3. The system of education pursued in much of the Muslim world comes close to the evocative picture Jacob Burckhardt draws of the situation in Renaissance Italy. He writes: "To form an accurate picture of the method of instruction pursued at that time, we must turn our eyes as far as possible from our present academic system. Personal intercourse between teacher and pupils, public disputations, the constant use [of language tools], the frequent changes of lecturers and the scarcity of books, gave the studies of that time a color that we cannot visualize without effect. [Some teachers are said to have educated] the gifted poor 'per l'amore de Dio.'" The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (New York, 1961), 168.


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