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Page 495 ï~~Recent Changes in Computer and Electronic Music Subject Headings at the Library of Congress by Deta S. Davis Library of Congress ABSTRACT The Library of Congress is radically revising its approach to the subject access of computer and electronic music. This paper will briefly cover the past practice of subject access to this medium and will outline the new developments. Since most academic libraries in the United States, and many libraries elsewhere, use Library of Congress Subject Headings, this paper will be useful to anyone who wants to find computer and/or electronic music in a library. Because there was no adequate means of subject description, the Library of Congress has heretofore treated musical works with electronic and computer elements differently than any other type of music. Electronic and computer subjects were separated from all other performing forces, even though many musical works involve mixed media. One heading was assigned for the instrumental and/or vocal mediums as if there was no electronic/computer participation in a work, and a second heading for the electronic or computer medium. For example, a work for violin and computer would have two subject headings Violin music and Computer music. A work for two violins, viola, and violoncello with electronic tape received the subject headings String quartets and Electronic music. A work for orchestra and live electronics received the headings Orchestral music and Electronic music. The Library did not have the subject heading structure available to combine these headings into one. The Library did have a few subject headings that recognized electronic and computer music as a full part of the performing forces, such as Vocal duets with electronic music, Choruses, Sacred (Mixed voices) with electronic music, and Songs (High voice) with computer music. In all these instances the electronic and computer element is the sole accompaniment to vocal forces. If any other instrument was added to the work, the two-heading approach was utilized. This system was not satisfactory to anyone, and owing to the growth in the fields of computer and electronic music we had to find a new way to provide subject descriptions before the original system completely collapsed. Searching for works with electronic and computer forces has been discouraging at best. Since this genre is found predominantly on sound recordings rather than scores, the chance of false hits increases with multiple works. ICMC 495
Page 496 ï~~In 1987 I submitted a proposal to the Office of Subject Cataloging Policy for a new approach to subject headings for electronic and computer music. The Policy Office suggested an overall policy change to our approach in the Music Section rather than piecemeal changes. In 1989 the Working Group on Electronic Music of the Bibliographic Control Committee of the Music Library Association formed to address this issue. The term "computer" clearly delineates works with computer elements. The challenge was to devise a means to describe works with electronic elements with Library of Congress Subject Heading language, and then fitting it into the existing heading structures. The two headings also needed to be developed in tandem. The term "electronics" seemed to fit all requirements. However, the term also has other meanings within the Library of Congress Subject Headings. After the head of the Subject Policy Office approved its usage in our context, I submitted a proposal that revamped the usage of the electronic and computer music subject headings and submitted it to the Working Group on Electronic Music at the 1991 Music Library Association meeting. The group amended the proposal and decided to issue a survey to librarians and composers of computer and electronic music to find out under what terminology people expected to find electronic and computer music. In particular, the survey sought to discover what was understood by the term "electroacoustic," which also had been considered for a subject heading. The response to this question was quite revealing. Not one answer for the definition matched any other. Definitions ranged from anything out of a loudspeaker, and amplified acoustic instruments, to music created by a computer. With such inconsistent interpretations of the term electroacoustic, we could not use the term. After the survey, I put together another proposal that incorporated the changes recommended by the Working Group on Electronic Music. I submitted this for discussion to the Music Section, Special Materials Cataloging Division at the Library of Congress. After much lively debate over two long meetings, a rather elegant solution emerged. In works where the electronic/computer part(s) are used with other instrumental and/or vocal mediums, there will continue to be a twoheading approach. The first heading is assigned for medium or form with qualifiers as appropriate, including qualifiers indicating the electronic or computer part as a full participant in an ensemble. Examples are: Quartets (Trombones (3), electronics); Flute and computer music; and Vocal trios with computer and instrumental ensemble. An additional heading is assigned which uses the term Electronic music or Computer music as genres, followed by qualifiers when there are other instrumental and/or vocal mediums, or multiple electronic/computer parts without other instruments. The headings are qualified by medium with the word electronics or computer used as the qualifier for the electronic or compute, part. Two examples are: Electronic music (Piano, ICMC 496
Page 497 ï~~electronics (2), violin) and Computer music (Voices (4), computer). The proposal has been forwarded to the Subject Policy Office and it is hoped that it will be approved without further amendment. An example of the effectiveness of the new approach can be obtained by considering the catalog records shown in Examples 1, 2, and 3. Since the first work is for computer alone, there is no change from the earlier practice. The second work is for flute, clarinet, violin, violoncello, electronic keyboard (Kurzweil Midiboard), electronic percussion (KAT), and live computer electronics. The subject access for this work under the new approach is: 1. Septets (Electronic keyboard (Synthesizer), clarinet, flute, percussion, computer, violin, violoncello); and 2. Computer music (Electronic keyboard (Synthesizer), clarinet, flute, percussion, computer, violin, violoncello). The order of the instruments is prescribed in the preface of the Library of Congress Subject Headings: keyboard instruments, wind instruments, plectral instruments, percussion and other (electronics and the computer are considered "other"), bowed strings, unspecified instruments, and continuo. The second and third examples are OCLC printouts from other libraries for the same sound recording following the old practice. Note the contrast between the septet heading (including the computer) and the additional computer music heading with qualifiers, and, the sextet heading in tandem with the unqualified computer music subject heading. The third work for four amplified voices and computer generated tape has the subject headings: Vocal quartets with computer music; and Computer music (Voices (4), computer). The OCLC libraries had considerable difficulty with this work with one using Vocal quartets with electronic music and the other, Vocal quartets, Unaccompanied. Each is misleading at best. The fourth and last work is for two guitars, percussion, and live computer electronics. The first subject heading is Quartets (Guitars (2), percussion, computer); and the second, Computer music (Guitars (2), percussion, computer). Formerly, as shown on the OCLC printouts, this received the subject heading: Trios (Guitars (2), percussion). I hope you can see an improvement. I have tightened the definitions for electronic and computer music to provide clearer guidelines to librarians so they have a better chance of using the correct terminology. The proposed scope note definitions for electronic and computer music are found in Examples 4 and 5. Other computer-music related headings we have recently established are: MIDI (Standard), Drum machine, Sequencer (Musical instrument), and Sequencer (Music software). How can this change help you? It should be significantly easier to find electronic or computer music in a library data base. The medium or form headings provide an access point that contains a richly descriptive phrase. The genre-type headings will generate a comprehensive and cohesive file under specific terms. ICMC 497
Page 498 ï~~How can you help us? We can only provide bibliographic access that is given to us. Include a specific listing of instruments and voices on your sound recordings. Describe in program notes whether the piece is electronic/analog or computer/digital. Additionally, we will give an access point to an established studio where a work is realized if it is mentioned on the sound recording or its program notes. Our goal is to make this music as accessible as possible via the catalog record to people who want to hear or study it. Example 1 1191 LMUsIC) LPCRL ] LUMS]?AGI 1 C.1 %5,* A C* JFDATLD MASTiR FILE RECORI 10 3N. AMID m U$iC RECORD AACR 2 011 91-755835 I 050B ridge BCEy 0 0 0.ec Sound 100 Machover, lad. 240 Selections 245 flora; Towards the center; Famine; But-mudra [scund recordingJ /od Machover. 260 [New York? N.Y.] Bridge, p1990. 3e0 1 sound disc: digital, stereo.; 4 3-4 in. 128 BCE 9020 fridge ee The 1st work for computer-generated tape based on the voice of karol Bennett; the 2nd work for flute, clarinet, violin, violoncello, electronic keyboard (Kursweil Midiboard), electronic percussion (AI', and live computer electronics; the 3rd work for 4 amplified vcices and computer-generated tape; the 4th wcre for 2 guitars, percussion, and lift computer electronics. 500 Text of the 3rd work prepared by lose Moss in collaboration with toe composer. 5e0 Compact disc. 5e0 Durations: 4:14; 19:49; 13:35; 15:14. 520 Program notes by the composer (16 p.: ill. (some col. ' in container. 511 New York New Music Ensemble, Robert Black, conductor f2nd w:rk; Electric Phoenix (3rd work); David Starobin, acoustic guitar. Crer. lader, electric guitar, Daniel Kennedy, acoustic and electronic percussion, Tod Machover, conductor and data-glove. 518 The 1st work realized July 1989. at the MIl Media Labcratcr!; the 2.nd work recorded May 1989, a: the MI-i Media Laboratory Experimental reaia Facility; the 3rd work recorded Jan. 1987. at Cctober Sound. London; the 4th work recorded live Feb. 4, 1990, at Dunkarura Cocoon Theatre. Tokyo. 650 Computer music. 1650 Septets (Ilectronic keybo4rd (Synthesizer), clarinet, flute, percussion, computer, violin, violoncello) 650 Computer music (Electronlo ikeyboard (Synthesizer), clarinet, flute, percussion, computer, violin, violoncello) |650V ocal quartets with computer music. 650 Computer music lVoices (4), computer) 650 Quartets (Guitars (2), percussion, cerputer) 650 Computer music (Guitars (2). Fercussion, computer) 700 Bennett, Karol. 700 Moss, Rose. lbt 0720 Black, Robert, 1950- cud 720 Starobin, David. prf 720 Fader, Cren. prf 7 0 lennedy, Taniel. prf 72 Machnoover. Tad. ond prf Vt'S Machover, Tod. Flora. 1990. 700 Machover. Tod. Towards the center. 1 =-. 720 Macfower. led. Famine. 1990. 710 M achover, Tod. lug-mudra. 1990. 710 New Ycra they Music Ensemble. pri 7 10 Electric Phoenix (Musical prcup k.rÂ~ 710e Massachusetts Institute of lecnnoloej. Media I~aboratcrl. 74 F lora. 740 towards the center. 7 40 famine. '740 Bug-mudra. ICMC 498
Page 499 ï~~C) C Example 2 1\" Screen 1 of 3 NO HOLDINGS IN DLC - FOR HOLDI.GS ENTER dh DEPRESS DISPLAY RECD SE.D OCLC: 23696991 Rec stat: n Entrd: 910305 Used: 910627 Type: J Bib lvl: * Lang: ens Source: d Accomp mat: efhi Repr: Enc lvl: M Ctry: nyu Dat tp: a MHUE: 1 Hod rec: Comp: uu Format: a Prts: Deme: a nt lvl: LTxt: Dates: 1990. 1 010 2 040 PUL Sc PUL 3007 a sb d "c u Sd fSes SIfn 1g g gh a Â~i n SJiÂ~a kma 8lnIsm 4 024 1 9040490202 5 026 02 BCD 9020 Sb Bridge 6 033 1 196701-- $a 199004-- 7 041 0 Sdens$g eng 6 045 zex9 9 090 Sb 10 049 DLCC 11 100 10 Machover. Tod. 12 240 10 Selections 13 245 10 Flora Sb (sound recordintl / Sc Tod Machover. 14 260 0 )(ew York. N.Y.: Sb Bridge. S0 p1990. 15 300 1 sound disc 154 pin.): Sb digital@ stereo.; Sc 4 3/4 in. Screen 2 of 3 16 306 000414 $a 001949 5a 001331 Sa 001514 17 600 Famine suns in English; text by Rose Moss. 16 500 Title from container. 19511 0 Carol Bennett. soprano (lot work); The New York New Music Ensemble; Robert Black, conductor (2nd work); Electric Phoenix (3rd work); David Starobin. Ores Fader. guitars; Daniel Kennedy. percussion (4th work).a 20 516 Recorded aA various locations. Jan. 1987-April 1990. 21 500 Compact disc. 22 500 Program notes in English (1151 p.: ill.) in container. 23 505 0 Flora for computer-g.~nernted tape (4:14) -- Towards the center for 6 instruments and liveeoomputer electronics (19:49) -- Famine for 4 amplified voices and computer-semerated tape (13:35) -- Bug-mudra for 2 guitars, percussion and live computer electronicse 24 650 0 Computer music. 25660 0 Sextets (Piano, clarinet, flute, percussion, violin, violoncello) 26 650 0 Vocal quartets. Unacoompamied. Screen 3 of 3 27 600 10 eMoss. Rose "x Musical settings. 26 650 0 Trios (Ouitare (2). percssion) 29 700 10 Moss. Rose. 30 700 12 Machover. Ted. St Towards the center. Sf 1990. 31 700 12 Machover, Ted. St Famine. Sf 1990. 32 700 12 Machover. Ted. St But-mudra. Sf 1990. 33 700 10 Bennett. Karol. 34 700 10 Black, Robert, Sd 1950 -35 700 10 Starobin. David. 36 700 10 Fader. Oren. 37 700 10 Kennedy. Daniel. 36 710 20 New York New Music Ensemble. 39 710 20 Electric Phoenix (Musical group) _ ample 3 Screen 1 of 4 NO HOLDINGS IN DLC - FOR HOLDINGS ENTER dh DEPRESS DISPLAY RECD SEND OCLC: 22447186 Rec stat: n Entrd: 900928 Used: 910729 Type: J Bib hIv: a Lang: N/A Source: d Accomp mat: fhi Repr: Enc lvl: I Ctry: us Dat tp: p HERE: I Mod rec: Comp: as Format: n Prits: Deso: a Int lvl: LTxt: Dates: 1990.1987 1 010 2 040 ZHS Sc ZMS 13 100 10 Machover, Ted. 14 240 10 Selections. 15 245 00 Flora; Towards the center; Famine; Bug-mudra Bh sound recording / Sc Ted Machover. Screen 2 of 4 16 260 0 USA: Sb Bridge. So p1990. 17 300 1 sound disc Sb digital, stereo.; So 4 3/4 in. 18 306 000414 Sa 001949 S 001335 $sa 001514 19 500 The lot work for soprano voice, recorded, transformed and complemented by computer electronics; the 2nd work for S instruments and live computer electronics; the.3rd work for 4 amplified voices and computer-generated tape, text by Rose Moss; the 4th work for 2 guitars, percuasion and live computer electronics. 20 611 0 Karol Bennett, soprano (lst work); New York New Music Ensemble, Robert Black, conductor (2nd work); Electric Phoenix (3rd work); David Starobin, acoustic guitar. Oren Fader, electric guitar. Daniel Kennedy, acoustic and electronic percussion, Ted Machover. conductor (4th work). as\* Screen S of 4 21 615 The lst work was recorded in July 1959 at the MIT Media Laboratory; the 2nd work was recorded in sMay 1969 at the Hit Media Laboratory's Experimental Media Facility; the 3rd work was recorded in January 1987 at October Sound, London; the 4th work was recorded in live performance at Tokyo's Bunkamura Cocoon Theatre, February 4, 1990. 22 600 Program notes by Tod Machover in container. 23 $00 Durations: 4:14: 19:49; 13:35; 15:14. 24 660 0 Electronic music. 265660 0 Computer mumic. 266$50 0 Sextet. (Electronic keyboard (synthesiser), clarinet. flute, percussion, violin, violoncello) 21 660 0 Vocal quartets with electronic music. 6 660 0 Trios (Ouitars (2). peroussiom) U 10012 Machoever, Ted. St Flora. Sf 1990. 30 100 12 Machover, Ted. It Towards the center. Sf 1990. $1 100 12 achover, Td. St Famine. Sf 1990. 32 100 1! M coer, Ted. St Bvg-med". If 1990. 33 700 10 Bennett, Karol. $4 prf nso\ Screen 4 of 34 700 10 Black. Robert. 1950- 64 cnd 35 700 10 Starobin. David. 54 prf 36 700 10 -Fader. Oren. 94 prf 37 700 10 Kennedy, Daniel. 64 prf 38 700 10 Ma.hover. Ted. S4 cnd 39 710 21 New York New Music Ensemble. 54 prf 40 710 21 Electric Phoenix (Musical group) 84 prf 41 740 01 Flora. 42 740 01 Towards the center. 43 740 01 Famine. 44 740 01 Bus-mudra.
Page 500 ï~~Example 4 Example 5 PROPOSED SUBJECT HEADING CHANGE PROPOSED SUBJECT BEADING CHANGE sh85-29511 08/15/91 (SUBJECTS] (PCRD] DISPLAYED RECORD HAS BEEN VERIFIED. VERIFIED 08/15/91 (SUBJECTS) (FIND] DISPLAYED RECORD HAS BEEN VERIFIED VERIFIED EVAL PAGE 1 OF 1 su [MUNS] EVAL PAGE 1 OF 1 SU THIS RECORD IS FOR USE BY LC STAFF. IT IS NOT A BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD. 001 sh85-29511 040 DLC DLC DLC 150 Computer music 680 Here are entered musical works in which the sounds produced are intended to be generated or altered via digital technology and recorded or performed live. When computer(s) are used with other instrumental and/or vocal mediums, or when there are multiple computer parts without other instruments, this heading is qualified by medium with the word computer(s), used as the qualifier for the computer part(s), e.g. Computer music (Oboe, computer, violins (2), violoncello). 0 An additional heading is assigned for the medium or form with qualifiers as appropriate, e.g. 1. Concertos (Viola and computer)'. 2. Computer music (Viola and computer); 1. Songs (High voice) with computer and piano. 2. Computer music (High voice, computer, piano); 1. Vocal quartets with computer. 2. Computer music (Voices (4), computer). For unqualified forms such as operas and oratorios, use only the headings Computer music and the form headings without qualifiers, e.g. 1. Oratorios. 2. Computer music. Electro-acoustic music (used for] Electroacoustic music [used for] Music, Computer (used for] Music (broader term) Technology and the arts [broader term] Computer composition [related term] Electronic music [related term] THIS RECORD IS FOR USE BY LC STAFF. IT IS NOT A BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD. 001 sh85-42350 040 DLC DLC DLC 150 Electronic music 680 Here are entered musical works in which the sounds produced are intended to be performed live on electronic instruments or recorded from electronic instruments or other analog sources -ndsubsequently rearranged or altered. When electronic part(s) are used with other instrumental and/or vocal mediums, or when there are multiple electronic parts without other instruments, this heading is qualified by medium with the word electronics used as the qualifier for the electronic part(s), e.g. Electronic music (Piano, electronics (2), violin); Electronic music (Voices (4), electronics). An additional heading is assigned for medium or form with qualifiers as appropriate, e.g. 1. Quartets (Trombones (3), electronits). 2. Electronic music (Trombones (3), electronics); 1. Suites (Electronics with orchestra). 2. Electronic music (Electronics with orchestra); 1. Songs (High voice) with electronics and instrumental ensemble. 2. Electronic music (Voice and electronics with instrumental ensemble); 1. Vocal trios with electronics and instrumental ensemble. 2. Electronic music (Voices (3), electronics with instrumental ensemble); 1. Choruses, Secular (Mixed voices) with electronics and instrumental ensemble. 2. Electronic music (Chorus with electronics and instrumental ensemble); 1. Flute and electronic music. 2. Electronic music (Flute and electronics). For unqualified forms such as operas and oratorios, use only the headings Electronic music and the form headings without qualifiers, e.g. 1. Operas. 2. Electronic music. 450 Electrophonic music (used for] 450 Music, Electronic (used for) 550 Music (broader term] 550 Computer music (related term] 450 450 450 550 550 550 550