Page  00000085 The Design and Implementation of a Processing System of Qin Score (Jianzipu) QinS(1.0) Li Sixin Institute of Music Research, Shanghai Conservatory of Music, China E-Mail: Abstract A software has been developed to analyse and process the information of China Qin score. It can be used as a tool to input, translate and study Qin score. In this paper, the data model and user interface are briefly introduced,and the program structure is given. Keywords: automatic analysis, Chinese music, Qin music, corpus musicology. 1. Introduction Qin is one of the most ancient Chinese musical instruments, during its thousands of years' history, Qin artists has contributed to the world a large number of Qin's "score" (i.e. Jianzipu or Qinpu) and works about Qin, which make Qin music a unique treasure of China traditional culture. Jianzipu is written in score-characters, the combination of bushou and pianpang(basic structural parts of Chinese characters)as a big score-character, which represent relevant information for Qin performance. As a matter of fact, Jianzipu is only the notations of fingering, it doesn't record the pitch directly. What's more, there are no definite information about the duration, which will be decided by the performer himself according to other information. Qin-characters look like Chinese character, but they are not. If not studied beforehand,even professional musician can hardly understand it. Qin has no fixed tuning. Each of the seven strings has five pitches to be selected to tune Qin, thus theoretically there are 57=78125 kinds of tuning. Among which, only less than 20 tuning are most common. Qin has wide compass, from #A, to e3, and artificial overtones are widely used in the pieces of Qin music. Qin has 13 position remarks of stopping called "Hui". Mostly between two Hui, there are some other positions of stopping which are usually not certain, and the performer needs to select one out of them according to the five-tone scale of current tonic. That's why Qin, for each string, has only 19 named positions of stopping but has 27 positions of pitch (Including San tone i.e. open string ). Table 1 shows the stopping positions of Qin. There are a variety of Qin's performing skills. The types of right hand's fingering exceed 180, and different fingering determine --sometimes not very clearly and more than one choice --one certain score-character should be performed as one tone or multi-tone; and if it is multi-tone, whether it should be series or parallel(double stop); and if it is series, whether it should be "one-way" or "two-way". There are two kinds of score-character: big character and small character, the later is a group of Chinesecharacter-set, which usually give out the information about the frequent moving of left hand between the different Hui positions in one string. All above mentioned make it a challenging task to translate and process the information of Jianzipu. 2. Description of Model A coding scheme designed by Prof. Ying Youqin and improved by Li Sixin is used in QinS(1.0). ICMC Proceedings 1999 - 85 -

Page  00000086 A score-character can be described as a quadruple: Character(L, H, R, S) In which, L stands for the finger on left hand to use, H for the position of left hand's stopping tone or overtones, R for the fingering of right hand and S for strings that left and right hands should touch. Code of Hui 0 W 12 11 10 (90) 9 (89) 8 (78) 7 (67) 6 (56) 5 (45) 4 32 1 String Tuning Il III I I I I I I I I I I III Jin2 D E F 'F G ('G) A (bB) B (c `c) d ('d e f) 'f (g 'g) a (bb c''c') d' 'T a' d' Jint 'C 'D E F 'F (G) 'G (A) 'A (B c) 'c (d 'd e) f ('f g) 'g (a'a bc') 'c' r 'g' '9 Default CD E E F ('F) G (A) A (bB B) c ('c d be) e(f 'f) g ('ga bb b) c' e' gl c' Man1 B, 'C D 'D E (F) 'F (G) 'G (A 'A)B (c 'c d) 'd (e f) Of (g 'g a'a) b'd' V f' b' Man2 bB, C D D" bE (E) F ('F) G (bA A) (B ( #cc) d (b eC) f (f g ba a) 'b d f'' II II III I II I Il I Jin2 E "G G "A A (bB) B (c) "d (d be) e (f "g g) ha(a bb) b (C' "dl d'e) bel i bat b' e 2 Jint bE F bG G bA (A) "B (B) c ("d d) be (e f bg) g(ba a) "b (bc' bd' d) be 1 bbI bel Default D E F 'F G ('G) A ("B) B (c 'c) d (d e f) If(g 'g) a (bb b c'c') d''f' a' d' Man i 'C 'D E F 'F (G) 'G (A) 'A (B c) 'c (d'd e) f ('f g) 'g (a 'ab c') 'c' f'g' 'Vc Man2 C D bE E F ('F) G ('G) A ("B B) c ('cd be) e (f 'f) gg bbb) c' e' g' c2 IllI I l I II I 1 1 1 11 I II Jin2 G A "B B c ('c) d ("e) e (f 'f) g ('ga "b) b (C' 'c') d' ("e' e' f P ) g' b' d2 ge 3 JinI 'F 'G A 'A B (c) 'c (d) 'd (e f) 'f (g'g a) 'a ("c' c') 'c' (d' V'l e'f) 'I 'a' c' 'P Default F G bA A "B (B) c (bd) d ('e e) f (Ifg ba) a (bb b) c' (CC' di be'e') 1e a' c2 P Mani E 'F G 'G A ('A) B (C) 'c (d 'd) e (f'f g) 'g (a bb) b (C c' Yd'V'd) e 1 g' b' e Man2 'D F 'F G 'G (A) 'A (B) c ('c d) 'd (e f 'f) g ('g a) 'a (b c"c'd') 'd' g' 'a' 'd2 1 I II I I 1 I 1 1 I I I~l Jin2 A B c bd d ("e) e (f) bg (g ba) a (bbbc') bdt (d'be') eI (fVb1lg1 a') a'I bd2 e a' 4 JinI "A bB B c bd (d) be (e) f (bg g) ba (abb b) c' (bdid') bel (e'fPbg'g') bal c2 be2 ba2 Default G A "B B c ('c) d ('e) e (f f) g ('ga bb) b (c' 'c) d' (be'e'f ') g' b' d2 ge Mani 'F 'G A 'A B (c) 'c (d) 'd (e f) f (g'g a) 'a (bcl c') Ic' (d"dAe' 12) ' 'a' 'cI 'P Man2 F G bA A "B (B) c ('C) d (be e f 'f 'g) a bb) c' ('c'd'e e' e) a' c' P 1 - 1 1 1 I I l I I I I S 1 2 1 2 Jin2 B 'c d 'd e (f) 'f (g) 'g (a 'a) b (c' 'cd') 'd' (e' f') 'f (g"g'a'a') b' 'd 'f tb 5 lint hB C bd d "e (e) f ('f) g (ba a) bb (b cIbd') d' (bel eI) 1 (12 g'a' a') b'db 1 Pdb2 Default A B c 'c d ('d) e (f) 'f (g "g) a ('a b c') 'c'(d' 'd') e' ( 'fg' 'g') a',c' Y a' Man I "A "B B c bd (d) be (e) f ("g g) ba (a bb b) c' (bd' d'b) e'l(el V bgg'1) batC b9 ba2 Man2 G A bB B c ('c) d (be) e (f I ('ga bb) b (c' "c') d' ('e e' ' )g b' d2g 1 11 1 11 1 1 1 I I 1 1.1 II li I Jin2 d e f 'f g ('g) a ("b) b (c"c') d' ('d ' 1) '1 (g''g') a' (bb'b'b c '9c) d '2f ae d' 6 JinI ' 'cd e f If (g) 'g (a) 'a (b c') 'c'(' (d 'd' e') 1 ('1 g') 'g' (a' bIb' b' c2) ' f 'g' e c' Default c d c e e f ('f) g ("a) a (lb b) c' ('c' d' "e') e' (1 "f) g('g a'"b' b') c2 e3 g' c Mant B 'c d c d e (f) 'f (g) "g (a 'a) b (c' 'c'd')'d' (e' 12) 'f(g' 'g' a' 'a') b'd'T '1 Man2 b c bd d be (e) f ('fI) g (ba a) bb (b c'lbd') d' (be' el) 12 (Igl b' aa') bV d 2 P b I I I I I II I I t I I I I 7 Jin2 e 'f g 'g a ('a) b (c') 'c' (d' 'd') e' (f'1g') 'g'(a' b') b'(c' O'd21 'd2) el 'g bb e' JinI be f "g g "a (a) "b (b) c' (bd' d') be' (e'lP "g) g' (bala') bl (b' c9 "d d2) "e g' "b be Default d e f 'f g ('g) a (b) b (c' 'c') cdl ('d' e' 1) 'f' (g''g)) a' (bb' b' c 'c9) d2 'f a' d' Manl 'c 'd e f 'f (g) 'g (a) 'a (b c') 'c' (d' "d' e') g ('1 g') 'g' (a' "b' bc9) 'c I) g2 1c' Man2 c d be e f ('f) g (a) a (bb b) c'('0c'd'"e') e' (1 '1) g' ('g'a'bb' b') 9 e2 g c9 Table 1. Qin's Stopping Positions Table (Compiled by Pro. Ying Youqin) 3. System Implementation and Main Functions QinS is implemented on Windows95/98 with programming in JAVA. The characters were scanned in, saved in GIF files format. Qin score are saved in two files: the score-character file and the note file. The score-character file contains all the characters of a Qin score, the characters are saved as codes, each has corresponding GIF graphics file and is divided into four sections, e.g. d5gti4. The length of each section is not fixed. The note file contains the tuning information of the Qin score, as well as the piece name and reference files. S86 - ICMC Proceedings 1999

Page  00000087 The tuning information,which can be modified by the users, will solely determine the staff appearance of each score-character. 3.1 Interface There are mainly three windows in the user interface as shown in Fig.1. (a) Editor of the Qin score(Jianzipu): Score-characters are displayed in two alternative sizes, using the same font as the book of Qin score Shen Qi Mi Pu (Mysterious Qin Score). (b) Score (simplified staff) window: Determined by the relatively free rhythm of Qin music, the score has only variations in pitch but no variations in duration. (c) Performance guiding window with background of the instrument's panel; (d) Remarks column etc; Figl. Main interface ofQinS(1.0) 3.2 Main Operations (a) Tuning Qin in two ways: (1) By the frequently used tuning-names or their alias; (2) By each string's Jin-Man Lu (variations of tuning), i.e. for any tuning; (b) Inputting score-characters in following three ways: (1) Directly by inputting the code; (2) By selecting the code with the graphic interface made according to the common structure of the scorecharacters; (3) By the stroke number of the characters (dictionary retrieval); (c) Editing Qin score: general functions of full screen editing such as Select, Cut, Copy, Paste, Delete, Home and End etc. can be selected. (d) Generating the music score as staff through automatic analysis: the note related to the selected scorecharacter is specially remarked. (e) Guiding the performance position of the inputting character on the Qin at real-time, no matter single tone,double-tone or multi-tone. (f) The information of reminders and remarks: supply the information about current tuning and instructions about score-character. ICMC Proceedings 1999 -87 -

Page  00000088 4. Program Structure Fig.2 Program structure annotation: The item was aided financially by the Ministry of Culture of PRC. Reference: 1. Wang Kehong: "Techniques ofProgramming in Java Language", THU Press, 1997. 2. < -p~fi:> (Mysterious Qin Score) 008 - ICMC Proceedings 1999