British homoeopathic pharmacopoeia, pub. by the British Homoeopathic Society, 1870. / Title Contents

Title Contents

Page  [unnumbered] - Front Matter

Page  I - Title Page


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P REFAC E. IN issuing a new Pharmacopoeia the British Homoeopathic Society have endeavoured to supply a want which has long been felt in consequence of the number of new remedies that have been proved within the last twenty years. In 1834, Dr. Quin, the President of this Society, edited The Pharmacopoeia Homceopathica, in Latin, in the preface to which the following authorities are referred to: viz. Hahnemann's Reine Arzneimittelehre and Kronischen Krankheiten, published at various times betwee

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iv PREFACE. 1829, and La Raja's Elementi di Farmacopea Omiopatica, estratti dalla Materia Medica di Hahnemann, published in the same year at Naples. Since Dr. Quin's Latin edition of the Pharmacopoeia the following works have chiefly regulated the operations of homoeopathic chemists, viz. Jahr's Pharmacopoeia and Posology, which appeared in Germany, and was translated into English by Kitchen and published in Philadelphia in 1842; Buchner's Pharmacopoeia to which Jahr refers; Gruner's Hoindo

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PREFACE. V 2. The revision of the various pharmaceutical processes. 3. The supplying of good practical tests, whereby the identity and the purity of each medicine could be ascertained. In carrying these various objects into effect they have made use of all the sources of information within their reach, and as regards not a few of them they have instituted direct experiments. In identifying the plants used as medicines various methods have been followed. For. example, in those instances w

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vi PREFACE. pratensis, appear to be three forms of one and the same plant, of which the first is common in Germany, the second in America, and the third in England. Again, as regards Bryonia alba and Bryonia dioica, since it is known that for twenty-five years many English Homoeopaths have used chiefly the B. dioica (at any rate, all who have employed low attenuations), and found it answer to the medical characters given to the B. alba, it has been thought expedient to record both as ojfici

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PREFACE. vii Many of the chemical substances used in Homoeopathy are employed also by the old school, and since the majority of these are best prepared on a large scale, it has been recommended that they should be obtained from the manufacturing chemists, while, at the same time, it is urged that in every instance their purity shall be determined by direct experiment, before any of them are used for making our preparations. Throughout this work the weights and measures are those that have b

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viii PREFACE. identification; consequently a good practical knowledge of botany and natural history is essential. Since there are various systems of classification in use, it is necessary to mention that all vegetable substances are referred to the Natural Orders adopted by Dr. J. H. Balfour, Professor of Botany in the Edinburgh University, and described by him in his " Outlines." The animal substances have been referred to the classes and orders as given in the " Compendium of Generic Dis

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PREFACE. ix With these prefatory remarks, the British Homoeopathic Society commend their new Pharmacopoeia in the sincere hope that by its universal adoption the difficulties arising from vague and varying preparations may be overcome. For, and in the name of, the British Homoeopathic Society, FREDERIC F. QUIN, M.D., President of the Society. HENRY R. MADDEN, M.D., Convenor of the Pharmacopceia Committee. London, 1870.

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INTROD U CTION. IN addition to a good practical- knowledge of botany, natural history, chemistry, and pharmacy, the homoeopathic chemist must bring to his work thorough honesty of purpose and painstaking accuracy of detail. Without these, he can never succeed in preparing the medicines in a manner to satisfy the homoeopathic practitioner, but with these qualifications he will find in the following pages all that he requires. It is a fundamental rule in homoeopathic practice to employ no medici

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xii INTRODUCTION. it follows therefore that homoeopathic pharmacy employs few compounds. Hahnemann's experiments having shown that many insoluble and inert substances become active medicinal agents after they are reduced to an impalpable powder and diffused equally through a large quantity of some nonmedicinal substance, a class of preparations, unrecognised in ordinary pharmacy, has been introduced under the name of triturations. It is not the object of this work to discuss any theoretica

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INTRODUCTION. Xiii was followed in course of time by the systematic dilution of all medicines according to a fixed scale. These diluted preparations have been called indiscriminately Dilutions, Attenuations, and Potencies, but sin ce the latter term involves a theory it will not be employed in the following pages. Attenuation, being on the whole the preferable name, will be invariably used to denote every preparation which contains less of the crude material than the strongest

Page  XV - Table of Contents


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BRITISH HOMCEOPATHIC PHARMACOP(EIA. PART I. GENERAL RULES. There are only three forms of preparation recognised in homeopathic pharmacy: 1. Solution in water, in alcohol, or very rarely in ether. 2. 'Trituration with sugar of milk. 3. Attenuations. It will be necessary to preface the descriptions of these operations by an account of the menstrua employed in carrying them out. WATER. Nothing but the purest distilled water must ever be used in the preparation of any of the medicines. T

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2 2 HO~JCE OPATHIC PH ARiTMACOPREIA. All the water used by homoeopathic chemists must be distilled in an apparatus made entirely of glass or porcelain. The apparatus should never be much more than half filled with water, and the distillation should be carried on at a gentle heat, so as to guard against any of the water boiling over. Whatever quantity is distilled, the first 20th part should be rejected, and only 161 parts should be carried over. For example, in distilling 10 pints, the f

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HOM(EOPATH [C PHARMACOPCEIA. 3 Having thus ascertained that it is of average purity, it should be mixed with recently burned charcoal in coarse powder, using a bulk of charcoal equal to about one tenth of the bulk of spirit, and redistilled in a glass apparatus with all the precautions mentioned under " Distilled Water," and no alcohol which has not undergone this fresh distillation should be employed, especially in making the attenuations. The following strengths should always be kept on h

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41 HOMI(EOPATHIC PHARMACOPTEIA. distend it with air and hang it up to dry. Then moisten it with distilled water, and paint over the inner surface with a solution of isinglass; redistend it, having tied a small glass tube in the neck, then cork the tube and let it dry. When dry, remove the cork and fill it seven eighths full of rectified spirit; replace the cork firmly and suspend the bladder in the dry warm air of a stove, where the temperature will remain pretty steady, at about 1000 Fahr

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HOMEOPATHIC PHARMACOP(EIA. 5 SUGAR OF MILK. This is a very important substance in homoeopathic pharmacy, and great care must be taken to ensure its purity. It has been selected for the purposes to which it is applied for two reasons-ist, because it is devoid of all medicinal action; and 2nd, because its crystalline particles are very haid, and hence are of great use in grinding down the particles of drugs submitted to the process of trituration. It is never found pure in commerce, and even

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6 HOMCEOPATHIO PHARAMACOPOINA. lowest possible temperature which facilitates the precipitation of the sugar of milk. After the lapse of a few days, the liquid which floats over the sugar of milk is poured off* slowly, and the sugar, having been detached from the sides and bottom of the vessel, is washed once or twice with distilled water, after which it is spread in thin layers on clean paper over sieves, and carefully dried. It is then pulverised as finely as possible in a perfectly clean

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HOM(EOPATHIC PHARMACOP(EIA. 7 cines, a laxity which would be unpardonable in a homoeopathic chemist.) 3. As regards plants, the time for collecting these must be regulated by the part which is officinal. Vegetable physiology must be here the guide, since it will enable us to predicate the exact time when the part will display most fully its characteristic properties. A few exceptions may exist to the following conclusions, but, as a general rule, it will be found thatWhen the whole plant i

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8 HOM(EOPATHIC PHARMACOPCEIA. 4. After the fresh materials are collected they should be prepared as soon as possible, for the purpose of avoiding all deterioration. If gathered at some distance from home, the fresh plants should be packed carefully in a tin case (an ordinary botanical box) and kept as cool as possible. If, however, there will be no opportunity for preparing them for some time after their collection, they must be carefully dried by tying them in loose bundles and hanging th

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HOMWEOPATHIC PHARMACOPUEIA. 9 factory unless the solution is perfectly free of all sediment and continues clear and transparent. - If, after a time, it deposits any crystals, or if any of the salt effloresces around the neck of the bottle, or if a fibrous-looking sediment (conferva) appears in the solution, or if the solution changes colour materially, in each and all these instances the preparation should be rejected and a fresh quantity made. Since many aqueous solutions do not keep for a

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10 HOM(EOPATHIC PHARMIACOPCEIA. accomplished by varying the alcoholic strength to suit the nature of the ingredients in each plant; using a very dilute spirit where the ingredients are chiefly soluble in water, and a strong spirit where alcohol is the best solvent. Also, by using a sufficient quantity to ensure the complete exhaustion of the plant. 2. The uniform strength of tincture is advisable for many reasons, and especially in connection with the making of attenuations. Hitherto, the m

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HOMWEOPATHIC PHARMACOPCEIA. 11 attenuations, since it is essential that the first attenuation of a mother tincture should be made with a spirit of precisely the same strength as that in the tincture itself. PROCESS OF MAKING TINCTURES OF VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES. I.-BY PERCOLATION. This process should be used in all cases of dry plants, roots, seeds, &c., and in the case of such fresh plants, &c., as contain less than 60 per cent. of water. Preparing the Percolator.- Take a York Gl

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HOM(EOPATHIC PHARMACOP(EIA. 13 so as to reduce it to a fine and uniform pulp. Then weigh 100 grains of the pulp, and dry it carefully on a waterbath until it ceases to loose weight; re-weigh it, and ascertain how much it has lost in drying. If the loss does not exceed 60 per cent., proceed as follows:Packing the Material.-Insert the powder or the moist magma, as the case may be, little by little, spreading it evenly, and pressing it down gently with a broad cork fixed to a long

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]-I 14 HONIR TOPATHIC PHARMACOPhElIA. valves open until the following quantities of fluid, which will be chiefly juice, have passed through into the receiver. For example, if the moist magma has lost between 30 and 40 per cent. in drying, let 1P fluid ounce drop through; if between 40 and 50 per cent., 2 fluid ounces; if between 50 and GO per cent., 2- fluid ounces; then close the valves. 3. In all cases, after the valves are closed, let them remain so for twenty-four hours, and- then open

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HOM(EOPATHIC PHARMACOP(EIA. 15 1. Previously to packing the moist magma in the percolator, prepared as before, put it into a press and extract as much juice as possible, which juice should be at once poured into the receiver of the percolator. 2. Remove the mass from the press, and pass it again - through the sausage-machine, and then carefully mix it with an equal bulk of pounded green glass. 3. Pack this mixture of magma and pounded glass in the percolator, and proceed as before. II.-BY

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16c 0IIO3RiEOPATHIO PHARMACOPZELA. poamible. 7. Mix the products together, let"them stand twenty-four hours, and filter. N.B.-In plants containing 80 or more per cent. of water, the quantity of spirit used will be too small to dlivide, and hence it must be all poured on the squeezed magmna at once-; and this should be allowed to maccrate two (lays. On the other hand, in the drier plants of this class the quantity of spirit required may be sufficiently large to allow of percolation through t

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HONUEOPATHIC PHARAMACOP(E[A. 17 TABLE No. 2. Amount of Rectified Spirit required to make Alcohol of 40 O.P. with the water contained in 4 ounces of moist magma. Moisture lost in Rectifieds. Alcohol of 40 O.P. to drying. spirit reuired, be added up to Fl. oz. Fl. dr. Min. Fl. oz. Fl. dr. 30 per cent.......... 8 3 12......... 27 0 35,, 9 6 24..........24 4 40,,......11 1 36..........22 4., 45,,......... 12 4 48......... 20"

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18 18HMEOPATHIO PHARMACOPcEIA. No fresh plant containing more than 70 per cent. of water can yield a 1 in 10 tincture with alcohol of 20 O.P.; either a more dilute alcohol must be used, or a weaker tincture made. TABLE No. 4. Amount of Rectified Spirit reqnired to make Proof Spirit with the water contained in 4 ounces of moist magma. Moisture lost in drying. 80 per cent. 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70,, 75 Rectified- spirit required. Fl. oz. 2 2 2 3 Fl. dr. Min. 0 0 2 40 5

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HOM(EOPATHIC PHARMACOP(EIA. 19 Alcohol with the water contained in 4 ounces of moist magma. Moisture lost in drying. 30 per cent. 35, 40 45 50 55 60,, 65,, 70,, 75,, 80 Rectified spirit required. Fl. oz. Fl. dr. Min.......... 1 1 36............ 1 3 12............ 1 4 48............ 1 6 24......... 2 0 0............ 2 1 36............ 2 3 12............ 2 4 48...

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20 HOT(EOPATHIC PHARMACOP(EIA. water contained in the 4 ounces of moist magma; hence that amount of rectified spirit must be first poured into a large glass, and as by reference to Table 1 it will be seen that 15 fluid ounces and 6 fluid drachms of spirit are required to make a tincture representing 10 per cent. of the dry material where the fresh plant contains 55 per cent. of water, this amount must be made up by adding proof spirit until the whole measures 15 fluid ounces and 6 fluid dra

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HOMIEOPATHIC PHARMACOPCEIA. 21 in this way each decimal trituration will occupy forty minutes, or each centesimal-being equal to two decimal triturations-to the making of which Hahnemann allotted one hour, will now occupy one hour and twenty minutes. The object of this change is chiefly to ensure a more thorough preparation, it being found by the microscope that the addition of so large a proportion of sugar of milk at one time (33 grains to 1 grain of medicine) renders it more difficult to

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22 IHOM(EOPATHIC PHARMACOP(EIA. the mixture with the pestle for six minutes as before, and again scrape all the particles off the mortar and pestle, and thus complete the first stage of the process. Now add the remainder of the sugar of milk, stir it well in with the triturated material, and proceed as before, viz. rubbing for six minutes, scraping and mixing for four minutes, again rubbing for six minutes, after which the trituration may be viewed as complete, and having once more scraped

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HOM EOPATHIC PHARMACOP(EIA. 23 become soluble both in water and alcohol; or, if not actually soluble, they are reduced to such minute particles that they are capable of permanent suspension through the fluid, so that it retains their medicinal virtues and answers all the purposes of a perfect solution. Several attempts have been made to invent machines for triturating the drugs, some of which are very ingenious, and to a certain extent effective. The best we are acquainted with in this coun

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24 HIIOMOCOPATH1C PHARlIACOPCEIA. ever, a great practical difficulty as regards these preparations, and that is they will not keep, and accordingly it is still a desideratum that some method should be devised whereby they can be preserved from decomposition. It is probable that the addition of a certain proportion of alcohol or glycerine will effect this, and the subject is suggested as a very suitable one for experimentation. In the mean time these preparations must be made fresh when requ

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HOMEOPATHIC PHARMACOP(EIA. 25 tilled water being used for the 1st. decimal and centesimal attenuations, dilute alcohol for the 3rd decimal, and rectified spirit for the 2nd centesimal and upwards. THE ATTENUATIONS. Systematic dilution of medicines according to a fixed scale constitutes another of the peculiarities of homoeopathic pharmacy. When Hahnemann had convinced himself of the curative power of infinitesimal doses, he devised and carried out the plan of making a series of prep

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26 HOM(EOPATHIC PHARMACOPCEIA. Take a perfectly clean new bottle (say a half-ounce phial), fit a good new cork into it, and then, having removed the cork, pour in 20 minims of the mother tincture, then add 180 minims of spirit of the same alcoholic strength as that with which the mother tincture was prepared; cork the bottle, and, grasping it in the right hand, with the thumb held firmly over the cork, shake it well, letting each shake terminate in a jerk by striking the closed right hand a

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HO0IvEOPATHIC PHARMACOPi A.I2. 27 II.-The first attenuation of mother tinctures (which will always be.1v or A) must be made with spirit of the same strength as that used in making the mother tincture, hencea. When the mother tincture is made with proof spirit attenuation Ix or A must be made also with proof spirit, attenuation 1 with spirit 20 O.P., attenuation 3x or B and all above that with rectified spirit. b. When the mother tincture is made with dilute alcohol, attenuation 11 or A must

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28 HOM(EOPATHIC PHARMACOPEIA. the decimal scale, while others have adhered to Hahnemann's plan and confined their use to centesimal preparations, using Px, 2x, 3x, &c., to denote the decimal attenuations. A few, again, have used A to indicate lx, and B to denote 3X, these two attenuations being almost the only ones in use which could not be expressed by the centesimal numbers. The best way of avoiding all this confusion is for the Homoeopathic practitioners to adopt the centesimal scale onl

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HOM(EOPATHIC PHARMACOPOEIA. 29 be), and not 10 per cent. of the pure drug. Since in the present Pharmacopoeia the proportion of 1 in 10 has been fixed, whenever possible, for the strength of the mother tincture, it follows that the 1st decimal attenuation of a mother tincture corresponds in medicinal strength to the 1st centesimal attenuation of a trituration or watery solution. This uniformity of strength of the mother tinctures thus gets rid of much of the uncertainty which has hitherto

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30 HOM0EOPATHIC PHARAMACOP(EIA. Kreos. q0, Copaiva 0, Brom. 0, Kal. lod. q0, Mere. cor., &c., should always mean the pure substances themselves, and their strongest officinal solutions should be denoted Tereb. 1, Kreos. 1P, Brom. 1, Kali I 1P, Merc. cor. 1x, &c. In short, the sign q0, when meaning mother tincture, should be strictly limited to the strongest solutions in alcohol of substances which are not, or cannot be, prescribed in their crude state. As regards marking the attenuations, t