7. That was the title of Iqbal's influential book published in 1934. It became a national charter for the posthumous state of Pakistan, created in 1948. In the book, Iqbal wrote that the Muslim community, now scattered perforce in a multiplicity of free independent units must strive to have their "racial rivalries adjusted and harmonized by the unifying bond of a common spiritual aspiration. It seems to me that God is slowly bringing home to us the truth that Islam is neither Nationalism nor Imperialism but a League of Nations which recognizes artificial boundaries and racial distinctions for facility of reference only, and not for restricting the social horizon of its members." His was a voice for open borders of intellectual exchange. More than half a century later the Egyptian scholar, Mona Abu-Fadl, returns to the theme of reconstruction when she writes: "The changed historical context, together with trends and directions inherent in contemporary civilization, demand and allow for a radical restructuring of the historical encounter away from its conventionalPage  230 rigid polarities to a more accommodating and dynamic complementarity...The politics of technology is steadily engendering a demand for a new ethics [sic] of responsibility." Mona Abu-Fadl, Where East Meets West: The West on the Agenda of the Islamic Revival (Herndon, VA: International Institute of Islamic Thought, 1992), 81.

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