/ Modeling Piano Sound using Waveguide Digital Filtering Techniques
ï~~Thnks This work would not have been possible without the support of many people. In particular, I thank Julius Smith for his frequent advice, enthusiasm, technical know-how and friendship. I also thank John Chowning for allowing me to use the facilities and resources of CCRMA. But most of all I thank my wife, Sherry, for her love and support and faith in me. This work was supported in part by Dynacord. Referenees [1] J. M. Adrien and X. Rodet, "Physical Models of Instruments: A Modular Approach, Application to Strings," Proc. 1985 Int. Conf. Computer Music, Vancouver Canada, Computer Music Assoc., 1985. [2] A. H. Benade, Fundamentals of Musical Acoustics, Oxford University Press, New York, 1978. [3] R. Cann, "An Analysis/Synthesis Tutorial," Computer Music J., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 36-42, Spring 1980. [4] D. E. Hall, "Piano string excitation in the case of small hammer mass," J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 141-147, Jan. 1986. [5] D. E. Hall, "Piano string excitation II: General solution for a hard narrow hammer," J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 535-546,Feb. 1987. [6] D. E. Hall, "Piano string excitation III: General solution for a soft narrow hammer," J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 547-555, Feb. 1987. [7] D. Jaffe and J. O. Smith, "Extensions of the KarplusStrong Plucked String Algorithm," Computer Music J., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 56-69, 1983. [8] K. Karplus and A. Strong, "Digital Synthesis of Plucked-String and Drum Timbres," Computer Music J., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 43-55, 1983. [9] J. Marks and J. Polito, "Modeling Piano Tones," Proceedings, ICMC, pp 263-268, 1986 [10] M. E. McIntyre, R. T. Schumacher, and J. Woodhouse, "On the Oscillations of Musical Instruments," J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 1325-1345, Nov. 1983. [11] M. E. McIntyre and J. Woodhouse, "On the Fundamentals of Bowed String Dynamics," Acustica, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 93-108, 1979. [12] P. M. Morse, Vibration and Sound, published by the American Institute of Physics for the Acoustical Society of America, 1076 (1st ed. 1936, 2nd ed. 1948). [13] I. Nakamura and S. Iwaoka, "Piano Tone Synthesis Using Digital Filters By Computer Simulation," ICASSP-86: Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Acoust. Speech and Sig. Proc. [14] B. Schottstaedt, "The Simulation of Natural Instrument Tones using Frequency Modulation with a Complex Modulating Wave," Computer Music J., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 46-50, 1977. [15] J. O. Smith, "Introduction to Digital Filter Theory," In J. Strawn, ed., Digital Audio Signal Processing: An Anthology. William Kaufmann, Inc., Los Altos, California, 1985. [16] J. O. Smith, "A New Approach to Digital Reverberation using Closed Waveguide Networks," Proc. '1985 Int. Conj. Computer Music, Vancouver Canada, Computer Music Assoc., 1985. Music Dept. Tech. Rep. STAN-M-31, Stanford University, July 1985. [17] J. O. Smith, "Waveguide Digital Filters," Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA), Dept. of Music, Stanford University, March 1985. (In preparation: Draft copies available upon request.) [18] J. O. Smith, "Elimination of Limit Cycles and Overflow Oscillations in Time-Varying Lattice and Ladder Digital Filters," Music Dept. Tech. Rep. STANM-35, Stanford University, May 1986. Shorter version, "Elimination of Limit Cycles in Time-Varying Lattice/Ladder Filters," in Proc. IEEE Conf. Circuits and Systems, San Jose, May 1986. [19] J. O. Smith, "Efficient Simulation of the Reed-Bore and Bow-String Mechanisms," Proc. 1986 Int. Conf. Computer Music,, The Hague, Netherlands. [20] J. O. Smith, "Methods for Digital Filter Design and System Identification with Application to the Violin," Ph.D. Dissertation, Elec. Eng. Dept., Stanford University, June 1983. [21] 11. Suzuki, "Model Analysis of a Hammer-String Interaction," ICASSP-86: Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Acoust. Speech and Sig. Proc. [22] H. Suzuki, "Vibration ans sound radiation of a piano soundboard," J. Aeoust. Soc. Amer., vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 1573-1582, Dec. 1986. [23] J. Wawrzynek, C. Mead, T. Lin, H. Liu, and L. Dyer, "A VLSI Approach to Sound Synthesis," Proc. 1984 Int. Conf. Computer Music, Paris France, Computer Music Assoc., 198 4. [24] G. Weinreich, "Coupled Piano Strings," J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 1474-1484, Dec. 1977. 1987 ICMC Proceedings 95
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