Page  00000001 Center for New Music and Audio Technologies (CNMAT) Studio Report Richard Andrews CNMAT, UC Berkeley, 1750 Arch St., Berkeley, CA 94709, Abstract The Center for New Music and Audio Technologies (CNMAT) is an interdisciplinary research center within the UC Berkeley Department of Music. CNMAT's programs in education, research, and composition are guided by a commitment to innovation in live music performance, human/computer interaction, and improvisational expression. The Center experienced a substantial increase in concert presentations this past year, many of which featured technologies created by our research team. 1. Introduction CNMAT was established in 1989 to provide a common ground for various academic disciplines at UC Berkeley (music, computer science, electrical and mechanical engineering, psychology, statistics, etc.) to pursue research, offer educational opportunities, and present new works. The central theme of music technology, combined with the interdisciplinary energy driving our projects, serves to attract scholars and professionals from the local, national, and international communities. 2. Facilities This year the computer lab for Music 158: Musical Applications of Computers and Related Technologies was relocated to a 35 -workstation site on campus, allowing us to offer more lab access to our students while freeing up critically needed workstations within CNMAT for research projects and graduate student use. In addition, two hardware labs were recently created within CNMAT to assemble and test research prototypes. 3. Composition and Performance CNMAT supported an ambitious list of concerts and other presentations this year: 3.1 CNMAT and the Berkeley Symphony Orchestra CNMAT provided technical support for two major concerts this year with the Berkeley Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Kent Nagano. One concert featured Kaija Saariaho's NoaNoa for flute and interactive electronics with Frederick Lau, flute. Another event featured George Benjamin's Antara. Both concerts were under the technical direction of David Wessel, with assistance from Matthew Wright and Ali Momeni. 3.2 Shafqat Ali Khan/David Wessel/Matthew Wright Longtime musical collaborators Shafqat Ali Khan (vocals), David Wessel (interactive computer instrumentation), and Matthew Wright (interactive computer instrumentation) presented an evening of improvisation and interaction. 3.3 Abbie Conant This concert by trombonist Abbie Conant included works by Chris Brown, Pauline Oliveros, Maggi Payne, Jorge Boehringer, William Osborne, and Alex Potts. The evening also featured the world premiere of Garden of Earthly Delights, for trombone and interactive electronics, by Abbie Conant and Matthew Wright, interactive electronics. 3.4 CCRMA/CNMAT Exchange Concerts 2000 A co-presentation of a four-concert series with Stanford's Center for Computer Research in Music & Acoustics (CCRMA), this year's Exchange offered works composed and/or performed by by Bruce Bennett, Chris Burns, Matthew Burtner, Edmund Campion, Chris Chafe, Ching-Wen Chao, Amar Chaudhary, Cem Duruoz, Kris Falk, Matt Ingalls, Chris Jones, Damian Keller, Seny Lee, Hugh Livingston, Silvia Matheus, Ketty Nez, Charles Nichols, Juan Reyes, and Michael Zbyszynski. 3.5 John Schott, Will Bernard Two concerts were presented featuring Will Bernard, guitar, and John Schott, guitar with Matthew Wright, interactive electronics and technical assistant Ahm Lee. The presentations showcased new hexaphonic guitar effects developed at CNMAT under a research project funded by Gibson Guitar Corp. and the University of California Digital Media Innovation Program (DiMI). 3.6 TEMPO: The Berkeley Festival of New Performance Planning has begun on a new performance project for June, 2001 entitled TEMPO: The Berkeley Festival of New Performance. This series of concerts, workshops, and panels (funded by the National Endowment for the Arts, the Phaedrus Foundation, and the UC Berkeley Consortium for the Arts) will be presented every other year and will emphasize the presentation of works that involve technology. 3.7 New Pieces by Edmund Campion METRONOME: This large scale multi-media permanent art work, located at Union Square and 14th Street in New York, features a Meyer sound system projecting sounds chosen and played by Max/MSP. Matthew Wright was the Max/MSP programmer for the project. Another new work, Ellipsis (piano, chorus, and electronic sounds) was created for a museum installation at the P.S. 1 Contemporary Art Center in New York. The exhibition, entitled Volume - an exhibition of sound, was curated by Alanna Heiss and Elliott Sharp.

Page  00000002 3.7 Other Other composer/performer events presented by CNMAT included Philip Gelb (shakuhachi), Pauline Oliveros (accordion), Dana Reason (piano), and Matthew Sperry (bass); Abbie Conant (trombone) with William Osborne (sound design); Jennifer Hymer (piano) with Georg Hajdu (electronics and sound control); and Cecile Daroux (flute) with composer Nicolas Verin. 4. Education Throughout the year CNMAT offers courses, workshops, colloquia, and demonstrations. Courses for campus students include Music 108: Music Perception and Cognition, Music 158: Musical Applications of Computers and Related Technologies, Music 201: Workshop in Computer Music, Music 209: Advanced Topics in Computer Music, and independent study courses. This year CNMAT welcomed back Edmund Campion who returned from a leave to teach courses, advise students, and participate in a wide range of planning and infrastructure activities around the Center. CNMAT also welcomed newly appointed composer/performer/educator Steve Coleman to the UC Berkeley Music Department faculty. Mr. Coleman's wide ranging interests, including music technology and live performance, will be an important new source of inspiration for the Center's programs. 4.1 Max/MSP Night School CNMAT offered once again the increasingly popular Max/MSP Night School, held each summer and open to the general public. This intensive week of evening classes features instruction in Max/MSP programming by a cast of highly experienced Max/MSP programmers, including David Wessel, Richard Dudas, Adrian Freed, Leslie Stuck, Michael Zbyszynski and Matthew Wright. The course focuses on developing MSP-based electro-acoustic instrumentation in which Max provides flexible control and interactivity. In addition to the standard set of Max/MSP objects, this year's night school included CNMAT objects for analysis-based additive synthesis as well as resonance-based synthesis. These synthesis methods exploit the Sound Description Interchange Format (SDIF) which has been interfaced to Max/MSP. 4.2 SuperCollider Night School Another popular summer course, SuperCollider Night School is an intensive week of evening classes featuring instruction in SuperCollider 2 programming by its developer James McCartney and a cast of highly experienced SuperCollider programmers such as Alberto de Campo and Matthew Wright. The course covers basic language and environment handling, and proceeds from standard synthesis and processing methods to advanced synthesis, composition, and interaction possibilities provided by SuperCollider 2. Also covered are many new features upcoming in version 3. 4.3 AES 107th Convention The following CNMAT papers were presented at the 107th Audio Engineering Society Convention: An Open Architecture for Real-Time Audio Processing Software, Amar Chaudhary, Adrian Freed, and Matthew Wright (Chaudhary, et al., 1999) Audio Applications of the Sound Description Interchange Format Standard, Matthew Wright, Amar Chaudhary, Adrian Freed, Sami Khoury, and David Wessel (Wright, et al., 1999) Bidirectional AES/EBU Digital Audio and Remote Power over a Single Cable, Adrian Freed (Freed, 1999) Visualization, Editing, and Spatialization of Sound Representations Using the OSE Framework, Amar Chaudhary and Adrian Freed (Chaudhary and Freed, 1999) 4.4 Gestural Control of Musical Sound Synthesis Researchers from CNMAT and Ircam presented results from their collaborative research project Gestural Control of Musical Sound Synthesis at Ircam in Paris. This project examined the multidimensional real-time control of computer-generated musical sound using a tablet and dual-pen-based user interface. New software/hardware developments were demonstrated and applications of the research results were shown, including musical examples. 4.5 Other Other presentations include a talk at CNMAT by David Wessel entitled New Models for New Music that covered mathematical modeling, mutability, control structures, rhythmic representations, and statistical issues; another talk by David Wessel at Mills College on the organization of musical material in preparation for improvised performance; a lecture by Vijay lyer entitled The Role of Embodiment in Music Perception and Cognition; a presentation by Leigh Landy called Heightening Access and Cohesion within the Worlds of Electroacoustic Music; a series of lectures by Georg Graewe entitled Musical Strategies (Lester young: Articulating time, Prince: Gates and parody, and Cream: The conflict approach); a co-presentation with New Music Bay Area featuring Kyle Gann; a talk by interdisciplinary artist Silya Kiese entitled Crossing the Borders; and a panel discussion on Technology and the Orchestra, featuring David Wessel, Edmund Campion, Ronald Smith, and Paul Lehrman. 5. Research The CNMAT research program continued with a full agenda of innovative projects: 5.1 Scalable Connectivity Processor for Computer Music Performance Systems We have developed a flexible approach for communicating gesture and sound to real-time performance systems that supports scalable implementations from a few channels of audio and gestures to hundreds of channels. Our new system is based on integrating all digital functions on a single field programmable gate array (FPGA). Researcher Takahiko Suzuki developed an ASIO compliant driver for this device, interfacing it via the Macintosh Ethernet drivers to Max/MSP. (Freed, et al., 2000) Visiting scholar Norbert Lindlbauer contributed two VHDL

Page  00000003 based designs to this project. The first design implements a standard MIDI-interface for receiving, synchronizing and transmitting MIDI messages. The second design uses the CORDIC algorithm for the implementation of a digital oscillator for additive synthesis. The CORDIC-algorithm is described and implemented for three architectures: bit-parallel iterative, bit-parallel unrolled (purely combinatorial and pipelined) and bit-serial iterative. The implementation of the control parameters for the oscillator presents the use of the CORDIC architecture for computing a sine function and multiplication simultaneously. (Lindlbauer, 1999) 5.2 Musical Applications of New, Multi-axis Guitar String Sensors We have designed and constructed new, multi-axis magnetic and piezo-electric string transducers, based on combining the outputs from multiple sensing elements that favor certain directions in a processing network that estimates motion in desired, orthogonal directions. (Freed and Isvan, 2000) 5.3 A New Music Keyboard featuring Continuous Keyposition Sensing and High-speed Communication Options We have created a new music keyboard with independent, continuous position sensing capable of communicating gestural nuance available on manual tracker organs, harpsichords and pianos. This new system is built to exploit the true potential of the electronic keyboard as a universal gestural interface for finger/key interactions that is independent of the sound-producing mechanism. It uses optical interruption sensing for each key and hybrid space and time multiplexing to achieve the requisite high scan rates. (Freed and Avizienis, 2000) 5.4 An XML-based SDIF Stream Relationships Language The Sound Description Interchange Format (SDIF) is becoming the computer music community's standard representation for various kinds of sound descriptions (Schwarz, et al., 2000). SDIF represents all sound descriptions as "streams" of "frames" over time, each frame consisting of "matrices" of numerical or text data. An SDIF file may be an aggregate of 2 or more streams. The SDIF Stream Relationships Language (SDIF-SRL) is a formal language for describing the relationships between streams in an SDIF file. This language uses XML, the Extensible Markup Language, an important new standard for creating structured document types and describing them formally. (Wright, et al., 2000) 5.5 Symmetry Groups of Chord Systems Salvador Comalada, in residence at CNMAT as a Fulbright postdoctoral scholar, set up the basis for a systematical study of symmetry in harmonic systems. The first stage considered chord systems, where a chord is defined to be a transpositional class of sets having the same cardinality. Mr. Comalada's work shows that chord systems are in one-to-one correspondence with certain mathematical combinatorial structures called cyclic 1-designs, the symmetry group of the chord system being precisely the so called automorphism group of the design. 5.6 Adding OpenSound Control Support to the SuperCollider Real Time Synthesis Environment SuperCollider now supports CNMAT's OpenSoundControl (OSC) protocol. OSC's arbitrary hierarchical namespace of controllable parameters supports SuperCollider's ability to build patches with arbitrarily complex control structures. OSC's dynamism allows a dynamically changing SuperCollider patch to update its own OSC address space. OSC's ASCII string and 32 -bit integer and float data types allow OSC-addressable features to take parameters in natural units like Hertz rather than an arbitrary mapping. 5.7 Real-Time Audio Signal Processing in Java and Ptolemy I With the release of the Java 2 Platform SDK, version 1.3, Java now provides an audio API supporting high quality (16 bit, 48 kHz) audio capture, processing, and playback. We use this new audio API to explore the use of Ptolemy II and Java for hardreal-time audio signal processing algorithms. Ptolemy II is software, written in Java, that supports heterogeneous, concurrent modeling and design for embedded systems. We have constructed Ptolemy II and stand-alone Java implementations of a particular algorithm which we consider to be representative of many commonly used audio DSP algorithms. 5.8 New interactive guitar effects CNMAT's Guitar Innovation Group (GIG) developed new interactive effects processing environments for the electric guitar, resulting in the previously mentioned series of concerts featuring guitarists John Schott and Will Bernard. New developments included an extensive real-time sampling and looping environment, pitch and gesture tracking, utilization of CNMAT's sound spatialization theater with surround-sound effects, and hexaphonic application of nonlinear distortion, ring modulation, pitch shifting, tremolo, and other effects. 5.9 Vector base amplitude panning Vector base amplitude panning (VBAP) is a new amplitude panning method which can be used to position virtual sound sources using arbitrary loudspeaker configurations. Ville Pulkki implemented VBAP in Max/MSP during his residency at CNMAT. (Pulkki, 1997, Pulkki, 2000) 5.11 Research by Steve Coleman at CNMAT Saxophonist and composer Steve Coleman joined the University of California, Berkeley as an Associate Profesor of Music and musical researcher at CNMAT in January of 2000. His research at CNMAT includes extensions of his work Ramses, which was first presented at Ircam's Agora festival in June of 1999. This work centered on compositional and performance modeling of rhythm and both the linear and vertical organization of the pitch material. His modeling of rhythmic structures was carried out in the Max/MSP environment and is influenced by two sources: theory and analysis of African drumming by Willi Anku (Anku, 2000) and the rhythmic structure of Carnatic music. This research will be applied in his group's performances in CNMAT's TEMPO festival to be held in June of 2001.

Page  00000004 5.12 Gestural input devices Tactex Controls ( has developed a multipoint pressure sensitive gestural input device. CNMAT has developed Max/MSP objects that service the Tactex pads. In addition to the basic Max object that brings in a pixel-like array of pressure measurements from the surface of pad, we have developed Max objects that locate individual finger locations and pressures. 5.13 An Open Architecture for Real-time Music Software Amar Chaudhary has continued to develop the Open Sound World (OSW) environment which has become the topic of his doctoral dissertation. One of the features of OSW is its ability to throttle computational complexity so that hard real time service can be maintained in the face of an unexpected burst of demands on the processor. Chaudhary has developed methods for the onthe-fly or dynamic thinning of additive synthesis data. (Chaudhary, et al., 2000) 6. Personnel Richard Felciano, Founder; David Wessel, Director; Adrian Freed, Research Director; Matthew Wright, Musical Systems Designer; Edmund Campion, Composer-in-Residence; Steve Coleman, Associate Professor, Music; Richard Andrews, Associate Director. CNMAT's list of researchers includes Rimas Avizienis, Amar Chaudhary, Salvador Comalada, Richard Dudas, Ahm Lee, Norbert Lindlbauer, Dominique Richard (Richard, 2000), Ron Smith, Takahiko Suzuki, and Brian Vogel. Steve Hoffman is CNMAT's Administrative Asistant. Our roster of graduate student composers includes Keeril Makan, Ali Momeni, Alan Tormey, Dmitri Tymoczko, and Michael Zbyszynski. The list of invited composer/performers includes Georg Graewe, Hugh Livingston, Silvia Matheus, and Ketty Nez. 7. Acknowledgements CNMAT gratefully acknowledges the support of our corporate sponsors and Industrial Affiliates Program members, including Gibson Musical Instruments, Grace Design, Silicon Graphics, Apple Computer, Meyer Sound Laboratories, Wacom Technology Corporation, Digidesign, Earthworks, Kurzweil/Young Chang, Octiv, and Tom Austin/Sherman Clay. We would also like to acknowledge the support of the National Endowment for the Arts, the Phaedrus Foundation, the UC Berkeley Consortium for the Arts, and Prof. Edward A. Lee of the UC Berkeley Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences. 8. References W. Anku (2000), "Circles and Time: A Theory of Structural Organization of Rhythm in African Music" mto/issues/mto.00.6. l1/mto.00.6.1.anku_essay.html A. Chaudhary and A. Freed (1999), "Visualization, Editing and Spatialization of Timbral Resources using the OSE Framework," presented at Audio Engineering Society 107th Convention. A. Chaudhary, A. Freed, and M. Wright (1999), "An Open Architecture for Real-Time Audio Processing Software," presented at Audio Engineering Society 107th Convention. A. Chaudhary, A. Freed, and M. Wright (2000), "An Open Architecture for Real-time Music Software," presented at International Computer Music Conference, Berlin, Germany. A. Freed (1999), "Bidirectional AES/EBU Digital Audio and Remote Power over a Single Cable," presented at Audio Engineering Society 107th Convention. A. Freed and R. Avizienis (2000), "A New Music Keyboard featuring Continuous Key-position Sensing and High-speed Communication Options," presented at International Computer Music Conference, Berlin, Germany. A. Freed, R. Avizienis, and T. Suzuki (2000), "Scalable Connectivity Processor for Computer Music Performance Systems," presented at International Computer Music Conference, Berlin, Germany. A. Freed and 0. Isvan (2000), "Musical Applications of New, Multi-axis Guitar String Sensors," presented at International Computer Music Conference, Berlin, Germany. N. Lindlbauer (1999), "Application of FPGA's to Musical Gesture Communication and Processing" http://cnmat.CNMAT. Berkeley.EDU/-norbert/thesis.html V. Pulkki (1997), "Virtual sound source positioning using vector base amplitude panning," Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, vol. 45, num. 6, pp. 456-66. V. Pulkki (2000), "Generic Panning Tools for MAX/MSP," presented at International Computer Music Conference, Berlin, Germany. D. Richard (2000), "Music as HandWerk, the middle way between Vorhandenheit and Zuhandenheit," presented at International Computer Music Conference, Berlin, Germany. D. Schwarz, X. Rodet, and M. Wright (2000), "Extensions and Applications of the SDIF Sound Description Interchange Format," presented at International Computer Music Conference, Berlin, Germany. M. Wright, A. Chaudhary, A. Freed, S. Khoury, and D. Wessel (1999), "Audio Applications of the Sound Description Interchange Format Standard," presented at Audio Engineering Society 107th Convention. M. Wright, A. Chaudhary, A. Freed, S. Khoury, and D. Wessel (2000), "An XML-based SDIF Stream Relationships Language," presented at International Computer Music Conference, Berlin, Germany.