Therapeutics of tuberculosis : or pulmonary consumption / by Wm. H. Burt. / Title Contents
Therapeutics of tuberculosis : or pulmonary consumption / by Wm. H. Burt.
Burt, William H.
New York: Boericke & Tafel, 1876.
Tuberculosis -- Homeopathic treatment.
Tuberculosis -- therapy.
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THERAPEUTICS OF TUBERCULOSIS
WM. H. BURT, M.D.
OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS,
AUTHOR OF " CHARACTERISTIC MATERIA MEDICA," A MONOGRAPH ON
"POLYPORUS OFFICINALIS, POLYPORUS PIIICOLA, USTILAGO
MADIS, AND CHINCHONA OFFICINALIS."
BOERICKE & TAFEL,
NEW YORK AND PHILADELPHIA;
IIENRY TURNER & CO., OF LONDON, 77 FLEET STREET.
JOHN MEYHOFFER, M.D.,
IN CONSIDERATION OF THE GREAT BENEFIT DERIVED FROM YOUR LABORS
FOUND IN YOUR TREATISE ON CHRONIC DISEASES OF THE ORGANS
OF RESPIRATION, I WOULD MOST RESPECTFULLY DEDICATE
TO YOU THIS MY HUMBLE EFFORT, WITH GRATITUDE.
TUBERCULOSIS OR PULMONARY CONSUMPTION.
It is estimated that more than one-eighth of the entire
mortality of the human family is due to the fatal ravages of
tuberculosis. It is, therefore, not only the most frequent of
constitutional, but also the most common of all diseases. With
these facts before the physician, it behoves him to make its
treatment a life study.
Tuberculous matter is an unorganized material, characterized by a soft, cheesy, pale or yellowish gray colored substanc
self, believing that in so doing it would greatly aid the practitioner in successfully combating its fatal ravages. They are
the following,1. General atonic condition of the body.
7. Hectic fever.
8. Night Sweats.
The pathology of the disease has been entirely omitted, it
being so fully written up in our works on pathology, which
are in the hand
MEDICAL TREATMENT. 9
Medical Treatment.-Before giving the indications for our
r'emedies, it will not only be interesting, but practical, to note
down the remedies used in our standard works for this formidable disease.
Dr. B. Baehr, in his science of Therapeutics uses forty remedies, namely:
Aconite, Cannabis, Kali carb., Pulsatilla,
Alumina, China, Kali nit., Plumbum,
Arnica, Cuprum, Kreosote, Phos. acid,
Belladonna, Causticum, Ledum
10 PULMONARY CONSUMPTION.
Dr. C. H. G. Jahr, in his "Forty Years Practice," gives
thirty-three remedies, but he doubts the virtues of the last ten,
as indicated in his work:
Aconite, Ferrum, Lachesis, Rhus tox.,
Bromine, Hepar sulph.,l Mercury, Sulphur,
Belladonna, Iodine, Nux vom., Spongia,
Bryonia, Ipecac, Nitric acid, Silicea,
Calc. carb., Kali carb., Phosphoric acid Stannum,
Carbo veg., Kali hyd., Phosphorus, Sambu
12 PULMONARY CONSUMPTION.
Dr. Richard Hughes, in his "Therapeutics," gives seventeen remedies, viz:
Arsenicum, Hyoscyamus, Kreosote, Phosphorus,
Calc. carb., Iodine, Lycopodium, Stannum,
China, Ipecac., Pulsatilla, Spongia,
Drosera, Kali carb., Phos. acid, Sulphur.
Dr. A. Charge, in his "Traitement Homceopathique, des
Maladies des organes de la Respiration," in the section
"Phthisic Pulmonaire, " gives forty-two remedies, and fifteen
MEDICAL TREATMENT. 13
great confidence in, the balance has given him but little satisfaction; they are the following.
The truly reliable remedies are:
Calcaria carb., China sulph., Kali carb., Natrum m.,
China, Hepar sulph., Mercury, Silicea,
Cod-liver oil, Iodine, Phosphorus, Sulphur.
Aconite, Conium, Lachesis, Sepia,
Apis m., Hyoscyamus, Lycopodium, Stramonium,
Arsenicum, Ignatia, Nux vomica, Thuya,
14 PULMONARY CONSUMPTION.
at once get a true idea of the class of remedies that should be
given to arrest it, their grand centre of action must be on the
same tissues. This gives us a large number of well tried remedies that will really cure this frightful destroyer. Of course,
every remedy in the materia medica will be more or less useful for incidental symptoms, but the grand curative ones must
be those having a specific action upon the great vegetative nervous system.
MEDICAL TREATMENT. 15
which is sometimes mistaken and unavailingly treated for spinal disease. The ganglionic system contains all the hereditary
elements of health and disease, which latter may be considered
as latent till they begin to be transmitted to some of the
organizations which this system supplies. It is believed that
the germs of the hereditary dyscrasia, latent in the sympathetic
ganglia, may be discovered in the form of minute tubercles in
the involuntary organs, in
16 PULMONARY CONSUMPTION.
met by employing the muscles in such a manner that while
they are made to act with more or less force, no greater demand shall be made upon the nervous system than can be easily and healthfully responded to."
"-The first thing to be attended to and never to be lost sight
of for a moment, is the circulation of the blood. Feebleness of
the heart's action, imperfect respiration, poor quality and small
quantity of blood, and especially want of affinity between
MEDICAL TREATMENT. 17
apparatus is so simple that the most fragile woman, if she can
but stand up, can use it with perfect safety. From six weeks
to two months exercise, spending each day, ten or twelve
minutes in Health-lift exercise, will give her not only a strong
muscular system, but health.
Consumptives who have been treated by the health-lift have
uniformly found their health and strength daily improved,
cough and expectoration diminished, appetite improved, pulse
18 PULMONARY CONSUMPTION.
laxed. It will be seen that in this way the spinal column is
kept perfectly straight, there being no lateral twist or contortion, as in lifting with a cross-bar between the legs, which is
the usual mode as practiced in the gymnasium.
RULES FOR THE USE OF THE HEALTH-LIFT.
I. —Exercise should be taken usually in the forenoon, about
three hours after breakfast.-The reason for this involves the
physiological law that exercise of function increases the supply
MEDICAL TREATMENT. 19
1 V.-Avoid competition, and do not strive to see how much you
USUAL EFFECTS PRODUCED BY THE HEALTH-LIFT.
Following the exercise most commonly, is a tingling glow
over the whole surface of the body, with a sense of buoyancy
and vigor which prompts one to want to do something-the
exercise seems to have been entirely insufficient-there is a
temptation to strike out from the shoulder, to seize the heavy
dumb-bells, or " skin the cat " on the suspended
20 PULMONARY CONSUMPTION.
days, and some absolutely need to lift heavy every day. Temperament, occupation, inherent vitality, etc., etc., all must be
taken into consideration. No rule can be laid down for any
given case, even by the most experienced. From fifty to
eighty pounds will frequently tax the strength of the patient
at first, but in the course of three or six weeks, three or four
hundred pounds can be lifted with ease.
From ten to twelve minutes [ealth-lift exercise once
EMACIATION AND DEBILITY. 21
flabby muscles, hair dry and the digested food to blood and tissue
looking like tow. Exceedingly does not proceed as it should, we
sensitive to the least cold air, have obstructions " intumescence
which seems to go through and
through him. Feet cold and in the lymphatic and glandular sysdamp continually, as if he had tems, dyscrasial affections of memon cold, damp stockings. branous structures, of all the white
Walking produces great fa- structu
22 PULMONARY CONSUMPTION.
up the oxygen supplied to them in the lungs; and the
carbonaceous compounds thus unconsumed, deposit themselves in the form of fat. If this direct action on the
corpuscles be granted, many of the phenomena of arsenical poisoning become explicable. No wonder that the
blood is black and non-coagulable, resembling that of malignant fever and cholera. Petechial effusions frequently occur,
and the chronic poisoning takes the form of a profound
This remedy wi
EMACIATION AND DEBILITY. 23
disappeared under its use; and a diminution of the functional
energy of the ovaries makes it probable that those are similarly affected."
The most marked effects of Iodine are: "Over-excitement
of the whole nervous system; ebullition of the blood and
pulsations over the whole body, increased by every effort;
trembling, tottering gait; great debility, atrophy; extreme
emaciation; general edema; pulse accelerated, hard and
small; hectic fever; variable
24 PULMONARY CONSUMPTION.
a watery, exhaustive diarrhoea, or much gastric irritability:
the tongue is red at the tip and sides; nausea and more or
LICA.-Emaciation ac In enaciation and debility where
companied with more or less
suppuration going on in the there are organic changes taking
lungs. Profuse night-sweats. place, especially suppuration, it has
Much perspiration about the an extraordinary control over the
head and chest, especial
IODIDE OF POTASSIUM. 25
exhaustive hsemorrhages, long with much acidity of the stomach.
lasting, congestive headaches. Anaemia with excessive debility
Excessive sensitiveness of the from loss of vital fluids. Most of
skin, with much irritability
and sadness. The least draft the symptoms of China are aggraof air causes great suffering. vated in the evening and at night.
Its great action is to cause debility of the trophic nervous system. Debility is to the nervous system
26 PULMONARY CONSUMPTION.
STANNUM,-Great weak_ The cases that will be cured by
ness of the chest, the least exer- this remedy, will have great prostration puts himallout of breath, tion of the whole cerebro-spinal
annot answer questions, there
is such debility all centering i nervous system, the most of which
the chest; reading aloud, seems to centre in the chest.
coughing, or the effort to ex- With the emaciation and debility
pectorate produces great weak- the patient is
IODIDE OF POTASSIUM. 27
Chronic uterine haemorrhages, that seem to get almost well,
and then return again and again. Menses thick and black,
and so acrid as to make the vulva and legs sore. The child
has great voracity, watches eagerly for everything it sees.
Emaciation and debility, with hoarseness and roughness in
the throat, and much mucus in the chest. Great dyspncea,
shortness of breath and oppression of breathing, Asthma at
Tearing pains in the outer parts of the
28 PUMONARY CONSUMPTION.
LYCOPODIUM.- Great In emaciation and debility, where
quantities of red sand in the Lycopodium is indicated there will
urine. Much pain in the back be found many dyspeptic symptoms
previous to urinating, relieved present with an immense accumulaas soon as the urine begins to tion of gas in the stomach and bowflow. Constant sense of satiety.
Great accumulation of flatus els, the stomach is often acid, and
in the stomach and abdomen, the least quantity of f
OLEUM JECORIS ASELLI. 29
Most of the symptoms are aggravated after dinner.
I now use the hypophosphorous zincum, with better results than in the metallic form.
Oleum Jecoris Aselli.-Cod-liver oil. This is obtained
from the liver of the common cod; the process is thus described
by Dr. Garrod: "The livers are collected daily, so that no
trace of decomposition may have occurred; carefully examined,
so as to remove all traces of blood and impurity, and to separate any inferior li
30 PULMONARY CONSUMPTION.
a large number of other valuable remedies, and it is nonsensical to think they do not act medicinally.
Our preparations of the same remedies in which we all have
such unbounded confidence, contain far less medicine of each
one of the ingredients, at the 30th and 200th attenuation, than
the oil. We would like to see the chemist who could give the
amount of iodine, the 30th or 200th centesimal attenuation contain to the grain or ounce. We are certain that the
OLEUM JECORIS ASELLI. 31
a healthier aspect, colliquative diarrhoea and sweats cease;
the natural secretions become more copious, the pulse less frequent. It is difficult to comprehend how it can produce such
marvellous manifold salutary effects." (Through the vegetative
nervous system it produces these marvellous effects). " When
we remember that in a teaspoonful of oil we are administering
a dose of Iodine equal to a drop and a half of its 3d decimal
dilution, and that we are
32 PULMONARY CONSUMPTION.
with that of many of my professional friends, is at least quite
as strong as any that can be adduced in favor of the brown
or impure kind of oil, and it does seem absurd to recommend
the exhibition of the remedy in its offensive form, when the
pure, fresh oil has been proved to be at least equally efficacious."
To get the full benefit of the oil, its use must be persevered
in for at least several months, and some patients will find it
their staff of life,
OLEUM JECORIS ASELLI. 33
part of a moderator to the metamorphosis of nitrogenous
substances. On the other hand, that part of the oleagenous
matter which has not furnished its share towards the production of animal heat by combustion, does so by its accumulation under the cutaneous surface, or enters as a necessary element into the formation of cells. It is thus evident
that Cod-liver oil can only be of service when the destructive
nutritive process prevails over the constructive
34 PULMONARY CONSUMPTION.
(5.) That it increases weight in favorable cases with singular
speed, and out of all proportion to the actual quantity taken;
that hence it must in some unknown way save waste, and
render food more readily assimilable.
(6.) That it sometimes fails to increase weight.
(7.) That in the great majority of cases where it fails to
increase weight, it does little good in other ways.
(8.) That it does not relieve dyspncea out of proportion with
(17) That it often disagrees, when the liver is enlarged and
(18.) That weight may be increased by it, the cough and
expectoration diminish, night sweating cease, the strength
which has been failing remain stationary under the use of the
oil, and yet the local disease be all the while advancing.
"Singular proof," says Dr. Walshe, "of the nutritive power
of the agent," and, we may add, of its inefficiency as a medicine.
"This admirable exhau
36 PULMONARY CONSUMPTION.
general tone; this is best accomplished when active morbid
processes and local irritation have subsided, for then the system
isina condition to appropriate a larger amount of nourishment."-DR. RUDDOCK.
Exhibition.-Many people and even children have no
trouble in taking Cod-oil, in fact Cod-liver oil is taken better
by children than by grown people; but, with some the sweetest
oil is taken with great difficulty; those who are so sensitive,
should take it i
scarcely tasted. The proper proportion is two to four tablespoonfuls of the oil to one pound of dough. Patients to whom
we have recommended this method of taking the oil assure us
that while pleasant and digestible, it is as efficacious taken in
this as in any other way.' " Small pieces of ice in each dose of
oil also render it almost tasteless."
"' Its assimilation is promoted, and its beneficial action greatly
enhanced, by the addition of ten drops of the fi
38 PULMONARY CONSUMPTION.
once very distasteful and nauseating, that of a young lady
whose health fail d repeatedly whenever she lived in New
Bedford (near salt water), and gained on her going west to
Illinois." G. F. Matthes. New -England Medical Gazette,
vol. 6, p. 6.
I have tested the fumes of I he oil as given above, and am
pleased with its action. Inhaling the fumes all night during
sleep, will be found of much value in the first stages of phthisis.
Latest Modification of t
KOUMISS OCR MILK WINE. 39
long time, and is rather agreeable to the taste. If need be,
pyrophosphate of iron can be added, or strychnine, or Fowler's
Solution. We have used it especially in hysteria and allied
affections, and in organic diseases of the nervous system it is
also valuable. Consumptives frequently take it in preference
to Cod-liver oil. As Cod-liver oil has a somewhat unpalatable
name, it is sometimes better, in prescribing for nervous patients,
to call this the pho
40 PULMONARY CONSUMPTION.
emaciation is a marked feature, with most marvelous effects;
in fact with such success, that scrofula, and consumption are
almost unknown to them, and travellers from all parts of Europe, suffering with phthisis, go into their country to submit
themselves to a course of Koumiss, many of whom have returned
in perfect health. The success in phthisis has been so great
that the imperial government of Russia has established, and
supports institutions devoted to
KOUMISS OR MILK WINE. 41
my friend, A. Arend, Esq., of 521 W. Madison street, Chicago,
the following method to prepare new Koumiss from the old.
Mr. Arend is the only chemist, I believe, in the United States,
that has really succeeded in making good Koumiss, and he experimented one year before he considered himself qualified to
make a good article of the Milk-wine. It is made with such
difficulty that it requires the nicest manipulation and most
careful attention to all the mino
4 2 PULMONARY CONSUMPTION.
phosphate of lime and 30 grains of mixed chlorides of sodium
The physical and chemical characteristics of Koumiss render
it an aid upon which the physician can rely with great confidence, for the treatment of extreme debility, and all the phases
of impending marasmus."
Koumiss not only contains a large proportion of lactic acid,
which is a prime constituent of the gastric juice, but holds the
casein in that state of vitality which gives it t
EXTRACT OF MALT. 43
but a small quantity, for instance a wine glass full, should be
taken at once, and this quantity frequently repeated, until as
much as one-half or one quart bottle is consumed in a day.
As the patient grows stronger and accustomed to this new
diet, he will learn to relish the Koumiss and he will be able to
take one-half, or one gobletful, or more at a time, and as much
as two or three quarts in a day."
Infants may be fed on Koumiss exclusively, and they soon
44 PULMONARY CONSUMPTION.
of causing many to use the nourishing beverage to the great
benefit of many suffering invalids, I will refer the reader to
larger works devoted wholly to Koumiss. Having seen its
salutary effects in my practice, I am anxious that every physician should give his patients the benefit of this fermenting milk.
EXTRACT OF MALT.
The extract of Malt is a most valuable auxiliary in the
treatment of phthisis, bronchitis, scrofula, dyspepsia and general debility. Pro
changes are going on in the lungs that will eventually result in
fatal tuberculosis. Passive heemoptysis is more intractable
than active haemorrhage. When the hbemorrhage comes from
the lung tissue itself, the symptoms are more violent, and may
prove suddenly fatal.
The principal remedies for hwemoptysis and pneumnorrhagia
are Aconite, Veratrum viride, Hamamelis, Millefolium, Ipecacuanha, Phosphorus, Ferrum, Arnica, China, Belladonna, Pulsatilla, Crocus, Tr
46 PULMONARY CONSUMPTION.
it is not so useful. In active hemorrhages from the lungs, this
remedy only has to be given to be appreciated.
HAMAMELIS.-Especially In hmemoptysis this is well nigh
called for in nervous, passive a specific. No remedy has given us
hsemorrhages, the blood is
e, the bloodissuch prompt and satisfactory redark and comes into the mouth such prompt and satisfactory rewithout any effort, like a warm sufts, in active or passive venous
current out of the chest
were ascending in the throat, gradually increasing in intensity
until blood is raised."
Spitting of blood, with violent palpitation of the heart and
much excitement, accompanied with a feeling of great oppression of the chest, active haemorrhages from deep ulcerations in
IPECACUANHA. — Hemor- For acute hkemorrhages, no remrhages from all the orifices of edy is used more frequently than
the body, with great and long
continued nauswith grea, aom
48 PULMONARY CONSUMPTION.
difficulty. Fatty degeneration whole organism, have been overof the liver, with much jaun- looked for a long time. In numerous
dice. Strong sexual desire,
or impotence from sexual cases of poisoning by means of Phosabuse. Tightness across the phorus-matches, and by Phoschest, with dry cough, or rusty phorus-paste, the changes in the
spots raised with great difficul- blood are too conspicuous to remain
ty. Hard, teasing, dry cough, unnoticed any long