13. Unhappy Valley: Conflict in Kenya and Africa, Book One: State and Class (London: James Currey, 1992), 4. See also Berman's extended analysis of the state in Control and Crisis in Colonial Kenya: The Dialectic of Domination (London: James Currey, 1990), 1-48. The Berman-Lonsdale thesis on "the colonial state" first appeared in their article "Coping with the Contradictions: The Development of the Colonial State in Kenya," Journal of African History 20 (1979): 487-506.

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