding positions according to a predefined set of can rules. To conclude this paper we will present a part from a complete orchestral score created with ENP (see Appendix). This is a page from the piece called Arena by the Finnish to a ical composer Magnus Lindberg. The example given hical demonstrates some of the important concepts behind ENP. These include automatic spacing of the score, automatic eads positioning of the expressions and the possibility to export the score in PostScript. ecial;uch onal 5 Acknowledgments takes This work has been supported by the Academy of Finland in project "Sounding Score - Modeling of Musical de a Instruments, Virtual Musical Instruments and their Control". J=96_ _ _ _ _ F--77--] IL 8m i I > 'ifS 12 Figure 5. The passage of figure 3 transposed down by a perfect fifth. References Kuuskankare M. and M. Laurson. 2000. "Expressive Notation Package (ENP), a Tool for Creating Complex Musical Output." Proceedings of the Journees d'Informatique Musicale, pp. 49-56. Laurson M. and J. Duthen. 1989. "PatchWork, a graphical language in PreForm." Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference, pp. 172-175. Laurson M. 1996. "PATCHWORK: A Visual Programming Language and some Musical Applications." Doctoral dissertation, Studia Musica No.6, Sibelius Academy. Laurson M., J. Hiipakka, C. Erkut, M. Karjalainen, V. Valimaiki, and M. Kuuskankare. 1999. "From Expressive Notation to Model Based Sound Synthesis: a Case Study of the Acoustic Guitar." Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference, pp. 1-4. Laurson M. and M. Kuuskankare. 2000. "Towards Idiomatic Instrumental Writing: A Constraint Based Approach." Symposium on Systems Research in the Arts 2000 -HAS. Laurson M., C. Erkut, V. Vilimiki, and M. Kuuskankare. 2001. "Methods for Modeling Realistic Playing in Acoustic Guitar Synthesis." To be published in Computer Music Journal 25(3). Read. G. 1982. Music Notation - A Manual of Modern Practice. London: Victor Gollanz Ltd. Schottstaedt B. Common Music Notation Manual.

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