Page  20 ï~~An Expert System for Teachir Roger B. Dannenberg, Marta Sanch Ronald Saul, Robert Joseph Studio for Creative Ii Carnegie Mellon Urn Pittsburgh, PA 15213 email: roger.dannenberg@ ABSTRACT: The Piano Tutor is a computer sy students. The system is highly interactive, wita performances and multi-media presentation Sys following, which matches performances against detecting student errors. The Piano Tutor gives i The ci than just listing all errors that are detected. lessons that are automatically chosen by the systen

Page  21 ï~~specific and helpful instruction rather than si made; the Piano Tutor employs a student model enal needs of a student. already mastered. Lesson material is selected Remedial instruction also ca the student; the Piano Tutor is multi-media system, emp digitized voice, and music synthesis. Lesson Selection and Instructional Design. terms of what we call lessons, but exercises might als of a presentation to the student, a performance by the more brmances and remedial efforts until the musi One of the important tasks of the Piano Tuto The Piano Tutor is organized according to principles premises of ISD include that lessons only be taught v for them. All lessons have set prerequisite sid allowed to take the lesson, and a set of objective skills

Page  22 ï~~with the goal of identifying trends and higher-level exp having. For example, if a note is played late, it might be a previous rest or note too long, which the error was made. or problems with repea The Piano Tutor then decides what error E (reporting every error would be time consuming and hoj error to work on first, the Piano Tutor must select appri context. For example, the Piano Tutor may say 44 specific directions like "repeat this passage", or even al easier. The remediation process is aided by annotation: For example, if a lesson introduces the use fourth finger will be annotated as such. If of the fourth the student n can highlight the note and generate a message such as 4 note; please try again. The use of annotations allows for virtually every lesson. Even with the hints provide complex, but this minimizes the effort add new IE consistency of the Piano Tutor's remediation. I F F a._- - - - - - - - - _

Page  23 ï~~various errors, and synchronizing a Midi accompanime of the performance after the student stops playing, to time) graphical interface. FrameKit [32, software package for knowle Piano Tutor. For example, lessons-with their prere Scores, and other attributes-are represented fram media output sequences, are also represented by frames system, rhythm. used for interactive graphics required I A special-purpose graphical sequencer is impl presentations. The sequencer allows the designer to co into a presentation that can then be saved for use in one Status. The Piano Tutor concept, due to Maria into a multi-year project of the Carnegie Mellon Uruve Smented about 70 lessons. Presentations are assert hour of voice, and many musical scores. We are just b improve the system on the basis of our tests and experie Arknnwairlomontc We arratsfiulitothe M2 a