Page  289 ï~~Musical Instrument Database with Multimedia Takashi SUZUKI *, Takako TANAKA* *, Kuniharu TSUBOI* * * *Tokyo National College of Technology, Dept. of Computer Science 1220-2, Kunugida-machi, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 193 Japan e-mail: suzuki@tokyo-ct.ac jp * *Tokyo National University of Arts *** Chiba Polytechnic College ABSTRACT We are constructing a musical instrument database based on The Catalog of the Musical Instrument Collection of The Koizumi Fumio Memorial Archives'[1] in order to be able to use in musicological study. We designed the prototype system used NEXTSTEP environment. This paper mainly explains about the function of the system including GUI (Graphical User Interface) and query system. Also we designed HTML description of the catalog data on WWW. Further, by mean of Relational Database and SQL server, possibilities of ad hoc reference by researchers or high level query by ambiguous information are proposed. 1. Introduction Database systems are extremely useful in compiling a wide variety of musical information. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the construction of a music database for ethnomusicological study. By means of the construction of a database, consisting of a variety of data collected through fieldwork, it may be possible to process and analyze this mass of data and discover previously unknown musical contexts. This approach is called 'database mining' and is a method for gaining analytical knowledge from an accumulation of raw data. The goal is to provide many indices, such as musical and cultural connections, transformation patterns, etc. Recording data and picture image data are important in musical information with text data, so multimedia database approach is adapted[2]. 2. The Catalog of the Musical Instrument Collection This booklet [1] is a catalog of the entire holdings of musical instruments in the Koizumi Fumio Memorial Archives, Center for Music Studies, Faculty of Music, Tokyo National University of Arts. This catalog itemizes a total of 643 musical instruments from world-wide sources. These instruments were collected by the late Professor Koizumi Fumio who was a noted musicologist. This collection is a unusuafly large and diverse in Asia, Africa, Europe, the Americas, and Oceania. The Instruments in this catalog are grouped in five categories based on the Hornbostel=Sachs classification, and each group is arranged more or less according to the external appearance of the instruments. Fig. 1 shows an example of the descriptions. 3. Prototype system on NEXTSTEP At this time, we constructed prototype system based on items of the Catalog. Classifying items are same as the Catalog basically. These items are Classification of instruments, Name, Area, Ethnic group, Playing Situation, Playing Method, How to hold, Material, Size, and Other data ICMC Proceedings 1996 289 Suzuki et al.

Page  290 ï~~(Frets, Strings, Holes, Tuning Ranges, etc.). Also multimedia data are added by the file pointers of Sounds(PCM file), Pictures(Tiff file) and Explanatory Notes(Text file). We have developed the prototype system on NEXTSTEP environment in order to take one record for one physical instrument data and to get query system. The attributes of one Instrument are taken as one object. We could quickly make easy GUI interface because NEXTSTEP have many support objects such as project builder, interface builder, and so on. Fig. 2 shows an example of a Chinese musical Instrument 'pipa '. In another window, search by each items can process. The search condition can be selected in AND, OR, SUBTRACT. So we can chose expected instrument after one query. One can store a new record and modify a record if user is set on data manipulation mode. This prototype system can be operated easy interactive manipulation because of NEXTSTEP GUI environment. However, some problems are existent. Firstly, this is not complete database system in only used NEXTSTEP data management function. For example, we must rewrite Objective-C program if fixed record structure is changed as addition or modification of items. Dynamic modification of record structure is difficult. Further, when massive records are stored, system performance will be down. Secondary, this system is stand-alone and can not be available in network. So one who want to use is limited. 4. Description of HTML on WWW In another plan, we are constructing the catalog data on World Wide Web (WWW) to be able to use in Internet. HTML on WWW can process multimedia data because of hyper text structure and affinity for classification of the catalog data. Fig. 3 shows the structure of the catalog described by HTML. Fig. 4 is an example image of an instrument. In this case, it is difficult to reach to target instrument for someone who do not know the structure. So we provide index file and query window by Common Gate-way Interface(CGI ) additionally, and simple search from Name or Area can be taken. 5. Description on SQL server For next stage, we are building the Musical Instrument Database using the relational database method which have high level query (SQL) and can arrange the structure dynamically. We are constructing client-server environment on Internet using SYBASE SQL server. Further examination of the high level query system should be needed in such Human Science Database. For this purpose, answering ambiguous queries using knowledge-bases outside the main database must be build. Acknowledgements We are grateful to THE KOIZUMI FUMIO MEMORIAL ARCHIVES, TOKYO NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF FINE ARTS AND MUSIC for comments. References [1] CATALOG OF THE MUSICAL INSTRUMENT COLLECTION, The Koizumi Fumio Memorial Archives, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, 1987. [2] Takashi SUZUKI: Music Database -Musical Instrument Database with Multimedia-, In Proceedings of The Japan-China Joint Meeting on Music Acoustics, Peking University, pp.81-84, 1994. Suzuki et al. 290 ICMC Proceedings 1996

Page  291 ï~~31 6 rebab Indonesia = Java body: wood, width parchment of water buffalo bladder over the front face; L.1 1 3.7cm soundholes: 5, in the middle of the back; strings: 2, brass bridge: 1 bow: 1 range: ca. 2 1/2 oct. from c; tuning: c-g The player sits cross-legged and holds the instrument vertically in front of him. The bow is held in the right hand and the tension of the bow hair is regurated by pressure with the fingers. To reduce upper partials and thereby soften the tone quality, banana leaves (more recently, tissure paper) are inserted between the two strings near the bridge. Used in game/an ensembles, wayang kulit accompaniment and various song and dance styles. Fig.1 Example of the description *1 *2( ",! ' " ILJ It C I"(" " " ~H.S. 321..322J - *1: HS system, *2: Classification, *3: data Fig.3 Structure of HTML iporteo on te left >.e o held Vertica ly., There is a Carvingy of a celebratory symbolic bat on the heard of the instrument, The strings are sounded with plectrra worn on the five fingers of the right hand. Widely used In solo, ensemble and narrative accompaniment styles. Fig.2 Example view of Prototype system ICMC Proceedings 1996 291 Suzuki et al.

Page  292 ï~~pipa.... ( Au format 2K) China=Han body: paulownia; L.102.8cm strings: 4, silk; frets: 24 range: A-a": tuning: A-d-e-a Supported on the left knee and held vertically. There is a carving of a celebratory symbolic bat on the head of the instrument. The strings are sounded with plectra worn on the five fingers of the right hand. Widely used in solo, ensemble and narrative accompaniment styles [ Next Musical Instrument] [Back Musical Instrument ] j Back to lutes ( plucked ]Back to CHORDOPHONES ] [Back to First Menu [ [Back to Home Page] Fig. 4 Example image on WWW Suzuki et al. 292 ICMC Proceedings 1996