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Page 324 ï~~The International Digital ElectroAcoustic Music Archive - A new source for research into the history of electroacoustic music Thomas Gerwin Zentrum fur Kunst und Medientechnologie Ritterstrae 42, D-76137 Karlsruhe, Germany e-mail: tg @ zkm.de Abstract This paper describes the developments of the construction of the IDEAMA project especially in Europe, its international collaborations, the contents and the scientifical and aesthetical possibilities this collection enables. For the first time, electroacoustic music from the inception of the medium up to present days is collected worldwide and brought together at one place. At the current state we are trying to complete the - so called - IDEAMA target collection, which includes the internationally most important electroacoustic works up to 1970. 1. Introduction The survival of important works of electroacoustic music is threatened by the deterioration of the materials and equipment used to create, play and store them. The International Digital ElectroAcoustic Music Archive (IDEAMA) is dedicated to collecting, preserving and disseminating this repertoire. IDEAMA, founded in 1990, is a collaborative effort between Zentrum fur Kunst und Medientechnologie (ZKM) and Stanford University's Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA). An initial target collection of electroacoustic works and auxiliary materials of the early days, accompanied by a databased catalogue, will be established within three years and transmitted to the affiliated institutions. Supplements will then complete the collection step-by-step, up to the most recent compositions. As a "paperless" archive, IDEAMA will store all materials entirely in digital form. Recordings, scores, and other auxiliary materials will be digitized and returned to their owners. The IDEAMA collection will be publicly accessable in compliance with the rights of the owners at the Founding, Partner and other Affiliate Institutions. 2. Zentrum fur Kunst und Medientechnologie The Center for Art and Media Technology (ZKM), the European IDEAMA Founding Institution, brings the arts and new forms of media together in theory as well as in practice. ZKM aims at fossering the creative possibilities of a connection between traditional forms of art and new media technology, to the achieve results which anticipate future. The goal is to enrich the arts, not to amputate them technologically. In this vein, the great potentials in traditional kinds of art and those of media arts must be measured together. Both of these areas, individually and in collaboration, will be promoted and supported in ZKM. The core of ZKM is found in the computer laboratories at Institute for Music and Acoustic and at Institute for Image Media. These are the places for experimentation and research, where artists and scholars have the necessary equipment at their disposal to apply new technology to aesthetic practice. The Media Museum is closely linked to the studios. Here the public will be presented with the history of media and the potentials for different kinds of media by means of exemplary models and exhibits. The Media Museum provides the transition then to the Museum of Contemporary Arts which collects examples of new media art along with classic genres. The libraries for video, audio and slices, ZKM's Mediathek,, as well as art and media libraries are all open to the public. These collections serve additionally as archives, not only for media produced at ZKM, but also as a comprehensive documentation of video art and contemporary and electroacoustic music. IDEAMA is one important part of the Mediathek of ZKM. ZKM is closely linked with "School of Design" (HfG) where, since 1992, product design, graphic design, scenography and media arts are taught practically and theoretically as well as art history, philosophy and aesthetic of media. 3. Partner Institutions Partner Institutions of IDEAMA have contributed significant developments to the history of electroacoustic music and own collections and studios. The Partner Institutions are contributing an amount of music to the target collection. The following institutions are collaborating with IDEAMA as Partner Institutions: Groupe de Recherches Musicales (INA/GRM), Paris >established 1944 as "Studio dcssai voue l'experimentation radiophonique" la Radiodiffusion francaise by Pierre Schaeffer, now headed by Francois Bayle / Works: 735; Institut de Recherche et de Coordination Musique / Acoustique 8C.1 324 ICMC Proceedings 1993
Page 325 ï~~(IRCAM), Paris >established 1975 by Pierre Boulez, now headed by Laurent Bayle /Works: 110; Instituut voor Psychoakustik een Elektronische Muziek (IPEM), Gent >established 1962 by Hermann Sabbe / Works: 457; Groupe de Musique Experimentale de Bourges (GMEB) > established 1973 by Christian Clozier, Stiftelsen ElektroAkustik Musik i Sverige (EMS), Stockholm > established 1959 by Knut Wiggen, now headed by Hans Lunell / Works: 681; National Center for Science Information Systems (NACSIS), Tokyo, headed by Hirshi Inose and New York Public Library (NYPL). Affiliate Institutions will later share the IDEAMA partnership and make available the collection for the public at their own institutions. 4. The target collection An international advisory board participates in the formulation of the archive's policies. Regional Selections Committees at each archive branch help identify and locate music for inclusion in the archive. The European Selections Committee met in May 1992 at the "Karlsruher IDEAMASymposium " and decided on the final list of European compositions to be included in the target collection. There are 424 music titles on. Together with about 400 pieces of the Selections Committee at CCRMA, the IDEAMA target collection in total contains more then 800 pieces up to 1970. This selection offers a representative overview on the internationally most important early electroacoustic music. Additional to this selection from different studios all over Europe, the Selections Committee decided to incorporate three collections as an entity. At first the whole estate of the German pioneer Hermann HeiB, who founded the "Studio fur Elektronische Komposition" at Darmstadt in 1955. He influenced generations of composers and musicians from all over the world, holding lectures about electroacoustic music at the "Darmstldter Ferienkurse" from the very beginning on. The second entity are all productions of the " Studio fir Elektronische Musik" at WDR in Cologne up to 1970. This studio, founded in 1951 from Herbert Eimert, later headed by Karlheinz Stockhausen and today headed by York Holler is - together with GRM - one of the first studios, which produced "electronic" music. These two collections are just in Karlsruhe, the third entity will form the productions of the "Studio di Fonologia Musicale" from RAI, Milano. It was established 1955 by Luciano Berio and Bruno Madema and was closed in 1977 / Works: 139. From European side, about 70% of the music titles of the target collection are just at ZKM. Most of them are stored on DAT 44.1 kHz, so it will be easy to transfer it onto CDR. Some titles are on LP, some titles - especially the estate of Hermann Heiss - are on original tape material. It will be a longer process to transfer this material into digital format because the tape material is in a really bad shape. The transfer onto CDR has started in July 1993. We aim to complete this target collection, together with our partners in Stanford next year. This target collection will enable students, researchers and the public to listen, to study, to compare - and to analyze this music. 5. Some thoughts about analysis of electroacoustic music If we have to analyze and compare traditionally notated and instrumental performed music, we have an amount of musicological and historical methods and categories to reach this aim. The same is not true for electroacoustic music. a. Traditional analysis uses the score of a work, which is a graphical representation and an instruction how to act for the performer at the same time. The traditional three-step-transforming process of a musical idea (from the composers head to the score - from the score to the performer - from the performer to the public) is not necessary and not intended in electroacoustic music. The composer is his own performer - his musical intention comes directly through (more or less neutral) loudspeakers to the public. Because of this aspect, electroacoustic music reaches much more directly the ear of the listener then traditional music - and we do not have (in most cases) written notes as a base for analysis. b. The procedure of composition of an electroacoustic music piece is mostly very different from the procedure of composing an instrumental work. The instrumental work has to be constructed in a way "dry" or abstract. The composer has to create without listening at the same time. In opposition to that, the composer of electroacoustic music in our days mostly is able to listen immediately or very fast to the sounds and structures he has created. So the interaction with the sounding material is much more closer then before. The possibility to control, to change during the composition process, to rearrange, etc. is nearly infinite. c. Because of the possibility of permanent control be the ear of the composer and because of the closeness to the material he deals with, the composition process can be much more playful, associative and improvising. In many cases you will later on, when the work is finished, never find out where a single sound really comes from or which procedures have been made to make it sounding like it does. This way an electroacoustic work is much more hermetic then traditional music. d. The electroacoustic composer has available the full and non-calibrated field of sounds. He does not have to care of tuned tones, of the human possibilities of performing (breath, fingersets, fastness, rhythmic complications, etc.) not even if he uses a tone or a noise or whatever. Therefore he has available a continuum of every possible (that means thinkable) sound in any manner he wishes. For this kind of freedom there are no cate gories and no criterias in traditional music. Before I try to approach some thoughts about equivalent methods for analyzing an electroacou ICMC Proceedings 1993 325 8C.1
Page 326 ï~~stic piece, let me ask: What aims a traditional analysis to find out about a musical work, what is the purpose of an analysis? To keep it general: Analysis tries to make musical sense evident. Scientifical research never claims to explain, but to describe. And to describe something adequately, the methods of analysis and especially the language of describtion must be coherant to the analyzed object. For the best, the categories and criterias should be condensed out of the analyzed object itself - in correspondence to other comparable objects. Now, what is the "normal" procedure of a traditional analysis? The first step mostly is to find out which way a piece was composed. That could mean technical issues such as general form, instrumentation, performing techniques, etc. The next step in the analysis looks for more musically inharent aspects such as the treatment of a theme, the modulation of keys, etc. A later step tries to explore more inside structures of a work such as different characters or to find hidden structures and proportions inside the piece. Categories like denseness, atmosphere or variability may come up much more later on, if they come up at all. The highest level (which is reached not very often - and that depends, naturally, on the intentions of the composer) could be to find secrets in the work the composer even himself does not know, but whichare although there and evaluable. Unfortunately the information that is "normally" wanted or given about an electroacoustic piece is mostly a technical one. This means, that talking about an electroacoustic piece, takes place at a low level, at the first step of possible analysis. The main reason for that might be, that we don't have a binding terminology to talk about pieces. And a main reason for this is, that through the emancipation of compositional practice there are no conventional forms and also no binding procedures to produce an electroacoustic piece. Why did not analysis emancipate like the music itself? Why aren't we able to analyze pieces on the same advanced level on which they are composed? I want to emphasize at this state of discussion: Don't care about the technical procedure of producing a piece - but care of the musical means, the piece itself! In most cases the technical procedures of the production of a piece are hidden or not evident at least when the piece is finished. Because the sounding result of all those manipulation with the source sound (if there is one) are that complicate, spontaneously created and of such a variety, that it will be impossible to make them manifest. But should we do this at all? I claim: No! For the first time in the history of music we are confrontated with the possibility of composing the uncalibrated richness of every possible sound, presenting itself in an everfiowing, only by the listening subject measured - better: experienced time. So we should follow the historical logic of emanci pation of artifical possibilities and therefore, the emancipation of listening and try to establish a phenomenological discipline of new methods to do research in electroacoustic music. And that means we have to talk about aesthetics and not ab out techniques! The same is true for instrumental contemporary music, which is often influenced by electroacoustic philosopies and ideas. At this point of discussion I would like to introduce the "Four criterias of electronic music" (1972) from Karlheinz Stockhausen as a base of argumentation. He introduced as criterias: 1. Composition in musical time continuum, 2. Decompositon of sound, 3. Composition of multilayered three-dimensionality and 4. Equality of sound and noise. Those criterias do not refer on a technical process of production (although, of course, they are inspired by the musical possibilities new technology offers) but on inharent methods of composing musical time. This means in fact, that these four criterias are not a matter of technique but a matter of musical philosophy and creativity. Stockhausen says in the same lecture: "It does not matter, where a sound comes from - the point is, what you really do with it." And that's the point I aim to reach with a con-creative process an analysis should be. Apart from former traditional forms we have to create (as a composer) or to re-create (as an analyzer) musical sense to evaluate a piece and to evaluate this certain "unforseeable understanding" of a musical structure that an interesting composition provides. Well, the sense of a musical sound comes out of the context wherein it is used - like in spoken words. And we can, as well in electroacoustic as in traditional music, analyze this musical context - the compositional method the creator of a special musical work uses. The main problem might be, that there are no really binding forms of composition in our days. It is, in fact, a part of musical philosophy that each piece should create its own logic and its own musical universe. So we first have to try to find out which logic, which main purpose(s) might be intended with a piece. To reach this aim, Stockhausen's crieterias could be very helpful. I guess, we have to go the way from the whole to the parts, and then to single events and to single sounds. That means we have to listen and listen again. Let me name the instruments of analysis of an electroacoustic piece today: A media, which provides fast and exact access to special parts, a watch to bring experienced time into relationship to objective time and some paper to make notes, to write down describtions and perhaps make some graphical respresentations of what we have heard. And now we may research categories like solo and tutti, single point or fluctuation, variation(s), abruptly breaks or other forms to go from one event to another, gradual difference or similarity of musical events, or also categories like denseness, atmosphere or variability, You see, some of these categories are found in advanced analysis of instrumental music. I don't claim to throw away the methods and instruments of traditional analysis, but we have to change, to enwiden and to enrich them. We will have to name the changes and developments of musical thinking and practices and then transform this knowledge into new methods of description. The 8C.1 326 ICMC Proceedings 1993
Page 327 ï~~task of emancipation of contemporary analysis to come to the same level as contemporary and especially as electroacoustic music, will be supported by the IDEAMA project and the possibilities this collection provides - to find existing forms and categories by comparing many different pieces from various countries and historical states. And several researchers are invited to work together to reach this aim. 6. Technical aspects of archiving It is evident that archives, especially those under public law, have the obligation to store the material as long as possible, at least more then 100 years. But, in the digital age - which storage media could fulfill such a demand? We just have very little experience with digital media since it is a very new development. 6.1 Storage media IDEAMA decided to use CD technology (Sonic Solution System) for archiving the material. And the main reason for this is: Since about ten years CDs exist. If we will find out that CDs are decaying like special types of tape do, we will have ten years to transfer the music onto another media that may come up in the future. But a new philosophy of archiving, which might be of interest for us, is coming up. New developments changed the idea from looking for the "everlasting media" to the idea to try to create the "everlasting, self controlling archive", which is as independent of the technical standard of storage and playback technology as possible. This new direction in archiving tries to create digital archives that check the shape of the storage media from time to time and to self-dub those media who are under a certain level of security. This approach wants to use data files who should be readable from every playback technology in the future - or better: which will develop parallelly with technology in the process of archiving and checking. This approach could be very interesting for the future. A new approach from our partners at CCRMA to store multichannel works is the idea to store the seperate channels as data files on CDR-ROMs to enable to load these data files later on on each computer hard disk that may come up in the future. For initial digital recording and playback they will use probably TEAC (T7ASCAM) DA-88 with high band 8 millimeter audio tape. 6.2 Access All sound materials of the target collection and later updates will be on a set of CDRs. Fast access to the stored material is for the use of the public very important. IDEAMA will provide, together with the sound material on CDR, a catalog database basing on a common system on MARC format for every Partner or Affiliate Institution where all titles are avai lable together with additional information about the piece, the composer, the studio, etc. These datas will be searchable to ensure a comfortable and scientifical possibility to work with these materials. 7. Summary I hope you could gain a little insight into the recent developments of the IDEAMA project, especially from the European point of view - into the techniques we use and also into the issues we discuss. My main purpose of this report was to initiate a discussion about the aesthetic of electroacoustic music. Please remember that technology should serve the musician, as an instrument of realization of musical ideas and purposes and not as an end in itself! In the current state of music history, I guess, we will be able just to overcome technical questions in favour of artifical substance of the music. 8. References <Dibelius, 1988> Ulrich Dibelius. Elektronik und Computer. R. Piper GmbH & Co KG, Munchen (Vol. II of Ulrich Dibelius. Moderne Musik II. 1965-1985, page 190-202), 1988. ISBN 3 -7957-8248-1 <Hein, 1992> Golo F6llner, Roland Frank, Folkmar Hein. Dokumentation Elektroakustischer Musik in Europa. INVENTIONEN '92 (ed.), Festival Neuer Musik, Technische Universityit Berlin, Deutsche Sektion der internationalen Gesellschaft fur Elektroakustische Musik (DecimE). Druckerei ABS GmbH Berlin,1992. <Heiss, 1949> Hermann Heiss. Elemente der musikalischen Komposition (Tonbewegungslehre). Musikverlag Hochstein & Co Heidelberg, 1949. <Morawska-Bungeler, 1988> Marietta Morawska-Bungeler. Schwingende Elektronen, Eine Dokumentation uber das Studio fur Elektronische Musik des Westdeutschen Rundfunks in Koin. P.J. Tonger, Kbln-Rodenkirchen, 1988. <Prieberg, 1956> Fred. K. Prieberg. Musik des technischen Zeitalters. Atlantisverlag, Zurich/Freiburg Br., 1956. <Spangemacher, 1983> Friedrich Spangemacher. Luigi Nono." Die elektronische Musik. Gustav Bosse Verlag Regensburg, 1983. <Stockhausen, 1978> Karlheinz Stockhausen. Texte zur Musik 1970-1977. DuMont Buchverlag, Kbln (Dumont-Dokumente, Band 4, 1978. ISBN 3-7701-1078-1 9. Acknowledgement IDEAMA at Stanford University (CCRMA) is supported by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and at ZKM by the state of Baden-Wtitemberg and the city of Karlsruhe. ICMC Proceedings 1993 327 8C.1