Page  165 ï~~A research in progress: Electroacoustic and computer music in Latin America Ricardo Dal Farra Estudio de Mtisica Electroactistica Azcu6naga 2764 - (1640) Martinez - Buenos Aires - Argentina Tel: (+54-1) 553-3015/! Fax: (+54-1) 827-0640/I Email: Abstract This paper is a report of a work in progress searching to compile information about electroacoustic and computer music from Latin America. The motivations arise through the years trying to know myself about the musical activities of composers from countries on the area, and founding much easy to listen to compositions produced in Western Europe or North America than in neighbor places. Basic information about electroacoustic and computer music activities by composers from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, Uruguay and Venezuela is included. 1. Latin America's composers and the electroacoustic/computer music field I think Latin America is a very big region to think about as it was an homogeneous and undifferentiated area, but share enough common elements as to be analyzed in conjunction on this paper. There have been a significant activity around electroacoustic and computer music for 20-40 years or more on most countries of the region. Following I am listing the name of composers who have been working with electronic medias to produce their music. Most of them born in Latin America and are living here at the moment. Some of them are living outside the region, and a few of them did not born in Latin America but are living here now. The names listed (and related information) were taken from bibliographical information, direct or indirect contact with composers and institutions, and program notes from concerts and recordings. This is a research in progress, and for sure that I am not mentioning everyone, as there are many composers that probably should be included and that I do not know or I forgot unintentionally. 1.1 Argentina: Mauricio Kagel, C6sar Franchisena and Francisco KrSpfl were experimenting with electroacoustic medias since the '50s. The Universities of C6rdoba and Buenos Aires were main centers of activities at the beginning. During the '60s, the Centro Latinoamericano de Altos Estudios Musicales (CLAEM) at the Instituto Torcuato Di Tella was a meeting point for students and composers from Latin America to learn and exchange ideas with the most interesting composers from Europe and the United States at that moment. At present there are several studios in Buenos Aires, and also in C6rdoba, Rosario, and Santa F6. The list of composers that have been around electroacoustic and computer music in Argentina is very long. Some of them are: Claudio Alsuyet, Isabel Aretz (now living in Venezuela), Oscar Bazin ("Austera", 1973), Enrique Belloc ("Rugosidades del inconsciente colectivo", 1995), Eduardo B6rtola ("Dynamus", 1970), Gonzalo Bifarella, Osvaldo Budon, Miguel Calz6n, Jos6 Luis Campana (now living in France), Edgardo Canton, Ofelia Carranza, Pedro Carievschy (now living in Israel), Graciela Castillo, Carlos Cerana, Pablo Cetta, Teodoro Cromberg, Gustavo Chab, Ricardo Dal Farra ("Karma", tape, 1986; "Mell 8", live interactive computer music, 1994), Mario Davidovsky ("Synchronisms No.2", for flute, violin, cello, clarinet and electronic sounds, 1964; "Synchronisms No.6", for piano and tape, 1970; living in the U.S.A.), Hilda Dianda, Pablo Di Liscia, Gerardo Dirie (living in the U.S.A.), Oscar Edelstein, Mariano Etkin, Beatriz Ferreyra, Juan Carlos Figueiras, Lionel Filippi, C6sar Franchisena ("Tres momentos mdgicos", "Horeb", "Canticum"), Martin Fumarola, Pablo Furman (now living in the U.S.A.), Javier Garavaglia (now living in Germany), Eleazar Garz6n, Enrique Gerardi, Arturo Gervasoni (now living in France), Silvia Goldberg, Luis Jorge Gonzalez (now living in the U.S.A.), Carlos Graitzer ("Nio Aeln", 1989; he is living in France), Dante Grela ("Glaciaci6n", 1979), Jose Halac, David Horta, Alejandro Iglesias Rossi, Elsa Justel, Mauricio Kagel (sound installation using recorded sounds, 1954; "Transici6n II" for piano, percussion and 2 tape recorders, 1958-1959; he have been living in Europe for many years), Francisco KrSpfl ("Ejercicio de texturas", 1960; "Orillas", 1988), Bernardo Kuczer, Eduardo Kusnir ("La Panaderfa", 1970; "Buenos dias, fu6 un buen dia", 1991; now living in Venezuela), Alcides Lanza ("Interferences I", 1966; "Ekphonesis III", 1969; he is living in Canada), Javier Leichman, Claudio LluSn, Fernando L6pez Lezcano (now in the U.S.A.), Maria Teresa Luengo, Fabiain Luna, Tomeis Luzidin, Ricardo Mandolini ("De mi hufan los pdijaros", 1983; he lives in France), Rolando Mafianes, Luis Mihovilcevic, Jos6 Maranzano ("Mnem6n I", 1970), Mario Marcelo Mary (now in France), Daniel Miraglia, Jorge Molina, Antonio Moliterni, Nelly Moretto, Luis Mucillo, Luis Na6n, Ricardo Nilini ("Entropogel", 1988; now living in France), Ricardo Palazzo, Juan Carlos Pampin, Graciela Paraskevaidis (she lives in Uruguay), Alberto Paulin, Stella Perales, Ricardo P6rez Mir6, Eduardo Piantino, Guillermo Pozzati, Jorge Rapp ("Evocaciones"), Augusto Rattenbach, Carlos Roque Alsina (he lives in Europe), Jorge Rotter, Michael Rosas Cobian (he lives in England), Jorge Sad, Carmelo Saitta (born in Italy), Luis Maria Serra ("Invocation", 1969), Daniel Schachter, Sergio Schmilovich, Carlos Simkin, Miguel ICMC Proceedings 1996 165 Dal Farra

Page  166 ï~~Sugo, Antonio Tauriello, Eduardo Tejeda, Daniel Teruggi ("Syrcus", 1992; he lives in France), Alicia Terzian, Horacio Vaggione ("Mtisica Electr6nica I", 1960; "Fausto", 1966; "Ash", 1990; he lives in France), Gabriel Valverde, Mario Verandi, Julio Viera, Alejandro Vifiao ("Go", for tape, 1981; "Chant d'Ailleurs", for soprano and computer, 1992; he lives in England), Ezequiel Viniao (now in U.S.A.), and Daniel Zimbaldo (he lives in Spain). 1.2 Bolivia: Alberto Villalpando (born in La Paz, 1940) is considered one of the main driving forces on contemporary music in his country. He have been working with electroacoustic medias for many years. Some of his pieces are: "Bolivianos..." (1973); "Desde el Jardfn de Morador" (1990-91); and "De los Elementos" (1991). Composers like Agustin Fernandez (now living in Europe), Javier Parrado, Florencio Pozadas, Cergio Prudencio ("Awasqa", 1986) and Nicolas Suarez ("Chica Aruma", 1994) have been working with electroacoustic medias on their music too. There had been also some collaborative works by Oscar Garcia and Sergio Claros ("ES ZAS"). 1.3 Brazil: Reginaldo Carvalho and Jorge Antunes were pioneers on the electroacoustic music field in Brazil (= Brasil). "Cleta" and "Trogos" are among the early works by Carvalho (born in 1932). Jorge Antunes composed "Pequena pega para MI bequadro e harm6nicos" during 1961, and have been very active working with electronic medias since then; some of his compositions are: "Cinta Cita", for tape, 1969; "Proudhonia", for mixed chorus and tape, 1972; "Agenda pour un petit futur", for tape, 1995. Brazil have an interesting activity around electroacoustic and computer music. At present there are several studios and research groups working, some of them are based at University of Brasilia, University of Campinas, Federal University of Minas Gerais (at Belo Horizonte), University of Sao Paulo, Federal University of Bahia (at Salvador), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (at Porto Alegre), Federal University of Espirito Santo (at Vit6ria), and Studio PANaroma at UNESP. Among the composers who have been working on the field are: Celso Aguiar (born in Palo Alto, U.S.A., he grew up in Salvador, Bahia); Aluizio Arcela ("/cartas/", 1995), Rodolfo Caesar ("Carne da pedra"), Rodrigo Cicchelli Velloso, Rodolfo Coelho de Souza, Paulo Chagas ("Ellipse", for tape, 1986; he is now living in Germany), Vania Dantas Leite ("Aju Ramo", for voice and tape), Rufo Herrera, Arthur Kampela, Victor Lazzarini, Igor Lintz Maues ("Antes o mundo nao existia", for tape, 1989; he is now living in Austria), Mauricio Alves Loureiro, Jose Augusto Mannis ("Cyclone", 1983; "Duorganum II", 1989), J6natas Manzolli, Gilberto Mendes, Flo Menezes ("Contextures I"), Jose Maria Neves ("UN-X-2", 1971), Jamary Oliveira, Jocy de Oliveira, Eduardo Reck Miranda ("Efervescencia", 1989; he is now living in England), Tim Rescala, Frederico Richter ("Metamorfose"), Wilson Sukorski, Tato Taborda, Livio Tragtenberg, Raul do Valle ("Encadeamento"). Conrado Silva (born in Uruguay, see that section for more references) is another composer pioneer who helped the development of electroaocustic music in Brazil. 1.4 Chile: Some of the first electroacoustic music works in Latin America were "Nacimiento" (probably 1955) by Le6n Schidlowsky (born in Santiago, 1931; later he adopted the Israel's nationality), "Los peces", composed in 1957 by Juan Amenabar (Santiago, 1922), and "Variaciones espectrales" by Jos6 Vicente Asuar (Santiago, 1933) produced during the next year. Asuar built the first Electronic Music Studio of Chile in 1958. Since then, Chilean composers like Jorge Arriagada, Gabriel Brncic ("Batucada amenazante para los que huyen", 1969; he is now living in Spain), Eduardo Caiceres ("Metalmambo", 1994), Fernando Carrasco Pantoja, Rolando Cori Traverso, Ernesto Holman Grossi, Jorge Martinez Ulloa, Mario Mora, Cristidn Morales Ossio, Ivan Pequefio, Jos6 Perez de Arce, Guillermo Rifo, Juan Carlos Vergara Solar and Santiago Vera-Rivera have been working with electroacoustic medias on their compositions. 1.5 Colombia: Bias Emilio Atehorttia ("Cantico delle creature", mixed piece from 1965), Jacqueline Nova ("Resonancias I", for piano and tape, 1969; "Cantos de la creaci6n de la tierra", 1972; she born in Belgium in 1937, and died in 1975), and Fabio Gonzalez Zuleta ("Ensayo electr6nico", for tape, 1965) were some of the first composers to work with electroacoustic music in Colombia. Andr~s Posada ("Catenaria", for tape, 1990) and Juan Reyes ("Di~ilogos por Paz", "El Espectador", "Las Meninas"; born in Bogota, 1962) have been working during the last years with electroacoustic and computer medias, and also directing electronic music studios, Posada at the University of Manizales (now this studio is closed) and Reyes at the University of los Andes. Ricardo Arias, Carlos Mauricio Bejarano ("Aparato I", for tape, 1990; "Anagrams", composed with Juan Reyes), Guillermo Garbo ("Frecuencia modulada", 1990), Fabio Fuentes, Roberto Garcia, Guillermo Gaviria, Gustavo Lara, Catalina Peralta ("Episodios sin conexi6n de la vida de un artista", for tape, 1989), Andr6s Pinz6n Urrea, and German Toro ("Vocal I", 1990), are some of the Colombian composers that have been working with electroacoustic and computer medias on their music. 1k. uba: Juan Blanco (born in 1919) have been the main force around the development of electroacoustic music in Cuba. Some of his pieces are: "Misica para danza", for tape, 1961; "Texturas", for orchestra and tape, 1963-1964; "Circus-Toccata", for tape, 1983; "Cinco Epitafios", for tape, 1994. Many of his works asked for spatial distribution of sound sources and complex multimedia installations ("Poema espacial No. 3"). Dal Farra 166 ICMC Proceedings 1996 i

Page  167 ï~~Edesio Alejandro,. Sergio Barroso ("Yantra VI", for piano and tape, 1976-1979; he is now living in Canada), Juan Marcos Blanco, Orlando Jacinto Garcia ("Metallic Images" for percussion and tape, 1991; he is now living in the U.S.A.), Jesus Ortega ("Picassianas I", 1981), Tania Le6n (she is now living in the U.S.A.), Juan Pifiera, Armando Rodriguez (now living in the U.S.A.), Julio Roloff, and Aurelio de la Vega ("Tangents", 1973; "Inflorescence", 1976; he is now living in the U.S.A.), are some of the composers born in Cuba that have been working with electroacoustic medias. Composer Carlos Farifias ("Impronta", for piano, 4 percussion players and tape, 1985) have been also very active around the electroacoustic and computer music field during the last years. 1.7 Dominican Republic: Alejandro Jos6 (born in 1955) have been crossing the sea to live on his natal land or Puerto Rico alternatively, promoting electroacoustic and computer music in both places. He have been working on psychoacoustic research and composing ("Tangentes", 1988; "Todo es Uno", 1995) for several years. 1.8 Ecuador: Mesias Maiguaschca (born in 1938; he lives in Europe) have been working with electroacoustic medias and computers for many years. He produced tape pieces ("H5r Zu" in 1969; "Ayayayayay" in 1971), mixed compositions ("Exercises", for violin and synthesizer, 1972-73; "FMelodies II", for cello, percussion and tape, 1981-1984), and works using live electronics too ("Segundo cuarteto de cuerdas", 1967). Milton Estevez ("Apuntes con refran", for orchestra and electronic sounds; "Patch 13" for tape, keyboard and percussion), Diego Luzuriaga ("Apabatapabata", for tape; "Viento en el viento", for 2 flutists, percussion, electronic keyboard and computer; he is now living in the U.S.A.), and Pablo Freire ("Zeluob 3", for tape) have been also working with electroacoustic and computer medias on their compositions. 1.9 Guatemala: composer Joaquin Orellana (Guatemala, 1937) produced very interesting electroacoustic compositions like "Humanofonfa" (1971) and "Primitiva I" (1973). Times before, while he was at the Instituto Di Tella of Buenos Aires, produced "Meteora" (1968). 1.10 Mexico: A pioneer of electroacoustic music composition in his country, Hector Quintanar ("Sideral I", for tape, 1968; "Simbolos", for chamber group, tape, slides and lights, 1969) was director of the first electronic music studio there, organized during 1969-1970. Rauil Pav6n ("Fantasia C6smica", 1982), an engineer interested both in electronics and music, started to promote the use of electronic musical instruments in Mexico many years before the first studio was built. Among the Mexican composers that have been producing electroacoustic works are: Javier Alvarez ("Papalotl", for piano and tape; "Temazcal", for maracas and tape; he is now living in England), Guillermo Divalos, Manuel de Elias ("Pro Pax", for tape), Manuel Enriquez ("Viols", for tape; "Conjuro", for double bass and tape; Enriquez was one of the main Mexican composers of instrumental contemporary music), Julio Estrada ("eua'on", for tape, 1980), Mario Lavista ("Alme", 1971; "Contrapunto", 1972), Arturo Marquez ("Mutismo", for 2 pianos and tape), Roberto Morales-Manzanares ("Agua derramada", 1983; "Servicio a Domicilio", 1991), Francisco Nufiez ("Follajes", for violin, cello, double bass and electronics), Gabriela Ortiz ("El Trompo", 1994), Manuel Rocha Iturbide ("Transiciones de fase", 1993-1994; he is now living in France), Vicente Rojo, Antonio Russek ("Para espacios abiertos", 1981; "Ohtzalhn", 1991), Arturo Salinas, Eduardo Soto Millhn. In spite the music by Conlon Nancarrow (born in the U.S.A., he have been living in Mexico for more than 50 years) is not directly related to electroacoustic or computer music composition, some of his pieces were presented (or performed) in concerts through computer controlled electromechanical systems, many of his compositions were translated from the original piano rolls to MIDI files, and even were produced computer generated versions from some of his works ("Study #21"; "Study #37") by composers like Rick Bidlack and Robert Willey. 1.11 Panama: David Soley (born in Ancon, 1962; he have been living in the U.S.A. for many years) composed several works using computers, as "Torso-trozos", for tape, in 1993, and "Linea", for Zeta violin, Radio Baton, sampler, sample playback and tape, during 1994-1995. 1.12 Periu: Cesar Bolafios (born in 1931) and Edgar Valcarcel (born in 1932) are two of the main names related to the beginning of electronic music in Pertu. The first tape piece composed by Bolafios was "Intensidad y Altura" in 1964, produced at the Instituto Torcuato Di Tella of Buenos Aires. Among his compositions there are pieces for tape alone, compositions using live electronics, and multimedia works; some of them are: "Lutero, Yavi" (1965), "Dos en el Mundo" (1966), and "Flexum" (1969). Among the pieces composed by Valcarcel are: "Cantata", for chorus and tape (1967), "Flor de Sancayo", for piano and electronic sounds on tape (1976); "Zampoia S6nica", for flute and tape (1968-1976). Enrique Pinilla composed "Prisma" at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center in 1967. Rajmil Fischman ("Los dados eternos", 1991; "Sin los cuatro", 1994; he is now living in England), Celso Garrido Lecca, Alejandro Nufiez Allauca (Gravitaci6n humana", 1970), Olga Pozzi Escot (she have been living in the U.S.A. for many years), Arturo Ruiz del Pozo ("Lago de Totoras"), Pedro Seiji Asato ("Quasar III", 1972), and Jos6 Roberto Sosaya Wekselman, are also composers who have been working with electroacoustic medias. ICMC Proceedings 1996 167 Dal Farra

Page  168 ï~~1.13 Puerto Rico: composers like Luis Manuel Alvarez, Rafael Aponte Ledee ("Cufdense de los angeles que caen", for tape, 1974), Hector Campos Parsi ("Arawak", for tape, 1970), Jos6 Montalvo ("Cuatro Estudios", for oboe and synthesizer, 1983), William Ortiz ("Composici6n electr6nica", for tape, 1978), Roberto Sierra, and Raymond Torres Santos ("Otoao", tape, 1984) have been producing electroacoustic and computer music works. Alejandro Jose (born in Repiblica Dominicana; see his references on that section) is another composer mainly dedicated to the work with electronic medias. Eduardo Kusnir (born in Argentina) is now living in Caracas, Venezuela, but he was teaching electronic music on Puerto Rico for sometime during the '70s and now again. Francis Schwartz (born in the U.S.A., 1940) have an important catalog of compositions including mixed music ("Triangular Study", for trumpet, harp and tape, 1971), tape pieces ("Caligula", 1975), and multimedia works too ("Auschwitz", for tape, aromas, lights, dancer, temperature manipulation and slides, 1968). Carlos Vaizquez is a very active and prolific composer that produced many works using electroacoustic medias and computers. Some of his pieces are: "Sobre la inmiscusi6n", for tape, (1975), "Alborada islejia", for tape and computer (1982), "Juracin", for live electronics (1992), "Los Ciclos de Luisa", for tape, dancer and slides (1994). 1.14 Uruguay: The first electroacoustic works by Sergio Cervetti (born in 1941), Coritin Aharonian (born in Montevideo, 1940), and Conrado Silva (born in Montevideo, 1940; now living in Brazil), were produced during the '60s. Some of their pieces are: "Studies in Silence" (1968), "Bits & pieces and Moving Parts" (1977) and "Something Borrowed, Something Blue" (1979-1980) by Cervetti; "Que" (1969) and "Secas las pilas de todos los timbres" (1995) by Aharoniin; "Crrnica" (1972), "Ulises" (1973), and "Peric6n" (1989-1990) by Conrado Silva. Ariel Martinez (now living in Argentina) composed several electroacoustic works during the '70s. Among them: "El glot6n de Pepperland" for tape (1970), produced at the Instituto Torcuato Di Tella of Buenos Aires (CLAEM). Antonio Mastrogiovanni (born in 1936), composed "Secuencial II" (1970) also at the same center in Buenos Aires. Le6n Biriotti (born in 1929), composer, conductor and oboist, composed "En la morada de la muerte" on the early '70s; he also produced several mixed pieces and works using live electronics too. Composers like Alejandro Barbot, Jorge Camiruaga, Fernando C6ndon, Carlos da Silveira, Ulises Ferretti, Luis Jure, Diego Legrand, Beatriz Lockhart ("Ejercicio I", 1970), Alberto Macadar, Daniel Maggiolo, Leo Maslfah ("Llanto", 1980), Carlos Pellegrino, Renee Pietrafesa, Marino Rivero, Pablo Sotuyo, and Hector Tosar (one of the big names among the Uruguayan composers of contemporary instrumental music; born in 1923), have been working with electroacoustic medias or computers too. 1.15 Venezuela: During 1966-1967 was organized in Caracas the Estudio de Fonologfa Musical of Instituto Nacional de Cultura y Bellas Artes (INCIBA) by Jose Vicente Asuar (from Chile; see his references on that section) and Alfredo del Monaco (Born in Caracas, 1938), who composed on that studio "Cromofonfas I" in 1967, being the first electroacoustic piece produced on that country. Later del M6naco moved to New York where produced several tape and mixed works at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center ("Syntagma (A)" for trombone and electronic sounds on tape, 1972). Del Monaco is living now in Venezuela. That first studio was closed but after some time another laboratory was organized being composer Antonio Estevez the director ("Cosmovibrafonfa I"; "Cromovibrafonfa multiple"). Later, Eduardo Kusnir (born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1939; see also sections on Argentina and Puerto Rico) started more sustained activities. Some of the composers who have been also composing with electroacoustic and computer medias are: Diana Arismendi, Josefina Benedetti, Roberto Cedefio, Roberto Chac6n, Juan de Dios L6pez, Julio D'Escrivan ("Salto Mortal", 1989), Adina Izarra ("Vojm", 1988), Servio Marin ("Retour au silence", 1985; now living in the U.S.A.), Gustavo Matamoros ("Truly Yours", 1987; he is now living in the U.S.A.), Musikautomatika (experimental electroacoustic group with Alvise Sacchi, Luis Levin, Mirella Lopez, and Stefano Gramitto), Fidel Rodriguez Legendre, Alfredo Rugeles ("Thingsphonia", for tape, 1978), Federico Ruiz, Juan Francisco Sans, Rodrigo Segnini-Sequera ("Pekuek",.1994), Jacky Schreiber ("Un Mundo dentro de un Mundo", 1994), Adri~in Su~iez Prrez, Ricardo Teruel ("Nuestra cultura vegeta", 1976), Alonso Toro ("No me perdonan"). 2. Final comments This was not done pretending to be the final list of electroacoustic composers in Latin America. On the contrary, my intention is to present a beginning, a start for further communication among latinamerican composers themselves, and between the world community of composers interested on electroacoustic and computer music. I would appreciate very much to receive comments, suggestions, critics, and information that could help to improve this research and future papers on the same topic. I would like to remark that this idea to compile information about Latin America's electroacoustic and computer music composers have no intention at all to discriminate nobody, or to split nothing, or to divide groups. Nothing far away from my point of view and my wishes, the only idea here is to contribute to be integrated, to know more, to be communicated, and in contact with each other. The last revision of this list was done on November of 1995. Special thanks to Jorge Antunes, Aurelio Tello, Rodrigo Segnini, Juan Reyes, Pablo Sotuyo, and Jon Appleton. Dal Farra 168 ICMC Proceedings 1996