Pindar : the Nemean and Isthmian odes : with notes explanatory and critical, intro., and introductory essays
Pindar., Fennell, C. A. M. ed. (Charles Augustus Maude), d. 1916,

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Page  I PINDAR: THE NEMEAN AND ISTHMIAN ODES.

Page  II ifonVon: C. J. CLAY, M.A. & SON, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, 17, PATERNOSTER Row. CAMBRIDGE: DEIGHTON, BELL, AND CO. LEIPZIG: F. A. BROCKHAIS.

Page  III PIN DAR: THE NEMEAN AND ISTHMIAN ODES, WITH NOTES EXPLANATORY AND CRITICAL, INTRODUCTIONS, AND INTRODUCTORY ESSAYS, BY C. A. M. FENNELL, M.A. LATE FELLOW OF JESUS COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE. EDITED FOR THE SYNDICS OF TITE UNlIVERSITY PRESS. CAMBRIDGE: AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. I883 [All Rights reserved.]

Page  IV 9 PB3 This volume is respectfully dedicated to the memory of the warmhearted man and accomplished scholar-to whose advice and encouragement not a little of the form and quality of this edition is due WILLIAM MANDELL GUNSON.

Page  V PREFACE. IT seems advisable to make the following additions to the remarks and acknowledgments contained in the Preface to my edition of the Olympian and Pythian Odes, 1879. Since that date there have been some important extensions of the Literature of Pindar, among which may be mentioned Pindar's Siegesliede erkldrt von Friedrich Mezger, Leipzig, 1880. This volume has been found of great use. Though I have not always acquiesced in Prof. Mezger's views as to the structure of the odes, I fully admit the importance of his observation of the recurrence of the same or similar words and phrases in the same ode. He has applied to Pindar's poems the theory of Westphal (Prolegomena zu Aeschylus' Tragoedien, Leipzig 1869, pp. 81 f.), that they were framed on the lines of Terpandros' vS/uos, the most perfect specimens, as 01. VI. Pyth. I., consisting of 7rpooliov, dpXa%, EcaTaTpozra, o/fiaXo?, jLeTaKaTaTpo7ra, o-fpayls, e'Lov. I agree with Prof. Seymour that "all this says little more than that each ode has an apX, 1,E'rov, TeXcV', a beginning, middle and end, with the necessary transitions." It is natural that the thought which introduced the middle of the ode should recur on its dismissal, and that at the close of the poem there should be echoes of the opening.

Page  VI vi PREFACE. The fullest literary criticism is to be found in La poesie de Pindare et les lois du lyrisme Grec, Alfred Croiset, Paris, 1880. Professor R. C. Jebb's truly admirable paper on Pindar in the Journal of Hellenic Studies, is a model of what an essay on the character and style of an ancient poet ought to be. He shows clearly and briefly that "the most indispensable commentary on Pindar" is the "reconstruction of Old Greek Life." Selected Odes of Pindar, with Notes and an Introduction, by Thomas D. Seymour, Greek Professor in Yale College, Boston, 1882, is a welcome evidence that our brethren across the Atlantic are studying Pindar to good purpose. Students of Greek metres can consult Ueber den Bae cer Pindarischen Strophen, Mor. Schmidt, Leipzig, 1882. Reference may also be made to Briuning, Th. F. G., de adjectivis compositis apud Pindarum, Berlin, 1881; Brayer, Berth., Analecta Pindarica. I Dissert. inaugur., Berlin, 1880; Liibbert, Ed., Pindar's Leben und Dichtungen. Vortrag, Bonn, 1882; de Pindari carmine Pyth. fl. Kiel, 1880; id. 01. x. Kiel, 1881. I have given all the Fragments which give, or profess to give Pindar's own words, but have omitted several fragmenta incerta which only give the drift of Pindar's version of mythological points. An asterisk before the number of a fragment indicates that its classification does not rest on express testimony. For the references to the books whence the Fragments are taken I have trusted to Bockh and Bergk; they are given because it is often needful to know the context in which a fragment stands to make it thoroughly available for purposes of argument or research.

Page  VII PREFACE. vii The index-to the notes of both volumes-which is in some cases supplementary to the notes, has been for the most part prepared by Mr B. Benham, M.A., of Corpus Christi College. To him and to Mr H. J. C. Knight, of St Catharine's College, I am indebted for great assistance in revision of proof. I desire to express my hearty thanks to Dr C. B. Scott for many corrections of and additions to my volume on the Olympian and Pythian Odes, and for advice which I have endeavoured to follow; to the Public Orator for lending me MS. marginal notes to Cookesley's edition taken by a Clare man from the late Mr Arthur Holmes' lectures; to Professor Colvin for kindly selecting and seeing to the illustrative coins; to Mr Fanshawe and Professor Postgate for many notes; and to Dr Waldstein for very valuable information as to the pentathlon. The comparative prominence of the critical work in this volume has to some extent crowded out etymology. I have ascertained that the Emmanuel Ms., which originally contained the Pythians and Nem. I. II. III., belongs to the Moschopulean family. It may seem that I have not profited as much as I might by one friendly criticism, namely, the suggestion that I sometimes gave too many explanations of one passage. I admit that as a rule it is a great mistake in an editor to seem to halt between two (or more) opinions. But I have sometimes given the views of others as well as my own, so as to give teachers and mature scholars the materials on which to exercise their own judgment in case they were dissatisfied with mine. In other cases I have come to the unsatisfactory conclusion, after strenuous and prolonged efforts to arrive at some one definite solution of a problem, either that it was insoluble or that

Page  VIII viii PREFACE. there were not in my possession sufficient data upon which to decide between alternative proposals; and in such cases I think candour is preferable to arbitrary selection. Pindar is so exceptionally difficult an author that few who read his odes will be in danger of inferring from an editor's occasional indecision that any given set of Greek words may mean almost anything you please. No doubt critics are perfectly right to protest against any semblance of the tendency, shown in several modern commentaries, towards unjustifiable vacillation. My views as to the chronology of several of the Nemean and Isthmian Odes, given in Olympian and Pythian Odes, pp. xxxi. xxxii. will be found to have changed during the preparation of this volume. In particular I have found that Isth. Iv. is a Nemean Ode (B.C. 479) since I wrote the Introduction to it and to Nem. v. which I should now date B.c. 483 or earlier, while Isth. v. should be placed B.C. 482 or earlier. Isth. vII. and Isth. III. are dated B.C. 478. Again, Nem. III. should be dated shortly before B.C. 458, and Nem. vIIr. before B.C. 462 or just after. It will be many years before a second edition is required, but I should be very grateful for criticisms of both volumes, as I am already preparing for the eventual issue of a revised edition. The references to Liddell and Scott are to the sixth edition. The Fragments are numbered according to Bergk's 3rd Ed., the numbers of his 4th Ed. being added with B4 prefixed. Bockh's numbers are given in brackets.

Page  IX INTRODUCTION. THE PENTATHLON. MY explanation of Nem, vII. 72, 73 differs materially from that of Prof. Gardner and Dr Pinder (Der Fuinfkampf der Hellenen, Berlin, 1867), and moreover my view of the nature of the pentathlon is, I believe, to a great extent new. It seems advisable therefore to explain and defend my position at greater length than the limits of a commentary permit. I agree substantially with Professor Gardner as to the order in which the contests took place-aX/La [SKKOS Kwov (better' UaKWV 8SkKos) 8pO/os 7ra'Ak, and I had anticipated his view of the ephedros in my note on 01. viii. 68. I also agree with Prof. Gardner and Dr Pinder that victory in only three contests was necessary to win the prize (in spite of Aristides, Panathen. p. 341). But I hold in opposition to Professor Gardner that the competitors all contended at once in leaping, discus-throwing, and spear-throwing, and also in running, save that all competitors who were beaten by one competitor (or more) in the first three contests may have at once retired as beaten. Similarly all wrestled, or at least those who had not been beaten by any one competitor in three out of the first four contests. This retirement is a natural consequence of what I hold to be the qualification for ultimate victoryj namely TO DEFEAT 1 See Dr Waldstein's letter at the end of this essay.

Page  X x INTRODUCTION. EACH AND ALL OTHER COMPETITORS IN SOME (NOT NECESSABILY THE SAME) THREE CONTESTS OUT OF THE FIVE. Thus I do not, like Dr Pinder, force the meaning of VlKav, but only distribute its application. It follows from my hypothesis that the first in wrestling, if there was any, won the pentathlon. But still a winner could not, as Prof. Gardner urges, in objection to Dr Pinder's scheme, "be very inferior in the three first contests." On my hypothesis, precisely the same man would (barring the different incidence of fatigue and the ephedros question) win as on Prof. Gardner's, which I here quote from p. 219 of his paper in the Journal of HIellenic Studies, Vol. I. pp. 210-223 (hereafter referred to by page numbers in brackets):; It is far more probable that the Greeks adopted the simple ex"pedient of considering the pentathlon as a single and indivisible "contest, and drawing the competitors in pairs to contend in it. The "successful athletes of the pairs, that is, those who had won any " three events out of the five would then again be drawn against each other, and so on until only two were left, between whom the final "heat took place. In wrestling, boxing, and the pankration we have "reason to hold that this took place, and it seems all but certain that it must have taken place also in the pentathlon. "In this case there must have frequently been an ephedros among the " pentathli." As to Dr Pinder Prof. Gardner writes, ib. p. 217: " Dr Pinder's own notion is that the circle of the competitors was "narrowed after each successive competition. If after the leaping only "five competitors were allowed to remain in, and in each of the subsequent contests the worst man were excluded, it is clear that by the "time the wrestling came on only two would be left, between whom the "final victory would lie. " Dr Pinder narrows the circle of competitors after the second contest, not after the first (Fiinfkampf, pp. 77, 79) to four, three, two successively in the last three contests. This view seems at once untenable, because

Page  XI THE PENTATHLON. xi A who was successively 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 might win from B who was 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, a case which is at variance with common sense and (as Prof. Gardner shews) with all the slight testimony given by antiques and by writers. Still it is quite possible that a minimum of proficiency was required in the first four contests, as Dr Pinder assumes in regard to the first. In supporting the objection to Dr Pinder's view that " if it were true, those contests which Dr Pinder asserts to be the most important," the first three, " would count for very little." Professor Gardner says (p. 217) "A man might be but third in all the three contests I have mentioned, and yet win by wrestling. In this case, why should his statue bear the halteres and his prize-vase contain no allusion to wrestling " Yet these remarks are almost equally antagonistic to the application of Prof. Gardner's scheme to Flavius Philostratos' Argonautic pentathlon (de Gymnn. ~ 3); for Prof. Gardner (p. 221) entertains two cases in which Peleus wins, though third in leaping. According to Professor Gardner's view of the comparative merits of the heroes, Peleus was only third best in each of the first four contests. In assuming that Zetes or Kalais might be left in for the last heat (on his own system) he must imply that either of them might beat Lynkeus and Telam6n in wrestling; as the sons of Boreas were last in merit in discus and spear-throwing. Now suppose the heats were as follows: I. Zetes 1. Lynkeus 2. Kalais 1. Telamon 2. Peleus ephedros. II. Peleus 1. Zetes 2. Kalais ephedros. III. Peleus 1. Kalais 2. On this assumption, which ought not to be arbitrarily excluded, Peleus would not even have a success in leaping in

Page  XII xii INTRODUCTION. one heat to justify the halt'res on his prize. If any justification beyond artistic requirements (see Dr Waldstein's letter) be needed it is furnished by the evidence (Flay. Phil. de Cymn. 55) that unless a man leapt well he ran a great chance of knocking himself up, and also by the premier position of the leaping in the order of the contests. On my hypothesis, according to Prof. Gardner's own view of the heroes' merit, we get the subjoined simple scheme. XAC& aKWV 810-KOS 6p' IXr Lynkeus 4or5 1 2 5or4 Telam6n 5or4 2 1 4or 5 Kalals lor2 5 or 4 4 or 5 2 or l ZtWs 2orl 4 or 5 5 or4 Ior 2 PM1eus 3 3 3 3 l wins If the larger of the alternative numbers be chosen or excluded, all five competitors remain in for the wrestling. I need not make any assumption as to the numbers in the case of Tisamenos. Pausanias says of him, iii. 11. 6, OVTO,rEvraOXov 'OXMvZvwl'ao-tv a rK-o-a3 dc7flX0EV 17T-qOE63, KlLt TOF T- v'o E T yp OpWc4~ TE EKPLLTEL &qjLLc JEpoWVVOkV 'YE WII 7rPWT03' Ka m8 T "Av8pCwv KaTa7WatXaLtoOELs (E' vI av'TOV- Kt CL/XlaappOwv 'Ty7 Vu<tKrq K.T.X. Her. ix. 33 tells us that TtJ~uaEVO3 wctapc EIV 7cXaLtcr/xa `8pL/,LE VLKOJV 'OXvtkIUwtJ& 'ILp. W 'A. EX6 v " 'pw. If these were the only competitors and lier6nymos was first in spear and -discus-throwing Pausanias seems to say too much and too little. Theoretically any number of competitors might stay in for the wrestling, as for example if the order of n - I competitors A, A, &c. (nz being greater than 2) in the first four contests were A1, 1,1, n - I, n -i1; A2, 2, 2, n - 2, n - 2;.; Af n-I) nf - r) 2 - 1, 1. 1

Page  XIII THE PENTATHLON. xiii But practically there would almost always be some competitors already beaten after the 3rd and 4th contests; and often, no doubt, the ultimate victor would be absolutely first in three out of the first four contests. My hypothesis avoids the following difficulty entailed by assuming that each kind of contest was decided separately and also that three absolute victories were necessary to gain the prize. If two competitors were each first twice, or if 3, 4, or 5 competitors were each first once, we have on these assumptions no means of determining the final decision. I will now indicate the difficulties which I consider fatal to Prof. Gardner's theory, but which mine avoids. First Prof. Gardner admits (p. 221) " that at first sight" Xenoph6n's language, iHellenica, vII. 4, " would seem to imply that the running contests of the pentathlon took place all at once." Secondly, he seems to be obliged to assume that seven competitors is an extreme case, and only to be able to fit the three heats required in this case "provided, of course, that they went on at the same time as other contests." Now as to the numbers he says (p. 220): "Indeed it is doubtful if more than three usually contested in boxing and wrestling at Olympia." There happens to be a little indirect evidence on this point. 01. viII. 38 tells us that from eleven to sixteen boys competed in wrestling at once. Of course when the term eeESpos was used metaphorically the case which naturally presented itself was the ZbESpos at the most critical stage of a contest, namely when only three were left in, and proves nothing as to the original number of competitors. We must not forget that the pentathlon " was in high favour among the Greeks" (p. 210), so that a theory as to the nature of the pentathlon ought to admit of as many competing in the boys' pentathlon (Nem. vii) as are implicitly recorded to have competed at once in the boys' wrestling. Prof. Gardner's heats would lave taken as long in the case of five competitors

Page  XIV xiv INTRODUCTION. as in his " extreme case" of seven. Then as to the pentathlon going on during other contests Pausanias tells us, vI. 24. 1, that the pentathlon took place towards the middle of the day after the running, and before wrestling and the pankration. This passage then supports the " at first sight" interpretation of Xenoph6n, Hellenica, vII. 4, as also does Nem. viI. 72-74, to which I shall return. The most conclusive' passage on this point is Pausanias v. 9. 3, which tells us that, in the 77th Olympiad the horse-racing and pentathlon were deferred to a second day, because they, especially the pentathlon, extended the pankration to night. This passage, together with ib. vi. 24. 1, proves that the pentathlon did not go on simultaneously with other contests. These citations offer an argument against the system of heats for the pentathlon as they tend to shew that contests which took place in the same place came together. First the scene was in the dromos, then in the hippodromos, then the pentathlon in leaping- and hurling-ground, dromos, and wrestling-place whence there was no further move till night. Thirdly comes the difficulty presented by the great advantage which an ephedros would have over competitors who had wrestled. Prof. Gardner justly says (p. 214) "We cannot help wondering what sort of a throw with a spear an athlete could make after a bout or two of wrestling." This remark suggests a fourth difficulty, namely, that when one or more couples in the first heat had wrestled the performance in the subsequent heats would have been miserable. Fifthly, it seems strange that a popular contest should be carried on during other contests, and that its interest should be divided. Sixthly, time being an important consideration, a system of heats presupposes expenditure of time, while the pentathloi pass more than once from leaping-place to 8poAos, and thence to wrestling-ground. 1 Pointed out by Mr Ridgeway.

Page  XV THE PENTATHLON. XV My supposition that it was not necessary for the victor to be absolutely first except in wrestling is not only supported by the above-mentioned case of Peleus, which was most probably in accordance with the usage of the historic pentathlon, but also by Xenophon, Hellenica, IV. 7. 5, Or'E 8s vewor2O ToV 'AyTo-XCaov eo-rparev'ECvov els To 'Apyos, 7rvvOavofY!e/vo o 'AAy7rt7roXtLS TWv OrpaTLOWTWV E1EXPL /LEV 7ro TrpSO 7 TOrp 7T tXS yayEv o 'AycrLAaos /ieXpL e tro2 Twjv XTpav eowcrev, wcr'rep TrevraOXo ardvvr L7r Tr 7r\ rXov VrEp/3flXXELtV EreLpparo, and still more strongly by Plato, p. 138 n, E'rastae, IIdorpov orv KaZl rept raVTa XEc/owleV, ET(7VV, 7revTa7Xov aVTOV Oi'V eLvaL KCa ra vKpov, 7ra evTepela XovTra 7rdavrwv TOV ~tXOrooov, K.T.X. Even in Plutarch S~ymp. Probl. Ix. 2, where alpha TaCS TpLaTv (ra-rep or WrEVraOXotL repEo-Tr Ka vLKa, definite classes of letters are vanquished at each contest', so that this passage can scarcely be quoted to support heats on Prof. Gardner's plan. Prof. Gardner cites the Scholiast ad Aristidem, ovX oTt r&,rVTw o0 revraOXoL rotrara VLKuwoLV, dpKeL yap avrTOL yr' rov E 7rp3o VtKqrIV (Ed. Frommel, p. 112). But Aristides, Panathenaicus, p. 341 says Eiuol JAEV oue 'r 7vrTaOXAo OOKOVOLtV o0 7rdvTra VLKVWVTre TOoTOVTOV TOLs 7rao-t KpaOrev. Plutarch and Aristides allude either to the most famous pentathloi of old, who would naturally occur first to the minds of late writers, if they thought of old times at all, or perhaps to the exhibitions of professional athletes of their own times; while Plato refers to ordinary cases in the fifth and fourth centuries B. c. The authority of the Scholiast ad Aristidem is perhaps somewhat lowered by the fact that he does not repudiate the idea that the pankration might have taken the place generally assigned to the leaping (see, however, Plin. N. H. xxxiv. c. 19). But it is not my desire to damage his authority, for the three passages on the Trpay'uo do not " prove beyond all cavil that for victory in the pentathlon it was 1 In using this passage to support his own theory Dr Pinder seems to press the simile too much.

Page  XVI xvi INTRODUCTION. necessary to win three events" (p. 217), but simply that the winning of three events was a familiar case. The appointment of only three Hellanodikae for the pentathlon is to my mind almost an argument against pairs being set to work simultaneously; for one official is required at the starting line to see that the leap or throw is fair, and another to determine the lengths, unless the one walks backwards and forwards, so wasting a great deal of time. Then again an extra judge might well be wanted to see that in the first two contests, or one of them, competitors did not purposely take it easy, which would give them a considerable unfair advantage in the last three or four contests. The placing of several competitors in three or four contests, which I have assumed, takes more judging than merely placing the first two. But after all the appointment of three Hellanodikae is fully accounted for by the pentathlon taking such a much longer time than the other contests. It is not easy to see why the question of stopping the pentathlon owing to the disqualification of a competitor (pp. 222, 224) should be raised by Dr Pinder with respect to Nem. vii. 72-74. The notion of disgrace does not generally attach to the verb K7rrL7r;w and in the case of a competitor who had won in the leaping alone with a strong chance of winning either the discus-hurling or the foot-race, success in the spear-throw would "send him off" in triumph from the wrestling. Since a false throw would presumably make a competitor last in the second contest, he would therefore on Dr Pinder's theory retire beaten whether disqualified or not. It does not even follow that a false throw would disqualify in the spear-throwing alone; but even if another try were allowed a false throw would be highly detrimental to success. I have often seen the best jump or throw (of ball or hammer) disallowed at an early stage of the contest to the discomfiture of the competitor who had thus wasted his best effort.Even if my interpretation were wrong, and the poet were

Page  XVII THE PENTATHLON. Xvii alluding to a false throw often preventing a man wrestling, it is mere assumption to talk of disqualification and stoppage of the pentathlon. For the competitor who won the discushurling would often if he had lost the spear-throwing be debarred from wrestling by his principal rival beating him (or being first) in leaping, spear-throwing, and running. Now Prof. Gardner, though he speaks of "five very various contests" (p. 217) calls discus- and spear-throwing "two very kindred contests" (p. 217) suggesting that "perhaps there was no absolutely fixed order" for these two. But Flavius Philostratus tells us that the discus-throwing was /3apv' and spearthrowing KOV0os. It seems to me that a frequent distribution would be that suggested by the actual case of Tisamenos and Hier6nymos.-Tisamenos superior in leaping and running, and Hieronymos in discus-hurling, so that the spear-throwing was a crucial point in this contest. Had Tisamenos won it, the words EircEu/ev 7'raXaLcraxAT*ov would at any rate have applied to Hier6nymos. I take it that the representatives of KovoT?7s and P/3pos were not seldom more evenly matched in this contest than in the four others. Hence perhaps its prominence on vases (p. 216) and Pindar's allusions Nem. vII. 72-74. I am fortunate in being able to correct and supplement my own remarks by the subjoined letter. MY DEAR FENNELL, The only information bearing on the special question you are treating of, which I am capable of giving, is based upon a study of the general history of athletic games and palaestric institutions in their relation to Greek social and political life and more especially in their relation to Greek art. Let me point out one interesting point which has strongly impressed itself upon me. The principle of the pictorial decoration of a large number of athletic prize-vases is identical with the principle on which Pindar forms his odes. In both vase-paintings and odes we have an indication of the special victory for which they were composed, while in both cases the individual victory and game F. II. b

Page  XVIII xviii INTRODUCTION. are illustrated and glorified by a corresponding contest or association from the mythological world. As Pindar generally introduces some feat of prowess of a hero or demigod, so the prize-vases generally have on the one side a representation illustrating the special game from actual life, while the other side contains the supposed mythological prototype of such a contest, Peleus and Atalante, Herakles and the Nemean Lion, Theseus and the Minotaur, &c., &c. The study of the history of the Greek Palaestra shows most clearly one general principle, the recognition of which I believe to be essential to a correct understanding of the nature of this institution, as well as of importance in an attempt to determine any question concerning the special points of any individual game. This general principle concerning the origin and subsequent modification of Greek games is contained in the requirements of the social and political welfare of the ancient communities. At least as to historical times, it has become quite clear to me that the various games were consciously meant to meet certain political wants, or were modified by these wants, perhaps without the full consciousness of purpose on the part of those who did thus modify them. Especially after the Persian war, when the public Palaestrae became fully organised, they were more consciously meant to provide for the physical education of Greek youths, the ultimate aim of which education, as is well known, was to produce good citizens who could guard the integrity of the state as strong and agile soldiers. No doubt in the subsequent stages we find that this ultimate aim is lost sight of, and that what was to be a means to a higher end becomes the end in itself, this leading to an overstraining of the importance of the athletic games and to professional athletes. Within this palaestric organisation we can distinguish various subdivisions corresponding to the various requirements of a good physical education. When once the games had become systematised, the first broad distinction is between the heavy and light games; the f3apvs and KV0c0os to which you draw attention, those that tended to develop more the strength, and those that developed more the agility. Boxing and the Pankration, for instance, are heavy games; while running, jumping, and throwing the spear, are light. Every quality that tended to make a perfect soldier had its own game. A good runner, a good jumper, an agile wrestler, a boxer with powerful arms for thrusting and skill in parrying, all tended to make a good soldier. No doubt in the

Page  XIX THE PENTATHLON. xix schools, a man who was found deficient in any one requisite (say in fleetness) was chiefly made to practise the corresponding games. Nay, we have evidence that for weaknesses of special muscles a special course of exercise was undergone. Nothing proves this consciousness of purpose in the form that directed these organisations better than the subsequent introduction of the hoplite running, in 01. 65, and of the mule race, when it seemed desirable to encourage the breeding of these animals. The more the games were thus specialised and corresponded to separate requirements in man, the more did need become felt to have a game which encouraged the all-round man. Such a game is most specifically Greek. Now the aim and essence of the Pentathlon was thus to supplement the other, specialised, games, and to encourage and produce all-round strength and agility. The more we recognise this fundamental truth concerning the Pentathlon, the more shall we have to bear in mind, that the aim and intention would always be to make the victory depend as far as possible upon the best man in all the five constituent contests or at least in as many as possible. The fact that Pentathlon prize-vases very often have only representations of three of the games, can be no guide as to the nature of the game itself, for the class of figures represented in these paintings is only influenced by artistic requirements, i.e. by the fact that certain games can more readily be represented in single figures than others. It is an easy thing for a vase-painter or sculptor to represent a youth as a jumper, a discus-thrower or a spear-thrower, for he need merely place in his hands halteres, a diskos, or a spear. It is more difficult to represent among several others a wrestler or a runner. This can only be done with clearness by representing a pair of youths wrestling, or a number running, which is often represented on Panathenaic vases destined to be prizes for one of these single games, but these are not subjects that can be easily composed into a number of figures placed together on a limited space, and each expressing part of the game illustrated by the whole group. Thus it is that of the five games of the Pentathlon, three especially serve as pictorial types, i.e. a'KCw, adX/a, iCoKOS. But often vases evidently pentathlic have merely one scene. I have met with Pentathlon vases with merely two games of the five, diskos and spear, or spear and halteres. In some cases even the connexion between the mythob2

Page  XX XX INTRODUCTION. logical scenes on the one side and the scenes from real life on the other, to which I alluded above, has served the vase-painter in giving a full illustration of the Pentathlon, the mythological scenes illustrating those games which the athletic scenes do not represent. So a kylix in Paris is evidently pentathlic from the mythological scenes of struggle represented on the border of the outside, while in the medallion on the inside there is but one of the contests figured, namely a youth with halteres. Finally let me point out that if in literature the Diskos is mentioned before the Akontismos, this must be from literary reasons, if there is any design in the order at all. The nature of the two games precludes the possibility of such a sequence. The Diskos as compared with the Akontismos was fapvs, while the Akontismos was light and required above all things steadiness of eye and arm. Now the effect of a great strain in hurling a heavy body at a distance is that the hand and arm tremble for some time after, and are the opposite of steady. Surely the throwing the hammer would in our day not be a good preparation for the shooting of an arrow. Yours very truly, CHARLES WALDSTEIN.

Page  XXI ON SOME SPECIAL CASES OF THE CAUSATIVE MIDDLE. The familiar use of the Middle in a Causative sense consists of cases in which the object of the active verb is identical with the object of the causative middle, e g. g. eKrpE(t?raLa ' he rears a child,' KTrp eerat rraTOa 'he has a child reared.' This construction is generally recognised, though some cases of it seem to have escaped notice. For instance in Soph. Trach. 1167, E'Eypaf/aL'urlv is not 'I wrote out for my own use,' but 'I got written out,' 'I caused to be written.' So in Pindar Ko/jcLar()oJLat is only used in the first person singular of the poet who will 'make to be sung-by-the-komos,' Pyth. IX. 89, Isth. III. 90, while when the Muses are expected to accompany the poet to the revel at Aetna, Nem. Ix. 1, we have K(wo/aao-/ev. I think I have broken down Donaldson's explanation, that 'Pindar uses a middle form for the future of active verbs signifying to utter a sound,' in my note on Nem. ix. 43. In support of the subsidiary theory that the active future is used when the sense is deliberative or prohibitory only three passages are adduced. One is the strong negative /j avdaaroJLev, 01. I. 7; the second is the future K(o)lacrooev, Nemi. IX. 1, which is an ordinary future; the third is probably an aorist subjunctive, Aesch. Persae 640, SLacfoaro, at any rate this Doric form can hardly be taken to express a different shade of meaning from that of the Attic middle future'. Other cases in which the causative sense seems more appropriate than the 1 I am not here concerned with Attic middle futures of verbs signifying the exercise of the senses.

Page  XXII Xxii INTRODUCTION. ordinary rendering are 'wJ 8p' E0-Oa& Frag. 99.8 v, Istli. iii [iv]. 89. If it be true that a1WcLPXEt, Nem. iv. 46 mneans 'receives first-fruits' then a'7wcp~o/,at literally meant I'I offer (cause to receive) first-f ruits ' with the personal ohject suppressed.. Compare also Kal-c'pXCLV, Frag. 57 B of the goddess in whose honour there was To' Ka-la'pXEcrOat. The ordinary causal sense is also well suited to Euripides, Hippol. 618, 619, Et' ya'p /POTELOV TJOEXE3 O.WE~paL 7')/EVOI OVK EK( yVYaXLK&V XP77V poVoOa~t TO3SE, I a'XX&..f./PoT0oi. ilere OEoVg is the most natural subject to ~rapao-X&aOaL, 'to cause this to be provided.' With respect to anotber class of instances, much more diffidence is natural, because the proposal to take, the middle as causative involves a construction which does not appear to be generally recognised: that is to say, what would be the subject of the active is the object of the middle verb. Such is generally the construction of causal verbs in Sanskrit. Thus I have proposed to render m-vy//aX1`a J'r-~'varo olwov, Nem. vi. 26, ' boxing is wont to make (no) house to give account.' See also Nem. i. 43, 01. I. 95, TaXVia-w V-o&~v E'pt`Zer-, does not admit of a very satisfactory interpretation -unless it be ' swiftness of foot makes (men) contend.' The omission of the object is easily to be defended. [I have even proposed to alter E~et) Nenii. Mn. 12, to the causal middle k$cat] In Nem. in. 26, 27', OV~kE, TL'vO 7tpO cL3 XXo8ara'v aLKpLv Eliov 7rXo'ov 7rapa/ftEt/3Ecat;-we have a more obvious case of causal middle; and this brings me to the few instances I can call to mind of this construction outside Pindar. Professor Paley gives a causative sense to a`/tE,_tq/Erat in Aesch. ChoWph. 965 [952 P.] 7rVIX1 XPO'V0'3 djpE'lP/ETat wrpo'Ovpai &oja'TJi-o on which Paley's note runs '....the word has here as in Tiheb. 851 (0& atiE'v V 'AX~pvr' a~Et~E a ' - MWooV/E I~KpOKOV OE'poa) its true middle sense "will bring a change on the house. "' The three references given by Paley, Tiheb. 85 1, are foreign to my purpose. In the face of Pyth. vi. 14, and also on account of the difficulties, metrical and exegetical, which it involves, I cannot

Page  XXIII THE CAUSATIVE MIDDLE. xxiiu accept Mr Verrall's proposal to change the passage in the Choi~phorae (Journ. of Philol. Vol. ix. p. 121). 1 approve an anonymous ernendation (mentioned by Mr Verrall, small ed.) of MAedea, 1266, KW.' 1T E (for Ka'c) Svr-1WVb130VO~; a/LEG ', t ill-intendino, murder bringeth a change, overte, which is suggested by the metre as well as the sense of the passage. As to Soph. Tlirach. 738, T1[ S' io-i-v, w iraZ, 7rpog y 'iov O1TV70V/1~EV0;- on my side causing hatred,' seems the easiest rendering. In Soph. Electra, 1071, Ta' 8E 7rpo'3 TEKVOJV &2~rXyq -v'XorL9 011K ET Jet-ov'Tat Ic0XoTau-1` 8tat'ra, render 'Two-fold strife no longer lets the relations of the children (towards each other) unite in friendly mode of life.' I would suggest that in Aesch. Sept. c. Theb. 57, 58, cPt'or. T0V13 aV~pagS.... Ta-yEVOatL is 'set the best men as captains.' Paley refers to Eur. Herakleidae 164, Tatr-crETat, where he says 'not by himself but by the aid of his officers: hence the middle;' so that he seems to admit the possibility of the less frequent construction in the Case Of TaYEV(Tat. Perhaps Eur. Bacch. 593, a' kaX d4E Tat. is ' will cause the cry Of victory.' Euripides furnishes a very clear case of the causal use in Helen. 3 81, JV T~ Eio1' 7T"ApTIEJLL E'eEXopEV`07roI XPVJrIKE'PaT E~Xaoov, 'caused to leave (keep away from) the chorus as a deer.' For E'KX0PEV'EtV Cf. E'o0,PXE'), E'KataL1-ottat and for the idea of. aVopTO ~OVKL~p m-uqdv Eur l.30 It is probable that many more cases could easily be found, and further that many cases have been misunderstood and altered by scribes and grammarians. In the causal use of the middle the subject is not the agent but the authorizer of the action. In the second class of cases which I have dealt with the object is the object of the authorization, in the first class the object is the object of the authorised action. 1There are indications of an intransitive use of 4a1/3lew, though d/'Cel/3eo-Oat may be causal and yet identical with the intransitive middle.

Page  XXIV METRICAL SCHEMES. Nem. I. r - - v V Str. _ - V V - < - a -V V- v..p -- p,' 'a - _.. -.. v'.- V *\ - - V V <^ V V - I V - - - - - - - - 'a V ' - - - V - _ _ V - - - - - V - / I r _ v Nerm. II — v ' - - -V v - --— v ^d -*^f-s^- -C? - - -'- -v - v - '-" - v -x v,..?- vv v - u J -. av v - v~ — 'av v-v — v-l v'a' -- v v v' -.- v va a- ' Nem - IIIo - -.... Str L P ' *- 'a 'a - ' - - a ' ' V - X -, -X V v - 'a 7 ' a - - V - - - - r v 'z V- - V - - a V

Page  XXV METRICAL SCHEMES. xxv -t V -- wV -- V -- I - V — ~~IEp. X x, X v - / E - J - - '- - X t X - - X, - v- - v- v - - - v - v - - - - v v - v -v- v - - v -v v. - - xV,,, -v x Lv v/ - v v - v v v- v v - v — vNem. IV. ' — X, - vX Str. -v-t - -/v - v- -v! - - -- v- \v Jv -- v - - -. - - 7 - -- -- -- -.v-vv -v-v —v v- - - v v - - v v! -v - V - V V - - V V -. V - -,- V - t x v tv -v -v -X\1- - v E 1 3 - %a I I -I / Vl 1,

Page  XXVI xxvi INTRODUCTION. - - -. --- Vj V - VA VJ - - V V - V V - V V - -VV V - - V V - V - Cv V - v ^ V -- V V - V V Ep. Nem. VII. x - - - %J\JV ~- - ~J - - ' - I ~VV/ - - - V ~ V - ~~ - ~ - - %. VV - VA V - I -. v p ~ V x x ~AJ - 1j I -.1 - v) * -- vj~ - - - Str. Ep. Nem.VIII. -x vv- v — vv-vv -v. - v - v - - v - - - v v - - v - - -- - v - Q- v v v - - v V - - v v - v v J -v / V-V t V —V v-'J - v — - v — v - v -v v - - - - - -- V V — V V V Str. Ep.

Page  XXVII METRICAL SCHEMES. xxvii I I I t V V - -V - V - - - V - - - Nem. IX. -v v-v ---v - - - - - v - -- v -- - v -,...mX. -'-~~~ St Nem. X. r v v- v - Str. - v - - - v v - v v - - v v v - v - C - v v - v v - - - v - L - i- - v v - v - - - ---- L Li - V V - - - - f- v v - v v - - - v v - v V - -(^/ ^ - - - - v V - v v - ---- v - v Nem.. X - - - 1- -. t - Str. - v - - -- - - v v - v v -v t I - v - v - -v - -.. — v -,-v -- - v - v-.. - - v> - v v -- -~ v- v - v- - -v - -v - NeIsth. IX. - -- -- o-'- Str. - v v - v - v- v -v - v -v ---v v v.-. -VV-VV —vy-v V

Page  XXVIII xxviii INTRODUCTION. - v v - - v- - - v - v — v- v v...- L v. - - v - - v v -- -- - v- v v- - - ------- --, - - - - - V - Isth. II... St r. -J - v -! v -v - - j v - v v - — Pv-v, — vv-Pvv- - v Ep. - - v - - v - - v - v r! v - - - - - z 'V-'V Ep - V VV - V - V Isth. II. _- ~_ -~'V —v — Str. - v/ - v v - v- - v -v v, -, J, - ---- - v J — - v - - v. v- v V - V- V -VV - t- - - -'-P - V ' - -v-v-. - - -v -- - V -- - - V --- -- - - - Isth. IY. IV — v V V-V V- S.r. -L V- V - - t- v p ~! - - 'v - - - - - v

Page  XXIX METRICAL SCHEMES. xxix - v,- v — v v -- - -v -- - - - L - -- LiV — ti^ r Ep. sth- -v - - v i - v! _ - ~. -. ~ - V - > - - - V - - - V - V - - V - IsthY. ~- _ ^A — LiJ-Li/- Str. - - - - v Li - vi -- v Li - vi vi v v —v v vL v v ---- - L - v. v,, - v v- - v - - Lf Li -- Li V - - Ji - i LVLJ - - tL - i Li -V -- V V ' - V V E - - - - - - v X- V - - - - V V - -Li - V - - ) V- V V - > - V - f V Isth. VI. /w-r - - Str. v - -, v - v - I- v Y - v - - - v - v - - -- - L v - v - v - v

Page  XXX xxx INTRODUCTION. V- - SV V - 'S - V V ' - V - - V X r v Isth. VII. [ v-v =v - x -LV V V -V ' -- v - -V v- - - x, X, X, - V- V ' -- -' V -' X I. -\^ -'S ~ ' f - ' QV VV- V - - - V V V - - V S - -, - - - K - V 'S - ' -V V- Q - V - 'S V - V

Page  XXXI ERRATA. P. 5-, note, v. 8, 1. 55, for V"Aau'v read Vjsswv. 14, note, v. 64, 1. 5, for definite pron. read indef. pron. 31, text, v. 84, for alro read dw6b, and alter lemma 46, text, v. 91, for av7-ra read *4", Trt* (mss. Tts) 62, text, v. 30, for oIX. read 7rapotX. 64, text, v. 53, for KcarTU3 ds read Karq-a/3&, with comma at end of verse 91, note, v. 38, 1. 12, for 90 read 20 95, note, v. 7 (end) for rpicor- I Ppopc, read lrpcc — q5'poe. 121, text, v. 10, for 'repa at read 7repcicat 132, text, v. 32, for, H~oret8iws r' 'lo-O. read Hoccei5dwze 'lo-O. Sundry additions to and corrections of the notes of the earlier volume have been incidentally introduced in the following pages. ADDENDA. Nem. x. 1. The following extract from Professor Jebb's paper on Pindar is apposite. " I may give a few instances, by way of showing how Pindar and the sculptors were working in the same field. The Gigantomachia (Pindar, Nem. i. 67) adorned the pediment of the Megarian ' Treasury' at Olympia; next to Zeus, Poseidon, and Ares, the chief figure was Heracles, whom Pindar also makes prominent. The wedding of Heracles with Hobo (Pind. ib. and Isthm. iii. 78) was the subject of a relief (of Pindar's age) on the low wall round the month of a well (wepcp~rr' tv) found at Corinth. Pindar may have lived to see the eastern pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olympia, by Paeonins, though not the western, by Alcamenes; the subject of the eastern was the chariot-race of Pelops and Oenomaus (Pind. Of. i. 76); of the western, the war of the Centaurs with the Lapithae (AaweOav fn7rep0'7rXwP, Pyth. ix. 14). Pindar's mention of the 'fair-throned Hours' (evfOpopot '&2pac, Pyth. ix. 62) reminds us that the Heraion at Olympia possessed a chryselephantine group of the Horae seated on thrones, by Smilis of Aegina, whose date has been referred to the earlier half of the sixth century. Hiero of Syracuse, who was engaged in war while suffering from gout and stone, is compared by Piudar

Page  XXXII xxxii ADDENDA. with Philoctetes, acoeveZ tFev XcpwTZ Pativ, daXX&a botpl&o v ^v (Pyth. i. 55). At that very time Syracuse contained the famous statue of the limping Philoctetes, by Pythagoras of Rhegium, of which Pliny says that those who looked at it seemed to feel the pain (xxxiv. 59). Even if we hesitate to believe that the sculptor intended an allusion to Hierol, we may well suppose that Pindar's comparison was suggested by the work of Pythagoras. Pindar touches on a legend which represented Heracles in combat with Apollo and two other gods (01. ix. 30 f). A similar contest between Heracles and Apollo was the subject of a group executed in Pindar's time (about 485 B.c.) by three artists of Corinth-Diyllus, Amyclaeus, and Chionis-and offered by the Phocians in the temple at Delphi (Paus. x. 13, 7). The religious reserve with which Pindar alludes to the strife between Heracles and the god (01. ix. 35, acrt6 eoc Xyov rouTro, o-T6oa, pirqov) has led critics to infer that the story was one of the Iepol Xo'yo pertaining to mysteries2. His reticence probably reflects the tone of the Delphic priesthood in regard to the closely kindred subject which he must have seen in their temple." I See Watkiss Lloyd, History of Sicily, Sculpture, p. 203. p. 315; and A. S. Murray, History of Greek 2 Cp. Paley on Iliad v. 396.

Page  XXXIII I

Page  XXXIV ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~14~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~y i wL '^KB^ J -~B~iiiB9B. '^ES~i~i~l "1!''"J"

Page  XXXV DESCRIPTION OF ILLUSTRATIVE COINS (SILVER)}. From the British JI seu4 Eldueatio cal Series (Catalajue). 1. III B. 28. Of Thebe Obv. Boeotian shield. Rev. OE (= Oeitrjv). Infant H-Irakles strangling serpents. Fourth century B.C. Wt. 187 grs Cf. Nem. L 39-47. 2. II. C. 16. Of Akragas 0Obv Two eagles with hare. In field horned head of a young river-god. [Rev. A KPA FA NT1 NO N.] End of fifth century B.c. Wt. 267-8 grs Cf Nem...80, 81. 3. II. B. 24. Of Aegina (XEXwvq). Obv. Al. Land tortoise (symbol of Astartt, Phoenician goddess of commerce). Rev. Incuse square divided into five compartments, with N, I, and dolphin in the three whole squares. Earlier than ac. 459. Wt, 189 grs. Cf. Nem. Vi 66. 4. I. C. 25. Of Katana. [Obv. Man-headed bull (river-god); above, water-fowl; beneath, river-fishk] Rev. KATANA ON ( OM1 KATANA). Winged NikO with wreath in right hand moving quickly to the left. Before 480 B.c. Wt. 266'8 grs, 5. II. C. 28. [Obv. AAESAN I ON. Hare; beneath it dolphin.] Rev. 'A^rvl; winged Nike about to crown charioteer. In exergue two dolphins. Fifth century B.C. Type adopted by Anaxilaos. Wt. 266-9 grs. Cf. 01. v. 3.

Page  XXXVI I

Page  XXXVII ERRATA. p. 6, text v. 9, for a-va read abap p. 9, note on a. 25 aweixoara, for 01. 115 read 01. r. 115 p. 27, notes col. 2 11. 8, 9, fior aiptr-7-O'K ta read 4iptoro-76KCt5 p. 31, note on v. 83, fior Nern. iri. 33 read Nem. x. 33 p. 505, text v. 49, for -re'Kroa read rk-roa' p. 92, note on a. 46 Mij3poa 1. 8, dele comma after ' neck' p. 110, note on a. 29 ol, dale 40, p. 123, note on v. 28, for 'odoribus' read I'oloribus' p. 140, note on a. 18 66W, for 01. xiv. 4 read 01. xiv. 14, Frag. 53, 1 p. 208, text 1. 5, for Jixeal' a' read dye6,ral a' For corrected chronology of Kern. v, Isth. iii, iv, v, vii, see p. viii.

Page  XXXVIII d I

Page  1 NEMEA I. ON THE VICTORY OF CHROMIOS, OF SYRAKUSE (PROCLAIMED AS OF AETNA), WITH THE FOUR-HORSE CHARIOT, INTRODUCTION. CHROMrOS, son of Agesidamos, was, according to Dissen's conjecture, a member of the Hyllean tribe of Dorians, one of the Herakleids who went from Rhodes to Gela (see Pyth. I. 62). He was made by Hiero governor, 'erlrporos (according to Schol. on Nem. ix.), of Aetna, founded B.c. 476, of which Deinomenes was titular sovereign (Pyth. I. 58-60). Gelo had given Chromios one of his own and Hiero's sisters in marriage, and had made him, with the other brother-in-law, Aristonoos, a guardian of his son. It appears however that Polyz6los, brother of Gelo and Hiero, married Gelo's widow, Dtamareta (Demaret8), thus getting control over Gelo's son and heir, so that in supporting Hiero, Chromios was not necessarily betraying his trust. He may well have despaired of his ward being able to cope with his paternal uncles, the youngest of whom, Thrasybulos, was directly responsible for his ruin. It is at any rate clear that Chromios was Hiero's chief supporter. He is said to have been his charioteer. The reason for regarding him as a Geloan immigrant to Syrakuse is because Pindar tells us (Nem. ix. 40) that in his prime he fought with distinction in the battle on the Heloros, in which Hippokrates, tyrant of Gela, defeated the Syrakusans. As this battle is mentioned in the ode (Nem. ix.) sung at Aetna, it is probable that the Syrakusans of rank who moved thither were new citizens of Syrakuse introduced with Gelo. In the new city they F. II.

Page  2 2 PINDARI CARMINA. were out of danger of surprise by the republican faction, and were reinforced by numbers of Megarians and Peloponnesians which could scarcely have been introduced into the old city, while they were near enough to give effective aid to their friends in Syrakuse. As Akragas and Himera had just before the time of the composition of this ode, 01. 76. 4, B. c. 473, recovered their freedom, it is probable that Pindar had in view, when mentioning foresight (v. 28), this provision for Deinomenes and precaution against the impending struggle against the tyranny. If so, he lived to see the futility of the policy he thus admired, which was doubtless partly owing to the division of the dynastic party after Hiero's death. Chromios took active part in Hiero's martial enterprises, and as ambassador to Anaxilas, tyrant of Rhagion, between B.c. 478 and 476 (see Pyth. II. Introd.), he prevented the subjugation of the Lokri Epizephyrii. He won this Nemean victory, 01. 76. 4, B.C. 473, in the summer. Pindar was in Sicily when this ode was recited before the banquet given in celebration of the victory at Chromios' house in Ortygia, at which the poet was apparently himself present. The chorus performed it at the 7rpOvypov, i.e. before the principal door of the palace. Mezger well compares Chromios with Ther6n, and says that his praises came straight from the poet's inmost heart. It is therefore not surprising that the scene of the myth should lie in Thebes. The rhythm is Dorian. ANALYSIS. vv. 1-7. The ode goes forth from Ortygia in honour of Zeus of Aetna, on the occasion of Chromios' Nemean victory. 8, 9. The exordium makes mention of gods, as the victor's merits are derived from them. 10-12. The highest object of ambition, celebration by an Epinikian ode, has its occasion in victory. 13-18. Praise of Sicily's sacred relation to Persephon8, fertility, rich cities, glory in war, success in games even at Olympia. 18. This topic is dismissed. 19-25. For it is Chromios' hospitality which brings the poet to his halls, and to him praise is due to confound various cavillers.

Page  3 NEMEA I. 3 25-30. Men ought to develope natural gifts of strength and foresight, with both of which Chromios is endowed. 31, 32. One ought not to hoard, but to use wealth for one's own enjoyment and the benefit of friends, 32, 33. since man's time is short and beset with trouble. 33, 34. Introductory mention of Herakles' paramount merits. 35-61. Myth of the infant Herakles and the two snakes. 61-end. Teiresias' prophecy of Hlrakles' toilsome exploits and their final reward of peaceful bliss. The application of the latter part of the myth to Chromios is sufficiently obvious to account for there being no formal conclusion to the ode. The main idea of the poem is to exalt the enjoyment, both in this life and hereafter, of ease, good cheer, and fame earned by the / strenuous exercise of natural powers during youth and prime. Chromios' ancestor, Herakles, afforded a conspicuous illustration of such a theme, and perhaps to some extent his marriage with Hebe presented a parallel to Chromios' splendid alliance. There is no need to suppose that by reciting the infantine courage of Herakles the poet meant to imply that the valour of Chromios had been precocious. On the other hand, the precocity of Herakles is a signal instance, as Aristarchos said, of the innate courage and vigour ascribed to his descendant. The introduction of the prophecy of Teiresias is a natural device for bringing in the career and reward of HiIrakles, so that it is needless to suppose, with Miller (Hist. of Gk. Lit. I. p. 224, trans.), that the mention of the seer and also of foresight, v. 27, implies that Pindar had predicted Chromios' victory. V. 27 rather ascribes to Chromios the faculty which Thukydides notes as characteristic of Themistokles (i. 128)-oiKeIza yap cvtweo;L, oGre rpoasaO3v es avrrv ore E7IrtLLata6...(Qlv) TrOv pEXXO6vrv frtl 7Trel OTOY roy yeV Ycoy0eIov aiptrros ElKacr7js. Chromios very likely inspired the successful policy of Gelo and Hiero. Leop. Schmidt again seems to be mistaken in supposing that vv. 18-32 have reference to the poet. Modern editors have generally paid too little attention to Aristarchos' view, but with this exception I agree with Mezger. Dissen's general explanation is correct, though he refines too much, especially in regarding the infant exploit of Herakles as meant for a parallel to Chromios' early valour at the battle of Hel6ros, at the date of which 1-2

Page  4 4 PINDARI CARMINA. he was probably about forty years old (see on Nem. ix. 42). There is a side allusion to Himera and Chromios' land-fights generally in v. 62, and to the sea-fight off Cumae in the next verse. In an ode sung in Ortygia there would scarcely be any reference to the fight of Hel6ros, in which Syrakusans were defeated. There is nowhere a more prominent division of the ode than at v. 19. Yet this is inside Mezger's od0aXos?, vv. 13-30 (20 is a misprint). Moreover, vv. 31, 32 take up vv. 19-24, after the partly gn6mic, partly laudatory digression. The main divisions then of the ode are vv. 1-7, 8-12, 13-18, 19-33, 33-72. There is a possible bearing of the myth which has not, I believe, been noticed, namely, that Amphitry6n was a type of hospitality, so that Chromios' palace might suggest the scene of the myth in this connection. The ode is one of the finest examples of Pindar's art. Especially admirable is the vigorous word-painting of the myth. CTp. a. "A/,urveucvLa oecvov 'AXbeoO, iX\evar Evpacoaoc'oiv 9aXo9 'Oprvyia, 3'vtov 'Apret8Lo%, AiaXoU Kcaaoryvfr-a, oeOev acve7r?^ 1. "ALrvTevfWa.] 'Hallowed spot where Alpheus took breath;' i.e. after his pursuit of Arethusa under the sea. This myth veils the transference by Dorian colonists of the cult of Artemis Potamia from Elis to Ortygia, cf. Pyth. ii. 7. According to analogy unrvev/.a ought to mean 'recovered breath,' but for the concrete meaning changing to that of the place of the action, cf. Eav'rfiov. The word lyTrv., suggesting rWV ji,%XOv, di1j'rvodi (01. viI. 7), at once strikes the key-note of the general sentiment of the ode. 2. 0aXos.] As Ortygia is supposed to be the original settlement, it is rather ZvpaKocra&v pt' a (cf. Pyth. Iv. 15) than a7Xos (cf. 01. In. 45) in the sense of scion. Perhaps it means 'the leader,' whence the other quarters of the city branched, If it means' a part' we must suppose that it and the other quarters spring from a common 7rvuO^v, i.e. from Sicily or the Dorian stock. Prof. Paley renders OdaXos by 'pride.' 3. covtov.] Cf. 11. xxiv. 615, Ed wtTruX? 60O qpearl Oeciwv gLevL evL s e Nvuadwv, air' 4da' 'AeXci'bo eppcicravo, Plut. de fluv. et mont. 5. 3, aKaviCa'Zo o'poas KaXero To7 rrporepov Bopaov Koetrn. 4. AaXov KCcrtyPYra.] The two favourite islands of Artemis are her nurslings metaphorically, and hence are regarded as sisters. alIep.] Cf. Madv. ~ 60 Rem. 4.

Page  5 NEMEA I. 5 5 POttvo~ ppaL~at OelL/ev 5 at~vov aeXXow70'6eov p-tlav ~'ZirrWcV, Znv'iw AI'rvaiov Xaptvap,.4a 8' O'TpV'vet Xpolidov NqeLa& 0' ep yl/ao-tv Vtafo'pov~ E7KW/kLov ~e'EVat /.k4Xo~. 10 'APT. a' dpXal e /3E/XyvTat& Oec~vv It is really an adverb of motion from, as it is here used. 5. i'pp~vrat.] Cf. 01. ini. 9, 10, Illt-a.. Tat, airO IOIElJMpot PtG-OVT' EWr adPOpciwevs dot~al, where the song starts from the scene of the victory, here quite as naturally from the place where it is first recited. Oejaciv.] Not ' to describe' (Cookesley) but ' to establish.' 6. ab/oz', K..X.] Cf. Frag. 206 [242], 'AeXXow65wP ' dv -rto" cti9palvotou' 17rac'v riluia ical orre'o/aeot. X'ptv.1 Is this 'to please ' or 'by grace of'? [Mr Fanshawe]. Mezger takes the latter interpretation and quotes Pyth. ir. 70, iir. 95. 7. For the appropriateness of the metaphor to the victory cf. 01. vi. 22-27, viii. 25, Nem. IV. 93-end, Nem. vii. 70-72, viii. 19, Isth. i. 6. Here the poet's verses are the winged horses which will bear over the world the car, Chromios' victory. For metaphor cf. Pyth. x. 65. For the conjunction dp/.ta Xpeociou Nceda 0', cf. Nem. IV. 9, Netetg Ttoito'pXeu -re ra-cXq. 8. ' Its (the ode's) foundations have been laid in mention of deities in conjunction wvith the heavensent excellences of yen man.' Cf. Pyth. vii. 4, Kpi77rW 'ocitlv.. /3a~fiOat, Frag. 176 [206], for the metaphor, for the sentiment Nein. v. 25, Ato's d'p~ouevat, ii. 1-3. I take the genitive Oedev as 'KaTa. o-ipVotj,' ap~at' #OX~op'rat being regarded as equivalent to I'I have begun.' For such a licence with an accusative cf. Eur. Ion, 572, rooiro Kct/J. EXEL 7Oct0. Mr Wratislaw asks (in a paper read before the Camb. Philolog. Soc. Nov. 27, 1878), 'would not the most natural wa~r of nnderstanding this passage, considering that the human victory was won shortly after the foundation of Aetna, be: "IAnd the commencements of the Gods, i.e. the foundations of their temples at Aetna, have been laid contemporaneously with the Divine exploits of Chromius "?' I do not any more than Mr Wratislaw I accept Dissen's equation, "1initia Deorum posita sunt " " Iinitia a Deis posita sunt." ' But it is not easy to see how JpXui OEdi' can mean adpXal vat',, which is what Mr Wratislaw's suggestion seems to amount to. Moreover, 01. vi. 96, Zest is Alrva?os in connection with Syrakuse quite independently of the city Aetna, so that there is nothing in the strophO to lead up to the supposed allusion. Yet agaiu, as the chief temples would have their foundations laid at the time of the founding of the city, o-Se has tocovermore than two years. The intervention of the suggested mention of Aetna's temples is isolateditseifandisolatesvv. 10-12. If ever convinced of the untenability of my construction I should read pe'34Xq vT-' &K Oect' with Mingarelli. Dawes and Pauwe read 6 43, or render tip~ui Oetiv 'a beginning with the gods,' /3if3X97'Tat ' has been made.' For adpxal cf. Terpander Frag. 1 (Bergk), ZeS eo-o o-neve~ TtrtvrtO vjuLwP atpXcv. Yet again does tipxcu Oeth'=

Page  6 6 PINDARI CARMINA. Ketvov 0vv avSpo9~ 3ttLoviat, apcTats-. JO E( T El' E VTVXi ~t 10 60v ' V v7ux' TravcoVaOi c a'Kpov- ~tecya v 8' d'Eho j M~ota 1atel-tvarOat ObXeL. d CVrretp 1 vvv dyXadaa TLva vaw Tray 'OXVP4wov 'VpsOva~, /ar v v E Ot XaiTats', api -TEvOLO-cta eVmf5rov X6ov o\( 20 ouXoxurat, and is pfi3xv'rrat to be explained by II. I. 458, avrdp eirei p' e4tavro Kal oiXoxuras 7rpof3XovTo, and was the ode sung during a domestic sacrifice, in the peristyle, the first strophe answering to or accompanying the preliminary invocation to Zeus of Aetna and Artemis? Prof. Paley says, 'Lit. "A foundation is laid of the gods," viz., of praising them.' Mr Holmes renders ' Now of heaven have been laid the foundations that sustain yon hero's godlike merits, and in success is the crown of glory, for &c.' 9. 6atcLoviacs.] Cf. 01. Ix. 110. These good qualities are qva. (ib. 100), and opposed to &6aKTacrL apcracs. I think dperai would scarcely be used in the plural of one ' victory,' which is all we have here. 10. er7-uvxi.] If we regard Isth. iii. 1 as a mild case of zeugma, evrvXia, evTUXvew, in all four instances where they occur in Pindar, mean the crowning good fortune of success in games: so too eXovPres, 01. v. 16. For sentiment, cf. Nem. Ix. 46. 11. aKpov.] As 7rav5ocas (prob. coined by Pindar, cf. -rayXcwo-ia) is a superlative expression, a. may mean 'first prize;' cf. Pyth. xi. 55, (aperTcv) aKpov eiXWv, and Theokr. xii. 31, aKpa ~pepe'pOat. The meaning of the sentence is, 'The consummation (or ' first prize') of highest renown '-i.e. celebration in song 'has its occasion in victory.' For the sentiment cf. Pyth. i. fin. rT 6S 7racelv es TirpTOV adlOXwv eu 6' caKovetv SevTrpa Fotp' c d/a)q5orepoto' 5' dv rp I oc acv eyKUpao7 Kati XA7, a'TOpavov vrrO'rov Se&eKrat-, Nem. ix. 46. 11. 5'.] 'For.' Several Mss. read fLe7yi1'TC- for weyatcwv. 13. onrewp vvv.] Corrected from ^yeipe vvv, vvv e yetp', on a hint of the Schol. eKWre/f7re roivvv, W Mouoa, Kactl TrELpe XaC/TrpoorcTa rtva T- T v'a0 T-p 2IKceXi, K.r.X. In uncials ZPEIPE and EFEIPE are not unlike. For phrase cf. 01. xi. 94, itv 5' aSuve7ris re Vpa l 'y\vvs T' auXo ayawa-cT'ecr XciptI. The poet invokes himself or the chorus. The word riva apologises for the boldness of the phrase, as cy\Xa'av has not elsewhere the meaning wanted, namely, 'fame' or 'song,' though the ode is ryXaclas adpX in Pyth. i. 2, cf. Frag. 182 [213], Xopol Kac MoTca Kal 'AyXcaia. 14. c'ScWKe.] As a dowry on her union with Pluto. Perhaps there is a covert allusion to the temples of DemSter and her daughter built by Gelo. The Schol. is needlessly exercised at the S,^vov'Apr'TSLcos being in a possession of Persephon6's, and suggests that the two goddesses were identical, citing Kallim. Hecale o' vv KaI 'ATrXAwvXa TravapK4os 'HeXtoto | XWpt taw7p ^/ovaat Kal eb7roSa tipcW' ] Ts go Aprc es wos. Iapt0TeS6t0v.V] This goes with the

Page  7 N EMEA 1. 7 'Ew. a'. t5~c~av 7rictpav pO)O O-eei KOpvc;a~TOIO /~L w)7raco-e ae Kpopu'ewv woXelaov /fLvao-Tflpa otXXw 6-e& xaodw t7wwaqxov, Oaaa' 8} Kca& 'OXvtt77rta'8wP Obxxots. A~ata'v Xpac 25,uwxOb'vra. 7woXVWv w43cw,8a Kcatpo'v ov' #EW3ELt 8aW predicate ' as bearing off the palm for fertility of soil' (lit. 'from (all) fruitful soil '). 15. pOca6retv.] This sense ' raise to renown ' (Isth. iv. 48, v. 65) is an extension of ' rear (as a ruemorial), ' ' rear a memorial pillar to,' ef.01. iii. 3 note. The grammar of the transition is well illustrated by the double accusative Aristoph. Acliarn. 1233, T7- 0\Xa KC'X'X1VLKOV &OZ'T69 9TC Kat LL' UTOP KO'P. The, KOPvq~al 7ro\lcwp ca''cca, ' cities unsurpassed in wealth,' are the o —riXat which perpetuated the renown of Sicily. For Kepv~ati in this sense ' prime, choicest specimens,' cf. v. 34, 01. i. 13, S3piwru' KOPVuPa'g aipcraz are wrao-a. It is equivalent to a n-cs, ' choicest bloom.' Here and v. 31 there is perhaps hypallage, ef. 0. and P. p. xxxv. 16. juvaa-ri~pa.] Cf. Pyth. xii. 24, fu'acrip' ci-yd'VW1/. XaXKF7rEVToF.1 The epithet alludes to the fame of the Sicilian armour, cf. Pyth. ii. 2. 17. aa 6aM Kai m.] ' Right often even.' '0Xvu~swsuilwv.] With special complimentary allnsion to the victories of Gelo and Hiero B.c. 488. Xpvo-Eoes] For this epithet meaning only ' glittering,' Cf. 01. VIII. 1, x. 13, Pyth. x. 43. Prof. Paley however, on Martial ix. xxiii. 1, suggests that even in Pindar's times the crown was actually of gold (cf. Nem. vir. 77-79), or that the leaves were gilded. 18. /AtXOfi'Pra. Lit. ' brought into contact -with.' Cf. Nem. ix. 31, 01. i. 21, Kpa'LTEL SU wpOwITL~EJle 3eewS-rav, iNem. ii. 22, 6KTW~ 6i-spai'ois 9ptXOevzq' 3h. Infzna v. 56 the use is not quite six ilar. Mr Fanshawe suggests that the lemma, coming so close to [u'ao-riipa ' wooer,' may hexe mean!wedded'; so Holmes. L. and S. wrongly render it here and in P~yth. xii. 24, 'calling to mind,' ' mindful of.' Dissen compares Ayojraraas Xa'pu-qs' but the idea is not the same. The aor. ' call to m~ud,' Yv-qo-xrp ' one who keeps in mind of.' weXMOh', K.i-r..] 'I have entered upon a copious theme, having aimed at moderation with a statement of simple truth.' The Aldine and Roman editions with two Scholia make Katph'v object of j~aXci'v. It is generally taken as the object of Ew'jlnv. I think the sense inferior and the construction questionable, though it is true that 47rt — ~alv wv takes an accusative ofpfcclce. T. Mommsen (on 01. T. 89) regards 0-6cvie as a dativus texrntini (ef. Pyth. xix. 31), but it is better to make it the instrumental dative. Mr Myers-' Thus shoot I arrows many )and without falsehood have I hit the mark '-scarcely represents the eriginal. Pindar has briefly mentioned five points on which a poet might dilate, the divine patronage of Sicily, its fertility, the wealth of its cities, its achievements in war and in games. He has stated truths without exaggeration. But only to dismiss them

Page  8 8 8 ~~PINDARI CARMINA. eor-av E'vw avXeucuq Ovfpat,~ 20 avt~pO9~ ~fOtEtoUep icaXa' /.eXWrO'/IeVOS~ gvoa p~ot a'ppuoStov '3ELWP0vo iceKoalmyra, Oapa' 8' a'XXo~azw63V:I-rP O. 30 OvIc a7I-EipaTO1 83o/Lot EPTL XEOX & L /&OS EUXVq co3o ~w~ Ofcpt 35 and turn to his special theme, the prais6 of Chromios, &c. In this difficult sentence the poet checks himself-the suggestion of the necessity for doing so being a compliment to Sicily, Syrakuse and- Hiero, the fact that he does so a compliment to Chromios. Thus od' ~befet ' Inot with a false statement.' For dat. cf. 01. xi. [x.] 72, )U6&KO9 U NOCK6') t&KE ve'rpw,; Isth. i. 24. What he has said is a f3~Xog shot Moto-ap chr-6 -r~lan (01. ix. 5). Both f'irt/3ct and f`-are are idiomatic aorists indicating the immediate past; the former refers to the recitation of the pr-evious verses, the latter to the arrival of the chorus at the place of recitation. For the sense given to Kamplev -cf. Pyth. i. 81, KatpO'V Et 950E'-YtaLO, ix. 78, 01. ix. 38. Mr Postgate has kindly sent me an interpretation substantially the same as the above, and quotes Nem. viii. 37 for the emphatic application of the negative to a single word. 19. av'Xdats.1 The chorus with the poet were, it would seem, just outside the -7rp6'Oepov (cf. Pyth. iii. 78, Isth. vii. 3). Perhaps they were in the wrptiupes', for the eviretXlt iip66upots of 01. vi. 1 could hardly have been ' a space before a door' or ' a porch' (L. and S., Smith's Dict. of Antiquities, Guhl and Koner); but was probably walled on three sides and with pillars in the front like the rpo'vaes of a teniplurn in antis. It iS probable that in such cases the ai,\eta Ozdpa opened immediately into the peristyle without a Oupc$v, ' a narrow passage' or 'entrance chamber,' which would appear in town houses when the sides of the wrpotlvpov were built, up to form chambers. According to L. and S. the household gods were in the wrp66vpeo, hut Smith's Diet. of Ant. places them in the peristyle. 21. type.] 'In whose hall.' Though, as the victory was won at the summer Nemea, the feast may have been held outside. aipgo'&ot.j Cf. Pyth. iv. 129, ~evtz' cipAe6o ra, and the Homeric 3acr6v 22. caX~oaawdv.] Perhaps includes the poet, who was in Sicily this year. For Chromios' hospitality of. Nem. ix. 2. 24. VXi-Xoy6, K.TA..] It is in My opinion impossible to arrive at a definite conclusion as to the interpretation of this difficult sentence. I theref ore give the views of the chief authorities before my own. (A.) ' But he bath got good men and true against cavillers (dat. incomnmodi) so as to bring water against smoke,' iL e. to use to drown the voice of envy; so Hermann, Don. (B.) Dissen also approves; but says,-" Credas etiam, sic jungi posse: VNOey~e, &TXo~s,~eA95LuebotfeL filwp Kchrvco delea q0tpetv, consequutus est hoc, ut probi visi obtrecteatoribtes

Page  9 NEMEA I. 25 aVrT'V. Te~vat. 0' ETE o0v eepat' %Xp?7 0'80to, o-T61`XoVTa lwpvapiittOct ObVi. rpaoccet ryap epryp -LEl) cYOEVos-, 9 'tAvr. P3. aquam obvianz ferant fuoao, quern movent." He objects however to an accusative and infinitive after N-Xayi'vew' as unsupported. (C.) Mlatthiae proposes iXo-yXEv iCrAoii, A. V. a. q5. (ciio-wep) KalrvCv ignoring the order of the words. (D.) Mommsen (after a Schol.) renders "Innata vero est (sortito evenit) iis qui bonos vituperare sotleut ar's fuoaum [gloriae] aqua' [r~epre. hensionis] restinguendi." (E.) An improvement in this line of interpretation seems to be "Tis men's lot when cavilling at the good to bring water to check smoke,' i. e. to increase what they wish to diminish. Only thus I think could Karp~Oi stand for glory in such a metaphor (von Leutsch, Mezger). The two last interpretations make too abrupt a disconnection of sense, not to mention the rare construction which is assumed. Mezger cites Strabo to defend the dat. governed by XayXUii'w. Bergk would alter ESTS' X. to aivrtXEiXe-yxei, only found, I believe, as an Attic lawv term. (F.) I prefer the following version, suggested by the reading Jo-Xis of the best mss, and supported by 01. i. 53, aiKe'p56ta XeXo-yyev Oa~tV& KaKa-yopei, ' some loss hath oft befallen evil speakers'; 'It bath befallen the noble against cavillers, to bring water against smouldering fire (of envy),.' taking uieu4opii'oLS as dat. incoma. and OE'peIP, Kc.Tr. as inf. subject to Vhoey~e. The metaphor of water for streams of song is used, as here, in connection with strangers Nem. vii. 61, 62 (noted by iDon.) ~6e&v' ei/iv CTKO7-Eoo'P (KrTeriviv) Qde'Xewv /IyOeO, v`6aTOS Oiem jioa's c/dXOV E'3 dI'P3' dfyau' KXi0S 6mr-qsoVtY ab'rwo wo-riqopos 6' d-yaOoio-i juvors OU'Tes. Plutarch, Fragm. xxiii. 2, 7-i' 4>0iioi 95105 Tii. Karvi~ Ei'K E ~ovat, was thinking more of other applications of the similitude than of this passage, for he goes on to ex-plain v-eXbs y&p 6'v -roF d'pyotse'o'e I7Kii-ra -yoie, -ros ipi-pn/vrepois (p~oioiiiw. The connection of this difficult passage is not impaired by making the statement general. 'We poets are wvont to hclp the noble by drowning the voices of cavillers with our song. Divers folk have divers arts. (This comprehends the idea that it is the poet's work to perpetuate a victory as much as it is the work of men of action to gain one.) One must walk uprightly and make the best use of natural powers. Strength, to wit, has its function in action, intellect in counsel, in the case of those who have anl innate gift of foresight (which class includes the poet and also, as is at once stated, Chromios).' As to sentiment vv. 24-33 have inuch in common with Isth. a. 40 - 51. 25. arexai 6' 6-'E'r'cpw g-spat.] For sentiment, cf. 01. ix. 104-107, viii. 12-14, Nem. vii. 54. UTUiXevTa.] F or metaphor, cf. 01. 1 115, efmq ae -re TOOTOV 400e XP1PioP itra7co', Nem. viii. 315. p~apyaorOat.] Cf. Nem. v. 47, EiiWoiat /Acipvarat wipt mi-doa 7r-6Xis. For the superiority ofinatural over acquired attainments, cf. 01. II. 85, EX. 100, 7r6 56' (P KpaiTICTOi' a-iat'. 26. -7pc~ao-i.] 'Exercises its function,' cf. Frag. 108 [96] 7rpao-o-z'rau'

Page  10 10 PINDARI CARMINA. /3ovXaw'L $e bp?)v, E'O-TO/evov 'rpoiati rovraJaef V e fpV) vo Terpo&ra. -vq7,3,~S o~S &7rera~. 40 'AyucOt(a34ov vrat, oe'o 8' dpafA rTpor7W 30 Torw re KcaL 6rOv Xprf7'7te. otvf epat-at r7roXv)v ev peycpc 7rXovrov r icaraf'cpJ+at EXev, 45 aXX EOVTeov eV T'e 7raOeLv Kca a/covac-t (l\oiS etapKEov. KOLtUa yap epXOVr' eXT6r)eS 'ETr. /3. 7roXv7ror'zov dcSp. cfy (' 'HpaKcXeos avTe'xo/cat vrpopvpo so 50 ev Kcopvcba- aperay eLn/y\ats, apXaLov o6rpuYwv Xoyov, Pv rc~~~~~~~oppvpw teXw^ov. This does not contradict Frag. 14 [16]. 27. eof-aJ.evoY, K.r.X.] 'In those whose birthright it is tp foresee what shall be.' 29. Io 6',K.r.X.] 'In thycharacter are faculties for using both this endowment and that.' For ac/li cf. Pyth. v. 111, idOi j3oivXAus, in which passage Arkesilas also is praised for pTya as well as tovxai, Nem. vI. 14. For rWv re7 KCa TWiV cf. 01. Ir. 53. 31. Euripides seems to be thinking of these two lines Ion, 639, ou l\tX,) poyovS KX\ewL | ev Xepal GwJ^w 6Xb3ov o05' ~XEtv Troovs. KaTaKp6fatis 9Xecv.] Condition habere, cf. y77aas xels, Soph. Oed. B. 577, not the periphrasis mentioned Madv. ~ 179. 32. ' But from what I have both to enjoy myself and to have the credit of being duly open-handed to (lit. 'thoroughly satisfying') my friends. For the expectations of men, born to sore trouble as all are, are uncertain for all alike.' 6vTvrw.] Cf. Theognis, 1009, rCov auroO KTeavwcwv eiS Tra'oxeee. Cf. Pyth. II. 104 for sentiment, also Simonides, 85 [60] v. 13, 'AXX& oa raOra iuaO&v flOrov TroTr rpPAa I IvXs rcTv a yaOciw rX7i0 XCtp Ioevos and see L. and S. s. v. xapiLtoua for genitive. e'apKiwv.] Dissen explains e. ~\ai s airct&-'bestowing of them plentifully on my friends.' But cf. Eur. Suppl. 574, i rai'otv ovz c' '"Ovoev ecpKeiev 7rarip; ' did thy father then beget thee to be a match for all men?' KOWLal yap ipXovr'.] Cf. Nem. vII. 30, KOivbv pXe raL KuV 'Ai'a. 33. roXv7rovwv.] Cf.Eur. Or. 975, TravMarcpvr' JfPaiedpwiv I evoq TronXTrova, \ELreO', W's 7rap' iXTrklas I jLoipa P3livet... powrcv 5' 6 Tras doTaCrJL7ros alCw. The idea of 7roXvTrovwv reflects on e\7rites and suggests the antiphrasis, cf. supra, v. 15. advri o/ali.] 'I claim preeminence in devotion to,' cf. Thuk. I. 13, Trs OaXadrF-qT avrei4xovro, 'made seafaring an object of rivalry,' 'vied with each other in attention to maritime pursuits.' 34. iv KopvOfas.] For ev, 'in the sphere of,' cf. my 0. and P. p. xxxvii; for copuvacts cf. supra, v. 15. Orpuvcw.] For the phrase cf. Isth. II. 40, 41, K XeXC'wv aYdv'ayei (p,av raXaL&ve evK\Ewdv ipywcv Ev ie vTv yAp T7rIoev' c\X' dveyetpotieva, K..X.

Page  11 NEMEA I. 11 35 0%, e7ret oTrXayXvov Pvro lacTepo av7rlca OagOrav ES alyXacv ra7t ALto 55 WJlva Oev'ywv,UCvtw cvr-v cac'tyvrTJO /6\~Xev,;6~va cpvyov LU o? ov XaOov Xpvo'povov "Hpav tcpocoTOv 'Tvrapy/avov EycarTe/a. XXca Oe3vv /acraXtea 40 ar-reppOecFa Ouvet 7rE/Lrne pcaKcovTag da("ap. Tob / Lv olxOectav vrvXav es OaXi/,ov /LvXo evpvv '/3av, T'eCKoLLv 7yvadov9 $rp. 7. 6o 35. COs, Ired.] Mss. read cs ered and v. 37, Ws r' ov. Mommsen proposes Xdoyov 7ro8' 07rg (cf. for gen. Pyth. vII. 9, Nem. Iv. 71, vII. 21, 32 and for O7ra 01. x. 56) from Beck's rodv ' orzWS and the repit avroV of the Schol. Vet. Hermann Ws dpa or v. 37 o6 roi, the latter approved by Don. I incline to Bockh's beginning of v. 35, Ws r' or ws re, leaving the third particle doubtful, keeping &' r', v. 37. rio.] Cf. 01. vi. 43, quoted in next note. aLriKa.] This must not be taken with ireti as=Jzrer raXciora, eire8t6r rpwLrov, which is Dissen's explanation. The adverb indicates the normal progress of the delivery as in 01. vi. 43, T\XOeVY ' irOb arrXaiyXVWV Ur' CSi6S T' epaTras "Iiaios es ipaos avcLKa, which passage also illustrates OcaTrrav es aiyXav i\dXev, &5;va (be^ywv, rarXdyiyvwv i{ro. The infant Iamos too was visited by two snakes, but they came to feed him. 38. efy7ar43a.] Hardly ' stepped into' with supernatural precocity, as Prof. Paley suggests; for the effect of the subsequent miracle would be impaired by such a preliminary display of power. The use recalls the passive sense often given to EKcrtrrrrtv, irroOaveiv. Render simply 'had been laid in.' 39. BaoiXha.] Mss. give paaoXesta (tsao-eta). For the form in the text cf. Pyth. iv. 5, where two fair imss. read lepda. For the synizesis cf. 01. xi. 13, Xpv'afs. The form in -ea is illustrated by the Sophoklean paa-LX7, better fao-XiA, given by Hesychios. In the LydoAeolic ode, 01. xiv, we find paaciXetac. 40. a-7repxdeia.] Cf. I. xxiv. 248, G-rrepXo/lvoo yipovroS, Herod. v. 33, correpXero ry' ' Apta-rayopp, Eur. iMed. 1133, daXXcL/ar I a-7repxov, 'iXos. For the episode of the infant HMrakles and the serpents cf. Theokr. xxiv, where many details differ from those of Pindar's account: near the end of Plautus' 4 mphitruo is a third version. 41. Whether the doors were left open at night, or had been opened in the early morning, or were opened by the serpents-is left uncertain. 42. OaXaciov uvXodv eepv'v.] 'The spacious inner chamber'; one of the chambers of the gynaekitis. TrKVOiTri, K.T.\.] 'Greedilyyearning to make their jaws play swiftly about the babes,' i.e. in the act of licking over the victim before en

Page  12 12 PINDARI CARMINA. dapeXiaaoOa /ue/awUare' o 8' opotv /1ev avreTvev cKapa, 7retpado e 7rpwrov /taxa%, 65 'AvT. 7'. LcraatroL oovwz aoxEvov 45 PuapratL aV~TO x epo y eaP t t La' ayo/[ecvo, e$ Xpovo0 farvX9a darerveuvev eXe&ov acthavrm. 70 eC 8' ap adXaTov /3EXos 7rXace yuvatca, ora rvov 'Xo AXKcptva? cdpyotaat 50 Aact ryap auvr,?rofcrtv arerXo0u opovatcr d7rb 50 cad rp arcv^,,rrooo lJev ptre rXo pocratcv 7d5 aTrpova(S, Ows' dltvvev v/ppv tV0c0XWov. 75 gorging it. Cf. Hes. Scut. HIere. 235 and Prof. Paley's note. I do not think eio-reo-Oat, could mean to ' enfold' with jaws. The middle adi<eX- may be causal, but cf. Soph. Aiax, 369 (commented on in note on Nem. vi. 15). Here yvaciovs supports Oseias as there Tru6a supports i/oppov. 43. dp06v.] Proleptic, cf. Pyth. II. 53, 96, Eur. Hipp. 1203, dp0ov be Kpar' a-rT av ols r' Es ovSpavOv trrot. Prof. Paley observes that this action is miraculous in a newborn infant. 44. Soacrali Seoio6s.] Cf. Nem. viII. 48, 3is 4 Svoiv. aXev'owv.] For gen. cf. Madv. ~ 57a. Rein. 46. A bold phrase both in construction and sense. 'As he kept throttling them, the time made them breathe forth the life from their dread frames.' The causal use of adro7rvew is strange and the word is not the most appropriate to death by strangulation. Of course dayXotUevoL... Xpov ip... d7rrrevoav have been proposed. It is quite possible that there is some corruption, but it is impossible to establish a correction. For -uvX. acbrorrv. cf. Simonides Frag. 52 [26]. 48. /peXos.] 'A pang.' Cf. II. xI. 269, cos 5' -rav wcgSiovr-av XA Ji\Xos dov yvvaica. There is a slight preponderance of MS. authority in favour of Seos, which Par. A. has as a correction,but it is hard to see how /3Xos could have replaced the much easier Beos (which on the other hand would inevitably appear as an early marginal gloss), unless as a badly corrected transfer from the line above, -v FCcX- becoming -v /'X-. (For confusion of tG and p cf. 01. Ix. 8.) That 65os is an interpolation from the margin is decidedly the simplest hypothesis. 49. Theokritos makes Herakles nine months old. Plautus agrees with Pindar as to the age. On a coin of Thebes (see Plate facing Title) the child does not seem to represent a new-born babe. Professor Paley cites a fresco-painting of this subject from Herculaneum, Pacc. di Ercolano, PI. 11. 50. 'Why, even she herself sprang from bed to her feet and unrobed as she was thought to repel the attack of the monsters.' Mommsen regards rroa-rlv as a dativus termini. Cf. 01. XIII. 72, ava 8' b7raX\r' dpOS roSi; but they may be instrumental datives, though

Page  13 NEMEA I. 13 'Er. 7'. raXv (e Ka(pe6owv o/yo %XaXKceoe -Iv 7r'XoL9 e3patov dOpoot, Ev %epl 8' 'AfJTpLvwuO KOXeov yvuivv VTLoacr'ov,ady-avov 80 eCETr', opea i avct'ata rvVreiV. To 'yap oLceLov rte'fSy 7radvO OJL"' eCvOS ' ( 'rrd7rwv Kpacia KcaOS& d4b' dXXOTrptov. Trp. 8'. 55 eroa 8e OdL/3c 3vacq6op* 85 Tep7rrv Te t e LXOe. ele yap cKvoptov' T6P~~rV 1.) E76 1YttxEocv6. et rendered 'to her (his) feet.' For certain dat. term. cf. Pyth. xii. 31. areT7rXos.] With nothing on except an under garment, XTrwvit'KOS, i.q. t.ovoXitrv, Philostratos, Eur. Hec. 933, Xe'X 6-q & qia lov67rerXoS X\trouoCa Awpls ws Kopa. Greek women seem not to have had special night gear. da'vvev.] A good case of the imperfect of intended or attempted action. Bergk recklessly alters 7oo-rilv to rratslv. iu3pw.] Either= 'the attack,' cf. Pyth. i. 72; or else '. K. = savage monsters.' Cf. i3piorTi Taraupot, Eur. Bacch. 743. KYvw6aXwv.] Fick refers fcViaXov and Kv6i8a 'pivot' to the root SKAND, whence Skt. khad, 'bite' (he should hesitate to separate Kvcae6 s, KivaSos from Ktci6aos, o?-vaQa0os which he rightly gives under the root SKAD 'hide,' 'cover'), Lat. cena, Sabin. scesna-, 'supper,' Lith. kandu, 'to bite.' 51. So best Mss. The Triclinian mss. and the Aldine and Roman editions give -cr oirr. acp. isp.; Editors adp. -sv o'rX. 96p. or eop. a-' O7rX. daOp. For the lengthening of -ov before a vowel cf. Pyth. III. 6, ix. 114, Xopov ev. 07rhoXos.] Don. renders 'shields' from Hes. Scut. Here. 13, fqepe — sraK4as KaS/ueovs; but it is more natural to suppose that they caught up any weapons. 52. od'ayavov.] Omitted in the best MSS. The Triclinian Mss. read.t10o0 eKTicrwLdoa against the metre. 53. doelais cviatcatc rvreis.] 'Smitten with keen throes of anguish.' The phrase ru7rels was very likely chosen in reference to Pel\os above. II. xix. 125, rov ' a XOS ov KC ar fpm^a ri-e f3aOeav, Od. x. 247, K2p7 dxeii' tLyed\iq PePo\XYemivos. ro yap, K.r.X.] Pausanias, x. 22. 5, cites this sentiment with approval. Cf. 'The heart knoweth its own bitterness, and a stranger doth not intermeddle with its joy.' 54. djqil.] Cf. O. and P. p. xxxvii. 55. OciAfei, K.T.X.] 'With mingled feelings of painful and glad wonderment.' Thus Prof. Paley rightly explains tLXOeiS. Others simply render it 'affected by,' comparing Soph. Ant. 1311, eit\aiq 6e aivyKK&paJCat L,, Aiax, 895, ofrK7 rTi&e s-VYKeKpaC6LV7V. 56. eKsv6citov.] Not used, it seems, in the same sense as fKYOACOS ' unlawful,' 'inordinate' as correlative of ^vvo/uos (cf. the adv. Aristoph. Plut. 981, 992); but always ' extraordinary.'

Page  14 14 PINDARI CARMINA. 7f a TE Kat ~Va1Lkt v X,7?ta ~e xcal 8u'ar -vo vov/o 'raiLyco\wa ov e, oit a cvarTO dreXwov pr /o-v 0'av. 60o elTrova 8' Ecdcaero-Ev ALlOS v'[-rov rrpof-drav eoov, v 90 opOopLavrtv TeLpeo-iav' o e o0 Cpad c Kal ravrTl o-rpa-r, TroiaLL ouLXcaCeL rv;XatsA 'ART' '. Ka.1rv a auvv 7XacLy 65 /av3pv EVopJ U1eEoXa Taov e'XOpOTatO icat Tiva awP - -7X0aYi' 65 dv8pwv Ic pW G-reityovTac TOv EypX rarov 95 58. iraX\yy-Xwoov.] Apparently a word coined by Pindar ='gainsaid,' i.e. by the fact. o.] Dativus commodi, not after proiv (as Mr Myers translates) and not the article, as the digamma of the personal pronoun is needed for the scansion. dadvacro. ] i.e. Zeus, by transmitting superhuman qualities to his son. Cf. Theokr. xxIV. 83, 84, yaajppos 3' dOavArwv ("Hpas) KEKcX0ercaL, oC rad' a7rwpcav I Kv'&iaXa qWeuOVTira fpppqos ta86\X7aaOactL. 60. yelrova.] According to Pausanias, ix. 11, Amphitry6n lived by the Gate of Elektra, in the neighbourhood of which was the olwvoaKoreleov of Teiresias (Paus. ix. 16). Atos ut^arov.] A special title of Zeus at Thebes (Paus. ix. 8. 3) amongst other places. 62. KTr7avc.] The participle of the gn6mic aorist referring to sundry points of the time covered by the principal verb. Thus o'rovs KTr.= Kail 7rIO\XOVS Kceve. Cf. Nem. vII. 3. 63. dcipoeiKas.] For justice and the reverse in beasts cf. Archilochos, Frag. 88 [6], '2 Zeu, i7drep Ze0, o(av fidV oVpavov KparoS, I| 50 ' pPy' eir' aivpwc7rwv odps Xewpyac Kai Oe fLffrac, ~ol oS Oxpiwpv i 3ppts re Kal itKa/ fxXet. For this phrase cf. Od. Ix. 215. 64. rTva.] 'Many' (cf. Pyth. II. 51, [0eos] OvEfOpdowv rtv' iKcV e`aie pporiv), such as Busiris and Antaeos., For the junction of theadefinite ilarticle with the definite pronoun cf. Soph. Oed. Col. 288, orav 8' ' KpieOS | rapj Tis, Oed. Rex, 107, rTOS aUvTOTras Xetpl rtuFjtv rveas. So B6ckh, Don. Bergk reading v. 66 0 'dopc for MS. a6pov. Similarly Dissen, only changing rOv to -or', and Kayser, only changing 7TOV X0. to 7raPEXOporarr%. Hermann reads v. 66 qaS~&d iv (ace.)...gt6py and above r4 exOpordroY, making Trwa the subject meaning Nessos. Keeping tf6pov Mommsen would change Swcaev to ye6eetv, Ahrens to 7raeivete. Rauchenstein, Hermann and Bergk propose rtm... -reeXOVr rTv EXO. Bergk also suggests Kai rTva a~v xrXayihC (adverbially) l dv6pWev rodpov orT....uodpq after Hartung's Kai riva a'r 7rXayiy I a&vSpwv v6o erTeiovO' oo6v ieOporarav I cpie e VLV 5OCew It OpLq. aOv 7rXay. KOpp. oreT6.] Cf. supra, v. 25.

Page  15 NEMEA I. 15 <jbcE VlYV OSwap6V pOpw, cal yp oT rav Oeot ev 7reSlo ) 4Xeypa rFyciP'reo-cr'v,a-LapvI 100 cT[cza rLV, /3PeXeov Vw7ro pLt7ratl Keivov (pOatil av 7yata 7reVpaVeap Oait co'Jav 11~~~gla 'EVz. 8'. evJE7ev' avrov /laV ev Elpcva TOv a7arava Xpovov ev a'yepw 105 70 davxav fca/arrov erydaw ov aXvT ealpero 6X/3iLO' iv pLaot cr eoad/.tevovv OaXepYv "H/3av alcottv, Kcat yadl4ov 110 8ai[aavra rrap At' Kpovl[t, ae/.vov awlv7re~v V*J XoE*. 67. 1Me'ypas.] Hiero and nodoubt Chromrios had defeated the Carthaginians off Phlegra near Cumae in the year before this victory at Nemea. The Phlegra where the gods fought the Giants was in Thrace. Cf. Nem. iv. 27 note. 68. d dvrti4oiv.] For the pres. cf. Goodwin, ~ 74. i. p. 162. For the ace. /,iXav Dissen cites Soph. Treach. 159, roXXo\s dy/uvas f~i.. 7req5upo'eoaOt.] Note the paulopost. fut., 'they (the giants) will soon find their hair befouled.' 69. Xp6uov. ] For the lengthening cf. v. 51, supra. ev cXepo~.] No Ms. gives &, but o)XEpo (-ci). The phrase however occurs Nem. xi. 39, Isth. v. [vi.] 22. Perhaps the Hesychian lx-epw-= dEjs, should be read and erta-Xepcp divided eir-ilXepco, as Hesychios betrays no knowledge of this adverbial use of -Xep's. 70. iroivav.] ' Recompense.' Cf. Pyth. I. 59, KCeXa7-al 7r. TeOpilrrwl, Pyth. 11. 17, xpis riXt\a TrotivlLto avrl 9pywv dorwiosLleva. 71. ycidov |I 8almavra.] Cf. ll.xx. 299, aiaelv 68 ya/'ov E' /era Mvp/AtSoveuo'tv, Od. iv. 3, T3OY 8' epov atsvvrva ycai/ov 7roWkoirtv fr.olv l vieos I3c Ovyarpios CivgUovos o ev OLKO}. 72. A'.] So Mss. always, though the word is a long monosyllable. X\Xos.] Mss. give 'y7d/ov and 35/Aov. The former is imported from the line above, the latter is an attempt at correction, as is also the v6jsov, Vo/UiO of the Schol. It is hard to believe that Pindar would terminate the two last lines of an ode with -iov. I therefore regard the last word as entirely lost, and suggest X os as giving better sense than Bergk's ieov, popvov or reo/46v, Bickh's S6/Jov, Heyne's esos or Mommsen's voY6ov. Observe that the example of rest after labour at the end of the ode is foreshadowed by the opening phrases a7rvevua... &[uvuov.

Page  16 NEMEA II. / ON THE VICTORY OF TIMODEMOS OF ATHENS IN THE PANKRATION. INTRODUCTION. TIMODEMOS, son of Timonois, of the deme of Acharnae, but of the Timodemidae, a clan of Salamis, where he was born or brought up (vv. 13-15), won this victory probably about 01. 75, B.C. 480-477. The ode was apparently sung at Athens (v. 24). It is a processional (monostrophic) ode. The word 'capxere in the last line is thought to indicate that it was introductory to a longer EyKc5ov. It is impossible to draw any sound inference about the place of composition. Bockh fancies that it was composed at Nemea after the battle of Plataea with Fragment 53 [45]. Perhaps the opening allusion to the Homeridae was due to Salamis being one of the aspirants to the honour of being Homer's birthplace. The rhythm like that of Nem. iv. is Lydian with Aeolian measures. ANALYSIS. vv. 1-5. As the Homeridae begin by invoking Zeus, so Tirod&mos begins his career of victory in Zeus' grove at Nemea. 6-10. He ought still, since his Fate has led him straight along the path his fathers trod and caused him to do honour to Athens (by winning at Nemea), to win often at the Isthmus and Delphi. 10-12. When the Pleiades are seen, Ori6n is to be expected.

Page  17 NEMEA II. 17 13-15. Salamis can rear fighting men such as the Trojan warrior Aias and the pankratiast Timodemos. 16, 17. The Acharnians were famous of old. 17-24. Enumeration of victories of the Timodcmidae in the Pythian, Isthmian, Nemean and the (Athenian) Olympian games. 24, 25. The citizens are bidden to celebrate Timodemos' return as victor from Nemea. IT7p. a. 'OOev 7rep Kcal tOpLJpi(at Aa7rrn-v 7ron TIra 7roXX aot V I N r87 5 % apXovTat, ALMO ic 7rpooLtpao~v Ka&a 00 avip KaTa/3OlXA ('PCPIepoa a'w1'OJ Vt a~bOPiar Ec 3Kc7-at TrpwTav Nelaeaiov 5 CV WOXVVI/im)Th)TL6LO a ohAGC. 5 Srp. i'. %bOetXet (' ETL, 7rarpiav 1. '0/ulpi6at.] For this clan or school of rhapsOdists from Chios cf. L. and S., Smith's Classical Dict. under Homerus. The Schol. on this line tells us that Kynaethos of Chios introduced many verses into the Homeric poems and founded a distinguished school of rhaps6dists. 2. pawrrTv.] 'Continuous,' hence 'epic.' I do not feel sure that pai/wAol did not derive their name from the tags with which they introduced and dismissed the episodes which they recited. The opening to which Pindar refers is probably preserved by Theokritos, xvii. 1. Kc Aios apdpXcoLeaa, and by Aratos, Phaen. 1. Cf. Virg. Eel. II. 60, A love prinZciium. It is as old as Alkman, cf. Frag. 2 [31], e-yWvya 6' deatoiat I K At6s dpXopLcva. To F. II. support Philochoros' derivation from cbr-reiv and ~i5qv a Schol. quotes from Hesiod ev AX\y rToe 7rpwrTv etyi KaiOt'"07Tpog dolot oi p[ - TopiMIv, etv eapois v/roPis paitavres aoilS'v, | 'olpov 'A7r6\\XXOv Xpvodopa ov reKe AYrTW. 3. Atob eK. rp.] Cf. Nem. v. 25. 'With an exordium about Zeus.' Kat.] 'So.' Cf. 01. vii. 7. 4. Ka-rajoXad.] Cf. Kallim., quoted by Schol., 'Ap-woaVs, d Uelve, yci/aov KaTaapd/oXXo/' aeieir. For the metaphor from laying a foundation cf. note on Nem. i. 8. SeSeKrat.] 'HIath won.' Cf. 01. i. 49, vi. 27, Pyth. i. 80, 100. 5. &Xalet.] See Pausan. i. 15. 2. The grove was of cypresses. 6. oejiXetl.] Impersonal, but there is a v. 1. 6pecLtA 6e rT. 2

Page  18 18 PINDARI CARMINA. Et7rep Ica O'6V Vv ew vU'oroTrOw? 10 aCLWv rat L~eyaXa^v e8wOKe cocr/Lov 'AOdvaca, Oa/cLa pjlv 'IacrOLtacov aperecrOaa /cAXaTGcrroV atDrov, Ev lvOLtoLa 7Te vicav I rTp. 7'. opetav ye IIeXeLdScov [9 TifX6OeV 'tVaptcova vecr-Oat. ecat Jxcav a aXaa[k rye Opcat sbro'a fuaardaav 20 3vvaro,. ev Tpoi'a pEv '"Ecrcop A'avroTQ cacouvevu' o Tqto/70e, Cer 8' aXfca 15 7'ranKpartov TX\a0vfo9 aEee. $rp. 3'. 'Axdpvac 8e 7raXacl)arov 25 evavope' ocrera o' 'd f a edXoto, Ttuo8S/,lSat Ea ooxJcraroo 7rpoXeyovrat. wrap&,aev v4erqov'rc Tlapvacr ' reacrapa ek: aeOXwv vlfca~ eKcoftti:av. 30 7. For metaphor cf. Pyth. x. 12. Note that vcv is ace. after eOtiuBrojlros as well as after eBdwKe. 8. alwv.] 'Fate.' Cf. Isth. II. 18. Observe that KOO-/OV 'AOdvats glances at the meaning of TtioSm/os TiLwoovo c irats. Cf. Nem. in. 83. 9. bpe'reocOa.] Cf, 01. I. 13. dWTOV.] Cf. 01. II. 7, v. 1. re.] For tv —re cf. 01. iv. 15. 10. 6'.] 'For.' Timodemos' antecedents make the anticipation of his future victories as reasonable as the expectation of seeing Ori6n when thePleiadesarein sight. Cf. Paley's note Hes. W. and D., 619. Catullus, LXVI. 94, uses the form Oarion. The '0 probably represents F or FaF, cf. "cavts, 01. v. 11. 11. opecis.] So called because daughters of Atlas. So Simonides quoted by a Schol., Matidos ovpelas eXtKopiXef pov, of Maia, one of the daughters. Cf. Frag. 52 [53]. 13. Kacl icv.] Introduces a second reason for anticipating that Timodemos would win further victories. 14. d&oveev.] 'Felt the might of.' The Schol. cites 7rX7-yvjs atovres, II. XI. 532. Cf. 01. II. 24, vracKoveiLev ab^yas eXouv, ' to be at the mercy of' [Prof. Colvin]. For the opposition of Aias to Hektor cf. It. xiv. 402, xv. end, xvi. 114, 358. a& 6', K.r.X.] 'While thee, Timodemos, doth power of endurance in the pankration exalt.' 16. vraXaiqarov.] So Mss. Cf. Pyth. xi. 30. Bdckh, -a-rot. 17. O;e af' 4op' ac dXoes.] 'In all that concerns gains.' Cf. Nerm. xi. 43, Tr 8' EK A6si. For /opol cf. Nem. vi. 14, viii. 42, Pyth. v. 111. 18. 7rpoXeyovrat.] 'Are named before all others.' Comp. Isth. In. 25 [Don.].

Page  19 NEMEA II. 20 aXaX KopwOlwv Vr 7or7Tv 19 r7P. e. Ev ~E-Xov IIEXowros rrTvxais? OKT(V Gr7epavoiS ei4X eV lS70' e7rra v' Ev Nee'ea Ta (8' o Kco& oaLacov apLOtJov 35 ALo adycwv. 7rov o a, 7TroXa, Kc/dcaTe TLtaoSrL otv EVKXel' VOCTO)' 25 adSV/j~eXc6l ' EadpX~ere 0fova. 40 20. daXXc.] For /v... aXXc cf. 01. ix. 5. 21. I. e. at the Isthmian games. Cf. Isth. III. 11, Ev 0/acarwut 'Io0/ou, ib. vii. 63, "Ica0/uto v v ciVros; but 01. II. 23, ev ioroa'ats Kpoviov IIdXowros, means at Olympia. He is regarded as the hero Eponymos of the Peloponnese. For 7rTrvxacs cf. the use of 7roX67rrvXos. 22. teCXOev.] Cf. 01. I. 22. 23. capLAoO.] 'Too many to number' (lit. for numbering). Cf. 01. iI. 98, e rel gjlui os apLO/bv 7rept7r'>evyev, XIII. 113. 24. At5l dyjvv.] The Athenian Olympia, celebrated in the Spring, between the great Dionysia and the Bendideia. There was perh- s some special reason why the TiL*' demidae do not appear in connection with the Olympian games. Note the emphatic position, and cf. v. 10, Ttuovoov 7rai?', v. 14, vvaros, v. 17, vdavopes. r6Ov... Kwodtare Ttu.] 'Him do ye celebrate in epinikian song in honour of Tim.' Cf. for dative Pyth. ix. 89, Isth. vi. 20, 21. 2-2

Page  20 NEMEA III. ON THE VICTORY OF ARISTOKLEIDAS OF AEGINA IN THE PANKRATION. INTRODUCTION: ARISTOKLEIDAS, son of Aristophanes, was probably himself a member of a college of theori or state ambassadors to Delphi (v. 70). He won this victory many years before the composition of the ode, as he seems to have been well advanced in age (vv. 73-76). The poet seems to apologise for his delay (v. 80), but not very profoundly, so that we need not suppose an interval of more than a year or two, if any, between the dates of the promise and the ode. From vv. 4, 5, it seems that the chorus was taught at Thebes. The ode was performed in the hall or temple of the college of theOri. The date is evidently prior to the Athenian conquest of Aegina 01. 80. 3, B.C. 458. Leop. Schmidt fancifully connects the ode with Pyth. it. and assigns it to the same date. It was sung by a chorus of youths (v. 5). The Rhythm is Aeolian, or Lydian with Aeolian measures (v. 79). ANALYSIS. rv. 1-5. The muse is entreated to go to Aegina on the anniversary of a Nemean victory, where a chorus awaits her. 6-8. An ode is the highest object of a victor's ambition. 9-14. The muse is entreated to inspire the poet to begin the hymn with Zeus of Nemea and to praise the country of the Myrmidons.

Page  21 NEMEA III. 2 21 14 —18. Whom the victorious endurance of Aristokicidas in the pankration at Nemea does not discredit. 19-20. Aristophanes' son, having done justice to his fine form, has attained to the highest achievements. 20-26. One cannot well pass the pillars which HU'rakies set up at the limit of his Western explorations. 26, 27. The poet is digressing. 28. His theme is the race of Aeakos. 29. It is the height of justice to praise the worthy. 30. But it is not good to yearn for distinctions for which one's inhorn nature has not fitted one. 31. The victor need not do so, as he inherits worth. 31. The legend of Pe'leus is alppropriate, to him. 32-39. Exploits of Pe'icus. 40-42. Innate worth is hest. Acquired capacities are fruitless. 43-64. The ahove doctrine is illustrated by Achilles' childhood, by the aged Cheiron and by the manhood of Achilles. 65, 66. Invocation of Zeus. 67 -70. This heseems Aristoklcidas who has brought glory to Aeg~ina and the college of Pythian theo'ri. 70-74. Trial proves a man's excellence in all stages of life. 74, 75. Four divisions of life, bring, four several virtues. 76. The victor partakes of all four. 76-80. Dedication of the ode. 80-81. As the eagle swoops fromt afar upon its prey, so the poet can seize upon the theme of a long past victory. 82. But the flight of chattering crows has a lower range. 83, 84. By favour of KlciS' the victor has won glory from Nemea, Epidauros and Megara. 7-p. a'. '1l72 wTVta Motoca, /Ita7Cp 4ae7-e'pa, Xto-o-olitat, Tc~) ~ro~vpav ev tepoflt)va NelLeJ3& 1. Md~rep.] Apollo and the Muses of the Aegin~tans for fair dealing were in a metaphysical sense parents with strangers cf. 01. viii. 21, Nem. of poets. Askd~piades in his Tpa-y~p- iv. 12, v. 8. For the fem. form of &6iuez' is said to have made Orpheus the compound adjective ef. INem. the son of Apollo and KalliopO. V. 9, VaV0onKXirav. Nem. vii. 83, 2. ra'v 7roXv~~:CVva.] For the fame Aapq

Page  22 22 22 ~PINDARI CARMINA. L'ICEo Acopt& Pa zcroov Aeytvar Ua~-t rya'p 6J~1'ov ' w' 'Auvo-ipr p&zXtyapi'wv 7EKOVS 5 Kco)luaw veaviat, cet6ev 6ira Jltao/Jkevot. ~t'Jtj 3 wprys. Xa,ue OiXxov, aeOoxvtKi'a 8e, /za'XtG-Tr d'taOL& 4 CEt, crT-Ec~a'vwv a'pe-rw Tre 8e~t(O-ra',av 0 owa8oV, ')A Ta40boviaiv `7Ta4e1j'E toS? a'/.La9 a'ro10capX 0, Opao 7TvVcexa KpEoZJT& OvlyaT16p, 5 10.vr. a. Is lepojlmpvUq.] A holy dlay was- so called because the period of its return was calculated by the moon. For special mention of the full moon of the Olympian festival cf. 01. iii. 19, 20, x. 73. The Nemean Festival was probably not on the new moon, see note on N~em. iv. 35, seoW-qs~q. 4. 'Ao-rwiyi.] Two streams called As~pos are recorded, and it is possible that in Aeginia there was a third, named after the mythical father of tbe eponymous nymphs Th6bM, Aegina and Nemea. We -cannot however be sure that the poet wishes to represent himnself as present in Aegina, as TrdvSE v6,Gov -(v.68) is not conclusive on the point. Cf. 01. viii. 25, Pyth. ix. 91. It seems best, in spite of Biickb, Dissen, &c., to explain that the -- chorus is awaiting the moment of inspiration at Thebes. 7r&KrOVES KWiJuwv. ] Here the chorus; elsewhere poets. Cf. Pyth. iii. 113. 'Divers conditions bring divers yearnings. That of a victor -in games, &e.' ~6. wpa-yo5.] According to analogy and usage this word is rather equivalent to 7lp&d~,s than to wpa-y/a. 8. o —rc,/xivwv dpeTaI' vs.] A hendiadys = of crowns for highest maerit.' o7ra~oiv.] Here a substantive as in Frag. 72 [63). 9. 'No grudging measure thereof do thou elicit from my store of skill.' It is not easy to render the play on hi-7a~o'p in Jra~-s in English. The verb should literally be renadered ' do thou bid attend,' as in Ii. xxiv. 46 1, Nern. ix., 30. 10. dipXej Cf. Alkman, Frag. 1, Mcir' Wye, Mwr30a XI-Yea roxv~gEVT dcvctot&e A4Xos veoxA'is dpxe 7rapo'poi/oO.] I ss. give o' pa - q -~ - w5-a, but all give roXvveo~Xc. According to a Schol. Aristarchos and Amm6nios took Uranos to be given as the father of the Muse, reading either three datives or three genitives, but it is presumable that Pindar begau with Zeus and followed 11-siod. On this point Diodorus Siculus (iv. 7) gives satisfactory negative evidence. Hermann takies o~pw'v3 as object to Kpcevirt. Bergk alters needlessly to Oiipawo? a hypothetical form for OU'papia. It is better to take Kpe'ovi- as a dat. comnmodi than as a possessive-dative with 66-yatrep (so one Schol.) which in such a position has the full effect of ' thou, his daughter.' Bergk -objects that it cannot Sic nude dici and that adpX6 iV'ov Ad is not appropriate to tbe context. Surely it is appropriate to any Nemean (or Olympian) ode, even if nothingspecial be said about Zeus. Moreover cf. ye. 65, 66.

Page  23 NEMEA III. 23 U3OKL/JO7) {4LVOVw eyo), &E CeIVl) -re' VtV, Y'O xvpa TE KOtaoI-o[Lat. XapLtEVTa 'a EL 70'VOV 20 xwpCa' daaXjua, Muvplzt6vve" tva 7rpo'T6pot CVK17o-, 66v waXaifaTrov aryopav 15 o'iK EXeyXEo-o-tl 'Aplo-roTKXEc ' aTETV 25 ElIte KcaT alcoa-a v 7/repteveF 7TzXaXpKOV? 'Ew. a'. 77-ayKpaTlOv G-TOX(' K(/vaTCO&(7 (S 7rXaya'v axoq v7Vt?7po11 ev 3aOvWre(Ip( Neu'a To' icaXXWLKVt obepet. 30 11. vtv.] I.e. vfJvov. dcpoes.] 'ChoralVoices.' For the form cf. Pyth. I. 98, Kovwicavy,La\XcaKiv 'raiawv oapotai. 12. Kotvciaoect.] MSS. Kolvo'ToFLat. The Schol. explains KOLVWi aco/act, whence Bergk reads Koi' detcroeat; but probably the Schollast had the false reading Koovw'gaogat produced by the incorporation into the text of a correction. Pyth. iv. 115 supports our text. ~ct.] Dissen takes Zeus to be the subject, Don. d'yaucta, rendering 'It will be a pleasing toil to honour the land,where &c.,' which he supports by Nem. vii. 16, Ne/eaiov &agya\tXa crarpos, but there, as here, a'yaXAa is concrete, 'an honour,' 'an adornment.' Here it might be said that V'6voS is the subject, XcSpaus IyaXa being in apposition, and i'te =' will involve.' Cf. Soph. El. 351, oi ravra 7rpbo KaKcoat &etXlav ^iEL; Is it not simpler to read tecaI, as the causal middle, 'thou muse shalt set us grateful toil, an honour to the land' (Xw'pas &ya\aac being accusative in apposition with the notion of the clause. Cf. 01. ii. 4, Aesch. Ag. 225)? For undetected instances of causal middle cf. note on oarooat, Nem. ix. 43, as to KwftaSo/jalt, and perhaps daLeiCerat, Aesch. Choeph. 965 (P.) = 'will cause to change.' Cf. infra v. 27, Nem. vi. 26. 13. The Myrmidons were supposed to have migrated with Peleus from Aegina to Phthi6tis. 14. wv vraXaiq(arov d-yopac.] 'The ancient fame of whose meeting (for games).' Don. says that -yop& means meeting-place here as in Od. vm. 109, 156; but in the latter verse, iOv 6e FLeO' v/LerTep dyopI... I /cua, it is better to render 'assembly,' 'meeting.' 15. Trde Kar' alTcra.] For the usual rendering 'by thy favour,' tuo beazeficio, which strains the interpretation both of aCr- and of aTaav, 01. ix. 28 is quoted, but see my noteandthat on Pyth. vm. 68. I prefer ' in reference to thy standard, Kleid.' Aits aia-q, 01. ix. 42, is 'by Zeus' assignment.' 16. fLaXaXOets.] 'By yielding,' 'by proving soft,' the participle signifying, as Don. says, the cause. 17. KaiarwSCv'.] For sentiment cf. Nem. vmII. 49, 50, Isth. vii. 1-3. 18. jaOoureichp.] So best Mss. Moschopulos from one or two MSS. read Pv -ye 3acOvur0vy. The lemma, which ought to be in L. and S., is from re3iov not r0eov. [3ai06rego would be, as Prof. Paley renders, ' deep-soiled,' not ' with low-lying plain.' /epet.] 'He won at Nemea and wears, &c.' (cf. Nem. v. 54), aKcos

Page  24 24 24 ~PINDARIT CARMINA. el EwO at ep&O T eotora Itopcfa 20 avopeats v7rapraraV c~r4)3a wra? 'Apto-TOofiv1Eo9, oOxKErt J/Tav 3XAa xctdvow iwrp 'HpacXa9'rpaE/ap9 14acp3 s' & 9 c p acrevay~ vepvelkp aipa l4k rxqov w~ap- a eticXat; a 30 coV a dX o'rpiaw po'r dva~,paw 7)bc'pcK~TOV ESXo, being an extension of the predicate. Cf. Istli. vi. 21. It is scarcely a historic present, which is rare in Pindar, but cf. 01. ii. 23, Pyth. iv. 163. 19. For sentiment cf. 01. viii, 19, ix. 94, Cjpdies S W'V Kal KaX0's KdXXWTa',re Pe~a Isth. vi. 22. 21. Cf. 01. iii. 43. 22. iOpws Oeo's.] 'Hero and God.' Cf. Pausanias ii. 10. 1. 24. ihrep6Xos.] 3Dor. ace. plur. Cf. infr. v. 29, 01. i. 53. The conquest of sea-monsters by H~rakles is probably a mythical dress given to the suppression of pirates by Hell6nic mariners. iviss. give Oirtpoyos, 'ia -r' ipevP-. A Schol. gives a v. 1. 8s4' r' i'p. Bdckh inserts i4-, Hermann amxT. xreva-yfo uo A's.] ' Channels of the shallow straits.' Pliny (Nat. Hist. iii. 1) says of the Straits of Gibraltar, frequemtes taenicte candicantis vadi carnvas tenatnt. Curtius rejects the connection with xd-yyw(, which is given by a Schol., and would look rather to stagnum. 25'. wfprqs7r~ov vioxe~v.] To be taken together as by Prof. Paley; 'Where he came to land at the bourne which sped him on his homeward way,' i. e. the reaching, of which enabled him to start back speedily. For the genitive of. Aescb. Chotph. 84, xio' — 7c rpocarpo-Jrr wopyrrei. 26. -ydv Opd6auare.] 'Made the land known,' i.e. explored the shores as he had the straits. Prof. Paley renders 'defined the limits of the earth,' Schol. [qpa6txhv] ~-ron-C6 iKaLl 27L rnapagetj~eau.] See note on v. 12 supra, 6'feL. 1155.-fy 29. 'The flower of justice concurs with the inaxim,"1praise the noble."' For uturos of. 01. i. 15, ii. 7, Nem. ii. 9; for the infinitive of. Pytli. r. 68, ii. 24, Nem. ix. 6 (where there is the same sentiment).30. For infinitive of. 01. vii. 25. The poet states in a negative form that auv7yyczijs cOmo~la (v. 40) is best. He is complimenting the victor, not, as Leop. Schmidt thinks, warning him against unwise ambition.

Page  25 NEMEA III. oI'coev /PaTdev. 7roTiL opov 8e Kco' ov K eXaLeO 7XUcv Tr ryapvepev. 7raXatatcr- 8' ev apera^? yeya0e HIX\ev)s aSvaT, v7repaXXov aolvav ra/pwv OS Ka6ta 'I\w/XKCv el\e /LOvo gaveu orpara9, 35 Kcatl rovTrav 66rtLV KareCaparev eyf0ovT]l. AaolteSovra 8 evpvaOevrjs' TeXaudv, 'IoXa Trpapc-a'raSa eWC&v C'W7epev, Ttpt'a~ rO. 7'lo6/ 25 55 60 31. oi'coOev icareve.] ' Search at home' for examples of lofty aspirations. 32. 7raXactaiL ' ev caperais.] Schol. 9ri [for i6ri] radXcat,,rlaiv, vfutvecra 6 IlnXeis Kal viyveiro. Don. needlessly alters to wraXataic?-v e. a. with the full stop moved on to the end of the line, comparing 01. xIII. 50, 51, ftiriv Te pyapivwv 7raXai6ydvov ir6Xe~Jiv ' ev ipw'i'ais perao'tv. Render 'For among instances of ancient worth-King Peleus delights in having cut a matchless spear, &c.' For v =' in the sphere of' cf. O. and P. p. xxxvii, Nem. I. 34. Mr Postgate takes iv 7r. d. with yeya0e (a construction which may be defended by 01. i. 14, dyXat'Tera ovUo'.LKcS ev awoJrT), and for the arrai Xey. v7reppaXXov proposes o 7rep\pXXov for irepiaX\ov (cf. 7reparr-oJv, Pyth. III. 52, Trepo6oi, Nem. xi. 40). But vrrepaXXov is supported by Frag. 39 [33], 2, dv7jp vrrep dv,8ps iox6vei. We must admit some unique forms. Dissen's provectior aetate for e' 7raX. dp. is undoubtedly wrong. His reference to gSopKev, Nem. ix. 41 (which clearly refers to the past yet is not an ordinary perfect) to explain the tense, does not apply to a present perfect like yeyaOe. Peleus is represented as still rejoicing in the renown of his spear cutting, sung by rhaps6dists, cf. II. xvi. 140-144 (repeated xix. 387-391). The Schol. quotes -rdie for irope in the line 1I?7XtdSa IeXiI7V r77v irctrTpl q<pLXc. rope Xelpwv. This passage partly explains reprv-,v ipep7roto'av XaXer7w'v re Kpriat, Frag. 108 [96]. For Peleus cf. Nem. iv. 54. 34. Peleus overcame the host of the mortal Akastos son of Pelias (according to a Schol. Pherekydes related that he was assisted by Ias6n and the Dioskuroi) and also the divine Thetis. Kai.] A long syllable before 'IwXKo' to which Christ prefixes the digamma without warrant. For hiatus cf. Mommsen, Adnot. Crit. on 01. xnII. 34, and 0. and P. p. xlii. Isth. vni. 56 we find doiSal Xiwrov. niovos avev orparias.] Dissen cites II. xxi. 39, Od. iv. 367, xxi. 364 for the pleonasm. The second instance is perhaps not to the point. 35. Kaie-iCapev.] ' Seized and held,' as in 01. vi. 14. 36. eiyKovqTri.] From the meaning of eycoviw we gather that the adverb means 'by perseverance' or 'by dint of activity.' Thetis could change her shape like Pr6teus. Cf. Nem. iv. 62-65. The Schol. quotes a Frag. of Soph. Troilus, ey-revy, W's iyf7fUev daoldo'yyovs yfLovoV, [ Tr1 TravroIJodpg Oir-& ouv/x7ra\KelS 7rroue, and again from the Achillis Erastae, irl 'yap /fe UO6xos OVK Cre-irarei'7; XWw, | apdCKWv Te, 7rp, ivp wp. epv0reVrS.] ' Of widely known might.' Cf. Nem. v. 4; 01. xII. 2, where my note is perhaps wrong. 37. Note the omission of any mention of Herakles in connection with Telambn and Iolaos. Cf. Nem. iv. 25.

Page  26 26 PINDARI CARMINA. 'Er. /Y. KaL Trore %aXcoTroorv 'AKavwv e'/T acav 65 erewo or, ouVe plw TrOTe /3o,o avSpoSa/1as erwavaev adfxCpav (ppevov. 40 a-vyyever 3 rTs eSolta 1erya /3p0Oe' 70 g9 8E SLaSCKT7 yet, #ehvo; dvnarp XXXorT' XX\a Trewv o 7roT' rpeceL icarc/3a 7rol, 4vptciv 8' apeTrd aTrEXel vow yevera'. Trp. y'. ^avPos 8' 'AyLXeD9 T7a [eLV jE'Z/wv 'OiXpa9 ev 0fL0tS9, 75 7ras? eov advpe /jeydXa 6prya, Xyepc OalvaL 45,fpaXyvolapov abcovra 7rdXXov, 'era T' adveULO 80 icaa XceovTeo-oerv arpoTepoV ewrpaco-cev b ovoV, 38. ' And one while followed he him (Iolaos) in quest of the power of the Amazons with their brazen bows.' For the hypallage see 0. and P. p. xxxv. 39. aKydiv.] Mr Fanshawe renders 'temper,' comparing o-roucw 'to temper,' 'to give edge (crro'a) to.' 40. ev53ota.] Cf. note on v. 30 supra. We use 'nobility' for the qualities which ennoble. Don. renders 'valour,' comparing Aesch. Pers. 28, 4vxjS eVrXrjtovLt S6y, which I take to be 'courageous resolve of soul.' /ppOec.] Cf. Soph. Aiax, 130, s3' oyKOCv &py /773L4ev TCIOS r ETTo OV \ io Xetpl pptlOes i7 CaKpogv rXOvTrou fOet. Cf. Verg. Aen. 151, pietate grauem. 41. &SaCKr'.] For sentiment cf. 01. Ix. 100, I. 86. ~fkeqbvos.] Cf. Nem. vIII. 34, Pyth. xi. 30, o &e XapXo& 7rve 'w dqaavrov irve'ov.] Cf. the quotation in the last note. arpeK&. ] ' Unflinching.' 42. Kare'ia.] 'He entered the list.' Cf. Pyth. xi. 49, yvdvov eirl ora&tov Kara3a'vres. But cf. Nem. Iv. 38. The aorist is gnomic. aperav.] ' Kinds of distinction.' For the vague sense cf. Pyth. i. 41. Generally iperal means either 'merits,' 'virtues,' or 'victories' or 'noble deeds.' dreXe.] ' Ineffectual.' L. and S. gives 'imperfect,' which is wrong. 43. r't Aev.] The answering 53 would regularly come with the general sense of v. 59-63, but the construction alters in the course of the long interval. 44. Xepcri. For the plur. cf. 01. XIII. 95, T' 7oTTXXit P/e3O Kapruvetv xepov, and for throwing spears with either hand cf. II. xxI. 162. 45. The boy had small weapons. I'ca r'.] So Moschop. for tLov r'. pw/ILots.] MSS. dvCLoto'.v. Moschop. altered to av~LOctIv 1 'ev kjuiXL X)ovCYV. 46. brpao-rey.] L. and S. wrongly compares Aesch. Prom. V. 660, 7rpdcicetv piXa 5alxoyOv, where Mat/oa-v is governed by 0iXa, and the phrase means 'What he must do or say for his conduct to be pleasing to the deities.' Render 'he was wont to deal slaughter in fight on savage lions.'

Page  27 INEMEA III. Kca0rpov9 T' rvape, o-4La7-a &3?rap& Kpovic~av Kcvravpov aoOLat'VoVra Ko/Lt'v, evT79 'V T 7VPcv, OPO, ) (3 7ELT ( PO7) 50To\ E'0a /k/3Eov0 "ApTC/_L/ TE KcaEt Opao-d' 'AOiva, 27 85 IC'TEWOVT eXdaOvS (Jvev Icv)wov 8oXtOjv ij ipkg'o 'roora4 yLp aKpa'T&TE. XEY/J'evov 8E \ ToV70 77TPO TPT(O) 90 e'ro"?xo /3a)vpj7Ta Xelpwv 7TpaE06 XtOiyvr Ia'o-i' EV,30ov 'TeyeL, Kat e7TEL'TCV 'Aowi2vt0'-V, 55 'TO\' apfbCtp/tK(ol) 3i' e fzaaJc6tXeta p Po v/ov* 95 Y~l~ce v~ ) a~~- / 616caprrov Pv/4e v (3e 8 a-'Ts- a7'Xap7OV Nnjpe5 6hrycvrpa,5 1y0o'VOV 74 1 e'Jp'Ta'T07 47. eoa'ura.] Mommsen accepts the v. 1. caTwar'... doO/,acvopvri from two Scholl.; but Dissen points out that ao-r0a generally applies to the wounded and dying (cf. Nem. x. 74), and that the position of a-c/Lari would be unsatisfactory. Moreover mention of Achilles' panting seems in bad taste. 49. 6' firect-' av.] Bockh altered to r' f7relrev needlessly. 52. Xey6~Levov, K.r.X.] ' Oft-told is this story of men of yore which I have to tell.' For Xe-y. cf. Pyth. v. 101. Dissen and others take the gen. as one of origin with the participle as in 01. vIIi. 44, which I explain differently. 55. JuaXaK6oXetpa.] Cf. Pyth. iv. 271, Xp fia\aKdav Xepa 7rpoo/i3d\XoV7'Ta rptuav a EXKeos daiUL7roXe. vo'jov.] MSS. also give voo6'v, and a Schol. interprets by &mavesoo'r, 'apportionment.' Render v6fov, 'practice.' 56. 'And presided at the wedding of Ndreus' bright-(?) daughter and cherished for her her matchless offspring, developing all his character by fitting lore' (or 'improving his courage in all respects by fitting exercises'). Mezger ex plains ac;uwv, 'elevating above the average.' For Cheiron's part in the marriage, cf. Isth. vii. 41. The Mss. are somewhat in favour of acyXa6icapirov, the best v. I. being a-yXa6KoX7rov. It has been suggested to me that dyXa6Kap7ro (which Paley renders fair-wristed) = apo — rotcta (Theokr. xxiv. 72); but Hermann on Kap7roTp6<cot, Eur. Ion, 475, says that Kaprobs is not used of children, but of seed, as Alowl- Kapros, Ion, 922. 'Brightwristed' could only apply to a braceleted wrist. For bracelets in connection with Thetis, cf. II. xvIII. 393-405, if Paley is right as to 6dpovs meaning ' bracelets.' But if we compare 01. iI. 72, av0eua b5 Xpvrouo f\eyet rai r e'v epor60er a7r' &yatyv aevY3pwv, Suwp 5' XXCa 0e/3et opgoret uwv xepas a'a rXe'KovTt, qPfie0 ClpOctoo erV Xdpas civawkd'o, 7', K.T.X., we need not demur to the epithet of the nymphs in the Homeric hymn to Demeter being applied by Pindar to Thetis in the literal sense, 'bestower (or 'possessor') of brilliant fruits.' It is possible that the original was a7yha6Kovpov, in reference to Achilles. In uncials p and 7r were very easily confused.

Page  28 28 PINDARI CARMIINA. TLTTacXXE ev a dppvo' vrvra Ovt.ov avtzwv 100 'E7r. 7'. O'tpa OaXacriacr' dvewv puo ratac rre4fOBekC 60 vT7r Tpwtav &opiCTrvrov ciXaXav AvKlc6oV 7 rpocr/evot Kat CDpvydv 105 Aap&Sdvov e, Kat EyXEcropots erTlti:at 0tO7recrfi Xetpas ev fparl 7rEa0, 7'OrcM) I? icrt 7rdutv oLica'o d9etlO galevuF 'EXerIoto McroV rawX orct)'/C dv ~ ay' LEV49~ 'EXE'vow e'orw aoX oL. 110 Zip. 3'. rXavrye apape 4ej77yo Alact6ci amroOev' 65 Ze, V ryap, reov 7' ay^a, mreo 8i ayo ov vVo 3aXev I 15 07ort vEtcv E7rtxwptozv Xyapca ceXaSewo. 59. Cf. Nem. viI. 29. 60. bopiKTcrov.] It is hard to say whether this refers to the S0oros oS cAhOV' in actual fight or to a clashing of spears accompanying the battle cry. I decidedly incline to the former explanation. &XaXcv.] Cf. Frag. 192 [224], Pyth. i. 72. 6 qoivrt O6 rupravwv T' aXaXaros, 'the warrior host,' Isth. VI. 10, e dXaX&s, ' from battle.' Compare the use of tduras, Nem. ix. 35. 61. Aatp3ivwv re.] For -re...KalC.. re see 0. and P., p. xxxvii. The Phrygians and Dardani were from the north of Asia Minor, the Lycians from the south. tepuisats xepas.] Cf. Pyth. iv. 213, Kf\Xatvwrea-ot Kdkxortwv flav J4a.v. The Aethiopis ascribed to Arktinos seem to have been popular in Aegina. Cf. Nemr. vIIi. 30. 62. ev papcrl 7raciat'.] Cf. Pyth. VIII. 9, Kap5ia KcOT6r eiveXda7. clrrt.] 'To their sorrow.' Dat. inconmzodi to Lp Koupavos...jXot, or almost to ev fpacal irdiaeW', 07rws At, K.T.X. being the direct object. 63. tauevis.] 'Inspired.' Cf. Pyth. iv. 10, Pyth. ix. 38. Perhaps the kinship in prophetic faculty as well as in blood accounts for his being here called cousin of the seer Helenos rather than of any other son of Priamos. But Helenos was connected with Aegina by the services which he rendered to the Aeakid Neoptolemos, for whom cf. Nem. vII. 35-49. Tith6nos was brother to Priamos. 64. Apape.] ' Depends therefrom,' = {pratL, i.e. from the Trojan war, and Memn6n's slaughter especially which spread their bright fame as far as Aethiopia. Cf. Nem. vi. 47 -55, Isth. iv. 39-45. 65. Zeu.] An exultant shout of invocation, the poae of v. 67. See v. 10. -yap.] The particle introduces the reasons for the invocation. Cf. 01. iv. 1. CaXevv.] For metaphor cf. 01. ii. 82, 83, I. 112. 66. xdpua.] ' Victory.' Cf. 01. xi. 22, Pyth. vIII. 64, perhaps 01. vii. 44.

Page  29 NEMEA III. foa a' vtlCao6pcp cir 'Apw-ToKhXeti r PE7rLrEt i3s' TaH3E varol) ecviCXct w7pooO'E'0'cqK 07 Iaa oejvov ayXaaF't FLepliItvav, 70 IIVOlov Oeaptov. elv ' \ relp(t 76ex0 a3taat'ive7aL, (vi' Tts9 eQoXW'Tepo9~ /eZTatU, 29 120 'Avr. 8'. el 7rawoi veowt 7rav9, eV a78pa'-tv darPqp, Irppirov 125 Ev 7raTkavTepota-t /tepov Ecaa-Tov otov eXoLtev,8PO'TEOV MVOI~. Aii & lm'lE'ro —apap9 apCTa 13 75 0 Ova1'To\ a' 'v, Of'pOVE' ' 3 W7l- 7TO 7apK~eL/JVEPV. 67. o-'v.] Tmesis, o-vcurp~,ret. Mezger compares Aesch. S. c. 'h. 13, Suppl. 458 for the adj. crv/7rpe7rs with a copula. 68. 7rpoo-qe0Ke.] 'Wedded to.' For the phrase cf. 01. i. 22, Kpdire re 7rpo~efuLe ei ro7raTCv. 69. Ty Xaaout Lepi/ucais.l 'By active yearnings for victory.' For the order cf. O. and P. p. xxxvi. For dayX. cf. 01. xiv. 6. 70. HvOlov Oeciptov.] A temple or hall in Aegina belonging to the college of Pythian Oewpol or sacred ambassadors to Delphi. To this college the victor doubtless belonged. There were similar colleges of perpetual Oeapol at Mantinea, Thuk. v. 47, Troezen, Paus. ii. 31. 9, Naupaktos, Thasos, and the four. Pythii at Sparta. Milller, Dorier, ii. 18, Aeginetica, p. 134 f. ev 6 7reEipa, K.T.X.] 'In actual trial is clearly shown perfection of those qualities in which one shall have proved himself pre-eminent.' I cannot agree with Paley in rendering rTXoI 'result,' though 'highest result' would convey the same sense as 'perfection.' Mezger rightly opposes this r4Xos to are\Xis voY6, v. 42. This closing passage is very difficult to understand. 72. Trpiov... fpos.] Accusative of general apposition; but here it comes under 'extent, range, sphere.' Madv. ~ 31 c. 73. fKao-rov.] Sc. dpos, ' in short, in each stage such as our mortal race hath in life.' So the Schol. 74. etX.] Not merely 'brings,' but ' forms a series of.' 75. 6 Ov-aro aibv.] There is a balance of evidence in favour of Ovario' against /caKpo& which would hardly need the article. Render 'The sum of mortal life brings even four virtues, for it bids us (as a fourth virtue) exercise prudence with regard to the present.' Cf. Pyth. iv. 280-286. From this passage we get a clear definition of copove TOi 7ri waKeuevooV, the fourth virtue characteristic of advanced age (proved to be so by the use of the verb eX^), and have no mention of justice; while from Pyth. I. 63-65, we get courage as the virtue of early manhood, and 3ovXat, i.e. e. vovXia, as that of rpeo-f3PrepoL or TraXairepot. Cf. Frag. 182 [213]. But looking back to the exploits of Achilles aet. 6, it is hard to extract the first virtue characteristic of boyhood so as to identify it with temperance, indeed I think that the four virtues are two species of Opca-os, and two of

Page  30 PINDARI CARMINA. T7VW ovc da7reoT&. X^ape, )ck'Xov0.yw 786e 7T& wrelftro LfJy /evo v [EIXt XevKws o-vv ycdXaKcTr, Kctpva/Lvca S' 'ep',b,7retL vrod/ do;otjLov Alo-XVI-v r 7rvoacr-tv a;Xv\v 135 'Emr 8'. 8O xE 7w~p. eo6Tt E' aTroS WKV9 w v w? o voiav, o140 I - a/3cv avfr a, T7?XOOE [kCTa latoJ'lEvOS., 3abotvoIO adypav V/otl eijouvXta,fearlessness and endurance, boldness of design and prudence. Don. however thinks " that Pindar is speaking with reference to the Pythagorean division of virtue into four species, and that he assigns one virtue to each of the four ages of human life (on the same principle as that which Shakspere has followed in his description of the seven ages), namely, temperance is the virtue of youth (Aristot. Eth. Nic. I. 3), courage of early manhood (P. ii. 63), justice of maturer age, and prudence ((ppoveSv To crapKceitevov) of old age (P. II. 65). That he is speaking of the virtues proper to each age is clear from v. 71: Wv TtS 6ioXCrepoS yviErat." 76. Twe.] I.e. reo'a'dpw aperwv, 'Of these thou hast no lack.' Mezger reads 7Ireo-ot. Aristokleidas was not necessarily approaching old age at the date of this ode any more than Damophilos, Pyth. Iv. OlXos.] Nominative for vocative. Cf. Pyth. I. 92. For Xape cf. Pyth. ii. 67, Isth. I. 32. 77. AeX\i.] Cf. Isth. iv. 54, 4v Y6 eparetviJq, \Lrt Kal rotaite rtuial KaXkivLKOv Xacip L' &Tyawr-ovt, 01. xI. 98, JdXMrT ecldvopea rbXo\I KaraflpXwv. The Schol. suggests that 7yiXa represents the natural talent displayed in the ode, /eXt the skilled labour. But Pindar would hardly apply the metaphor of honey so often to his verse (e.g. Frag. 129 [266], iteXtcOr(OTEUKTWV K'qptUJV ica yXvKurepos 6yfJcd) if he thought of its being a laboured product. The main idea is a sweet thought. The ingredients may be suggested by the KparT7p vY(ciXtos, of the Muses, cf. Lucr. I. 947, nmusaeo dulci melle, and of Pan, cf. Theokr. v. 58. Cf. Plato, Ion, 534 A, of poets, wSWe~p ait cKXat apiuvTrovTat cK trv 7roTrapwv /JeXt KCt 'ydXCa KaTrexodlEeCa. Cf. Eur. Bacchae, 708, o-ats 6i XeoVKOV 7rwjcaros ro60os 7rapvy got milk and honey. (Perhaps the YeKrap XUvro of 01. vII. was a XevKdov 7rWJa, but see Isth. v. 2, 7.) Philostratos, In Vitis Sophistt. p. 511, ed. Olear. Tas 6' evoltas itrias re Kal trapa6doovs eK&tiSwcr'P (Nikktes), woirep ol paKoetoC 06poot Tr jiXEi KIa'l roVs eAoiobs tOO 7yaXaKros. For the draught of song cf. 01. vi. 91, Isth. v. 2, 7-9. With yAiXa XeVKOc cf. Frag. 143 [147], Lucr. I. 258, candens lacteus unmor. 78. KcipYatfva Kc.r..] IA frothed dew crowns the bowl.' For the parenthesis cf. Pyth. x. 45, 'X~ev Aavaas 7rOTr arcas, diyeio 6' 'AOdva, es avspwpr /cicadpwv b6ytXov. 79. 7roi' iot6.] Cf. Isth. iv. 24. ev.] Cf. 01. vnI. 12. 81. For the eagle seizing the hare, cf. II. xxii. 308, and coins of Elis and Agrigentum. See Plate. LueTracato/Cevos.] ' Though it make its swoop from afar.' 6a(po6vdv.] 'Tawny.'

Page  31 NEMEA III. 31 Kcpayera e fCat & koXoo 'areTvt veLovrat. riv yE Lev', evOpVovo KXeLtos cOeXoi'av, ae6OXoodpov Xyj/a-roS "evefv I145 Ne/Lea~ 'ErLtavpoSev T ' dro Kcal Mcydipwv &e3opKCev <bdo9. 82. rarrevci veovrat.] ' Have a low range of flight.' For rve/leo-Oa 'to have a range' cf. Simonides, Frag. 5 [12] (Plato, Protag. p. 339 if.), 8, oi ov4e fiot eL/eXews TO IIrraKELOv v4tLeraC, 'even the saw of Pittakos goeth not far enough to suit me,' Herod. ix. 6fin. The poet means that it is easy for him to give lively interest to a distant event in a case where the ode of an inferior poet would fall flat. 83. ye/ le.] I.e. ye /JuV', 'however.' Cf. Nem. II. 33. KXerobu.] Perhaps chosen because of the victor's name. For omens in names cf. 01. vi. 56, Aesch. P. V. 85, Ner. II. 8. 84. &iro.] For position cf. 01. vII. 12, viII. 47, Pyth. iI. 10, 11, 59, v. 66, viII. 99, Nem. Ix. 22. For prep. with -0eV, cf. Hes. WT. and D. 763, Kc At60ev. SeSopKev.] Cf. 01. I. 94, Nem. ix. 41, and for the perfect cf 01.. 53. The phrase SopK. /pan. answers to apape Pe yyeos, supra v. 64 (Mezger).

Page  32 NEMEA IV. ON THE VICTORY OF TIMASARCHOS OF AEGINA IN THE BOYS' WRESTLING MATCH. INTRODUCTION. TIMASARCHOS, son of Timokritos, a harper (v. 14), of the family or clan of the Theandridae, was victorious in the boys' wrestling match at Thebes in the Herakleia, at Athens in the Panathenaea and at Nemea. This last victory was won B.C. 461, 01. 79. 3, or a little earlier. The ode was most likely processional, as it is monostrophic. The rhythm is Lydian with Aeolian measures. It was probably sung before a banquet as a TrpoKC6FLov (v. 11). ANALYSIS. Mtt. 1 -8. Feasting and song are the best recompense for severe struggles. 9-13. Dedication of the ode. 13-24. Had Timokritos been alive he would have played the lyre on the occasions of his son's victories at Nemea, Athens and Thebes. 25-30. Telamon's exploits as Herakles' comrade. 30-32. Achievements entail suffering. 33-43. The poet checks himself and bids the victor strive boldly against calumnies. 44-68 Praise of Aeakids. 69-72. The poet again checks himself. 73-92. Praise of the victor and his family. 93-96. Praise of his trainer Melisias.

Page  33 NEMEA IV. 33 -,rp. a. "Apw-Tro9 escpoo-vva 7rroVWw KE/CPtLeVOV ta'rpo at (3 ofoa& MoLto-y OvcyaTpes dotlae, 0eX\av vtv a7rroltrat. oVS3 OepjuaOv v8op TOrov 7e p,acaXOaca Tre7yet, 5 yvta, Tocraov evXOyla opfp77Lyy auvaopos. pijifa p81 repy/aTwv XPOvIwTrepv /3LOTEVEL, o,TL fCee V^ Xapwcov TrvXaL y\Xocrra Opevo3~ ieXot /13aOeiaq. 5 IO0 1. eVfposcvva.] ' Good cheer,' cf. Pyth. iv. 129, Isth. II. 10. KeKpLIevWv.W] ' When a painful struggle is decided,' cf. 01. nI. 21, Nem. x. 23, Kpit aed ieXw, 01. viI. 80, KpicrLS Ci' ac0Xots; or ' when labours have won a favourable verdict' (or ' distinction'), cf. Isth. iv. 11, Nem. VII. 7. Don. explains the Schol. Kpilav X\ap6vrwv Kal cUvTeXeOcevTrwv, ' brought to a determination.' 2. larp6s.] For the order cf. 0. and P. p. xxxvi. For the phrase cf. Aesch. Choeph. 685 [P.], vvv a', i7rep ev aSo/Loc-L flaKXxeas Kcaas latrpos we\7rs v, 7rapoerav e/yypcd/et. aoqai.] There seems to be a double allusion, to skill in leechcraft and skill in poetry, in this instance. 3. vv.] 'Him,' the victor, implied in 7rtv. KeKP., cf. Nem. viiI. 21 -23. Don. Paley. Mommsen however [comparing Pyth. III. 63, Kal ri ol (XetpCiO) I| Xi\rpo ev 'vP Ovju ecXiydpveS i;fjvoL aGLeepoL TriOev] and Mezger explain VVy = eupoIVsva, taking rTouQLevat =' when they set to work;' but I prefer 'by their touch,' cf. Pyth. iv. 271, Xp? gaXaKa&v Xtpa irpoo3ca\\XovTra rpWc'lav Keos aAtz7rroX\tv. 4. ye.] The force is-that soothing as water is, its soothing properties are proportionately small. Hlowever, Plutarch, de Tranqu. 6, quotes thus, ov3ie. u'. TooS-6e rT^ye F. II. PiaXOar& yvia, KacrAI Hvsapov, WCTr &0/a 7rote ~rotvov 1668v. /cLaXOaci rtyee.] The adjective is proleptic,' bedew with soft relief,' 'soften by moistening,' 'steep limbs in softness' (Holmes). Mss. give TeuXet, but Plutarch's more uncommon word and tense are more likely to be original. Edd. read 7-y-yet, but for the gnomic future cf. 01. vII. 3, where it is taken up by a gnonic aorist, 01. viII. 53, repwrvov a' ev nadOpiiroLs irov ecraera oae'v, 01. ix. 106,,uia 6' o;X iTavrTas cLJL]e Opeeti c /LeXErTa, II. xxii. 317, otos a' ao'Tr-p e tot jter' do-rpdaci VVLCTUK aTpol\7y7 e'ercpos, | os cdiX\crros ev ovpavp 'oTrarat da-cvp, Ws aix/,s 7 airXat7r' evi7Keos,?TV dp' 'AXXX\ebs I 7rdcXXv. Cf. ib. 309. 5. osvvaopos.]'Weddedto'(TIolmes). Cf. Isth. vI. 19. 6. For sentiment cf. Pyth. III. 114, Frag. 98 [86], rrpereL 8' eaXoa-tv vylpve iOat Ka\Utoiracts ot8auss' ro'iro 'y&p q0CavtProts rtiats 'rortlaucet tpJvoV [pfrsO1v]. Ocvda'Kec ' eirtXaadev tca\v 'pyov. 7. bsv Trvx.] Cf. Nem. vi. 25. 8. fppcvs f'XoE p3afOeias.] Mezger compares Nem. III. 9. Paley says the metaphor is from drawing arrows out of a quiver, but the epithet paOeiag rather suggests choosing from a rich store. Don. quotes Theognis, 1051,,r} iror' r7reItySevso irp7t5s KaKocv, CXah& 3iaOCei c qpeYvl 3

Page  34 34 PINDARI CARMINA. TO /LOL O ) Kppovl& Te At'. Ka' NeT E ioTt1eaoc'pp ov Te 7Ea'X /IVov 7porcK)/LLol) Etf q S46avao 8' Aia icL&tv 17TV~VPIYOV Ee39, 3fKea ~evaplcei Kotvov Ch/yo9. E&' ETL ~ta/Leav Ttyo6Kpt-ro(' aXi o-~ wra~ry p EOaXw'Xro 7ToLK iXoJ icKOap'an', STp. 1'. I5 20 oAvXeao-at, where the meaning may be a little different. See on pahi8otos, Pyth. i. 66, 01. n. 54, 3a0etav Ippt2lvav cypo-ripav. ie'Xot.] The optative because there is a special reference to the following portion of the ode as well as to what generally happens, and so av with optative almost =future. The case is not discussed Goodwin ~~ 61 -64; it should come under ~ 61. 3 note. Kiihner, in his general explanation, says that the optative expresses conditional supposition, conjecture, assumption, undetermined possibility, while the subjunctive expresses mere supposition, &c. (~ 333. 6 of Eng. Trans. 1859). Here arm Xapirwv vrXa may be equivalent to a protasis. 9. -6.] 'Wherefore,' cf. Pyth. v. 37, II. xvII. 404, Soph. Phil. 142. Paley renders r6 04/Aev, 'to offer this tribute;' Cookesley 'dedicate this prelude.' For WOgev cf. v. 81. guot etr.] For this phrase cf. Pyth. 1. 29 with the pronoun suppressed, Pyth. II. 96, 01. I. 115, Nem. vn. 25, el?'v ra Y aXiOdeav tI{eyv, with the pronoun in the accusative. re-Kal-Te.] See 0. and P. pp. xxxvii., xxxviii. For the mention of the locality of the games, the victor's achievement and the god of the games together, cf. Nem. I. 7, ap/ca 6' oprpvvet Xpoplov NeCfIa 8' spy/jiaauv viKaGqopozs eyKwiLt ov 'evTaz AdXos. NegL. re 7rdX. is a hendiadys, 'wrestling at Nemea.' 11. 7rpoKxW/tov. ] Editors and translators seem agreed that the prelude' or proeme of the processional ode sung by the l6mos is meant. I think that the whole ode is the -rpOKCu Lov, the beginning of the revel, and that vhitvov is a genitive of 'material,' cf. Pyth. Iv. 206, hi8wv Pfdlj'LO, v. 71, didLCavaros AXotT. 56atro.] Is ' me' or ' the ode' the implied object? The latter most likely. This is the only other instance of the suppression of the direct object of SKO/IcaL in Pindar besides Pyth. IV. 70. 12. 6iK, K.T.X.] ' A light that shines in view of all by reason of their justice in protecting aliens:' metaphor from a beacon (rvprpos). For the justice of Aeginhtans cf. 01. vmII. 26. 13. 'caLevee.] Elsewhere in Pindar this adjective means 'quickened by inspiration,' applied to Mdcea, Cheiron, Dionysos (Frag. 133 [57]) and to ro6Xua [Frag. 216 [255], r6iXAa re FLLtV 'a/Lev 'cl Kal ovveatfs trpo'Caoro oa'd oOev]. Are we then in this passage to take the obvious physical meaning, or to take it causatively (Pyth. iv. 81), in a metaphysical sense, 'quickening,' 'inspiring'? 14. dciXrero.] 'Had beenbasking in ' (Holmes). 7roAKtov.] Cf. 01. inI. 8, 0bopftjyya IrotLKLXoyapvv, 01. IV. 2, TroLKLXo<p/xppyyos iaotis, also of the flute Nem. vmii. 15, ipwuv Avstav Ixlrpav Kavax,'rlq& re7roiKitXvav. For construction cf. Hes. Scut. 202, itxepoev KtO'apte. The Schol. rightly takes

Page  35 NEMEA IV.'3 30, 15 Oatl-ta ICE, 7058 /JZAEL KXLOI,, {4iPoP KEAd~o-e KcaXXIlJLKOI 25 ITOLK. KLO. with iCMX~re-ro, after which editors have put the comma, disregarding the position Of Ke. 15. 7-46e,tiXet. ] For the dat. cf. 01. i. 92, 'AXikee5 wiropcO KcX4069. Here perhaps i-rw3e is ' such,' cf. 01. iv. 24, Nem. ix. 42, Aesch. Ag. 942, VIK?75 Try&. Render ' devoting himself (Paley) to such a strain.' Mezger, 'an dieses Lied sich anschliessend = momn Lied mit der Kithara hegicitend.' If the father of Timaisarchos was a 'lyric poet,' as Don. and Dissen say, Pindar would probably not use language that would make him manifestly inferior to himself. But Mezger more cautiously calls the father only a musician, which is all that can he' strictly inferred from the passage.' Even so the Oa/.t' and the aorist suggest that T-43e should not he limited to the present ode, especially as three victories are immediately mentioned. 16. i"Aope.] Bergk (2nd ed.) reads tohs, which suits swp infra v. 21 well. Possibly, however, 01Jwos would just stand if we take KaXXIVLKOP as a second accus. 'a noble victor' (cf. 01. xi. 78, Aristoph. Acharn. 1232, a'X JV'o1eaF0-U G~s ycipt r'seXXa KaXX1'Z'Wel 6ofesres iiC Kal rop anrKoiV). If the ambiguity he objected to, the alternative is to regard d"-tove as corrupt, derived from v/lesee, v. 11. The slight deviation of Bergk's vi"i from the Ms. reading is no very spe-.cial recomm-endation, but it might -be accepted were it not that the Schol. seems to have had a different reading. The comment is e-vseXc~g dV ei-iri pX Et Ka' -ra'nrv i ci -7rp0CTKXC't5S EacXTesP Kii wpocraya-yah' bvv~' -4o-E~o Kaii aspe~aiXe7e -riO ye755Pi7,Ui'P'q PtKqP' Wi)!6'' cru 7red KXccosatevs aclveos -red ir~,mP7aore Xi6ei Katl 0'pa~Oiv T-erea'bcovv. By comnparing other Scholl. on KCXaC3to We are led to the inference that here the verb was qualified in some way. 1 have thought of ireai 'yKeXa3iqoev. Some substantive denoting the victor is, as B3ergk saw, almost needed to justify the change from the second person to the third yv. 21, 23, in spite of Dissen's'I transitus maxirne Pindarico.' He defends the change by Nem. v. 43, 45, but that passage (q. v.) does not really give such a transitus. If 7r~e~tfavres he read vi. 18, v"Apes may stand, or xapi-'-' KyrX'6-qoe, also suggested by the Schol., be proposed; but 'of one having sent' is much harsher than 'for having sent' (or 'brought') withvsivp...7r~,~tP7'av or wuii' aKEN. 7r..wuc/avra. Beware of rendering 7r4~kqas-ra 'which brings' or ' which brought,' 'that had brought,' with those who take it in agreement with d"Awes. Apart from grammatical considerations onehymn couldhardly he mentioned as accompanying two or three victories unless it were the ode in progress, in which case we should expect the present or future participle. Those who like Prof. Paley do not stick at the transitus involved in sip had best, I venture to suggest, make the slight alteration 7r-e~etVlra, ' to escort.' The upshot of the discussion is that the retention of desesp involves great difficulties, and does not suit the Schol., that the substitution of voil does not suit the Schol., that 7w~o/'av-ra is incompatible with d~poev, that the v. 1. 7r-iAo/'asres is of inferior ms. authority, and though supported by the Schol. yet is clearly taken wrongly, is a very obvious grammarian's alteration (cf. i.tX~OP-rt, Pyth. ix. 13, for iztX~evra wrongly altered to agree with Oe~), and at best gives a ver-y harsh construction, and that we should therefore decide ini favour of 7i-l,ut~aPTC& and against U'Jusev. 3-2

Page  36 36 PINDARI CARMINA. ~-p. -Y' KXecwvacov " a"7r" uryc/Qvo, p-toov a7Eoamov we`travTra lcat Xtwrapaiv eUovlwv aOr' 'A vavv, &iflavO r Ev Tct77l-ha t 30 ~/V~tC) )AI~L~LTPV~OVOX V? 3( 20 OU'WEK v ay ov vrapa' 'rztI/oz' KC a 8/O o ZtZ OVI:cx Iv aEcovTe9 aOocL /ityvvov, 35 Ai'yIvas E~a a. 4t'xoto yap ObiAo, EXOa)v Vvtov a'aTv IaTe'8patf~tev 17. KleXvatov.] Cf. Nem. x. 42. The citizens of KXewvali near Nemea managed the Nemean games for a long time, including the dates of these two odes Nem. Iv. and x. and going back at least a generation. Cf. Plutarch, Vit. Arat. c. xxvIII. One Schol. on the Nemeans says that first the Kle6naeoi and then the Korinthians presided. o'piuov -crep5dvv.] The plur. of oT#qLavos is used in reference to a single victory, Pyth. in. 6, In. 73, x. 26, Isth. III. 11, Nem. IX. 53. The victors probably carried home crowns given to them in the qvXXogoXla (Pyth. ix. 123, 7roX& aiEv heYvoL &6KOV 1 vXX' e7n Katl Te0dvous) as well as the prize chaplet. Hence the phrase 'a string (festoon) of crowns' might refer to one victory, or as here to two, and we need not charge the poet with having made ev Oepats dependent on aore'dvwv, a very different construction from rT Ue K\OS I T-7\6O'e v SeopKe &Tav 'Ohvjtrtladw' Yv vp6Asuos IIeXooros. It is possible that SpfJov aceqivwv may refer to the crowns of the chorus, cf. Eur. Herc. Fur. 677, ael a' v aTedfvotitv ervp. The skeleton of the sentence is KeXa6r77e 6. ar. 7retuavrra re ir-6 KX. Ka I d7r 'A. (vtKvri) re ev O.-a mild case of zeugma assisted by the previous Ka\lXXMKov. 18. Xurapav.] For the two adjectives, one descriptive, the other complimentary, cf. Pyth. ix. 55, 106. For X7rapLv cf. Frag. 54 [46], Isth. xi. 20. 20. Cf. Schol. on 01. vii. 154 (84), Ta 'HpacXeta Kai 'IoXeta e'reXero ev TCa s 0jpais, ei'Tor o -r viKricravrL rpiWrovs XaXKous. The Scholl. on 01. ix. 148 tell us that the Herakleia (Iolaia) at Thebes were held by the common monument of Amphitry6n and lolaos, see also Pausanias ix. 23. 1, 0j3aiots Re 7rpob r-v 'rvXcv Cnrl rvcp HIpotriSaW (N..) EKal TO 'IoX\ov KaXoVluevov 'Uv/aV9iotov Kal r'TidovI....evravoa SaeiKvUaL Katl pw^ov 'IoXaov. Pindar speaks of 'IoXaov TriUpos in connection with these games, 01. ix. 98. For the other Theban games held outside the Gate of Elektra (s. w.) cf. Isth. IIn. 79. 21. pityvvov.] For this use of tI/IyvvFLt cf. 01. i. 22. The qpvXXof3o&ia is probably referred to. Cf. note on v. 17, gp/oov o -req5drvffa. Bckh quotes Pausanias, vi. 7. 1, Clem. Alex. Paedag. ii. 8. 22. Ai-ylva.] ThSbA and Aegina were sisters, daughters of As6pos by Met6p&. Cf. 01. vi. 84, Isth. vii. 15. The Thebans applied to Aegina for aid against Athens when told by the Delphic oracle (B. c. 504) ry ayrKITLa e SaOas [Mezger], Herod. v. 79, 80. tL\otrct pi\os. ] An adverbial phrase =' on terms of mutual friendship.' 23. evi'ov.] 'Bound to welcome him,' rather than 'strange,' asPaley

Page  37 NEMEA IV. 'HpaxAe'o9.3X13ic'a wipoNis a OXca'v. 25 CYVV CIO' 7TOT6 Tppotctv KcaTatUo9 T~aYLW'V WopO?7-e icat Mpo'rcts Kat TOP' /7-lav 7oXE6u7-Ta\P w`ct7Xov 'AX/cvovy, 0V TCTpaoplats~ 'e 7Tpt11 8vWcSeia 7TETpp) 37 rp.. 40 45 and Myers render. I take the Homeric sense 'hospes' to be older than the non-Homeric 'strange,' and agree to connect ~e~sos <4~&tov (original meaning -'I connected') with ~tjvoi < ~1vs6g, Koevis -< owKoPvda from SKAM or sKvAm, whence ~U'V, a-VP, Lat. cum, con-. Ka-riF'pa/eev.] Old mss. give KaT-1 6pctKEPV which Mommsen reads, renderinga KcaTE'p. CMO. 'venit et conspexit,' adding 'i7-p6s ex veniendo suspensum est.' The hetter sense and constrnction decide in favour of the text. The metaphor is from navigation, 'run ashore, into port;' so 93paftex of a ship, Theognis. Dissen'S KarEi3P(X/eCP = ai-46 is not fight. Mezger renders ' ran down through the city: ' see next note. 24. 'HpaKXc'os... auiXd'v.] Mezger thinks that the Hdrakleion outside the Gate of Elelitra (Pausan. ix. 11. 2) is meant, where the Aegine'tan probably sacrificed before the games held at the opposite side of the city. Afthiler's view however seems preferable, namely that 'the house of Amphitry-6n' is intended, the lodgings of the competitors (Kara. XVacts TdV aOXq?-TLSV) being in the neighhonrhood: comp.Biickb, Corp. loscr. Gr. i. pp. 573 ff. (Don.). 25. Cf. Nem. iii. 37, Apollod~ros i.6. 4, Ii. v. 638. 26. Mlporzas.] Note the zeugma. These were the inhabitants of the Isle of Kos. Cf. Isth. v. 31. 27. Cf. 0. and P. p. xxxvi. 'AXKV`0;1.j A Giant slain by H~rakles at Phiegra, the Isthmus of Palldn6 probably, of. Schol. on Nem. r. 67 (100), Isth. v. 33 (47) (though Pindar may have placed the Gigantomnachia in Campania); but according to the Schol. a giant whose kine H~rakles was driving, from Erytheia and who was killed at the Isthmus of Koriuth. There seems to he a confusion with the legend of G~ryones hy the Schol. Cf. Apollodbros r. 6. 1, ii. 7. 1. The statement that Telamfln vanquished Alkyoneus may be in accordance with Aegin~tan legend, but the language need not he pressed. What Telamon did with H~rakles may include what H~rakles did himself. Still Telam6n as 0iwX1-r7si may have given the coup de grace after Hdrakles as ~teAis had brought the giant down with his arrows. Cf. Isth. v. 33. 28. -ye 7rpis.] Cf. s-rpiv ye ol... yaxtssIv ilsaX' s ile'sK', 01. xiii. 65. Elsewhere in Pindar 7-pize as a conjunction takies the infinitive. -re-rpaopi'as.] The Homeric war chariots were bigae or trigae except in the case of Hektor, It. viii. 185, a suspected line, the Schol. Yen. denying that Homer ever mentions a quadriga. Amphiardos has 7-e~p'srrovs Eur. Sunpptices, 925. In Smith's Dict. of Ant. Art. Curruts, the four-horse war chariots of postHomeric Greek literature are ignored. Theywere perhaps borrowed from the Persians. Cf. Xenoph. Cyropaed. vi. 1. 27, 28. Euripides gives four-horse war chariots to Hyllos and Eurystheus, Heract. 802, 860, to Thebaus and Argives generally Suppl. 667, 675, and mentions

Page  38 38 PINDARI CARMINA.,qpwa~~7q T eW a sreE/J4 W 1a~r7rwOG a[LO vS dXev 30 &1 T000r. aWrtfretpofta~ S ew Ice fai'evq7 Xoyo/v o pc~r) avvirct ~rre& PE~'OVra Tt Kca' waOew' e'OLKeV. 7C1 a' 8~ ' e~evE'7retv epv'Ket pe 04? T a tcta p 3 E E W E 1 Ep K & [ E T EO /LL O cpati T WCV6LYO1JeaL 35 yrytb 3' EXKO aLtL?7TO VEO/1571vct OL7E1L EV 50 -Tp. e6. 55 such chariots for travelling (in flight) Het. 1039, Ion, 1241. 29. ertej.uepaXras.] This is a case of the strictly adjectival use of the participle,in which case the presence or absence of the article makes very little difference when the noun is definite. Cf. Nem. vn. 65. 30. 8ls ro'ovs.] The ivioXos and rrapaTci')s of each of the twelve chariots. d7retpofaas..] 'Manifestlywithout experience of battle is whoso understandeth not the saying: for " when achieving aught it is likely that one should suffer." ' For this saying cf. Aesch. Choeph. 305, 6pda'avT 7raOeiv, rpvys'pwv u0os cirde Lwvde, where as Don. says the application is different, as the different tense of the participle shows. With the pres. the consequences of undertaking or beginning an action are considered, with the aorist the consequences of having done an action. Pindar has apparently adapted and extended the old formula which asserted that we must take the consequences of our conduct. Paley says 'Aristotle (Eth. Nic. v. ch. 8. init.) gives this as r6 'PaSacavOuvos &iKalov, El' Ke 7raOot 7iT K' 9peCe b[K) K' ee U c ia. yvotTro.' Don. says 'Pindar refers to the trouble and loss sustained by Hercules and his followers before they could subdue the giant, hinting also that Timasarchos had suffered a good deal before he won his wrestling match.' So also the Schol. who quotes from a tragedy rObv apvrA 7roV TL Kal wraOev of eieTat. Xe-ra. 33. 'The due arrangement (of my ode) and the time (occupied by the procession and so allowed for the performance of the ode) pressing on prevent my telling at length the long tale.' Cf. Isth. I. 60, 7raY7a d' eecreti, 0o0' LT ywvLos 'Epyas 'Hpo6r'T ghropev j ir7irots, dqcatpeTat oppaX%,e'rpov eXwv | V/mvos. TreOu6s.] 'The usual structure' (Mezger), the prescribed limits. Cf. Isth. v. 20, rtOlv fiot 5atl oaalCTrarTOVy | Tdv' 'rTLo7retxovTa v6oFov pcttv/lev evXoyiats. 35. 'ituyy.] Cf. Pyth. Iv. 214. 'I feel my heart drawn on by a charm to touch on the festival of the new moon.' But tuvy may here mean 'a yearning,' as in Aesch. Persae, 968 (P.), Aristoph. Lysistr, 1110. fXKoJIal.] Cf. Theokr. i. 17, fvuy X\Ke Trb TrVov iUAwv 7irorTI 8wa TOv viapa. The Schol. tells us that Iynx was daughter of EchO or Peith6, who having charmed Zeus into his passion for I6 was changed into a bird. veo77vlsi.] Cf. Nem. in. 2, Ev lepoAu qvlt Neatedis& explained by the Schol. as for lepovovugrvia because the beginning of the month is sacred to Apollo, and therefore the time of v Tr1V erlvwiKWV evWXta. Hence the poet does not here refer to the day of the victory in the

Page  39 NEMEA IV. 39 e/7tra, ecltT~p /3aBcta 7rovT aL9 a Nemean games, if G. F. Unger (quoted by Mezger) is right in placing the summer Nemean games on the 18th of the Attic month Hekatombae6n. He certainly does not touch on X r(iv -erivlKr v etoXla, and therefore there is small reason for saying that he desires to do so. A more comprehensible explanation is to be found, without even making the poet say the celebration of the victory when he means the victory. Probably the Theban Htrakleia were celebrated at the beginning of the month, for the theme which he now dismisses is closely connected both in grammar and mythical association with the Theban victory mentioned, v. 17. As for the tense of t'vyyyt X\KOfat, the feeling remains though its effect has just past. The 3e then is disjunctive, introducing a sort of apology for the previous digression. Bergk conjectures veoxcda (from Hesych.: veox/i4l' Kivia7LS 7rpo6r0aros), Hartung, vea.veta,. 36. 9Drra.] This refers back (cf. Nem. vi. 4) to v. 32, the general statement, as well as to the following clause which gives a particular application;-' notwithstanding the fact that worthy achievement involves suffering, though a deep sea (of detraction) has hold of thee by the middle, strain against the evil designs of foes. We shall surely be seen returning from the struggle in full light superior to our foes, while our adversaries, of envious mien (or 'blinded by envy') keep their ineffectual saws tossing in obscurity till they sink to the ground.' If we understand the metaphor to be from a man up to his waist in the sea, we destroy the force of /paOeia. Pindar likens himself to a swimmer wrestling with a deep sea in foul weather. Though he were immersed all but head and shoulders, the sea, if likened to a wrestler, would be said to hold him by the waist, that grip being apparently the strongest known to the palaestra. His adversaries' inventions are the ineffectual waves of the sea of hostile criticism which are vanquished by the wrestling swimmer, who then comes to the haven of success in the light of fame. Thus Xaiatlereroioaav is a metaphor from wrestling as well as eXeti Aex-eov. Lit., ev (afec gives a condition of the swimmer's struggle, for if the shore were enveloped in gloom a swimmer would generally be unable to land. So Ulysses (Od. v. 439) NiXe 7rapie, Cs yaav opCo'xevos eti rov Efe6poL 'Hi'dyos re 7rapariXiyas XAcYvaes re OaXaroo^s, cf. ib. 392. Metaph. iv qcide =' the bright season of success.' The language also suits the return home of a victorious wrestler (cf. Pyth. vIII. 83-87). I do not do away with the half false antithesis of iev ScPe and OrKdOr, which suggests the secret whisperings of malice as much if not more than the obscurity of the whisperers. Thus instead of the mixture of metaphor with which this passage has been charged, we have one compound metaphor worked out regularly except in one minor detail. Donaldson is inaccurate in saying that Pindar compares his enemies to the waves of the sea. He should have said the 7-y^3ca Keveal of his enemies are likened to waves. The consequent error of taking 3aaowv vreprepoc in a physical sense would then afford a less ' Dantesque image,' as Mr Postgate calls it, as atwv would stand for daet'v ierisovXAas: but it seems right to explain the phrase, ' superior to (or ' victorious over') foes.' The word Vireprepos is almost

Page  40 40 PIINDARI CAiRMINA. ia&acoov, dzrm-TEv Ewrt/30vXtca o-00'~pq &0'O/WEi &dtwv v'7rep'repOt eV Oc~t ica7-a/Saivetlt 6o always used in the sense of ' superior,' ' better,' in Tragedy, and so too Pyth. ii. 60, Isth. i. 2. It is peculiarly appropriate in reference to wrestling. The presence of the compound metaphor of wrestling with a sea is generally admitted, so that if ye. 38-41 can be explained in harmony with this, such an explanation has strong claims to acceptance. I cannot approve Mr Postgate's suggestion that the simile is drawn from a mountainous country. ' Pindar's detractors have occupied the passes and are hurling stones upon him from the obscurity, which however fall ineffectual on the ground. Presently, like the Persians at Thermopylae, he carries the heights above them and pursues his way down the sunlit valleys on the other side.' One objection which appears fatal to this ingenious interpretation is that it makes inl-7E'p7Cpel equivalent to an aorist participle. Again, the contrasted shade and sunshine are not essential to the idea, as they are according to my explanation. Thirdly, deTi-retv' does not suggest the manceuvre of 'turning' a position. This passage contains many points which need como ment or illustration. For the form 9faire cf. Soph. Ai. 563, roiev,rvwpho'v ov6XeKa TESKPOV dci1pl cret X d/'w -rpoe cieKeos~ r set (' assiduous all the same, although' [Jebbi) -revil I T?7X(,or0'3 eIXveFF. This passage scarcely illustrates the position of 9,ura, as Don. holds. KeuirEP g~et.] An unsupported construction. Pindar himself uses the- usual participle or adjectival phrase with Kabre-p at least four times. Ahreng proposed 9/w~rac Kal (i. e. Kel) 7repe'Xe; Don. 9tAewe, Kehfrep. MSS. give Ka[ re-p. The suggestions Kai, Kvf's-vp are open to question, as the case seems neither imaginary nor, though actual, conceded with reluctance, or made light of. Cf. Jebb's note On Ket', Soph. Ai. 563. Comparing the form viXX' 68ucos, Kpfevoowp -yUp olKTmp/loO 0066og, td rapivc KcaXai, Pyth. i. 85, I Would sugg'est Kelt'ycipO in place of Kalrs-p, which is very likely to have been substituted after 9fznra. Cf. Soph. Ai. 122. f'yvc.] For the omission of the object, cf. Pyth. ii. 17, Nem. -vii. 23. Still the omission of ce is curious. The metre allows us to read o-' after I_4eov, V. 37. A reading a-a-'Cia would easily pass into gceawoevg and be corrected to geio-o-op. Perhaps a marginal o-' wrongly inserted accounts for the version eirt~ovXlats, though this may arise I ex dlittographia.' 'se X-. c c.] C f. i 'Yap sX6& e't& svteO'.. S opo' Aavai~ftip, Eur. Phoen. 859, and several times besides in Aeschylos and Euripides. Cf. Hamlet's ' sea of troubles.' 37. Oo~-c-ov.] For the phrase 9XW -ted& pF'a-ov, cf. Ear. Or. 265, f v v e e v ~ o x i t c l v a c i t f ' s p s f t T c p - Teapee, Aristoph. Ach. 571, f-YW' yci i9eocec Aftaro, Nub. 1047, fir~rlexve 6tjfb -yap a-v jvma-op exw 2xep3cv aOVKM5opesv.] For future as apodosis to imperative, Dissen compares the following passages: (1) without Kail: 11. XXIII. 71, Ocb7ri- Atv -iroxes 'Ai~eo rrvp'io-: cf. Cic. Tuscul. iv. 24, tracta-intelligres: (2) with Kel: Pyth. iv. 165, Aristoph. N ub. 1481, fvY sei-Ca- a yt reit Db'mosthen. de Corona, p. 264, &Et~cr, K~C a-r'Epic: Plato, Theaetet. p. 154 c, Xaf36i, Kal et's-t. 38. fe' ocet.] For the metaphor,

Page  41 NEMEA IV. 41 90oveppa' S dXXos- avivp iX6n7WV 407o/Jcpv iceleveall O71o7Y KvXtVSte 65 1,TP.!'~7 icLatLre70itTTa. efto b ' oTJoiav aperaPv ebOKse fluoho ava~, EV Ot 07L XPOvo p7trwv Wre7Two)l-eav reet'aeb. 70 eiV'batve, yXv/cewa, Kcat T OW aV'-rl ca, 0 45 Av&'a crz'v ap/JpOviatte'Xo9 WektX7/t~e701 Omcva 're icab Kvi-pp, e'Oa TevD1pos- da'rPXEt 75 6 TeXattwvtaci aas- a-ra'p Ataa, CaXajtwv' Eet 7Ta-pOavl $-p. f*'. ~v 5' Evo;~~h, rEX 7ey ebaervvr'v 'AX1Xe 80 cf. Aesch. Choiep1. 961, 7rapa Tr o1S' 13eiv... Tro6\v a^ya Xpi^ov xa/aLtreres eKecO'. Karafaitvet.] The sense may be the same as in Nem. II. 42, 'to attain one's object,' cf. ib. 25. 39. 0bOovEpd.] For b0b. 3PXirwv cf. Pyth. 11. 20, apaK-eO' da'aXes. a\Xos.] Sing. for plur. Cf. HrT, Pyth. I. 52, also TrLva' many a one,' Pyth. ii. 51, Nem. i. 64. 40. aKOr7o.] For metaphor cf. Nem. iii. 41, Soph. Phil. 578, ri y/e KarcTa Krov wore i &eytTroXg XyoOtrLt. 41. E/oi 65', K.T.X.] For sentiment cf. Pyth. v. 110 ff. apeTrav.] ' Talent.' 42. 7r6rios cdvaC.] Cf. Pyth. II. 86, d ezTyas arOTros. 43. epi7rwv.] Cf. 01. xiII. 105, el 6e 5aiLWcov yeve'OXos pirot, Nem. vII. 68, 6 ae Xotr6ds ecu'Ppwv ror7 XpOvos epTroi. 7relrp. K.T.X.] ' Shall bring to its destined maturity.' 44. ~tubcatve/fEXos.] 'Weave out the web of song.' Kal rob' avTriKa.] 'And that at once,' 'Aye and straightway' [Holmes]. 46. OsivwOY.] OenOn6 was said to be the old name of Aegina before Zeus took Aegina daughter of As6pos thither, Paus. Ir. 29. 2. rcipXet.] Dissen explains ' rules far away from his country,' Mommsen ' praeit (saltantibug),' Teukros having led the way to Cyprus for the ode; Bergk (2nd ed.) suggests adr' dpXet, Hartung irdpa'ei. I think the word may here mean 'receives r7rapxai,' i.e. offerings made to the dead hero-founder of the Aeakid colony in Cyprus, cf. Eur. Phoen. 1523, rit' 4rl 7rpwrov darb xaiTras rapayLots carrapxas iaX\;'... rrpos 3e\p) oV\OXd/E' aiTicrtara veKpwv; The suggested rendering involves the supposition that dci7rpXojua is a causal middle (cf. Nem ix. 43); the rarity of the active form is not surprising. The fact that apXerv=' to begin' is generally found in Homer favours my notion. 'E7rdpX. gives good sense. 48. gXct.] ' Is tutelary deity of.' wrarpcLav.] The Salamis ' of his fathers,' opposed to the ambiguamr tellure noua Salamina fituram, promised to Teucer, Hor. Od. i. 7. 29. 49. After death Achilles was

Page  42 42 PINDARI CARMINA. 50 Vacov' OT-o e e r KpaTre P0ta' NeorrTrXeos 8' 'A7re'p 8tal7rpo/vla /3ov/3o'Tat r6TOi Tvrpve oo XoL aricrafcetTa 85 said to have dwelt with Iphigeneia in Leuke, an island in the Euxine. Cf. Eur. Andr. 1260, rbv fpiXrarTo cot orand' ei/tol T 'AxtXa I| f et 66fJovs vaiovTra Vqc'twrtKaoS I AevKfv KaT 'AKTr77V eivro EVte;vov ropov, Iph. in Taur. 435, r&v 7roXv6pvt0ov ern afav, I XeVK'jV dray, 'AxtXIos poyovs KcaXXMtrra6ovss, aeLtvov KTara rOVroV. Pausanias, III. 19.11, places the island off the mouths of the Danube (Paley). 50. Oers.] Cf. Eur. Andr. 16, (Olias 56 rijoae KCa 7ro6rews 4apc-aXias ] 60Xopra Yaiw Wreai', i v) Oi aXacr-ia II7Xei vvU Ke X' Wps cv'Opowrv Oe'rTs I qetyovr' o'I\OV' OercraXos 6e YtV Xew's | Oeri6etov av3a& dens Xdptv,vvuefevudrEoWv. Our Schol. says that the Oertletov was a lepov at d0ia. Strabo places it close to Pharsalos. Both may be right, as each town may have boasted one. 51. Btarpvaogl.] It is clear, in spite of editors (who render 'celebrated,' late patens, els 6 L&eirepWlev), that t&arpvoigl simply means 'from end to end,' 'right through,' an adverbial adjective. It is explained by Aw6cjva0ev... rpbs 'I6otov 7ropov. For the interpretation we must compare fur. Andr. 1247, fa(ctkLa 6' CK rov6e Xpj [ aXX\ov 6' &tXXov Starepav MoXoootav-referring to the same subject, so that Euripides would seem to be paraphrasing this passage of Pindar. Unfortunately scholars are not at one as to this use of 6ta7repav; Hermann, followed by Paley, reads MoXoo-otas as gen. after /iaLtXa, taking &ca7repry = 6LareXev Stdayet; Pflugk explains the vulg. per Molossorum finres regnare, which is nearly right. The word 6ta7repcw with a word signifying city or country as object seems to be used only with a deity or a king as subject. I take it that in later Attic the verb got the meaning of making a grand progress through, hence Cataida 6ta7repa = ' make royal progress through,' a good phrase for expressing sovereignty over a large extent of country, and conveying Pindar's idea with tolerable fidelity. As to the etymology, I doubt whether Don. and Curtius are right in connecting it directly with Sta7repw 6Lac7repes respectively, for eaTrpb (Thiersch) stands nearer in both form and meaning. The suffix -tya- is found with prepositions, numerals, or pronouns in SVrtTos, 6o'arc'to, 7trXao'tos, &qoitoso, and probably in rp6oa'o', ireptraaos, Cieracrrcat, t7ratoat. In such forms as 7rpvLgv'retos, 6-qrAxdoos the sibilant is probably original, though Curtius makes no distinction. The v is Aeolic, though several instances of the change of A to v, e.g. 4tv, 7rpdravs, vv5, vvS, can scarcely be attributed to the influence of one dialect (yvevj, rspuvrt, STrvos shew the change of VA, Fa to v). '"Aretpos, 'Hretpos is probably for'A7reptos, either from the prepositional adverb which appears as strep- in '7repo7reSC, Skt. apara, Goth. afar, 'otherwise,' cf. 'Awra yij, or if this= 'waterland,' which is better, we must divide 'H7r-eptos, cf. af'y-etpos. Certainly both Epeiros and the part of Asia best known to the Ancient Greeks are remarkably well watered by rivers. 52. The southerly spurs of the mountain range which runs from Pindus (Lat. 390 54) to the Acroceraunian promontory may be appropriately called 7rpWves. The general tendency of the slopes which extend therefrom is towards

Page  43 NEMEA IV. 43 AWwaOE'vaBv a'PXo/Juei't 7rpO9 MOVLOP) 7dPOV. ]JaXwov &S 7ra'p 7ro&3 Xa'rpetcw Ja(aiX'v 55 7TTOXCCIla Xcpb 77poo-pa7roiv UX19XSEv 77rapPE(SCOcev AilgdJEoJLv, M/Stap-roi '17rnroXl'ras 'AKa'o-rov SoX&ata 7- a at(a'Xa (E 1aXalpa (LVTE? o01 Oavacrov 90 95P. 1j. 95 south-west by south. By the 'IvIov 7ropov Pindar means the sea between the islands and the coast of Epeiros rather than the whole sea between Italy and Greece. For the subject cf. Nem. vii. 51. The cattle of Epeiros are celebrated by Aristotle, Varro, Columella, Aelian, while Pliny says, In nostro orbe Epiroticis (bubus) laus maxima, Nat. Hist. vII. 70. KaTcdKetvTat.] 'Slope down.' Cf. Hor. Od. I. 17. 11, Usticae cubantis, Lucr. iv. 517, Theokr. xiiI. 40, 7ulvq eiv Sdpy. 55. 7rpoorpa7rdv.] Takes here a double accus.: 'having turned Ilkos to subjection with hostile violence.' Mommsen explains " terrain hostili manus advertere (ademovere)," comparing 01. I. 22, KpaLreTL rpoacutei beo-rdrav. Other scholars alter or render intransitively 'having approached.' None of the proposed constructions have due support, therefore simplicity is the chief test. If the double accus. be objectionable the alteration Xartpel seems the best alternative. For such hiatus cf. 0. and P. p. xlii. The exploit is mentioned Nem. III. 34. 56. A/iOL6VerL..] 'Thessalians.' Akastos was the last Minyan king of I61kos. It is not unlikely that the myths invert the true sequence of events, and that the Aeakids either came themselves or were allies of folk who came from the neighbourhood of 6dodna through Thessaly and so to Delphi and I61kos and Aegina. 58. Xprad/ieos. ] There is an old v. I. Xwao-devos. The Schol. explains the text els 7rp6opao-tLv adroXp7loa'devos. It is usually rendered 'having experienced,' though the examples given are not quite parallel, as the dative substantives belong to the subject, not, as here, to another person; e.g. vo'TrrpayiaLs, riXr,,uvrvTUx, Uolp~p. Perhaps Aesch. Ag. 926 (P.) eKW'V y&p OUeO~iS aOVAic XpTjrat Uviyo comes nearer. 59. 5a~5Xo..] Didymos'correction for AatiaXoo which Bergk defends on the ground that Aai'aXos is identical with Hdphaestos, comparing Eur. Herc. 'fur. 470, es &eiitav 8' f7rv aXeqrT?'piov iV\Xot KaOiet, AatUiaXoc v JeuvrJ 56o-it (Hermann, KaOiet &ailaXov &c.), Millin, Gall. Myth. xIIi. 48 and Diodor. Sic. iv. 14 where it is stated that Hephaestos gave Herakles a club and breastplate. ALuaXatip.] If we are to follow the passage quoted by the Schol. from He6iod, 'by his sword' here='by hiding his sword,' but eic XiXou shows that Pindar followed another version of the Myth. The verses quoted from Hes. run id8e <1 oi Kcar& Oup6bv dpiorr-1 Qaivero f3ovX I avbrov ysv 'XJgJaOat, Kpb6at d' d6KoKyra /,uXatpav KXa\v, ijV ol 1'rev:e repIKXvros 'AuytLiyuvet's I Os r7'v JasoreVWYo oros Kara& Ijitov, alirb acrl'

Page  44 44 PINDARI CARMINA. 6o fc XoXov TleXlao 7ra^t' aXaXe\K 8$ Xelpwv, Kcal o,LopCaqiov ^toOeV 7TE7rEpCfleVOV V eKEepeV I00 7rvp Se 7raTyfcparTs Opaacvuaa'xvwv Te XeOvrwvT ovvxaS o6vrarovS daC/aca Tre 8eLordrTcov crcraats OdTsowv trp. 0'. 65 5"yaueiv vr40povuwv fz/av NTpeti0wv, eldev 3' eVGcv~cXov Jepav, rTU ovpavov )aXArirej rdTOvTOV -r &ee~opFevot &c3pa Kca tcpa'rov e'$Eavav e' a ydvov avrw. Paeitpwv 7- Trp6o 4^6 ov oT 7repatrov' rTOT;pere 70 auesr Evvpanrav wror- xep-ov u evTra vaoV a7ropa ryap Xouyov AIaKoV wralScov 'Ov &7ravr'tL poe BLeXOeLv. 105 IIO II5 ISTp. '. (eav3ploptat 8', adeylu/vv deOXo\v cdapv ETroEfo9 e'/3oav 75 O avpCvLrb' re Ka? 'IaO/Lo Neea Te c7uvvf0evos, 75O'vpr. o uo ep' t 70446)0c 120 Vr3 KeTEvTapotItv ope-Kaotloc Sajely. However when he got possession of the sword he may have changed his mind. Eur. Tro. 1127 says that Akastos ousted Peleus from Phthia or I61kos (hKfefXqKCv %XOov6s) a passage not necessarily at variance with Pindar's account, for Akastos may have survived the conquest of I61kos and have disturbed Peleus in his old age. Apollodoros, iii. 13. 3. 61. 'Kepepv.] Generally taken as active, but the imperfect tense is better with ro fodpa-tCov as subject. Cf. Soph. Oed. Cot. 1424, Opas Tr woO5' ojv ws ES opObv eKp5pet rIacvreuuaO'. 64. o-Xa-ats.] Lit. 'having caused to become relaxed,' 'having subdued.' 66. e~'vKKov l'lpav.] 'seats fairly ranged in a circle.' Cf. Pyth. III. 94, Kal Kpovov irac3as pacAkas ldov (Peleus and Kadmos at their respective marriages) Xpvceats ev '8 -pass ieva re t4avTro. 68. es y4vos.] Best MSs. read yeveds, probably from a gloss explaining that the phrase meant 'for consecutive generations.' The Schol. clearly read -y-yeves. 69. For sentiment cf. 01. IIi. 44, Isth. II. 30, v. 12. The poet has reached the extreme limit of mythical digression. 71. dropa.] For theplur.cf.Pyth. i. 34, Archil. 64 [40], ovl y&p eaOX& KarT0avoO(r KepTO/Cltv br' dvSpioPdv, de mortuis nil nisi bonum, Aristoph. Ach. 1079, oIf etd& tAv q eival /te [,lj)' eoprcaat; 75. avvO.] 'As I engaged.' Of. Pyth. xi. 41, el Jcffo ye ~-svveev trapxetv I q5wPovv V7rapyvpov. For particles cf. supra v. 9. The datives depend on 40uXwv.

Page  45 N EMEA IV. 45 &vOa 7TEt-cZpav EXOVTE otica~e KXUT01Ca'pr&w 06 1IEOVPT aveu -TTeqavWov, vrarpav v alxovolakev, 125 TqtJ.aa0apXe, Te(Lv EWLrr7IKIto&6v aot&L6 7Tpo77oXov e"66lUvat. et 706 8o,rkca'-pp) /2 6Tt KaXXt/cXei KeXeV'etl dXaz O' e/V Haplov VlOou Xevk/oTprtI' Zp' G-T qz to to epaw ~~~130 6 xpvuw~ f6*p*vos( av~yas e~etPcLv 7ara'a9,, VfJuVol TW 1rco- aOyaOv 135 EPYILwT6v /ac-Aevenrt lo-oCall/iova TeUXEt 1) 1 A fI I 85 005-ra' tccdpoo alio An~cporrt vateraw coocl 67) cray CV p70J 11 cXa6" PvtOPaoKTVatFvaOV Othv eV Kotjvt Oiotv creViot BcAhqo-e Koptv~lov~ a-e~i'votV 76. 7repav exovres.] Not 'having contended,' but as Dissen ' whenever they contend,' ' sustain a trial.' 77. iv'.] Refers to oiKCase. 79. TrpiroXov. ] 'Much concerned with,' as furnishing many victors, or, as Miller thought, as cultivators of lyric poetry and music, or, as Dissen explains, as providing choruses. rot.] This particle leads up to the impressive asyndeton, infra v. 85 or v. 82. It emphasises the whole sentence. 81. Cf. Nem. viII. 47. The substitution of this phrase for u;cov anticipates an apodosis. 82. eio6uevos.] 'While being refined.' From o Xpvuos to (5Pra is a virtual parenthesis (the asyndeton being noteworthy), amplifying the general notion of -raiXav IIapiou i0ov XevKOTrpaY. Perhaps grammatically the effect of minstrelsy in general (illustrated by a simile introduced parathetically, cf. 0. and P. p. xxxv.) is made a false apodosis (cf. Pyth. xi. 41-45), followed abruptly by the true apodosis, KeWvos evperw, K.r.X, added to ex press the promise of the celebration asked for, which is implied in the preceding general statement, vivAos.. reuXet ciJra. Or is the construction straightforward save for a natural impressive asyndeton and an easy omission, the drift being as follows: 'If thou biddest me celebrate Kallikles in song, (know that) this is the highest possible boon; it shall be granted'? It should be observed that this simile is drawn from molten gold. 84. Cf. for idea 01. I. 113, ar' dcrXowit ' dX\oi X AeyadXoe' to 8' e-xarov KcopvcfiovraUt r3ari~cr ct. 86. eSpErctW.] 'Become aware that.' Cf. for sentiment 01. viII. 77 ff., xiv 19. 87. iv'.] ' Here on earth where,' or, with Dissen, ' at the Isthmus where.' Bergk reads veK'. 88. Oka\iXe.] 'He burst into bloom.' The etymology O6X) misled L. and S. The word must not be applied literally to oeXelot, for the Isthmian crown was of withered, qpa, parsley. For the phrase ef. 01. ix. 16, 06h\X a' dperaxrt.

Page  46 46 PINDARI CARMHINA. 6.p. q9'. '45 7I-v Evbcaijs' e8~XOV Tyepatoq 7rpo-wcarop 90 0,61 aEIGEecatt 7rat. 6XXota& t ' a/XLKe AXXot -ra S' a7'or\ a C `Xwrerat 'Lv e~aacTog E~oXmra-ra 7/a'racL. 150 olov alvea6v Ke MeXqo-/av 'pita~ oTrpEfo,, p;,Lya~ra 7rXeKw, (LdrahXaWTO(p eV X61r() eXKEd', 95 1uacXaacd tev pov w oXo', I55 rpaXP9 &6 7LXayktio'TOVLS e~frpO9. 89. rpoerciwp.I I.e. caipoaraiwp. See the following scheme. Euphanes Timokritos-,a Kallikies Tim sarchos (the subject of the ode). 90. So msa. against scansion. 91. AXNoLUL 6' 'XALKES AXXoL.j Von Leutsch suggests that the poet is thinking of the proverb WiXt~ jXLKCa Trprcr-, said to be derived from Od. xvii. 218. [Mezger.] 93. eOY', K.T.X] 'For instance, were he to sing Melisias' praises he would twist about (his theme of) the struggle, locking together phrases, hard to stir from his position in recital.' Aristarchos read slov and gpt~ag. In this signal instance of Pindar's tendency to make his metaphors appropriate to the contest in which the person whom he is celebrating wasvictorious, crrpcoo alludesto the general turning and twisting of a wrestler's whole body, rrXE'Kwv to the interlacing of his limbs with his opponent's (see the group of Lottatori (Florence, Uffizi), of which thcre is a cast in the Fitzwilliam Museum), AXKELW is a more general term for the endeavour to move or bear down the adversary by tugging at him. Cookesley wrongly makes Euphanes the subjectinstead of the object of AXKcP. For the technical use cf. 11. XXIII. 714, rerpiyet 6' aipa s'wra, OpCeElCica'wv ai Xet pws' I EAKO/issa cTrppews, Hes. Scut. Here. 302, 4iixesov7o ITrVJ Te Kal AK-q0's'. For the appropriate metaphor cf. 01. yiii. 24, &tacpivess 6va-raVs, 01. vi. 22, Nem. i. 7, Vi. 70-72, Isth. is. 2. For the infinitive ERKsLY Cf. 01. viii. 24, 01. vii. 25, Nern. iii. 30. For the trainer Melisias cf. 01. viii_54 ff., Nem. vi. 66 to the end. From the trainer receiving such prominent honour as the theme of the conclusion in Nem. iv. and vi. one may perhaps infer that he engaged the poet to celebrate a pupil on both occasions, cf. Pyth. iv. Introd. 95. Cf. 01. III. 17, 7TrLtc r 'peshWso, but especially Pyth. vIIi. 82, Tgrpaa-t 5' gptrEcrcs;iis6Oss I aLcreeusCL Kaer Opovewp, of a wrestler. corXois.] 'The noble,' i.e. here, victors and meritorious competitors in games. 96. i-7raiyicdtros.] 'Their malicious enemies.' It may be inferred from the last lines being devoted to enemies that Timdsarchos' victory was not altogether popular. 9ieclpos.] For the meaning of the term cf. 01. viii. 68. It simply means the man who 'draws a by' where an odd number of competitors are matchedin pairs. Here Meldsias and his resentful rivals are paired, but Euphanes is ready to take up his quarrel.

Page  47 NEMEA V. ON THE VICTORY OF PYTHEAS OF AEGINA IN THE BOYS' PANKRATION. INTRODUCTION. PYTHEAS, son of Larnp,5n, was the elder of two brothers, who were both pankratiasts, the younger of whom Phylakidas won the Isthmian victories comm-emorated in Isth. iv. (B.c. 478), and Isth. v. (B.c. 480). The elder brother's Nemean victory was earlier. They belonged to the noble 7r5-rpa of the Psalychidae of Aegina (Isth. v. 63). Their father Lampo~n was son of Kleonikos (Isth. v. 16), and was perhaps cousin to that ingenuous creature Ac4/icop J IJVOeOJ Ai'ytvqjrE'wv 7ra wp~ora (Herod. ix. 78), who wished Pausanias to increase his fame by impaling Mardonios. Critics are cruel enough to make these two Lamp~ns probably identical, either Pytheas (Don.) or Kleonikos (Mdller) being Lamp~n's natural father, the other his adoptive father, or else Kleonikos being a second name given to Lampo'n's father Pytheas. However we know that cousins did sometimes bear the same name, and the name of the victor Pytheas is no proof that his grandfather was Pytheas. If he were not the eldest son he would be more likely to be named after another senior member of the family than after his grandfather. So that the identity of He'rodotos' and Pindar's Lampo'n is not more than possible. The following stemma, mostly hypothetical, shows how, according to the Attic habits of Nomenclature, the victor might get his name, without his father having been adopted. Pytheas Kleonikos Lamup6n +A Pytheas Kleonikos* Themistios* Lamp~n (Herod.) Lamp6n* + A\ Euthymenes* F W____ --- Kleonikos Them~istios Pyth~eas* Phyilakidas*

Page  48 48 PINDARI CARMINA. The names marked with a star are mentioned by Pindar. The rhythm is Dorian with exception of a few Lydian metres. ANALYSIS. v. 1 —6. The poet is not a maker of motionless statues, but his song travels by every craft to tell of Pytheas' Nemean victory won as a boy. 7-8. He did honour to the Aeakids and Aegina, 9-13. For which Peleus, Telam6n and Ph6kos prayed to Zeus Hellenios. 14-17. The poet hesitates to say why P8leus and Telam6n left Aegina. Truth is not always to be told. 18. And silence is often the truest wisdom. 19-21. The poet is equal to uttering the high praises of the Aeakids for wealth, athletics and war. 22-39. For them the Muses sang of the temptation of P6leus and his marriage with Thetis. 40, 42. Family destiny decides as to achievements. 43-47. The victor's maternal uncle was a victor. 48-49. Acknowledgment of the services of the Athenian trainer Mlenandros. 50-end. The victor's maternal grandfather was a victor at Epidauros in both boxing and the pankration. This ode is particularly easy of general comprehension. From mention of the victor the poet passes rapidly to the myth of Peleus, whichillustrates inter alia the saw that 'truth is not always to be told;' a maxim which applies more or less to every family and to most individuals. Still there might be a reference to the discredit attaching to the family from the notoriety of the davoOrlraTros Xoyos of Lamp6n, son of Pytheas, or to some other specific family skeleton. The last fifteen lines are devoted to the illustration of the poet's favorite theory that excellence is hereditary, in this case through the mother chiefly. It is likely that Pytheas intended to compete at Epidauros before long, as the poet ends off with his grandfather's exploits there.

Page  49 NEMEA V. 4 49 Ot1 daNp~taVToWroto9, l'2 cqar Xtvcr~o-oa Epya'~eo-Oat a-aye.z~aT e~w av'vas~ falaOwtao as,,, -TTeiX a'7n. Aiyilvas~, &ayryEXXoto-', o"rf A4awrzwOVO IJIL, llvoe~a9 evpVo-e7Ovq/ 51'LKi/ Nel_4eiov9 7wa/'/KpaTov 074jai'ov, 1. From this passage Horace is said to have got his exegi monumentuon aere perenniuis (Gd. iii 30. 1). EiXvwdaoY'i-.] Cf. Isth. ii. 46. Inferior srss. read eXtv ie-s-eei-e C.. Editors needlessly insert a' after it. But iPyciEjant properly has an initial F. An allusion to statuary was peculiarly appropriate in Aegina at this period, as Mezger remarks, quoting Schelling. Then Onktas was flourishing. aVwr&,.j According to iDissen ~-r6s au'rjds, cf. au'-rct icXev~a, Ii. xii. 225, av'77ip. 6S60'j, Od. x. 263. Add Od. viii. 107, xvi. 138. The sense is rather ' on the base and nowhere else,' ef. the use of ipse, Ter. And. v. 6. 10, in tempore ipso nit adutenis, ' at the exact time.' The idiom is confined to tinte in Latin and, generally at least, has reference to space in (Non-Attic) Greek. Perhaps OeosI avUTOS I0si, Od. iv. 181, is an instance of the Use Of au'To' =idtni, as Cookesley suggests; but-' that god (and none other) who '-is a more forcible rendering. 2. iw.-e~]Just as we say on a ship but in a boat. o'XKM'aoF.] From \,/ Of 9XKW; orig. a towed raft, afterwards, as here, a vessel of burden, a merchant ship. nsulrc.] A vessel of light draught F. II. for carrying passengers, troops, &c. 3. areX'.] Only used of a voyage, I believe, here and Ii. ii. 287, 0orE fVe3ie dl-' "Ap-YEo LIJ7rfOTOLO. Pindar means that travellers from Aegina will mention or even recite his ode. &sayy6'XXoto-.] Note the preposition- ' in divers directions,' ' abroad.' 4. eipvurO et, s.] Of physical strength, Nem. iim. 36, says Dissen; but Telam~n was potent as well as physically strong. Paley renders ' broad-shouldered.' I prefer ' farfamed for strength.' 5. VIK?7.] ' Was winner Of.' sass.?tIcq -. The present V s'Olitp of which this form is the 3rd Sing. Imp. occurs Theokr. vii. 40. Cf. 6p'qtts0ip'w, Theokr. Sapph. ii. 11. The form Z'iK'- occurs Theokr. vi. 45, PtfKc) j~a'V 06' &XX03, dz4oarEUCUO -ysh'v-ro. These forms are omitted by Curtius in his Second Exciu'su-e on the Verba Contracta. The Greek verb (Trans.), p. 246. As we find aiotigevoy in Alkaeos, the forms in -nme are probably contracted from by-forms in -eyca. Cf. 0. and P. p. xli. 2nd par. and 67rreditevos (Theokr. xxiii. 34) by 0'rrtciw. The, Impf. is used where we might expect the Aorist, in speaking of victories in games. Cf. infra, v..43, Isimonides, 153 [211], 154 [212], 4

Page  50 50 PINDARI CA1MINA. OVlr&) 7y6vVo-1 4Oatpe( Tepetvav ptam'p' owvamag o7ropav, IO 'ArT. a'. 6c 86' Kpdvov Kal Zqvop qlpwaq a1XcTa'rd qV TEVOEvra4; Kcai a7ro XpveraP Nnpq!t8cov AiaKl&q e're'patpev C.acrporroXiv Te, oiXav E1cov aipov pav' radv 7TOT evavpov re Cal vavUrLKXIVrav I5 155 [213]; but the Aorist is also used frequently. So we often have YiKWv for YKjOas. On Thuk. v. 49, 'AvspoO0evrTs 'Aprcs 7ra7yKpadrovL r6 7rpWTov viKCa, Arnold confounds that Impf. with the 'contemporaneous' (?) Impf. ereXev'ra (i8pos,.ros), where the action of the verb is continuous, ' drew to a close,' and renders 'A. was winning his prize.' Now in chronological records the Imp. eJIKa 'was victor (for the Olympiad, Pythiad, &c.),' is as natural as 7PXe ' was archon.' The use of the official tense may have spread, but on the other hand the non-official use, as here, may mean 'began to be victor.' For the accusative of reference crTeaVoV, cf. Simonides, Frag. 147 (203), YVKav rplroba, infra, v. 52. 6. yUvatI.] MISS. evisv, Herm. yevvt. 'Not yet displaying on cheeks and chin down the daughter of (life's) ripening time.' (Lit. 'fruit-season, tender mother of vine-blossom.') For the metaphorical use of ocirpa, cf. Isth. 11. 5, Aesch. Suppl. 996, /uas 5' 'eratvc AX) KcaraTCLxvvew eyjue, | cpav eXOdu7Sa T71yV' i7rirTprTTTo V 3PpoTOi. j TEpeC' o7mbSpa 5' ejVCXacKTos oi5IXaU(S, K/.T.., where we have perhaps a reminiscence of this passage. ' O7r&pa is strictly speaking that part of the year which falls between the rising of the dog-star and the rising of Arcturus -the hottest season of the year, while the sun is in Leo. The ancient Greeks divided the year into seven seasons-g-ap, Oepos, orwCpa, (fOtwrwpov, iropwSr6s, XelziWv, qOvTaXia. 'Orc pa sometimes means ' fruit:' thus Alcman calls honey: Kpivpl o6ircpa, ' waxen fruit.' Hence, metaphorically, the most blooming time of youth: I. In. 5. See Schneider, s.v.' Don. 7. The following scheme shows the relationship: KRONos As6pos GAEA r — l I I Cheir6n ZEus by Aegina NEREUS I I r - Endais m. Aeakos m. Psamatheia I X Phokos Telambn Peleus........... m Thetis Aias Achilles 8. CfplXav gvw dpovpav.] Cf. Pyth. II. 5, YvdOV CiYspWV f\iXO. Here ihX. ip. go together to make up one idea, ' favourite-resort. 9. Cf. 01. vi. 9, CiV8sUYOt 8' &peTal o6re 7rap' avSpiactv o6ir' iv

Page  51 NEMEA V. 51 io OeoCavro, 7rap tCLo3v 7rarepos 'EXXaviov OrTa7vTes, 7r(Tvav T es aiepa xepa a6pa 20 J'EvSai'os apLty7vre viol KcaL /3a J~cov KpeoovroT0 'E7r. a'. O 7Tas! Oeo, ov TFa/abea rTIC7 E7rT pr7/!Zit TO'TOV. al8eo/aL /aLEeya efTreive v 8Ea Tl e T7 fL ceKfvvvev/Jevov, 25 15 7rwcS 81 X\rTOY eVcC\ea vaa'ov0, Kcac Tv p avipas aXKL/tovS 8altcouv d7r' OlvcLvras,e\acrev. oraTci'oLa ov Tot atraa Kep8iwv Pvavol KoiXasg ritctat, where as here advpes seem to be warrior landsmen. For VaVovKXvr a v cf. Nem. III. 2, 7roXuVv a v, vII. 83, daIpa. 10. OGToraro.] For construction cf. Pyth. vIII. 72, Gewv 6jrit &tOriTov alrew. [The Schol. here translates it: qaarvTo. It bears the same sense in Apoll. Rhod. i. 824: ol t' dpa OeradLevotl rai8tv yevos, 6oov 9XeT7rro, where the Schol. says: 5 airo'rews advaXa/6vres, aiLTr)aTCaTes. O'oaoaOaG 'yap TO aTi7roat Kal IKeTeuOCraL. Kal 'Hctoiosa: G6e oErYalEVos 'yeve 'v KXeo6alou KV6aXl/toLo. Kat 'ApXtXoXos: iroXX,& ' e'uirXoKdaov TroXeSs aXds ev 7rreXcd-y e er aa t rci'evoL y VKcep v Y -ro v. Don.] Curtius refers these forms to the \/0es, ' pray,' whence he derives 0e6s. Cf. iroXveoeros, 'mnulti factus (?),' Kallim., darooer7ro, 'despised,' Od. xvII. 296. Lat. feriae, festus. This seems sound except as to the meaning of the V/ Ges. We cannot well attach the meaning 'prayer,' 'desire,' to Odysseus' old dog. He was 'neglected,' 'rejected,' rather than 'unprayed for,' prayed against,' 'undesirable.' Feriae again is 'ordained (appointed) day,' or ' rites.' As far as usage goes eao —aOat = impetrasse, ' to get ordained (appointed) for one' (8&cro'ecOa, 'to be for getting ordained (appointed) for one '). Kallimachos' 7roXV0eaTos (Den. 48, TrKPOV iYvvUQOY, TEKJOV 30 TroXGOeTrre TOKCevUo), looks like a coined correlative to airoierrog, or as if it meant multa impetrans. For IlHacLteq, not ' die allbegehrte,' but 'ordaining (ordering) for all,' cf. IIacrtiTXs, and for the meaning cf. erTs. I therefore infer that the V Oes, fes is an extension of the v/ dha (Oe).,rap 3wbufov.] Cf. Pyth. iv. 74, (/,xa^reu/a) lrap eiasov 6fdicaXov evUev6polo P-60&V' ptar-pos. Cf. Madv. ~ 75. L. and S. say that with such use of 7rap& there is always reference to past motion, which is not true of these two instances. It denotes not only motion beside, but extension beside (Kiihner). 'EXXav'ov.] There was a temple of Zeus Hellanios in Aegina said to have been built by the Myrmidons. 11. rtrTvav.] For ierirvacaav. From 7riTrvfti*, an assumed byform of 7reTcrvvvut. Homer has the forms II. trirvavro, Od. xi. 392, rLTva Ls elUs Xe Xepas. 12. dpLyv. v.] P6leus and TelamOn, ' mighty prince Ph6kos,' their half-brother whom they slew, being the son of the Nereid Psamatheia. Endais, Aeakos' wife, was daughter of Cheiron. For the slaughter of Ph6kos, cf. Apollodoros, II. 12. 6, Pausan. ii. 29, 7. 14. ev 81iK.] Cf. 01. VI. 12, for this adverbial phrase. 16. 7r. Ol.] So mss.; c7rocva&s, old editions. 4-2

Page  52 52 PINDARI CARMINA. aaivooca irporo-worov dXadOeb apeC~' v's cal To o-rYtav 7rOXXa41V EUT& CrTO c/oamrov avu pWwpI~Tp. /'. Elb 0- oX/3ov r XE(P)wv /3/az?7 cruapi'rav E' ra w'a -at 7tOXe/LOZ &f8E(3Kfl7ttt, pacucp' /cot 35 20 avT'Oev ihzXaO' 1)77-oYKca7TOt6 71'r X ~oovarov v AXaOpo' op/tav raoooytcu.] Cf. 01. I. 52. o0 rot, K.r.X.] Verily it is not in every case (cf. 01. ix. 100, rT 8% f5va. KpcirttrOv &drav) better that exact truth should unveil her face.' For construction, cf. 01. ix. 103, dvev % 0eo6 ea'TaLycUevov 1 ov rKcatdoTepov Xp/'' gKaarov —and my note. 18. vol-at.] For Inf. cf. 01. vii. 25, TOVTO 6' dadLXavov evpelv, rTC vnV ev Kac TeXeuevr /)prTaroev ad'Spi rvxe?, Ner. III. 30. 19. e56K77rat.] Rare form for aSe5oKrai. Cf. Curtius, The Greek Verb (Trans.), p. 262, Herod. vii. 16. 20. avroi6ev.] Interpolated iss. 8' avUrofe, BOckh, Bergk 56? avro6ev. 'From this point,'-as 3aTrj-p (aPX9) roO TrV 7revrcOXWv ca'Ktc/j/aros, Hesych.). From this notice and our aicKpa anXcara(=Ko'icacK ara) we may infer that the trench was dug along the length of the leap for the leapers to jump into. It was said to have been originally fifty feet long, and Phayllos of Krot6na was said to have jumped nearly five feet beyond it at Delphi. Eustathios cites the inscription on his statue, Trerv' Jbrl rrevrrjKov~ra 7rosas 7r?7-cre aU'XXos StKcrevrev S' eKarov 7r4vr' acroXecirodyvwv. Cf. Schol. on Lucian Ad Somnr. 6, Twv 7rpo aUCTO)S oKaCrrvTOrVW v 7rrdSas Kal r7o6ov7S 7rj?7OScY - v7rep TobS Wi 7rrdv Erri5aY~V. Whether the acrKadara was an actual trench or only a strip of soil loosened with the spade, as in the English long jump, it is hard to say. Flavius Philostratus speaks of the danger of hurting the limbs in the leaping match. Whether the use of adXr97pes would make our kind of long jump dangerous is not proved; that they could not enable a leaper to reach 50 feet seems certain. The danger suggests a descent. I have given a great deal of attention to modern athletics, and it seems to me that we need the assumption of a fall of 30 ft. to bring the 50 and 55 ft. leaps within the bounds of credibility! It is obvious that the distance of the leap was measured along a given direction; but that there was a maximum limit of length is incredible. See my note on Pyth. i. 44, which applies as well to the leap as to the discus or javelin throwing. As for Hor. Od. I. 8. 12, saepe disco,J saepe trans fineem nobilis expedito, the exercises of the campus are referred to, not regular games; again, the passing of the finiis a credit, not a disqualification. Phayllos and Chionis are said to have leaped beyond the ar/cparaT (which Eustathius calls collectively cr dotKaL/jue'a, misunderstood by Philipp to mean marks of the several leaps, by Dissen to mean a transverse trench bounding the end of the leaping-ground). Their achievement does not appear to have been a disadvantage. Any official mark of distance would be for a warning to spectators and a guide to competitors, not a check

Page  53 NEMEA V. 53 cal 7repav TrovTroo 7rdXXovT aleroi 40 7rp6dopov 8e ca tceiroL? aeS' Ev IlaXto MoLacv o K/ca\Xio-STO Xopo, eV 8e 'ietcat O6pftyy' 'AToXXwv e7Ta7Xoo'rov XpvceT 7TrXaKcTpo c'Ar. ' 'Avr. 3'. 25 dayEto 7ravTol'ov vOI/Uv' atl 8 7rpr7tcrTov pev 4vLja-av ALos dpXofJevat -erJtvav OerTe 45 IIyXEa 0', 6r vre tyv d/3p KpOet,e 'I7r7roXvTa 8odX 7reSaoa-a 7O6eXe vvava MayvrTrov a'07rov 50 7r'Teota' alcoLTav 7roKlco o3ov~v/jEaIo tV, on their performances, or else merely the boundary of the space which under ordinary circumstances was sufficient for the particular exercise. The Schol. on this passage of Pindar says rj 86 iecrapopd roT' rt W' rerE7TcOXw' eKCIeVWV ydp KaTr& 7ro arywva 7rrWTS'oV udro0acraTrerat pOfipos, cKac'rou T7O aiXa e~cKVtS. It is not correct to make a distinction between this 3d6Opos and g/caua. The Schol. seems wrong in saying ELKYvvS. iXappo'v,.] Mietri causa. Miss. tXaopuya. ] ' A spring.' 21. 7raXXovT'.] ' Shoot.' The context shows that the poet is thinking of a spring. The swift straight flight of the eagle may well be described as if it were the result of one impulse, like the flight of a stone or a javelin. Note that ourJfy, Ger. fliegen, and our spring are expansions with g for earlier k or gh (cf. r-parEpw) of the /SPAR, SPAL, Curtius, Grundz. No. 389. 22. 3i.] Introduces the subjects just announced, beginning with oX\3os. Kat Keivos.] So Bockh. Mss. KaKcelvos dcitel II., cf. 01. xi. 41, Pyth. in. 55, also Trv' JKceitW' re (Mss.), O1. vi. 102. In 01. II. 99 Kal K~eOS ought to be read from the old Mss. The only case in Pindar where the form &KELV- occurs without crasis of Kal or elision of e before it is in a corrupt fragment, No. 114 [102], from Clemens Alex. ' To them too,' as well as to Kadmos; cf. Pyth. in. 89, 90. Mr Sandys on Eur. Bacch. 877-881 quotes Theognis, v. 75, Moiarc Kcal Xaptres c Kopai Ato, al' orore KadS/ou i es yc^eov e0oovoalt, KaX\v deicTar' etros. [ OTTiL KaXCoy QiXov iern, 7T 5' oe KaXO' oe CiXov e orin, and Plato, Lysis, p. 216 c, Klvsvvevel Kara ripv wraXcui\aY wapotIlar To KaXov ptiov ELzaL. This saying might well be introduced into the account of Peleus' honourable repulse of Hippolyt6. 24. Cf. Pyth. I. 1. 25. Atos aiPX.] Cf. Nem. II. 3. 27. jvsiva.] For 4vvrovao; cf. Pyth. II. 48. 'Having beguiled by cunningly devised tales her husband, the king of the Magnetes, to be her accomplice,' not 'his friend.' Cf. Aesch. P. V. 559, gYvots ttyayes 'Hoa'tvav I TrLW0vY Ldaapra sKOtv6\KTpOV. For OrKOwdTO cf. 01. I. 54, vi. 59, Pyth. II. 27.

Page  54 54 PINDARI CARMINA. revu crav 8e 7rOLp'TOV avvYerae Xoryov, 30 ct dpa,vvp4elas 47reipa Ecdvos Ev XefC7pots 'Axdcrov 5 5 'E. fi3'. EvVaY To 8' eavrtov eS'KCe' roXX\\a p wv wravrt 0VfLW 'roaca/e'va XVirdveve. rov 83 *ap opya Kv ov ai7rErvo? X6yolt evfOv 8' a7ravvavTo MfIVbav, etviov w trapo XoSXov 60 Sciaat9a 6 O' cpapcrfy KcaTrevev-e Te 01 opCveYr9 C' ovpavov 35 Zeuz cOavdrowv /ao-AXeI, &)7cr ev TrLXe 7rovrtav XpvaiXacrWov vrtvJ NpESc&tOv rpadevL dxconrv, 65 srp. 7'. 7yappov IloaceLcwva 7reolcat, o8 AlyaiOev roTr c XelTrav Oa tA vcCreTraC 'Iao ov Aowptav 'vva IfCLL eV(/pove IXaTra crv caXadtoto /3o0 Oe6v,r ttahctC~~~~~~~o~o pea: Be~~~~~~Y EKcov rat 70 29. ' For she concocted a lying fiction.' 30. cpa.] 'Forsooth,' 'as she said.' 31. ev^s.] 'Union,' cf. 01. ix. 44, Isth. vii. 30. 32. 7rapqaYg^a.] 'Trying to beguile him.' Cf. 01. vII. 60, wapqfaJev pKpov, I to utter an oath guilefully.' a' dp'.] Rauchenstein. iss. 8&. alretvoi.] 'Bold,' 'wanton;' uttered under influence of stupendous (atris, q. v.) passion. The combination of blameworthiness and loftiness occurs in Aesch. P. V. 18, rjs dp8ofiVXo v OxftSos airvufr/ra 7ral, where the epithets are nearly correlatives. Lat. praeceps. 33. 4ev. rar.] Zebs ZEvtos. 34. 6ptwveb>js.] Epithet of Zeus the thunderer, cf. 01. iv. 1. 35. Cwr'.] Cf. Thuk. III. 86, 4&ra-yeAXXo6/jieEot C're /3o0eiv, Madv. ~ 143. Render, 'to the effect that.' 36. frp6ecv.] 'That he (P6leus) would be requited with.' Cf. Pyth. in. 40. Of course 7recraas refers back to Zeus. Cf. Isth. vii. 27 for the myth. 37. 'yaplPpov'.] As husband of Amphitrite Poseidbn was connected by marriage with the N6reids. Alya0ev.] Probably the Achaean Aegae, cf. IL II. 203. 38. evf'poYes TXac.] ' Festive throngs.' Cf. Nem. iv. 1. Dissen thinks Poseid6n and the Isthmos are mentioned because Phylakidas was preparing to compete at the Isthmian games. For uvY...&eov cf. Od. vi. 48, w ILmv t7yetpes NUavsLKaV eSxT7re \ov.

Page  55 NEMEA V. 55 KaL oOeveL ryvulww Eppito7T Opapcel. 40 07TOT/o0 e\ Kpl~L (TV7rvy7ev1rjS spr 7trEp 7rdvreov. TV 8' Atryla Oeov, Etv'0/cve9, 75 Nica9 ev dry'cwTeOcrt 7rWrvcw 7roIKc[LVov 'safrauaS vuvv. 'Avr. tyt. 7rrob peratavmtra VT ca vvv Treov lurpa (&r dayA\Xe KetvoQ, 0f/or0opov 'OWvo%, fIv6ea. 80 d Ne/ela tev pappev pzebl T e'7 WX)pO, 'O' (" l rlA ' 'A7rwO6XwVs 45 aXcKalf (' e'XoraT OLKO r' eKcparet Niro- ' r v eLvafcyKe Xo)o. %alpto 8' 'rs 85 eorXobc- i [apvaTab 7rept 7racra TroX6s. '0L, yXvKceaPdv Tot Mevdv;apov oVv rv'XSa ifdXowv al.4otleav 'E7r. y'. e7ravpeo. XPq ' rr' 'ArOcavv 7'ECTOV deaOXqlralt ijeZjprv' Q90 50 elt @6 @~/LTTLOV &/CE~ &ATT ael EU', "JrEer C pe 'roy fCovav, ava 8' lotlar re7LVOv rpoS vTUyov acapxar-tov, 39. Especially in the pankration. 40. 7rOwr/os Tivyyev'?s.] Cf. Isth. i. 40, Pyth. v. 16. ' The destiny that attends a man's race.' 41. Cookesleypointsout theexception to Monk's rule that 0eos is not fern. with a proper name added, and compares Soph. Ant. 800, 0eos 'Aqpo6ira. 42. Cf. Isth. iI. 26. 43. Mss. read. A.,u. K. v. reos fdrpws dydXX\e KeivOU 6. f. IIvUEag. 'Verily, as thou followest eagerly thy mother's brother, he, thy bloodrelation, sheds glory on thee.' Bockh read-, IIHvOa, in other respects following Mss. Cf. Nem. vi. 15.44. dpapev.] Cf. Nem. III. 64. Note the periphrasis for the Aegin6tan month Delphinios, April or May, when the Aeginetan Delphinia or Hydrophoria and perhaps the Pytbia at Megara were celebrated. 48. b'v rvXg,.] Cf. Nem. iv. 7. Menandros' aid was somehow secured by public effort. 50. Themistios was Euthymenes' father, the victor's maternal grandfather, according to the best explanations. JLK. piyeL.] ' Wax warm' in his praise. Dissen cites frigeo Cic. Ad fam. xi. 13, Verr. iv. 25. 616os.] For this imper., cf. O. and P. p. xl.; for the phrase cf. Eur. Iph. in T. 1161, 3iw/8' SroS roTe. 51. ' Set thy sails full.' For the metaphor cf. Pyth. i. 91, (eteL 6' dJ'-rep Kvf3epvdYra cavrp icrriov atweosev. Dissen cites Plato, Protag. p. 338A.

Page  56 56 PINDARI CARMINA. 'rvxTav rT vz xcaL 7ray/cpaTlov 40ey:at eXeEv 'ETrt3avp, 8t7rX6av 95 vutcvrT aperav, TpoO0vpoLCt 8' Alaxoc avdewv robaevTa 46ipeLv crUefavJLaa va)v 4avJaks Xcoa~Y 53. Operav.] For the ace. cf. supra, v. 5. For the meaning 'victory,' 'glory,' cf. Isth. i. 41. For the connection of the Graces with victory cf. Pyth. vi. 2, Nem. ix. 54, x. 1. 54. 7rpoOup. AiaK.] Themistios had been victor at the Aeakeia, and his statue in the pronaos of the Aeakeion still bore crowns of grass and flowers. Note the present tense, qppeyv, but the aorist, iXelv.

Page  57 NEMEA VI. ON THE VICTORY OF ALKIMIDAS OF AEGINA IN THE BOYS' WRESTLING MATCH. INTRODUCTION. ALKIMIDAS, son of The6n, one of the clan of the Bassidae (v. 32), was trained by Melesias of Athens, and therefore probably won before 01. 80. 3, B.C. 458, about the same period as the victory celebrated in 01. viii., gained by another pupil of Melesias. The poet appears to have been engaged by the clan or Melesias rather than by the victor himself. According to K. A. Muller the Bassidae were H6rakleids. That the poet composed the ode at Aegina has been inferred from rdave vairov (v. 48); but this is not conclusive, cf. Pyth. ix. 91, 01. vII. 25. ANALYSIS. vv. 1-7. Men and gods are of common origin but have diverse powers, yet men, for all their ignorance of the future, are a little like immortals. 8-11. The victor's family illustrates this. For its powers are shown in alternate generations. 11-25. Celebration of the success of the victor and his ancestors. 25-27. No other family has won more boxing matches. 27-29. The poet's high praises are true and proper. 29, 30. He invokes the Muse to glorify the victor. 30, 31. Bards and chroniclers revive the memory of great deeds. 32-46. Such as those of the Bassidae which the poet enumerates. 47-56. Praise of older Aeakidae, especially of Achilles.

Page  58 58 P PINDARI CARMINA. i7-59. But the present achievement is ever most interesting. i9-63. The poet willingly undertakes the double duty of proclaiming the twenty-fifth victory of the clan. i 3-65. The lot disappointed theme of two Olympian victories.;6-end. Mele'sias as a trainer is as pre-eminent as a dolphin is for swiftness among creatures of the deep.:~rp a'. t'Ev adv~p(A4, I e'v [Kct~] 0OEQW 7yEvO~ bK JLtS &~s 7rE'eofIev,ixTrpNI aJJoTepoL- 81E1lpyb eL 77ra' o-a KeifL/cptpe 1.- Commonly read after the miss. ~Es aslpapiz' 9P Oeciuv yc'vos. Most commentators render in effect, with Cookesley, ' The race of man is one, the race of gods is another, though hoth are created of one another. But a totally different power distinguishes (the two races), since the one is worthless, hut the firm heaven eternally remains an imperishable mansion (for the other-). Yet we resemble them to a certain degree.' The choice between this mode of interpretation and that of the Schol. and Heyne is very perplexing: but a better connection seems to be given by the alternative, IThe race of men (and) of gods is one and the same, for we have our life from one and the same Mother (Pain). But difference of faculties distinguishes us, inasmuch as the one &c.' The construction involved seems -admissible even without the insertion Of KafL The presumed fz'-9i = ' one'-' another' seems to me to demand illustration. If, on the -- other band, there is a metrical division after dvpdpie, the likelihood of which can be seen at a glance, the order is equivalent to tv, Es a". 0. -y. Cf. 0. and P. p. x Xxvi. As the Greek for ' one' occurs thrice- in the space of so few words, each and all of the three would seem to be intended to -emphasize the idea of unity. The asyndeton is not in appropriate in a solemn conjunction of opposed ideas. Cf. Pyth. iin. 30, K~7TetC re Pt oh' Oci ob &opovis gp-yots ohre #ovXaih. rveogsez.] Cf. Soph. Tr. 1160, rrpo's 7civp (? 3poerds) 7t'e0Z'T7wP /L27&,PO'0 Oave~h `hwo (E4woi?i7s wp&/narov). The following stemima, exhibits the commonl descent of Gods and men from Gaea. Gaea by ljranos I(her son) Kronos I la'petos Zeus BHephaestos made Pandhra Promh'theus Human race 2. telfpyeL.] Cf. Nem. vii. 6, etp yet P 7r0T/Jc5 ~wye'P0' 6`TejooV 6iepa. xdaca.] ' Wholly,' cf. Madv. ~ 86 a; or ' in every ca se,' of. Nema. v. 1 6. KcEKpLAI EuP.] Cf. Hies. Sent. There. 65, 'LIKnX5~a... KEKpLA&IOPy 'yeEE~jP, i.e. distinguished fromHhrakles. Scbol. 21 aC/Ic3X7To 2 2 KX PUTL4q, the latter is clearly right. For the construction of the participle and substantive of. 01. ix. 103, Isth. vii. 12, 5Za6,aarpoi~~s~oge',y Nem. ix. 6.

Page  59 NEMEA VI. 59 8v valLLkt c(A) To leV ov'cv, o &e a aieog aaoaXcA atev E~3o9 5 /[L veL ovpavpci6. a aX Tt rrpoo fepopev ~fjiwav ie leryav 5 voov "Tot O,Totv Ldav'4To0Ls, Icaiwrp E0akicplav oUK EleSOTe9 OV'SE /.LEra VlcraTS a/C1]E 7TAtO', IO 3. ds.] The Schol. explains by TroCorov oTrTe, a Herodotean use found in Xenophon and Attic poets with antecedent expressed (Madv. ~ 166 c, Rem. 2). This then is open to question. In the cases where s ='for' or 'since' it introduces a cause, not, as here, an illustration which comes nearer to effect than to cause. The closest parallel I know of is Eur. Hipp. 651, vyv 5' al /e;v f'vov pwicrTv alc KaKal KaK& [ povuXeVuaTr', fw d' l EcK(povTL 7wrpod7roXoti s ('just as') Kal av y' uiiiv TIarpOS, Co KaLKO KCapa, I| \XKTfrp d0iKcWV rY 1es S (rv\CaXXayCa'. I prefer to take the Ws as exclamatory with a full stop before it, though I have not altered the usual text, 'How manifest it is that...' XaXKeos.] Cf. Isth. vI. 44, Pyth. x. 27, II. v. 504, xvII. 425. So Milton, Pal. L. vii. 199, 'chariots winged j From th' armoury of God, where stand of old I Myriads between two brazen mountains lodged j Against a solemn day.' ao-). al. E6.] Cf. Hes. Theog. 126, raia 5e rotL rpj-rov yiv I Eyelvaro lrov eavrv oupavdov adrepoevO' 'tva pitv 7repl 7rdvrct KaXirrro,, o '/p' el') /aUKdpeafatc eocis oe os do'taXs alei. 4. vrpoapopokiev.] L. and S. make this transitive. Editors regard it as intransitive 'we resemble.' Cf. Frag. 19 [173], 0-qpods reTpaiou XpCTrl cJcaXia vT OOV 7rpoaseepwv. The tragic fragment quoted by the Schol. On Nem. III. 127, Kal 7raicl Kal yepovTC rrpoa0epcov Tpdorovs, interpreted 7rda 6ctLXcrait, X/Kilqa dvvc'ievOS Ka0' EKafroi v To pos rijS 7XiKtar, does not seem to the point. If voov, fvarL' or any part or aspect of self be expressed the middle is not required to further indicate self. Still Dissen's observation remains true that compounds of ~fpw are not seldom used intransitively, e.g. avapp epei, eK:~peLd, i vuJup4petv, which bear the same sense in active and middle (while 8tiaopetv = 'to be different,' wrpoq5peta, t7rep~fepetv = 'to excel'). u7rav.] Refers back, though followed by Katirep. Cf. Nem. IV. 36. The poet seems to regard a knowledge of the future as the most distinctive characteristic of divinity. For man's lack thereof cf. 01. xII. 7-9, Isth. VII. 14. 5. I'...j'roo.] Rare or unique order: 'rTOt, jroTe-ye should precede ij. The -ro shows that the godlike physique is more common than the godlike mind. Cf. Thuk. vi. 34, 4, 40, 1. s-etw.] 'Physique.' Cf. Isth. II. 67, oi yaip p5Sovt 'Qaptwveiav tXaxev. Pildar in these places includes beauty and strength as well as 'stature' for which Soph. Oed. R. 740 is quoted. Note that lieyav is emphatic. Only the finest specimens of humanity, which show likeness to divinity, are OeoetVc?, 0eoeiKeXos. 6. e(Patteplav.] For form cf. Nem. II. 2. For adjective used adverbially cf. 01. XIIi. 17. iiert PVcKTag.] 'Night by night.' Critics have altered to KaT7 v. (Pauwe), vvXtav rls (Hartung), /ie0o;VoKTCOV TiS AifitU (MSS. byje) Trdr'/os

Page  60 60 PINDARI CARMINA. f/ TL9V OL'ta Ti' 7 eypafre 8pa/jtLv ro7 crTTardaav. 'Apr. a'. TreKcLapeE Ka cat vv 'AX\KtalIa TO avy77eve9 ile&v 15 a2'x fcap7rofopolt apovpata-tv, air a/Letl/3opevat 10 oo/ca /EV wov 3iov dvpa-Ltv errfETavov eC TreSw eooctr o g~otrav, To/lca 8 av' T dva7raauevoaev at evo 'p ictp'rav. | Ae To7 20 NeLe'as? en EpaTrcv daECwv Trv' PypaCe (Rauchenstein); but FGeO' /'jUidpav gives enough support. 7. oeav rtv'.] So Bockh for Iss. vp T,' and aiv-r'. fypace.] Cookesley renders 'marks out,' the arcM0/a being the 7ypCaLfui, the line marking the end of the course. Cf. Pyth. ix. 118. Dissen translates jussit proprie, legem scripsit. For ara-fpwav cf. Eur. Ion, 1514, 7rap' o'lav XBooiuev a'trOfitv piov. Both these constructions, in my opinion, need aFLrt and also 6paue', 7rort, for which, however, see Pyth. ix. 123, 6iKov I OvbXV' gT7r. Mezger quotes Pyth. vI. 45; wrongly, I think, both there and here, explaining crrid-Oav as ' die Messschnur, die Schmitze, welche durch den Rlthel mit dem sie gefarbt ist die Linie bezeichnet, nach welcher man sich zu richten hat.' But it is precisely the lack of guiding lines which the poet asserts. Adhering to the Mss. we may render 'to run to what goal Destiny (as aciyvo9SerTs) enters our names.' Note that 4ypalev is a gn6mic aorist (so too 'oraav, v. 10, gtapkav, v. 11) and should not be translated 'has marked out, has prescribed, vorgezeichnet hat.' For the inf. BpajeZv cf. Goodwin, ~ 97; Madv. ~ 148. 8. Kal v~v.] So best Mss., but so too Pyth. Ix. 71. 'So in the case before us Alkimidas gives proof to be seen that the genius of his race is like that of corn-bearing tilth.' To cavyevis.] Dissen's interpretation must be right, as the alternation in successive generations extends over the victor's family and is peculiar to it. For the phrase cf. Pyth. x. 12, where the sense is limited to the manifestation in one individual of hereditary qualities. In fact zb ~v'yye'is in its widest sense is whatever is derived from rIoruos avy-yyevs, Isth. I. 39; Nem. v. 40. The Schol. interprets nrv 'rpos T' Oeov /giuv avyyivetav; Hermann, TO&S av-yyeves, which is included in my interpretation. I think the word 'genius' may include the idea of 7ro'pos. 9. For general sentiment cf. Nem. xi. 40. 10. K reStiwv.j The Triclinian MSS. omit 'K, but irTrfTavdv is supported by Hes. W. and D. 607 (605). 11. vaTravfdgevat.] ' After lying fallow again (aure) attain strength.' This use of /Jxiprrc comes nearest to the Skt. \/ mrin, touch, with which, pace Ascoli, I connect it (so also Curtius in his 2nd ed.). 12. eparY.]' Delightful,' because he had been victorious. Cf. 01. vi. 12 (Dissen).

Page  61 NEMEA VI. 61 7ra? epvaycovto, OS ravrav /eC7eTroev At'Oev alc*a I jv 7reparTat 25 ouvK aJkpopoS a/ftl 7raXa cpvvayeraS 15 ixvea-tI dv lIpaLtSaapvro 0 eOV 7ProSa pe oIwv 7rarpofrdTropo oaicttiov. ceLPvos' yp 'OXv/7rtLo'd co e' O Alact'iats epvea 7rpWoro0 [e'7rp/ceo'] aqr 'AVXpeov, a~cl wrevrbctL 'I^Crlioji erreparwofi levo 20 Nepea 6e pts9, arwavaoe XcOav wKcX\etSa, OS< v7TrpTaTo9 'AyLA taX VEO) view yevero. 'Ewr. a'. 30 35 Tp. /3'. 671-T OL | TpeS dE\OX06opoL TpOS aarcpov apETCr 25 r)XOoV, oTre WTOPrW eyfevuavTO. G-' 0PeoV Se 7v 40 71 7, 40~~~~~vx 13. AtLoev ahlav.] Cf. 01. ix. 42, Acos ala; Pyth. xi. 50, OeoOev KaX\WV, and for the exact sense of ao-a, Nem. iII. 15, infra, v. 49. 14. da4/jopos.] Not altered from ci'opos or ad'otpos, but from dva- or dcv-gopos, the original sense of,u6pos being preserved in the compound. cali.] Cf. Pyth. v. 111; Nem. i. 29; Isth. iv. 55. 15. 7ro6a vewv.] Cf. Soph. Aiax, 369, ocK caoppov &Kve/ei TroSa, which I explain, lit. ' Will you not move off this pasturage as to your (with) returning foot?' The 7ro6a would not be added to the middle but for the saoppov, which however Prof. Jebb takes as an adverb. Rather compare Aesch. Ag. 666 (P.), wrpovoiaco' rov ~rewfrpoueiov I yXswcav ev dvx r Y'4s ve, 'guiding his tongue-.' 16. 6/,aq.iov.] Hermann, oAatXuJov, ' of like mettle.' 18. CirdpKrs'.] Mss. have lost —, not -—. Bockh eXatas, Kayser veyKiwv', Hermann iUppoov, Mommseln e-rel dpacrei. For the fact cf. Pausan. vi. 18. 5. Praxidamas won, ruTvybj, 01. 59. It seems to me evident that a verb is missing. 21. 'He put an end to the oblivion of Sokleidas,' by causing him to be proclaimed as a victor's father. Or was he grandfather, vrgpr. being 'best'? 24. eiri.] Refers back to X\iav. Most editors except Bergk and Mommsen read earet oi. But one Schol. makes ol the pronoun, referring it to Agesimachos, three of whose younger sons were victors. Cf. Nem. i. 58. Another Schol. refers it to S6kleidas, with less probability. &dKpov dperas.] Cf. Pyth. xi. 55, Theokr. I. 20, Isth. II. 50, reXoy dKpov, Simonides, 3s aKpov cdvspelas. 25. yev'cavro.] Cf. Pyth. x. 7, yeser7a yap c0Xwv, Isth.-[20. -rXu.] Cf. Nem. Iv. 7, v. 48, Pyth. ii. 56, r TO TOrXQVTfV lv Tr

Page  62 62 PINDARI CARMINA. erepov oil tva OKcov d7re#avaro 7rvy/uaXa -rX'OVW Iraabav aredvov vUXyj 'EXXa43o a7rraai. 1 'X7ro/iat 45,eEya eimr-av cOTwro dvTra Trvyei (T a7ro a roov lelt' EUOvv' 7rb TOVTOv e7reCOY, wC Modcr', ay7, ovpov 30 evXc'la olXoemovv ryap avepow 50 'Avr. 3'. aotSab | /cal X6yO rt ra KaXa ^v ebpy' Eicojta-av, Baa'o-la'aIw a' ov avravlc' e 7raXaaro9 eyezed, Yta vavarToEovr VT6 CrtcL La, Itept'8iv dpoor7ac 55 Svvarol 7rappetw 7roXivv ilvvov ayepcywZv I epyatacdwv 35 evecev. xca 7yap ev a yatea B- eapas 4acZvrt 8eOe'o Tlu6vYc Kpda'raoev aro 7ravraq at/aa 7rarpas 60 XpvaaXaC7KaTOV 7roTE KaXX asp dapv wroTrov caocias ptiarov, which should perhaps be rendered, 'to be wealthy with the kindly aid of fate is far better than cleverness;' in my first volume I followed Dissen. For crociats cdpcrov, cf. Theognis, 173, dvap' dyaOdv 7revrY ira rcrwv daivVy7a xdcXtcrrca I cal K ypws 7roXtoe, KIpve, Kal 7r7ciXov, also 01. viii. 67, Pyth. viII. 53. In Pindar tuXa means (1) whatever man encounters or attains by the overruling guidance and influence of higher powers, (2) such guidance and influence, when the power is mentioned. The only point of contact between this rvXa and our chance is its dqadvem to mortals. 26. caire0cvacro.] Gn6mic aorist and causal middle (see on Nem. ix. 43); ' is wontto cause to give account as steward of more crowns in its penetralia than all Hellas (besides can number in one family).' The voice and tense of a&redvarro are generally ignored, and j/vXw taken with "EXX. oir. after II. vi. 152, &rt 7ro\s 'Erpqpr hcvXq '"Apyeos rwro/ioroto; but the phrase is un. satisfactory. The use of okov for 'family' is like our use of 'house.' 27. For metaphor cf. 01. i. 112, ii. 89, Nem. I. 18, ix. 55. 29. Wr'.] Cf. Pyth. x. 54. Iets.] Cf. Soph. Aiax, 154, rwv 'ydp fteyAXwv I/uXv iti ] oOiK dv adp apro. TO7roY.] Sc. OtKOV. oupov.} Cf. 01. ix. 47, Pyth. Iv. 3. 30. eiKXea.] For ace. sing. euKXeea, regularly contracted into ecJKXea or shortened into euKXea. 31. X6ytot.] So Miss. B6ckh Nbyoyt. Cf. Pyth. I. 93, 94, infra, v. 47. 33. &cp6ats.] Cf. Pyth. vi. 1-3, Nem. x. 26. 35. a'yaOfe.] From d'ya(v) and 0e6-s. Its meaning as shown by its usage should prevent connection with acya0es. 36. at/a.] In apposition with KaNXias. So Hor. Od. ii. 26.6, non ego pauperun sanguis parentuzm. 37. daa'c.] 'Having found favour with.' Artemis and Apollo were with Let6 patrons of the

Page  63 NEMEA VI. EpvEat AaroDI?, 7rapa KaCrTaXa Te XapiraTv Ecreprp0 oJ~adSw 4Xeyev 40 7rOVTOV TE ryCE'vp akaCLavTros V af CbtiLfoCTLlPOV Tavpoqbo6v T 7rpterT7pis Kpgovrrliav T/juLaoe HIIoa-etSaov iAv v Teevos' 03ordva Te vlv wtoO' a Xeoro 45 vtLca-ravT 'pe dao-ctoti LXtovvTo VTr'T wO7vYtoL Ope7tuv. 63 'ErT. /f. 65 70 rTp. 7'. 7rXar6lat 7ravTroOev Xoio'ILaV evrl qrpoSOObO 75 vao-ov eCvckEa 7vcvSe IcoCa-riev' ETrel actv AlaciSab e7ropov e oXov atcrav ape-ra aTroe&tlcVLePvot teya:Xa9, 80 50 TreraTaa 8' e7r 7e XOOva fcalt tLa aXaoraoa I rkoev ovvU/ avTrCO' caLt AlOto7rac MelrOVo9 Ov a7rovo a'rdoaaavTro ewTaXro' /ap)v & crft j paapd-e ve1rcos 85 Pythian games. For gpveao- Cookesley compares Soph. Oed. Col. 1108, oJ iAtXran' gpvr, and the use of OdXos, 6-os. 39. ' Was lauded with loud chorus of songs,' i.e. in the KW'COS. In Pyth. v. 42 qpXiyw is used thus, but transitively; intransitively but literally, 01. ii. 72. 40. The 'impregnable causeway through the sea' is the Isthmos of Korinth. 43, 44. ' The lion's herb' is the parsley of Nemea. 45, 46. For the two adjectives QaK., Wy. cf. 0. and P. p. xxxvi. ep. da-K.] Mss. 9pe~/e &aoc., corr. Schmid. 47. Cf. Isth. in. 33, II. 19. The notion of bringing classifies the inf. Koora.ev under Madv. ~ 148. 48. riw8Se.] For the demonstrative cf. Pyth. IX. 91, rr6Xcv raive. 49. If acc-av='lot,' aoftv= ros rvacrbracs. If a-CrV =' course, occupation, prescribed path, career,' qlv == Xo-yloicrv. The central idea of alta seems to be either 'prescription' or ' will' (Fick) or 'selection' (Curtius), whence the notion of 'line of life' or ' line of conduct' is easily derived. This sense suits supra, v. 13, Frag. 108 [96], and also the notion 'right direction' contained in the phrases Kar alt'av, 7rap' ato'av. 52. For 7raiXro cf. Curt. Verb (Trans.) p. 26. MSS. Pfapu de tC velKOs gt7Trer' 'AXAX(A)e6s %Xaca ni Kapias- (Kancx3as) d>' a. Mommsen. 3. a,.. ras X. KatP~& s 'AXAe)?s 7dSe' ca. Ca.

Page  64 64 PINDARI CARMINA. xa/fa Kara/3as, 'AxeXePv Cab apptari v 'Avr. 7'. Faevva I viodv e'r' evapitev 'Aoo9 aKt'a A 55 e69^Xeo' 7alcoroto. gal ravrav -,ev traXatorepot 90 o8ov aca$7trov eSpov' roat Be caL avope e &wv /AeXevar To e '7rcp w7r% 11ao0 eX\lrofoevov ael J xVbCaLrwv 95 Xye7enra ravrtb aXtXrca Bovelv Uvp/6v. COovrt' &y '7r0 F et ObeeTrwv &ISvqiov aXdo' O C'yyeXo0 fiayv, 60 'wrrerr-ov r ' eicoa-t TOvTO yapvowv 100 XO9 anywvwi T27ro, Trok eveTrotoaw tlepovk, 'AXct i' o, o rot ErtapKecev K\Xetra7 evcea' &o zuev Kpovrov racp repevet, rrat. re r' evo wKc e cab IloXvrqiSav 65 fcXapog r'porerrj 9 deOd 'OXvurrtado9. 'ET. 7. 105 Mezger 3. 8' fgnresr ao-et veos. As the Schol. gives 7r48e&te, I avoid it and choose qpaiccre, which is sufficiently near the sense of the Schol. and would be in danger after -0t. 54. For theme cf. Nem. III. 60, Isth. Iv. 41, vII. 54. 56. cafJairo'v. Elsewhere 6ods is not expressed, but the adj. is used as a substantive. 57. tr&p oro& va6s.] 'By the sheet of a vessel,' ie. close to the prpcpe6s. Others understand ' the keel' or 'the steering paddle.' 58.?Xyerat.] 'It is a proverb that.' For cAdXtra KUV/. cf. Theogn. 173 quoted supra, v. 25. 59. The ' double burden' is the praise of the clan and the praise of the victor. 62. Mss. 'AXKdUacs 76 -y' 7rdpKene I KXerg yeven. That twenty-five victories were counted to the clan, not to Alkimi das, is proved by the succeeding 65o, of which only one refers to Alkimidas. eirapK. intrans. 65. aOe'.] 'Crowns,' of. 01. II. 50, 'IcOrot roe CKoval Xidpres Wvoea Trepirrnrwv vw6eKaspofAwv a'yayov. It seems hardly probable that the 'random lot' can refer to the pairing of the competitors; for to be drawn with antagonists who were too strong for them was to be defeated on their merits, and the poet was hardly likely to recall such unpleasant reminiscences. But if one of their antagonists drew one or two byes, they might well be too much exhausted to throw an acknowledged inferior, who was comparatively fresh. It is therefore manifestly quite possible that the honours of the wrestling match, especially of that for boys, did not always rest with the technical victor. Perhaps however the number of

Page  65 NEMEA VI. S~Xcf9vl K~ev WlOov et'trottLi Mexrnclav X'eLPUv e T cat lETXvo aVIoXov. 65 11O competitors sent from Aegina was limited by lot. Of course it is possible that A may be able to throw B by a particular trick by which B is baffled, and that similarly B can throw C and C can throw A; so that if B and C drew together A would throw D and B and win, whereas if A draws with C, B wins; but still, if A be defeated, it is a poor consolation to hint that he might have won had he been differently paired. But one Schol. seems to have had dvOovs 7rpo7rers KIcXapos, and explains that premature growth of hair excluded them from the boys' wrestling match! 66. For the simile cf. Pyth. in. 51, Frag. 1 [4], 6. 'I will say of Meldsias as a trainer eliciting skill and strength that he is equal to a dolphin as to speed through the brine:' i.e. as the dolphin is unsur passed in speed, so is he unsurpassed in his profession. For avioXov cf. Simonides, Frag. 149 [206], 'yvOt Oeyvj7ro7v 7rpV o XTp(&w rbv 'OXV/LLovIKav I iraTa, 7raXa1a/oo6zS' 6e tidv I'vo%'ov, I KdXXATerov iCv P ieCV aOhXeZ b' ob xeipova topops. For -eov eZ'iroet Bergk proposes elK6octii or id6ojLi giving the exact metre of the two corresponding lines, because a Schol. says dvrli tro arov C'v eftrotAt Kal e rv MeX. TrC Trdxet e&X5Qit rv ieX6F' K{aT rq vrdXv^z. The spaced words, however do not seem to be commented upon, but only transcribed. Pindar uses the Epic Cro in laoSaEucjwv, Nem. Iv. 84, tl665evpos, Frag. 142 [146], but always (12 times) iro- when not part of a compound. In this epode 8eXp- v. 66 corresponds to two short syllables. For mention of the aleipta at the end of the ode cf. Nem. iv. F. II. 5 a

Page  66 NEMEA VII. ON THE VICTORY OF SOGENES OF AEGINA IN THE BOYS' PENTATHLON. INTRODUCTION. S6GENES, son of Thexri6n, of the family of the Euxenidae, of Aegina, won the victory commemorated in this ode in 01. 79. 4, B.C. 461, according to Hermann's alteration of the impossible date Nem. t8' in the Schol. to Nem. v', the 54th Nemead. The Schol. goes on to state that in the previous Nemead the pentathlon was introduced at Nemea. I do not think it right to alter this date as it is possible that to it the foregoing date was erroneously assimilated. Theari6n, the victor's father, has been supposed to have been a priest of HIrakles (vv. 90-94), but had this been the case he would scarcely have been called merely yelrwv. As I have written a separate essay on the pentathlon I need only enumerate such results as bear on the interpretation of this ode. The competitors all contested at the same time and were placed in each kind of trial, only being paired for the wrestling, which came last; the order being-1. leaping, 2. discus-hurling, 3. spear-throwing, 4. running. The victor only had to beat his rivals in three contests out of the five. Generally the winner in the discus-throwing would not win in the running. The wrestling took place in the heat of the afternoon (vv. 72, 73). In the 2nd, 3rd and 4th contests there was a line which must not be overstepped before throwing or starting (v. 71). I think that S6genes had over-stepped this line and so lost the spear-throwing after winning in the leaping and discus-throwing. An allusion to this misadventure comes in well with one of the main ideas of the

Page  67 NEMEA VII. 67 ode, that the noble can afford to have their failures and errors mentioned as a relief to the monotony of praises. In the myth he takes occasion to give a complimentary turn to his version of the death of Neoptolemos, given according to the Schol. (v. 94 [65]) in a Dithyramb sung at Delphi, whereby the poet had given offence to AeginOtans. He does not retract or apologise at all (unless Aristodemos is right in saying that Pindar had seemed to represent Neoptolemos as having gone to Delphi e'r lepocrvXAa, Schol. v. 150 [103], in which case there is an explanation of his language); but rather defends his treatment of the hero, and illustrates it by a similar treatment of S6genes. This vindication of his supposed disparagement of the Aeakid whose tomb was at Delphi would be very appropriate to this ode if TheAri6n had to do with the Pythian the6ri of Nem. III. 69, 70. That he occupied some prominent position is made probable by the mention of the blame which he had incurred' (vv. 61, 62). The Schol. tells us that Aristarchos' pupil Aristodcmos explained the invocation of Eileithyia as referring to S6genes being the child of TheArion's old age, which view is said to be confirmed by an epigram by Simonides. The name Sogenes suggests that the hope of offspring was small until he was born2. Hermann's suppositions that Thefri6n had himself contended in games and failed, and that S6genes was the first victor in the family, is plausible, but he is not justified in the idea that he had been defeated in the Pythian games by an Achaean (v. 64)4. Pindar appeals to the Thespr6tian descendants of the Achaean Myrmidons from the censure of his Aegin6tan critics, which he notices in this ode as in 01. viii. 55, Nem. iv. 39. From vv. 61-68 it seems very probable that Pindar was himself present in Aegina at the recitation of the ode, which was sung before Theari6n's house, perhaps before a shrine dedicated by him in gratitude for SRgenes' birth to Eileithyia.. From the words d.iaXavriv and ElTreooa-revea, vv. 97, 98 (cf. also darogXaTrreL, v. 60) in 1 So Dissen. To this he refers The Nemean Odes of Pindar with the mention of Aias, vv. 24-27. especial reference to Nem. viI. 2 Mr Holmes suggests that 'one A thesis by the Rev. Arthur Holmes, of Theari6n's family, perhaps a bro- M.A. Rivingtons, 1867. ther of S6genes, was afflicted with 3 De Sogenis Aeginetae victoria feeble health or some special physi- quinquertio dissertatio. Leipsig, cal infirmity, and thus appeared in 1822. mournful contrast to the blooming 4 Leop. Schmidt agrees that he boyhood of the victor.' This idea had been defeated at the Pythian he supports by vv. 95-101. See games. 5-2

Page  68 68 PINDARI CARMINA. the prayer to Hlrakles (a god of hot springs) I gather that Theari6n was an invalid not unlikely to die by an inglorious death from disease and already dead to an active life. If such infirmity had been induced by a wound or injury for which he had to thank his own fault or folly (or if detractors represented this as being the case), Thetri6n himself would see his own lot illustrated by the untimely deaths brought on themselves by Neoptolemos and Aias. This view gives point to vv. 30-34 where it is said that honour does not depend on the manner of a man's death but 'comes to those whose renown God rears up as a choice plant.' Some hypothesis is needed, in addition to the acceptance of the Scholiast's explanation of the parts of the ode which refer to Neoptolemos, to furnish a clue to the connection between the different sections of this poem, which is undoubtedly distinguished for intricacy. Simplicity and comprehensiveness are the chief claims of any such hypothesis. Whether that now advanced possesses these qualifications in an equal or a greater degree than others must be decided by criticism. Certainly the conflicting views of my predecessors are none of them sufficiently satisfactory to preclude fresh suggestions. ANALYSIS. vv. 1-8. Invocation of Eileithyia, to whom men owe life and glorious youth. Yet fate appoints divers careers for men, but she (Eileithyia) has given Sogenes glory as a pentathlete. 9, 10. (No wonder.) For he dwells in the city of the Aeakids who are ready to foster athletic prowess. 11-16. Victory gives a pleasing theme to poets without whom achievements are covered in oblivion. 17, 18. Wise mariners wait for a good wind, and do not suffer loss through impatience for gain. 19, 20. Rich and poor must equally die (and be forgotten unless the rich be immortalised by song). 20-23. Homer by his art gave Odysseus higher fame than he deserved. 23, 24. Most men are blind of heart.

Page  69 NEMEA VII. 69 24-30. Had men known the truth, mighty Aias would not have slain himself. 30, 31. Death is the common lot. 31-34. But honour accrues to those whose fame God cherishes after death. 34, 35. Who visit Delphi (as perhaps Sogenes intended). 35-48. There lies Neoptolemos, who, after noble exploits, was slain there, that an Aeakid might preside over Pythian rites. 48, 49. Three words suffice; that witness presides over games with perfect honesty. 50-52. Aegina furnishes examples of glory. 52, 53. But satiety is to be avoided (too much praise is distasteful). 54-58. Our lives naturally differ, no one attains prosperity in every respect. 58-60. TheariGn enjoys a reasonable amount-a reputation for bravery and unimpaired intelligence (so that he can do the poet justice). 61-69. The poet's defence against the charge of having calumniated Neoptolemos. 70-79. Praise of Sogenes with apology for digression and allusion to overstepping the line from which the competitors throw the spear. 80-84. Adoration of Zeus. 84-86. Who became the father of Acakos that he might rule over Aegina and be a comrade to Herakles. 87-89. Now a good neighbour is a supreme blessing. 89-94. Such is Herakles to S6genes. 94-101. Prayer to Herakles to obtain for S6genes and TheAri6n health, strength, prosperity and illustrious descendants. 102-104. The poet resumes his protest that he has not spoken disrespectfully of Neoptolemos. (The connection with what precedes is obscure, but nevertheless sufficient. The yepas CipeLto is victory in the Pythian games, cf. vv. 34, 35.) 104, 105. To repeat the same thing three or four times argues lack of resources and is like one who babbles AtoL KopteOog to children.

Page  70 70o PINDARI CARMINA. This last sentiment cannot refer to his previous allusion to Neoptolemos in this ode, which would not justify the phraseology rpls TeTpaK Tr; but means that it is better to say something fresh about his death than to repeat stale praises about his life. Mr Holmes in his Thesis gives the following account of the contents of this elaborate poem. "The threads we have traced are seven. The clue of the first was family history, that of the second Aegina, that of the third Neoptolemos, that of the fourth the poet's self-vindication, that of the fifth the apology to Sogenes, that of the sixth and shortest Zeus, that of the seventh Heracles. "My next duty is to shew on what principle these are woven together. The best of these odes may usually be regarded as made up of mighty strands which are themselves composed of minor threads. The larger strands as a rule are three in number, which I will name concisely thus, with reference to their material, (1) Domestic, (2) Mythological, (3) Philosophical. The 7th Nemean ode contains a fourth strand which I will call (4) Polemical. "I. The Domestic: minor threads in this ode; the victor's name, family, and city: details respecting his family (allusions to his intended competition in the Pythian games [C. A. M. F.]). "II. The Mythological: minor threads in this ode: prayer to Zeus, prayer to Herakles, history of Neoptolemos, allusion to the Nymph Aegina distinct from the island (and to the connection between the house of Aeakos and Herakles [C. A. M. F.]). "III. The Philosophical: minor threads: (1) the poet alone can immortalise the hero: (2) human fortunes have countless varieties by the stern dispensation of fates, but death is the universal leveller: [(3) the record of athletic victories is more trustworthy than epic histories of heroes, vv. 23, 49, 62: (4) it is implied that the noble can bear to have their failures and demerits mentioned (C. A. M. F.):] (5 [3, Holmes]) friendship in close vicinity is among the choicest of human blessings. "IYT. The Polemical: self-defence of the poet, who desires to clear himself of the charge of having spoken calumny." The recurrence of ideas in this ode is remarkable, e.g., vv. 6, 54; 19, 30 f.; 11-16, 77-79; 52 f., 104 f., and the return to Neoptolemos at the end of the ode.

Page  71 NEMEA VII. 71 Srp. a'. 'EXclOvta, 7rpeSpe Motpahv /3a0vpovpwv, 7ral jteyaXoor0eveo7, adov ov, Hpa', yeverelpa rETcvOWv Cvev ore'ev ou a'doz, o' /,wXatvav 8paKevrel evbpovav 0TECV a(eX3 eav EXa)XoIev dyXaoryvtov "H/3av. 5 ava7rrveopuev ' o VX aravre9 e~7rl tca' e'pyet 83e 7rTr/0 v)?vyeO' 'repov erepa. r 8v 8e r'v 5 ecat 7rasl~ 6 Oeapiawos apera icpl0et eVsoo adei~Trat Wye'vqy7 Lercd 7revraeOXotL. 10 'Av7. a'. 'TIcXv ryap f lXoJLoX7rov OKECe aSOpCLKGTV7rV io AlaKrctSa' LzLXa 3' e'0XOvrt (-Vf7tretpOv alywvla 0VufvJ o'v~Tre~lphov aYroma Ovp at<pE rewv. I5 1. 'EXeiBvta.] Also Ei\eUlOvo and 'EXevhou = 'The Deliverer,' clearly akin to \XeVOepos, of which the etymology is uncertain. Cf. perhaps pt8os, ' a free labourer.' Motpav.] For their attendance at births cf. 01.. 26, ereti vr (IIXoera) KaOapov XJrI/os e'eXe KXawO, VI. 41, r ei'e 6O XpuroKb6cas | 7rpa1OJ4-qriV r' 'EXIetLav wrapo-rrac-v re Motpas. 2. Cf. Hes. Theog. 922, ) 6' ("Hpa) "Hjgv Kcal "Apiqa Kai EiXeiOuvcLv rTLKrv. 3. pacLKtres.] Cf. Pyth. II. 20. This is the participle of the gn6mic aorist, cf. Nem.. 62. 4. dyXa6yvuov.] Is this epithet causative = ' bestowing victorious limbs' (cf. 01. xiv. 3 note)? 5. avcW7rveofeLE.] Rendered 'live,' or 'aspire,' but is it a metaphor from running and other exercises, ' gather breath for equal efforts,'cf. Nem. VIII. 19? For ' live' Cookesley quotes Soph. Aiax, 415, aUrvoals EXovra, 'while alive.' 6. et'pye.] Schol. aKWXt6eI, 'restrain,' ' check.' 'For we beneath the yoke of Destiny by divers checks are severally held.' Cf. Nem. vi. 2. For vuyevr' cf. Soph. Phil. 1025, KXo7r reT KaIv&yKr 'vyeis, Eur. Hel. 255, -rivt irbrtut vevyrv; 7. Kal.] 'Even so,' in spite of lets and hindrances. aper KcpOtels.] 'Adjudged to victory,' i.e. by the judges atNemea. Mezger explains ' chosen by destiny to be a victor.' Thus apeTr is a dative of end or direction (termini). Or should we interpret 'chosen by destiny because of his merit (to be glorious theme of song) he is the glorious theme of song'-a dative of cause? Dissen, virtute distinctus as a dative of 'side, aspect, regard, or property,' Madv. ~ 40. He compares Soph. Phil. 1425, dperT7 re Trp&roS eKKptOelS arpareSiaros. Don. compares the use of Kptro6, Pyth, iv. 50, Isth. vii. 65. The Schol. interprets by &KKpiOrs yev6,uevos. Cf. Nem. iv. 2, note on KEKpqL'evvW. 10. y&Xa, K.r.X.] 'And right glad are they to foster a spirit conversant in contests.' For dg/d7ret cf. Pyth. ix. 70, III. 51, 108, where the object is a person, while infra,

Page  72 72 72 ~PINDARI CARMINA. et & 7VX9 719tp v, jzeXlopov atniav toed at Moto-aS e'v4/3aXec rat /JEya'Xcu 'yap d'Xtcal aIcorozV wroxV {I4VWVo -Xovrt 3Eo/icevat' c6P 'y09l &6 KcaXotv? C`o-o'rrpov W'aaweEV At aCwV Tp07 20 v'. 91, here and Isth. inI. 77 the object is an attribute of the subject. The Schol. is wrong in suggesting that the reason for their zeal is because P6lens had invented the pentathlon, as aciywvigq refers to all kinds of contests. For the dative with aiairetpov Dissen quotes Od. usI. 23, e0Ui -i 7re' pSOoLo-i WEWELp7JLO iruKLwotct, and explains the dative as giving the force of ' making trial of one's self in an occupation,' not merely, 'trial of the occupation,' of. Lat. jure perities. This explanation does not apply to It. xv. 282, 6rt-, c-rcigevos dKOsr, which is an insufficient quotation. The passage is AirwXciz CiA: 'p#uros, isrurr7. PE'V 6"K., JcTOX6s 6' i'V uTa~b 4-~ Ciiyop-ailpet 'A~e~tavtcanI',1WV Kc.r-.XWith ctcet'rt some supply /it9e-o-Oat or flriXXcwv, while others compare Lat. sciens fidi bus (see Paley's note). But it' os-ra31pg, d-yopjj which follow show that we should render ' far the noblest of the Aet., in skill in the, spear-throwing, in bravery, in the press of war, while in assembly few of the Achaeans \vwoulcl surpass him, &c.'; so that &rcs'rm qualifies tIX' 9ptmorea as much if not more than i7rurr-e'poY. The preposition in ar6 pnretpot' seems to me to account for the dative dywt'la, the sense being ' essaying trial in connection with contests.' 1.r~Xyp.] For eti with subj. cf. my note on Pyth. viii. 13. For ruvy~t'vw =ei'rvXiw cf. 01. ii. 51, -vi 56rvXeit 1 pet~o'Yov cirywvt'as vacpaXvsc &vo-sbpevav, Pyth. iii. 104, tp?7 wybs utaKa'pw' Tv'yxat'otT' v irdacxeftet', infra, v. 55. Pindar uses ipacwv, ip~ats with reference to contests four times out of nine in stances (eight participles), 1~p7M/, always so, ip-yov often so. Ae~lopot" airiat'.] 'A delightsome motive,' causing, them to flow freely. For 'oaiirtcef. infra, vi. 62, and Isth. VI. 19, KWrazs iiriwv P'aeaivt. 12. isi/laX,-.] For the gnobmic aorist in hypothetical constructions cf. Goodwin ~ 51, Remark. The metaphor seems to be from throwlug some herb or other object of worth into a scanty spring with an incantation to procure an abundant flow of water. The idea is recalled infra, vo. 61, 62. cixraf.] Distributive-' feats of endurance.' Pindar uses aiXKh in reference to the pentathlon, pan. kration, wrestling and boxing. 13. Note the involved order, i~uv'wv and t'cv-rt being transposed. Dissen quotes Eur. Fray. inc. xI., q ebXci/eCa eicbre'7V 6XC& KraP' 'EX'md'cz, for the phrase. 14. ieyowrpet'.] Observe that even the victor himself cannot appreciate his own exploit without the poet's aid. The spread of his fame-reacts on his own mind and poetic treatment reveals to him an elevated and idealised representation of his achievements and position. Cookesicy aptly quotes Hamlet, Act iM. 2, ' Anything so overdone is from the purpose of playing, xvhose end both at the first and now, was, and is, to hold, as 't were, the mirror up to nature; to show virtue her own feature; &c.' Elsewhere Pindar speaks of the immortality conferred by verse; here he speaks of immediate distinction. Eit' abe -rp'7rcp.] ' On one conditionl only,' lit. 'in connection with one way.'

Page  73 NEMEA VII. 73 15 e MzvaLcoorva9 KeaTr XItrapacL7rv/co9 evpr7rat aLrotva poXwcov /cXvrats eTrewv dobals. 'Er. a'. c7ob &E.E'X-XovPct 7rptTatoL aveptO v 25 15. Cf. 01. xiv. 20 for EKarT ' by favour of.' Mnemosyni was a Titanid, daughter of Uranos and Gaea, mother of the Muses by Zeus. H6siod, Theog. 915, calls her daughters XpvuaijrvUKes, cf. Pyth. II. 89. 16. eV'Pirca:.] Mss. esprTral T s the pronoun being clearly an incorporated gloss intended to show that the verb was the subj. mid. not the perf. pass. For rLS understood cf. Soph. 0. T. 314, dvspa 56' CfeXe~\ da' cv 'XoIL re KaC M6vlro KCaXXiros 7rovco, 01. vi. 4. KXvTra?.] 'Through glorifying strains of verse.' For causative use of adjective cf. 01. I. 26, vi. 76, xi. 4, Pyth. Iv. 81, 216, ix. 11, Nem. viII. 40. 17. 'Wise pilots know that a wind is due in three days, nor are they injured through greed of gain,' or-' misled under the influence of gain': for V-ro KepSe& cf. Hes. Theog. 862-866, reXvP Vir' a'i~pcv and 'rlceTat v()' 'HTaicrrou 7raXaiprtv. Don. seems right in objecting to Dissen's i7r6o3Xa3ev as not occurring elsewhere, and, as he did not see 'what would be the meaning of such a compound here, and still less how any emphasis would fall on the preposition so as to justify a tmesis,' he alters the Triclinian;ro —i3adXov to ac7ro6-\iXov. But the Vatican 0XiUeY is supported by the Medicean Xa,3ev and gives good sense, and moreover, though it has a more general sense than the e>fL0crioaav of the Schol. and is therefore not synonymous therewith, yet might well be interpreted by the more narrow and technical term. Don.'s last two quotations prove this, and on the other hand prove no more than that,/lUtd and not 3XA\3i7 is the exact prose correlative of Kdp3oS. He says ' KRepos and rNila are properly opposed to one another: Plato, Hipparch. p. 226,: K'epos e X&yets evaivrov or -s' C, comp. Plato, Legg. vIII. p. 835, B: /e&ya Trj wr6Xe KEpSos X?jlCtaV dyv e'poL; and see Aristot. Ethic. Nicom. v. 4: KcaXeuT-a 86 T6b Ae'V 'tiJa, TO 8 Kip3os. Isocr. Nicocl. p. 37, B: -r Ly Xa 3eiCv Kepsos elvat voJiu~evre, TO 5' dvaXo'raL S'rjiiav. That PXdaPr was not a synonym for ir/la in this antithesis appears from Xenoph. Cyrop. nI. 2 ~ 12: [Cr' e7ri TJ eiava-iy Kp SeC, pLrT' eurl,/la i-wv aKov6vYTW, / riT' r7i f3ci do 3i tibe*pa, comp. Cyrop. III. 1 ~ 30: HIXaatc /ua 7acs aC7rioaX uv, ITavTov {jVytx?s rXesw it 6 Orar7p pjSvvuOj re jXiaviat.' That Pjaula is not the only correlative to Kephos is proved by Hes. TV. and D. 352, KCaK KtpSea Ta' aTjrov. To support his ingenious conjecture acro-/-c3Xov Don. does not cite any instance of c7roadX\w =jacturamfacio used absolutely, nor do I see why ' the tmesis obviates any objection' on this score. From o605lo (v. 17) to veovxra (v. 20) is a parenthesis. The meaning of this passage is variously explained. Dissen takes it to signify that it is wise to pay for a poet and chorus at once, but the KpSAec applies more to the skippers who might, if greedy of gain, stay in harbour shipping more cargo till the fine weather was over, than to the victor and his father. The simile seems merely to indicate the danger of trusting to the future instead of realising such advantages as the present

Page  74 74 PINDARI CARMINA. kiaOov, ovS' V'7TO cKEp86 /3aXov aveo 7rCuVtpoXP o TfE Oavdrov wrepa' 20 a~ta veovrat. eyw' e r Xeov' rX7ropat Xotyov '03ucaro9 o 7rarOav bad rO'v 43ve ra7 rseveaO' "Oprqpov 30 Zrp. /'. eTrE It'reV b o l o Tro'rctva e iaXava ceJtivov O e7r arir' Taooa 8e KXe'rret rapa7yotra,vtOotq. TrvUXv 8' 6'Xe yTop oleXo? dvSpcv 6 WrXEc'FToV. el yap 4v 25 e rav aX4Oelav b8qzev, V otv KE grXCwv %OXOEOel& /caprepo9 Aiav egware, fpevcSv affords. The imminence of death Ovyarrlp re ol rUJretpa...lpeya\ (vv. 19, 20) is an instance of an Eivoita, also note on 01. I: dveqtos. I think that the poet alludes Pyth. rv. 48, atda ol (?), Nem. not merely to promptitude in se- 7roavi /a-av4y.] 'Powerof ta curing commemoration of the vie- winged.' Cf. note on Pyth. tory, but to Sogenes having secured and Pyth. vnI. 34, Xp4os, ('d( fame already in his boyhood, and praise') e/Lc rroravbv d4i4l trs so having made the best preparation Pyth. ix. 92, atyaXbv a/AcX for death. 'Lack of poetic power that bri Had Theari6n suffered from the silence.' For sentiment cf. 01 premature loss of an elder son or 29, Thuk. i. 21. 1. elder sons? So far as the Kp8o6S 23. a~e/v6v r.] ' An air of applies to Theari6n it includes the nity' which induces belief. cost of training and competing and brearrt Dissen quotes Aristoph also the anxiety of a fond parent 1025, CJs '75 oou roti X6yots o for his son's safety. 7resTLY dvfos. 19. Oavarov 7rdpas dcaja.] Mss. -oeita.] 'Poeticskill.' Cf.P Oavadov rap& caapa, against the 42. metre. Bickh Odvarov 7rapa I OBa&t K\X7rret 7rapayofloa.] For su (=t'a). Wieseler, Schneidewin sion of object cf. Pyth. In. '1 and T. Mommsen give the text. guiles us by the seduction c 'Wend their way together (cf. It. narratives.' vTI. 335) to the bourn of death.' 25. U.] Refers to rbv 20. - XrobaL.] Cf. Frag. 39 [33], O'tXov. For iv with accusativ 1, ri 5' tMreaL aoplcav /jtc' evat. noun cf. e't with acc. pron. 'I believe that the renown of 115, Pyth. n.96, Isth. i. 64. C Odysseus came to transcend the ley takes = arTdv, incorrectly reality,' '7 7rdOav (7rciev) being 01. Ix. 14, alv~ats E Kal vi6v, equivalent to caO' a' 7rafev. Old should be interpreted 'by pi Mss. read 7rrdav, new rdOev. Opus herself and her son.' 21. 'OAvpov.] Probably the 26. d Kapr. At] 'Aias th( Lesser Iliad or the Aethiopis is champion.' For gen. 07rXwvcf. meant. Cf. on Nem. vni. 23-32. ~ 61, Rem. 1, II. i. 65, eS 22. ol.] Cf. 01. ix. 15, WOts eVXwX\js 7rt/A0ferat etf' &eKa 35 E. 14, x. 29. taking i. 41 3bt of,xav~,,avlaV, ingeth.i. 28, solemFor t.Nub. w9pov yth. i. ppres-, 'Beif epic avapw, ds&pds re pro01. I. ookes'citing which raising stout Madv. a-p qS. -rbfXs.

Page  75 NEMEA VII Xevpov t'fo'0 o0v KcpacrTrov 'AXtX`o airep /uXa ~avGOc MeveXa 8aciapTa xcoptioal 0oaEt ai vavot 7ropevarav eVUV7fr'oov ZefVpoto 7ro/7ral 75 40 'Air. Yg. 30 w7rpd "IXov 7roXLv. cXua KcoLvov eryp xpEerat KJ' 'AI Ata, 7reoe $' dao6KcTTov ev cal &odceov7ra' rtuct se yiveraL, (1 OBEO; a/3pov ai y X 7oit TCOVK &v &&9 d/gpo au:y7 Xoryov' reOvaccor'v /3oaOowv Tot 7rapa Lea'yav obaXdov evpvKX'7rov oXLov %Oovo' ev IIvOiot' 7Te 8aTre'ot 35 KcelraL, lIpta'uov vroXLv NeoTrrtoXe/uo erel7T 7TrpdV, 'rd ccal Aavaol' 7rov rav ' o 8 a7roTW7&o 45 50 27. ov Kpai-rTTovI...Ktlogoat.] 'Who was the noblest...whom the waftings of... Zephyros conveyed in swift ships to recover....' For the inf. cf. Madv. ~ 148. For the subject cf. II. II. 768, dal6puv ' auv /Ly' iy apIros flv, TeXajub&vos Alas, og'9p' 'AXLXte /U,}ev ' o 'yp,GProXvu /praTos 7ev. 30. akXXa —ydp.] 'But (the blindness of men does not make much difference) for....' For KORIdA! relating to Helen cf. 01. xmII. 59. 31. Ku" 'A'a. ] For metaphor cf. passages quoted on Nem. Iv. 36. Ca&dKrqTO.] 'Ingloriously even on a glorious hero.' Cf. 01. ii. 29, ev Kai OaXMooa. To be sure 01. vII. 26, vOv ev' Kal 7reXerT shows that Ka== 'and' can intervene between a pre. position and its noun. Pyth. Ir. 10, 11, Siqpov tv ( = 's as here) 0' aip/ara, illustrates the position which is assumed for the preposition by Dissen and others who render 'on the inglorious and the glorious.' Prof. Paley renders 'unexpected, as well as on him (one?) who is looking for it' (so too Mezger). It is questionable whether OKc&ow, used absolutely, would bear this sense; and the rendering certainly is inappropriate to a suicide. Myversion suits the cases both of Aias and Neoptolemos. Note the change of tense; gpXeraL covers all time, irdae refers to many points of time. frUd.] Dissen points out that this 'honour' is higher than mere X6yos, 'fame,' which latter only was enjoyed by Odysseus, while Aias and Neoptolemos gained the former also. 32. app6v..] Extension of the predicate. 'Rears to dainty (or 'luxuriant') growth.' Pindar twice uses Kuo0S apip6v. For the metaphor cf. Nem. vII. 40, ix. 48. 33. f3oaB6wc, rol 7rap&i A.] Mss. f3., (or full stop) rol yyap g. Hermann, Dissen and others read f3oa06ov, rol 7rap& /Jo. 'Namely of champions who would come &c.' The Schol. on v. 68 (46) tell us that the god used to invite certain heroes to C4ia at Delphi; perhaps Voa6o& was a frequent title of such guests. Dissen's reading gives us 'to succour them when dead.' 34. /L6Xov.] MSS. ioXe, the singular being ascribed to Didymos by the Schol. Vet. Mezger reads ry for rol v. 33 (comparing Pyth. v. 21) and.oXd\v XOov6s 'v llvOiotso 7yaTro80o. It is needless to alter further than to replace the recorded v.l, AJdXov.

Page  76 76 PINDARI CARMINA.:~/Ctpov [Li/ a4tap-rev, tKov7~o 8' el9 'Eobtpav,7 a~ 0'/ 7re9. 55 TEw. p3'. MoXoo-o-a S 4L/3actIXevCV b~y 0v XP )OPOr aTap fyEvos- atc&e bpl 40 TOvV~ 01 fycpa,?. CXETO 86 'n-pu OcY,,,creav' ayrv TprotcaOEv da1poOtVtwl) 6o Kva1ceCIJV vt vV7Tep itaXcts EacWev aZ/7LT-VXO VTi avq7p 37. Biickh's text. aress. transpose tKop-To and WrXa-yX06iVT69 IK'pov.] The home of Neoptolemos' mother iDdidamia, daughter of Lykom6des. 'Eqp6pcw,.] In ThesprOtia, afterwards called KLtXvpos (Strabo vii. p. 324). 38. Cf. Nem. iv. 51. 39. O eijs. For the verb= hebuit Dissen compares Nem. iii. 18, Isth. vi. 21. The tense takes us up to the abolition of kingly rule in Epeiros. 40. ot'.] 'This dignity in his honour.' The order prevents ns taking ol with yls'os, as (?) in Pyth. iv. 48, aiuci ol. Cf. 01. ix. 15, supra, v. 21. 7rplr Oeh'P.j To Delphi, to the Pythian Apollo. 41. KTE'av'.] 'Precious objects.' Cf. 01. vs. 4, (4ucta'X V) KOPVUW' KTrEdivwr. All Aiss. except the two Vatican give Kcriar-' dvd'ywOv, a false correction Of Knreao' coyv. For daKpOOwvlwv Cf. 01. ii. 4. The sense is here almost proleptic, prime spoils set apart for offerings being indicated by the term for ' offerings of prime spoils.' 42. ' Where he met with a brawl about flesh in return (for his offerings) and a man (Ma~auperis) smote him with a knife.' The position of vtw should have been quoted by Dissen for his insertion of ce between wrt7- and r1aPvTc M'yOV', Pyth. ii. 66,Tather than the Homeric formula -rjj Aits iELo-aih'fl irpoeaqldwbee, II. III. 389, Cf. Madv. ~ 80. Such an order as we have here is rare except with -Irepi, and even in this case the preposition is generally at the end of the clause or else close to the verb. For the preposition es-rep Dissen quotes Eur. Phoen. 1320, 77Ko ~rTE rcfrca ~topo/=Xcip /u ~eXXEv 30Pa eL's Mairs-'?S7ELVt /3 erKrscY 50jicoe iVsep. The slaughter suggests one -of the various uses of the Delphic knife, cf. AMistot. Pot. r. 2, which was very likely a broad two-edged knife, with a point and a book at the end. I cannot accept Dissen's explanation of dv7-LTvXeC =-forte incidere like the Homeric U'vsn-cfv (de inditstrica adire) s-oXi'uero, &c. The Schol. says that Neoptolemos was variously said to have gone to Delphi to consult the oracle about' HermionA's harrenness, or to sack the temple, or to demand satisfac. tion from the god for Achilles'death (so Euripides), that he was slain by the Delphians or by Machaereus. There is another version that he was slain by the machinations of Orestes, Eur. Orest. 1654-6, Andr. 1085, who persuaded the Delphians that be intended sacrilege. Pindar's account of the visit is not inconsistent with Euripides', but their accounts of the reason for the attack upon him differ substantially.

Page  77 NEMEA VII. 77 Y7p. y'.,apVE 3e 7wepurcra Ac~~t ~Eray~t. IB1pvv70 /Jo6V p8ta l a l EXP &evaywl P 7 Sa a' X' 7' tzopctp~ov acle JX 7 e -rtv11 'aawv-, P " 8' I V V IXXae 7TaXatTa',h) 45 Ala/ce&2v KcpEOv~wV' 70 X0otwoi e"Iqlevab OEoiv wcvp' eu'T1eLEa &4eLov, rTpot"ate & wop.waiv - Oe1LktGLCOW7) OLKcdt eo'Ta 7WOXUvOtTL9 EV&WVVftoV C'c &Kcatv. -rptct e7-rea 8taptc&Te oV 06&1; /)xrcWpTvS C-f'pyJza-t Ev c7FTaTetL 65 70 50 AMlytva, TEwI) ZltcE Tr E COICOWV OpatV' I[Ot 7O08 '67etW 43. The mSS. reading /. Treptrla 6 a AeXOol is an interesting case of dittography wrongly corrected by leaving out the &e in the proper place. 44. According to Pausanias (i. 14) the Pythia herself ordered his slaughter. 45. 'Funeral sacrifices were offered up to him (Neoptolemos) at Delphi every year (Pausan. x. 24. 5), and he was commemorated first of all the heroes, whose names were recited at the Delphic Mdvta' (Don.). The Schol., quoting Asklepiades' Tragoedumena, tells us that he was at first buried under the threshold, but that Menelaos had the body removed to the rdeevos on the right of the entrance to the temple (Pausan. x. 24. 5). He was honoured with yearly eva-yLco-ol and by the Aenianes with a Oewpia every fourth year. 46. o~jrotacs.] Processions and offerings in connection with the above-mentioned ~eria. 48. 'With a view to (upholding) fair-named justice,' = the shrine's good name for justice. The victim of a dispute about a sacrifice was an appropriate guardian of fairdealing with respect to the sacred rites at Delphi. Mommsen, after the Schol. (citing Aristarchos), places the full stop after roXuvOTOIs, not after &iKav. The word ev'vvuov recalls Aesch. Choeph. 948, errT6 -/LOS Abos Kopac, ALtKa, 6 ViV j Trpoo — ayopevo/je', I p/)oroi rTVxrTES KaCWs. Bdckh (Not. Crit. p. 540) says'EEciWv/ouosPindaro est bonus, prosper. Notat Eustathius (ad II. u. p. 852, 5): Joipa 8 6v aocivvuos 7rpbs 61aaTO\Vjv rots ayaOrjs, Kal ws av IIivtapos ec'rot, uCewjLSov.' I take it Eustathius simply meant to express, what is the fact, that Pindar uses the word ebcvuvfos (=glorious), the correlative of 5vbvowvvos which when qualifying coilpa has another correlative, WyaOr. -rpta.] Three words suffice to indicate the special import of Neoptolemos' cult at Delphi to S6genes. 'The witness who presides at the games is perfectly fair.' The witness is Neoptolemos (according to Rauchenstein, Apollo, to Mommsen, Pindar). Cf. vv. 23, 63 for the superior truth of records of athletic prowess compared with epic fame. Mezger puts a colon after AidpTvU, a comma only after ertr7rarei, a full stop after gKy7vwv, but I think efcyo6yw is wanted in the next sentence. 50. 'Aegina, with respect to the descendants of thyself and Zeus I am bold to affirm this, that by their brilliant distinctions there is a high road (for poets) of noble

Page  78 78 PINDARI CARMINA. 'Avr. ey'. baevvaZ9 apealk 6ovicpav Kcvpiav X6ywv 75 otIco0ev' aXXa /yap avarava'L ev ravTrl 7XvKela spep cKOpov 8' eeE& Ka xl Xe\t ca6 ra repTrvavO" 'Abpo&otra. va ' exacraaro 8t,aEpo/zev 8oTcyr XaXo'Te%, 80 55 o /LEv -d, 7ra 8' aXXo' Tvxev 8' v' v vvaTrov esvaaL/lovlav racrarav dveX6o/evov' oV c 'eco ereilev, TirL TOVT MoQpa TEXoq 6Trre80o 'dpe~e. @eaplwv, Trv 8'.oEcotra icatpbv o\Xov 85 themes derived from their home.' For the genitive eKy6vwY cf. Madv. ~ 53; Rem. Aegina and Zeus were parents of Aeakos. Cf.Nem. vIII. 6. The meaning of Kvplav is the key to the interpretation of this very difficult sentence. It is variously given as 'own peculiar,' 'legitimate,' Germ. 'echt,' 'rightful,' all which renderings appear strained, I prefer to explain 'of regulation width,' i.e. a regular temple-road with the Delphic gauge of 5 ft. 4in., cf. Curt. Hist. of Greece, Ward's Transl. Vol. ii. p. 36; in short 66. Kvp. = 68bv t1aft!76v, Nem. vi. 56. For the metaphor of. also 01. I. 110, TriKOVpoP ebp&v 6bv 6d ywv, 01. ix. 47, &yetp' r7r4wv aqtv olfeov Xiyqv, Nem. vi. 47-49, Aesch. Ag. 1154, iroOer o'povs xelts eo-nreccas 6ou0 KaKoppXP jovaP, where Paley (1123) quotes 7oyiwv 686v, Ar.Equit. 1015, 0ecr-9rwP 6c6v, Eur. Phoen. 911. Aristophanes, Pax, 733, j'v et'XoJLev odbv Xoov etrcowwev, seems to have had this passage of Pindar in mind. For oi'K cf. 01. ii. 44. 52. ciXX& y7p.] 'But enough! for.' 53. T& repirvaveOa.] I still think that r, rTp7rv' dvOe' 'AeppoSitta would not be good Greek unless dcvOea'Appo8lSta meant 'Aphroditeblossoms,' i.e. roses, as I suggested on Pyth. v. 21; but I have since found an easier solution by reading rep7rvavBGa. The Vatican Mss. support this by giving repV7riv'Oe and reprTY' dve', thus not accenting -epv7r-. The proposed compound would not sound harsh to ears that could stand d&/rviuv6e. For the metaphor cf. Pyth. ix. 110. It may be doubted whether roses per se would induce appreciable satiety. The verse sums up the indulgence of the appetites, JeXc representing generally the gratification of taste. The Schol. quotes II. xIII. 636, TrdcvTwv w MI Kopos forl, KaI UTPOSiV Kal 5X'\OT77Tos I /o\riTs re TXVKy6pjS Ka2l 4itgcovoS oPX'7Oio. 54. For sentiment cf. vv. 5, 6. The natural constitution, cvaL, is regarded as the means by which variation is produced, fate as the cause; hence the aorist XcxoYres. 55. rd.] For the neuter pronoun referring to p/orav& cf. the relative ota, 01. i. 16. TvXeYv.] Cf. supra, v. 11. 56. aeivX6eevov.] Gerundive, 'by winning,' cf. Nem. II. 16. 57. r4Aos.] 'Consummation.',wiresov.] Extension of the predicate. For sentiment cf. Pyth. iII. 105, vII. 20. 58. xatpov.] 'Measure,' 'proportion.' Cf. Pyth. i. 57, Wi fparai Katpobv S6Sos (8eds).

Page  79 NEMEA VII. 79 'ETr. 7'. 3lSwcaL, ToX1Lav Tre caXwv apo4uc1v' 60 i3vverLv ovc d7ro/3d'7rT'ebt Opevwv. EYOSv elb/L' ICKOTELVoV a're'eov o0f7yov, 90 SaToS' oe ~ ' \ " Jp ~y w v8aroIF o)Te poad [iXov es aSvp' aCywov KXEC\Fo E7rTVrov aivc(T '7roTrlopos 8' aToyaOoo-',ltuLrO OUVTOS S-p. 8'. e~o 6J eTyyvu Axato? ov le.uercl ' adv p 65 'Iovlas vrep aXdo otlceWo' at 7poevta Trerot'o ebv Te 8a6f'orav 95 59. r6\ocav.] 'A character for courage,' cf. Eur. Ion 600, Iph. in 1'. 676, Thuk. I. 33, qepovoa apeTvj, inI. 58, KaKiav avrLXaa3lWv. 60. rY6veatv.] Cf. 01. In. 85, w-^ evaera o'verootP, of the poet's own sayings, which are here also in part at least referred to. This word introduces the poet's self-vindication. a7ropXdirret.] ' Doth not remove by 3\Xadv;' L. and S. render ' ruin utterly,' but to tell a man he is not an utter imbecile would be taken by many people for a serious reflection on their mental powers. 61. CKoTrei6v.] Causative, cf. Pyth. Iv. 81, 01. i. 26, vi. 76, xi. 4, Nem. viI. 40. The syllable before OK ought to be short, so Bickh proposed KOTretvbv=- Kor=evra, Rauchenstein KpvoUaov, Bergk KeXatv6s, Hartung, efit' adreiXwv CK0orevbv P. Kayser cites Hes. W. and D. 589, rerpal'q re OKLta, but the colon seems to make Pindar's licence worse. The text is supported by Nem. iv. 40 and vv. 12, 13, supra. 62. Cf. Nem. i. 24, 25, \XoyXe 8 1Lefop/ion &ceS bOwpS i8 caW Karpvc fspelv v wrimov. Here however as smoke is not mentioned, and as poal is not the most appropriate word for water employed to quench fire (and as it occurs v. 12 with rfK6rov v. 13) the poet probably had in view the refreshing, revivifying influence of water. 63. r'LJrvaJiO.] Cf. vv. 23, 49. 7rorqkopos.] Cf. Nem. II. 31. /ta06s.] Cf. supra, v. 16. 64. ClP,' Pyys.] It seems unlikely that hypothetical proximity would be placed in such a prominent position in verse and sentence. I take it that a Molossian (Achaean) was present with the poet in Aegina when this ode was recited, and render-' Though he be near, an Achaean, a dweller above the Ionian sea, will not blame me.' 65. v'rep] Cf. Pyth. i. 18. Cookesley rightly objects to Dissen's ad mare and explains tWrlp =' above,' adding less correctly' or beyond' in Strabo vII. p. 326,-dvaiA//tKTrat S oro0rTOt ir& 'IXvpiKA & Ov ra& 7rpbs rT vor071 ILpft rTs 6peLViS KIa (i.e. [?]) Td& 6-p TOv 'Ioviov Kc6\Xrov. So again ib. vI. p. 324,-v-repKe6Far 7 TOVTs o Fv -ro K6\7rov (it was at least a mile off) KtXvpos, ' 7rp6repov 'E0vpa...E. -yybs S ris KLXpov 7roXiXVtov BovXalrtov Kaoo-wTralw,, /tIKpbv ivrpp rvs OaXdh&otros 6 (i.e. not so far above the sea as Kichyros), Don. thinks Pindar's phrase 'peculiarly applicable to Cichyrus,' but it was in Thespr6tia and reference

Page  80 80 PIN DARI CARMINA. o~qt/a~t 8eplco/Jkt Xajuwpo'v, oQ'X i'-ep/3aXC0'v),aaa 7taVT fc/ W7roU, ev'aLJatL", O' 8 Xotwc>', ev'"pw / 3 ' L iI -, EL a~ X09r e epXo/at qfrYaytov oapol) eJJeWcoI'. 70 Ev'~evt&a w7a-rpa~e acyce 7-cro.p~va)c /1y Tep/pa wrp 0f 3 a a"KOVO' W)TEX cor'p o opo-at 105 to Nem. iv. 51-53 compared with the above-quoted passage of Strabo vii. p. 326, enables us to apply it to Dhd~na with which we know Pindar had friendly intercourse. Cf. Frag. 35 [29].,Kci vpo~evlqt.] So mss. Edd. omait either Kal or 7-po-; hut, comparing d'souaoos,-v. 2, fMe'oPi-1, v. 10, 0-o0ia &ek KX. v. 23, d'36Kqrop, v. 31, dre-'6WKEvW v. 44, d di-avo-t, v. 52, ai~awrov, v. 73, 7rpo~rpeLva, v. 76, 9XEt re-ots v. 84, 1 think the syllables answering to 015K(f were equivalent to four short times, and that we therefore need not alter the ms. reading. For adjectival use of part. cf. Nem. iv, 29. The poet's position as wpi'~evero (of IDhdbna) would prevent him from disparaging Neoptolemos, while the fact that he was still 7rpote;/os showed that the Aeakids of Epeiros had not taken offence at the objectionable Paean. Ba~o6rauc.] I think Aeginhtans are meant, others think Thebans. 66. Xaa7rp6s.] For idiom cf. Pyth. ii. 20, Nem. iv. 39, and for sentimimt cf. Nem. x. 40. Our I'serenity' comes very close to the meaning of Xacqrp6tv. oiX 7repgaXciv.] 'Unconscious Of arrogance.' 67. e'p6ocras-] Metaphor from clearing a road by dragging aside obstacles. For the exact meaning of ~8Iaacaf. Nem. viii. 34. eficfp&wi.] ' May the remainder of my days steal on amid kindliness.' 68. i-orll..fprot. ] Cf. N1cm, iv. 43, and for the compound Pyth. I. 57, i-o 7pooiepwovra Xp,v /,aO 'P.] 'If any one understand my meaning.' There is a reference to v-is au't, V. 60. aip e'pci. For AP' with fut. cf. Goodwin, ~ 37. 2, 01. 1, 109, Isth. v. 5 9. Mr Holmes (Thesis, p. 17) resolved pa~wds into et' la'8ot and combined 'up with the optative. (For as, in protasis cf. Goodwin ~ 50, note 2 (a)); but this is nothing but taking lie with the participle, as to the incorrectness of which process cf. Goodwin ~ 42, note 1. Hermann would read. 3' le Cepeei. 69. el.] Not hypothetical, but - wki-pov after ipet. The passage concerns the poet so intimately that I cannot think 9pXoua4 refers merely to the chorus. For 7iahp gx0o5, 'untunefully,' cf. 01. ix. 38, KcaL To' KaecO-Oac 7rapd -atpb' gco'aLav-LP U70oKplKW cf. also 7rX-X)7f/eXW. /'&-yiov.] So Vatican miss. supported by Hk'sychios. The poet recalls v. 69. 70. Eu',FeI'Rl. Vocative. ahroAPWi.J Lat. deiero, ' I make oath as defendant,' 'I deny on oath.' 71. Ti1puJa irpo~c's.] I explained this phrase on -Pyth. i. 44 without knowing that Mr Holmes (Feb. 23, 1867) had anticipated me, as also had Dr Finder (Der Fiinfkampf der Ilellenen, Berlin, 1867}, either following Mr Holmes or independently, It would seem that Piudar alludes to Sogenes himself actually having discharged his spear in the pentathlon with his foot advanced be

Page  81 NEMEA YIT.8 81 Oo \v ryXw'acraz, Oh E4EWe/4pEv 7raXatc-Y.4TO 'vr va x Ka,cctro-vo9 a'&aV'OV, a~'htwO t 7rpt'Va tXio eyv et 7rOVOS. 77V, TO T~p7tVOV 7rXe"OV 7T8e3pXeTat. 75 ea /LE VtKCWVTt CYE Xaptv, et T& 7IepVa~p6ye&~11 aiieparyov, 0o) TpaXv9 eqt.t KcaTatOE/.6EV. EtpEtY cTTeq'Xtov9 EAac~pOVw avc/aXE,0- MOtoc TOL KCOXXa9J XV'O\ efv TE XEVVKOV ENX/bav9 ae/.ka11 yoncl the line which marked the beginning of the throw, and so having failed to gain the third victory was obliged to go on to the wrestling. Pindar often likens his verse to arrows and spears, cf. 01. i. 112, and esp. Pyth. i. 44, ltv~pa 6' ey KEWVOP Ialicio-a,'.6owciv gXwopuaI ju' XaXeo~rdp~tov dKeVO' ezcrd-'' dy(wVos /3aXEh IQW iaXaUj &0V4WP, lJ~aKpa& ae' ji't'as djuevocUY6-' a'vToug. opaatO.] Rtefers to the past, cf. 01. ii. 92, 93 (Don.). 72. lir, K.T.X.3 'Which (if thrown successfully) is wont to dismiss the sturdy neck (hendiadys) from the wrestling unbathed in sweat before the limbs encounter the blazing sun.' Don, says 'As moost of the public games of Greece were celebrated in the hottest season of the year, and as the pentathium, in particular was contested in the full blaze of the noonday sun (Pausan. vi. 24. ~ 1), when the heat was so oppressive that even the spectators could not endure it (see Aristot. Problem. 38, AiElian. V. H. xiv. c. 18); we may fully understand this allusion to the wrestling mateh, coupled with the ci s-dos s> which follows.' The aorist i~Iire/e~fts is gnbmic. The Schol. explains -wpojhis as= ihrfrp~UXciP, Wrongly. 74. et' s-ices -z'v.] This proves that Sbgenes had wrestled, and F. 11. probably also been beaten in the foot race. 7rXeoP.] 'More abundantly.' 75. ea tte.] ' Let me alone,' i.e. 'Fear not.' 76. avIKpayoi/.] Idiomatic aorist referring to the immediate past. See note on 01. viii. 54, ab'Ipajeov. The meaning of s-pav ciepaais is simply 'carried too far' with the usual metaphor of the flights of poetry. Cf. sujpra, v. 22, Nem. v. 21, Aristoph. Pax, 831. TpaXSI.] 'Niggardly at paying my debt of praise.' Cf. Pyth. xi. 41. For infinitive of. Madv. ~ 149. 77. 'vac~cieo.] 'Strike up.' Cf. Pyth. i. 4. The poet makes as it were a fresh beginning. This one word is addressed to the musicians. Hermann renders impone tibi, iDissen expecta, morare. 78. Ii' T-c. 'And therewithal.' On this passage the Schol. quotes Frag. 160 [170], iqcdz'w 5' 'A/v~aoc7-13acs 7rOLKLXOV a6v1s0ia. Cf. Nem. viii. 15. This early allusion to elaborate goldsmith's work in which gold, ivory and white coral were blended is of great interest. 'For the Muse combines gold and therewithal white ivory and the lily blossom, having culled it from the dews of the sea.' Pape takes Xcipcov here for an adjective- Xcrp's (Hesych. lo-Xv6s-ciXpo'r) - slender,' 'pale.' 6

Page  82 82 PINDARI CARMINA. Ka& X\etpov advOeov?rovrta v4eXotcr eepcaa. rrovtaC ~~h~a epsac. 'Er. '. 8o Atoq 8s fL~epvajlEvo~ dvcSM Neqea 7roXfvaTrov Opoov fJvLowv 86ve ravxy. 3act\xca &e Oewv rpereIt 120 8a7re8oV aV Troe yapve/ttev aMCepa 07rt' XeyorvTr ycp A lamcov v vwro J arpO8oKcoL yovat? OfVTevoCrat, rp. e'. 85 ~~ {ev 7troX\apXov evwvvp/) Trarpa, 125 'HpacKXee, aco Se rrporrpewva tLev JE1vov daeX6obv r'. e 8& 7 etlera advpo davrlp Tr, fbaZev tce 7yelTrov elupevat v6ow b\Xcraavr' brevE ' yetrovI X&ppa TrdvTrwv ] ewtraJov cd 8' at'aTo IcaL Oeo dve'ot, 90o v 'v xC eOXoe, Firavra o's eSadjaaa% EvrvuxW [3o 80. dgl(i.] ' With regard to.' Cf. 01. ix. 13, Pyth. iI. 62. 81. 8dve.] Dissen observes that the metaphor is from spear-throwing, comparing Pyth. I. 44. aKovTra raXagy 8ovdwv: but cf. Pyth. x. 39, ravrc s %Xopol nrapOvov 1 Xvpav re poa KavaXal r' avXkiv oovYorrat. For iroXVqP. tspv. cf. 01. I. 8. 82. aTvXa.] Contrast this language with reference to an Aeolian ode sung to the lyre with that of Nem. III. (v. 67) which was sung to flutes. 83. ba7reaor.] So ass. Mezger restores the mistake 7yCdreaov, which does not scan. Perhaps here and v. 34 &8irelov = 'terrace.' 86. 7rpoirpewva.] Connected with irpais, lAXos (?), Skt. / pri, 'enjoy,' Zd. /,fr, 'love,' Goth. frijdn, 'to love,' frijonds, 'friend.' For rrpocf. 7rpo'rras, rpocrdhas, irpdKaKco, Irporovos, irpoprpp7vrs. Don.'s connection with vrp-qv7s,;rpncv, pronus, is invalidated by the absence of any evidence of such metaphorical usage in Greek. 7yeierac.] Delibat. Cf. Isth. i. 21. There is an old variant severac. 87. yyeirov', K.T.X.] Cf. Hes. W. and D. 344, 7rijxa KaKOdS 'ycTtv, ooa'ov r' dyaogs gy)"' Ovetap. J )ifJLope Tro ryU/s ' 0r' f fope pyeirovos 4\0Xov. Alkman, Frag. 50 [60], t&ya yeirTov 'yetrwv. 88. xspja.] 'Delight,' 'blessing,' as in 01. ii. 19. 89. aciXot.] Cf. Soph. Aiax, 212 and Prof. Jelb's note. 'Should be constant to neighbourly relations.' Mss. read av 0Xo1. The text is due to Thiersch. Cookesley has an inapposite note on the omission of tav with the optative. Holmes puts a full stop after dceXot, taking it with el 'for the simple expression of a wish,' like the Euripidean et Itot 'ykvocro. I cannot think that a wish could be expressed here just before the wish v. 98. 90. Sv riv.] 'Under thy protec

Page  83 NEMEA VII. 7'atitw 7-a'rpt:~(76V?7l9 cwraxop blorrov ou/JONv 'irpo'yOV6V eI)Cri/ova ~4a8'av aiyviav. 8.3, 135 'A vr. e', EWE& TE~rpaopowtw co ap1raacoz ~vryotsl elV Tre/Jpzevo-t 36,1'toz EXEL TEOL9~, a/$)QTepaLV tWYv Xetpos'. pO aKcap, 95 TW E' 7T1OLKeIJ 'JHpaq 7rT(0W TE 1U'ke 40 KopcaV TE rfYXavK0)w7-tca USvao-at ae /3POT-0t0'tV jXcc'v apaXctavtz 83VOJ,8aLTWV Oa.t~a' &861/key. tion,' ' in dependence on thee.' Cf. Soph. Aiax, 519, ~e aol 2r6,a 9-ywye acb~o~at, and Prof. Jebb's note. 10Gkxoi.] Equal to ue'xXo~; or should we render-'Iwould be willing to cherish an obedient mind towards his father and so to go on dwelling happily,' &c.? I.e. tbe neighbourhood of HUrAI&es temple is enough to keep Sobgenes contentedly at home tending his father in his old age, rather than ranging in quest of adventures like H~rakles who subdued the Giants. For the advice to the youthful victor to honour his father of. Pyth. vi. 19 -27. 93, 94. 'For that he bath his house hetween thy precincts as a four-horse chariot is between its yoke horses, (having one) on either hand as he goes.' It is a mistake to suppose that four-horse chariots had two poles or two yokes, as art proves the reverse; but Euripides' phrase TETpcL~U 0"Xos shows that ~6-ya was used catachrestically for horfses. The genitive ap~dnrcw gives us the word in the simile corresponding to &0Suev, and the phrase tip shows that either the road to the house was between temples, or else the street in which the house stood had temples on the opposite side. Either the preposition EPv is used loosely or else the poet was thinking of the pole as part of the chariot. The annexed hypothetical diagram fulfils the conditions of 86ptos -rJAc;,os Ir irMS a-yvta the simile sufficiently. Or, does E1 here =='Ihard by,' the house being divided from the i-reol.4ep by a narrow street, the TegI&i1 extending farther than the house on either side, even as four horses occupy a space wider than the car? Mr Postgate explains the simile differently. Note that xeLe.. 1in' is a variation of the common construction gar-t T& TejLeP'q e' aiL/.40 97. From this passage and from

Page  84 84 PINDARI CARMINA. et yap -o~ta-tv 4reaoa1e'ieE a /31o'rov a'pf a 145 17,8a Xt'napco 'e '4par StajrX 4/co T9 100 ev8'iatOlo eoPTaZ, Vatcov Se'() & Tai eXotev alEd TEV. El. tyepa,?O 7r6p Pvv POIal apelov 07tOev. O 8 Eov OV WAO{ 04X1E xKep 150 drpowoturt NeoirrvT'Xepov eX'ica' rreaOL TavTa T & pt~ T7-eTpaKt T adL7roXEWF 0os atropkz. 7TeX4eeO, TeICtVOtriV a-re 1Lta''vXa'aq Atv K6 - ptvooS. v. 60 it would seem that Theari6n laboured under some bodily ailment or infirmity. 98. ~rstar.] S6genes and Thedri6n. 99. (airXMKols.] 'Carry on to the end.' 101. 'The present victory and a nobler one (at Delphi or Olympia) afterwards.' The notion of Delphi in apeorv brings the poet back to Neoptolemos. 103. AXK6at.] 'That I have maltreated;' like beasts worrying a corpse. Cf. 11. xvII. 394, 558. 104. ramrd, K.r.X.] ' To work over the same ground three or four times argueth lack of inventive power, like Al's K'oplvfo foolishly repeated to children.' This was probably the burden of a popular nursery ditty. Cf. Aristoph. Ranae, 439, Eccl. 828. Miller, Dor. I. p. 88 Transl. 2nd ed. p. 96 and von Leutsch, Paroem. Gr. iI. p. 368, give the historical account of the origin recorded by the Schol., namely that ambassadors from 155 the Bakchiadae sent to invite the Megarians to resume their allegiance, at last said &5Kaiws oTrevdte 6 Al6s K6opLvBo el ~At \Xlotro 81KrV irap' i/EWv. Whereupon they were pelted, and in an ensuing fight the Megarians urged each other to strike rev Atis Kdptvov,. The proverb is said to refer eirl rw7V cyavY eLyvvVoLue'vwV Kal SAciCs dcraX\arTT6rwv; an explanation which is not supported by Pindar. Some editors seem to take tatvuXdKas as nom. sing. ==' a silly babbler,' but the construction with -re after dayroXeFs would be the accusative, and the only possible construction for the nom. sing. is to make tatpvXdKas agree with KoptOos, which I believe to be right. The Schol. Vet. explains wr-7rep irapd vvqrIots ToS reTKotS as though the reading had been taavXdU as, or else the interpretation last given was intended. The phrase in this case is regarded by the poet as the agent in the vain repetition of itself; for such a form as /a>* could hardly be passive in meaning.

Page  85 NEMEA VIII. ON THE VICTORY OF DEINIS OF AEGINA IN THE SHORT FOOT-RACE. INTRODUOTIOON. DEINIS, the son of Megas, of the family of the Chariadae (v. 46), of Aegina, had, like his father, been twice victor in the stadium at Nemea. From the allusion to Sparta in vv. 9-12, I think that this second victory was won during the troubles of Sparta with the Mess8nians and Helots which began B. c. 464, and before the war between Athens and Aegina, B.C. 458. From v. 20 I infer that this ode was composed just before the Seventh Nemean, and hence I regard it as probable that this victory falls in 01. 79, either B.c. 463 or 461. The victor's father was dead (v. 44) at this time. From the opening lines addressed to the goddess of youthful bloom and young desire, though to be sure they lead up naturally to the birth of Aeakos, and from the prominence given to unfair preference and misrepresentation, it may be gathered with some slight probability that Deinis had recently been an unsuccessful suitor, and that his rival's friends had brought unfair influence to bear in the matter. However Prof. Jebb's remarks in his introduction to his edition of Aiax, p. viii., are very much to the point. 'For a special reason not difficult to conjecture, Ajax was rather a favourite with Pindar. Not a few of the great men whose praises Pindar sang must have had skeletons in their closets. The chariot-race, the foot-race, the boxing and wrestling matches might have gone well, on the whole, for them and for their forefathers. But every family which had furnished a long series of competitors at the great festivals would be likely to have its grievances; its tradition of the ancestor who was beaten by a doubtful neck; its opinion about that recent award in which the

Page  86 86 PINDARI CARMINA. judges had shown such scandalous partiality for their fellow-townsman. In such cases it would be consoling to remember that a hero second only to Achilles had been defrauded by a corrupt tribunal of the prize which was his due. The complimentary poet might flatter his patron's self-complacency by comparing him to great and successful heroes; but he might also chance to soothe feelings of a less agreeable kind by the mention of Ajax, so unsuccessful and yet so great.' The ode was sung on the occasion of the dedication of Deinis' crown at the temple of Aeakos (v. 13).-The harmony is Lydian (v. 15), the measures chiefly Dorian. The apparent cretic after the first double trochee of the last strophic line is equivalent, most probably, to an epitrite, the last long syllable being long by nature or by a nasal, and being produced a double time. This syllable in no case ends a word in this ode. There is more break than usual between the metrical divisions of this ode. ANALYSIS. vv. 1-3. The goddess of young desire is sometimes kind, sometimes cruel. 4, 5. One must be content to be moderate and attain one's nobler desires. 6-8. The marriage and offspring of Zeus and Aegina was blest. 8-12. Aeakos was much courted by heroes. 13-16. Dedication of ode and crown to Aeakos. 17, 18. Prosperity granted by the gods is comparatively lasting, such, for instance, as that of Kinyras of Cyprus. 19. I pause like a runner preparing to start. 20, 21. For anything new provokes envious criticism. 22-32. For envy attacks the noble as in the case of Aias and the arms of Achilles. 32-34. Detraction existed of old. 35-39. Far be this from the poet, who hopes to win fame and popularity by straightforward plain speaking. 40-44. Excellence and the joy of victory are enhanced by song. 44-50. The poet cannot restore Megas to life, but he can rear a monument to father and son and assuage pain. 50, 51. The antidote of song is as old as the poison of detraction.

Page  87 NEMEA VIII. 87 STp. a'. 'fIpa r orvta, ctapvg 'Abposmra dpl3ppoLEav btvXordrwv, are 7rapOevf?7itot raaotv r e4qt7otcra rxeyQEapot9, TOPv /VE t/,LepOL a"vya Xca" XP aep aerrTa, Trepov e8 Erpav. 5 acyararad e Kcapov /tljp, 7XavaOevra vpo? epyov "caCTOV 5 Trcv OpeLOOV EoWTp V erotopaTEu) v'aYtOOat. 'APT. a'. ooto fKa A ov Alryivas re T fc KTpO T7rOLLEVE a/14o~e7roqXroav 10 Kv7rplas; &8pov' e/3Xa'Tev 8' vloes O'lvcvas /3aartXevS O apr ro\\d viv 7ro9oi 0tv6dx etpt oa r 3ovXat' aptTO. woXXa v 7o0Xo XT'a al/oarL yap powoev acrrot t7eptvacraovr'ov 15 1. "Opa.] Goddess of puberty. Cf. Aesch. Suppl. 973 (P), quoted Nem. v. 6. For the double genitive cf. 01. I. 94, rwv' 'Ov/L7rcid8sv Fv 6poois I IIXorros. Pyth. ix. 39, KpvTrra K\Xat5s 6 VT vr o SPO0s retOoUv lepY qptXor drwv. 2. Cf. Soph. Ant. 795, LKv 6' evap-yi7s pX\eagpwv 'fi.epos evXkKTpoU 3. dvaLyKas xepL.] Cf. Pyth. Iv. 234, avdyKas YTreo-tv, Pyth. xi. 34, 6d0o/6 ci/pp raros. erepotLs.] Euphemistic for ypicars. Cf. Pyth. IIn. 34, Eur. Here. F. 1238, also the similar use of dXXos. The poet means violent or thwarted passion. There is a zeugma in the construction of pao-rdpets, which first means to carry in fondling fashion and then to enfold in a tight grip. We can render by 'bear along' in both cases, but I do not think wyplacs xepo2 faa'rdci'ets would stand alone. 4. dayarrard.] For plur. cf. Pyth. x. 34, Nem. iv. 71. Katpoo.] 'Without having transgressed the bounds of moderation.' 5. 7rKiKpaTrei.] 'To get secure possession of his nobler objects of desire.' 6. oloi.] I.e. apeloves. irooaves, K.T.X.] I.e. gpwres. 7. vlbs.] Aeakos. Olvcvas.] Old name of the island before the nymph Aegina gave her name to it. 8. 7roX\a.] Cf. Nem. v. 31, and the Homeric 7rohXXa \ao-eeOat. Dissen interprets TroXXa'tS, but Don. rightly observes that ' the secondary idea of frequency' is contained in XLraievov. iMeic.] 'That they might behold him.' Do not take tve as primarily the object of IdeLv. 9. di3oarl.] Generally rendered 'unbidden,' ' unsummoned,' but 'without fighting,' = c/ax7ri, seems to be more in accordance with analogy and with the meanings of awrot.] 'The flower.' Cf. 01. I. 7.: a:-.. S' *C,.. ~

Page  88 88 PINDARI CARMINA. 1o VOeXov CElVOV 76 TretfOecra' dv va' tE COVTE, 'ETr. a'. o0 re pcpavaaZ ev 'AOavaLcrO v zip/oTov crparov, 20 o Tr ada 7rrcpTrav IleXo7rl7taat. itceraq Ailaco atv C V yovCr7wv rooXto 0' v7rep fix\as acTwv O' v7rep rcovS' arropat 4,Epov 15 AvSiav pIrpav davaxa78a 7revroticAkevav, 25 Aeivtoq 8a'crowv oTa8iwv lcat 7rarpoS Meya Ne/eaZov ittY a7yaXt-a. r 0~E 7 eyap rot fVreVOE XfoS3o aJvOprMrot-t rappovcurepoY" 7rp. 3'. oC7rep xat KlZvpav /pte 7rXovlTp TroYVTla V Trore KVt rpp. 30 Wt-TraJLtat S) 7fouaci covUoo&, O/jlrveTawV te 7rpiv TLt batev. 12. According to the myths the Pelopids of Sparta (Menelaos) were not contemporary with Aeakos, and it is therefore possible that Pindar refers to an unknown myth, but perhaps he was tempted into an anachronism by a wish to allude to recent overtures by Sparta for help against the Messdnians, B.c. f Da64- 6a2. 1 3-15. The crown won by Deinis was being dedicated with the poet's crown of song at the temple of Aeakos. 15. KavaXqUcd.] Cf. Pyth. x. 39, KavcXal a&XSvY, Soph. Trach. 641, auSXs ocKK dvapLiYa idtaXWv KavaX&v irdcvvet,.v Hlsiod uses this adverb. For the metaphor cf. Frag. 160 [170], vqiativw ' 'AgvOaovi8ats rotKtXov avfSla, quoted by the Schol. on Nem. vII. 78 (115). The hlrpa here and in 01. xx. 84 -means the whole crown, but was properly the twisted woollen fillet (cupaXXov ulTrpav, Isth. iv. 62) by which the leaves or sprays of the wreath were kept together. 16. 8taaoy;] RefersbothtoDeinis and his father, as is proved by vv. 47, 48, ro&Wv evuwv6SWv Sis 6) uVOti 'the feet illustrious on two occasions of two (Chariadae).' NEecuaiov yak/ga.) 'A celebration of Nemean victories in two footraces. ' 17. u~ &e.] 'By the aid of a god,' i. e. of Aeakos or of Zeus for Aeakos' sake. For svureveis, cf. Pyth. iv. 69, q5IreVuOev rtcta. The comparative 7rap/lovcJrepos implies the sentiment of Pyth. II. 105, 106, 6XPof oVK es /LaKpov dvyppv tpxerat a7rXeros eT' a'v e7ritpioTas b7rnrae. viI. 20. For the idea cf. Frag. 111 [29], eiaxs6Ljwov I SparTeras OVK ^r'tr o\Vos. Render rap/uov. 'maketh longer stays,' after Sir J. Suckling, 'Love with me hath made no stays' [Mr Fanshawe]. 18. ro-rrep.] "OXSos is here personified, though not so in the preceding-line. For Kinyras cf. Pyth, xI. 15-17. 19. Yrbraxat.] ' I stay on tip-toe;' i.e. poising myself and taking

Page  89 NEMEA VIII.8 89 20 7rOXX ' fyp 7OXX' XEXEKTaLc veapa 8' 'eVpOz'VTa 80/1LEV 0; EXeYXOV, ad7rat9 K bv~VlJO 0`+.'-V &3 X0,Y01 0fOVEpota~~~~~~tv- ~~~35 Wr7TETat 8' eOXW1V act,) Xepo'vecrat 8' ovKl eptl'et. XEO c~TeXath'vo, & '*isv vlodv, Oao-,y'ce '~ o~~t/~-V crat9~. 40 -q 'rw' ayXawo-cTov pev, i'7,op 8' Awqtov,?vi~a KaT'FXet breath before the start, in the attitu~de of the east of 'A girl starting for a foot race' in the Fitzwilliam Museum. ThephraseKo00a /,3cI3Gra, 'with light tread," 'tripping lightly,' 01. xrv. 15, is not quite the same. The body of the ode begins here, the first eighteen verses being dedicatory to Aeakos. 20. T'Many tales have several versions; but when one has discovered new points it is utterly hazardous to submit them to the touchstone for assay; for discussions are toothsome to the envious, and envy ever fastens on to the noble, but contends not against the mean. It did rend even the son of Telamon by forcing him on to his sword.' It would appear that Pindar invented himself (or gave currency to an Aeginetan versiou of) the detail of the myth of the KpiOEii 6rXwz' which attributed the defeat of Aias to unfair means, which version is adopted by Sophokles, Aiax, 1135, where Teukros says to MenelfoS KXE6 rri~i yap avi-ov V'I-qoiroto's EV'pE'0iq. In the earlier ode, Isth. iii., in which the fate of Aias is mentioned, Odysseus' — 4Xpa defeats the better man, but no underhanded proceedings in connection with the decision are suggested. In Nem. vii. the unfair character of the voting is insinuated, and I am therefore disposed, to date Nem. viii. before Nem. vii. Sec on v. 12. 21. X6,yot.] 'Discussion.' Dissen, Deliciae vero sunt verba quae dicant invitis quaerentibus quod r-eprehendant; Don., Cookesley, Paley, 'praise.' Markland goes too far in regarding X6-yot here and in Fur. Suppi. 565 as= i~6yot. It is rather ' criticism'; the neutral term getting a colour from the preceding clause. For the extraction of qW0'pos from 00opiiepoiocip cf. Nem. vii. 9, 10, which however is a simple case of a plural subject got out of a singular noun of multitude. Not very unlike is Nem. iv. 3, 7rO'PWi KCKpi-E co..Vt (TileP VtiK(ivr). For the sentiment cf. Soph. Aiax, 157, v7phl -yap7o rileoPcO' 1 006pos 9p~ret, Pyth. vin. 19, xi. 29, infra, v. 34. 23. at5tKVXtiimij ]Cf. Hom. II. V1i1. 86, Kci1ie0eiei'er irEPI XaXKiP,, 'transfixed by the bronze,' Soph. Aiax, 828, (~Ae) 7reorrcra rC,36e 7repl vecoppcieTlqJ gci, 899, 0ao —ydeip, 7repoi-rvyihi. The slang 'to get outside a glass of beer,' &c. is a similar idiomatic inversion. 24. Cf. Ii. xiii. 824, Alae aiyapvoerz-l &~v-ycile, irojce' geiiier. K7elXei.] 'Encompasses,' 'overwhelms.' Cf. 01. vii. 10, Pyth. i. 96, Soph. Aiax, 415.

Page  90 90 PINDARI CARMINA. 25 Ev Xvuyp v'el'et' ie alTov ' al6X\w *'8st ry'pa d'vrTraTat. icpvlaltot t yap ei'v 4rfo&n 'O8va'o avaol Oepadrevaav' 45 XpvU-&ov ' A'ia a rrepf0elv oTrXv fvw 7rdaXaLaev. 'E7r. j. 1) pav dvoioei 'ye jotlcrv de OcBwepi pot gx/cea pAcav 7reXeJtL4oYevo 50 30 7rr dC\ettfi3pOTr Xorya, ra v hep' ' AtXeX veoIcrTow(, dXXrov 7e o'XO(wv 7ra/poqOpouptv ev aJLtpatL. XyOpa a' dipa -rpapoa-is v cal 7ra wXar, 55 aV)Xwv /pdvov plXot&ro7o', &oXoqpa&8, IcaKo7rolov ovetSo' a TO fcZv Xa7trpopv f/arat, rowv 8' daavrTwv icV8o? avrPTiEV aaCOpOv $rp. y'. 35 e /r 7roTET pO Tro rorTOv 'o09o, Zei Ttrarep, adXX /CXeV0o0 6o 25. avrdrarat.] 'The greatest prize has been held out to,' conferred upon, not 'held up,' 'proposed.' For perfect cf. 01. I. 53, Nem. III. 84. 27. odvy.] 'Invited the grip of violent death.' Cf. Hes. W. and D., 413, ~ibr5C 7raXalet. 28. 4 /7.] 'Yet verily.' dvwotcdye.] Though Odysseus was perhaps equal to Aias, or almost equal, according to the terms of the contest for the arms, in battle 'at least they made far different wounds gape (or' gush [with blood]') on the warm flesh of foemen (dat. incommodi) when hard pressed, &c.' That is to say in battle Aias was very superior to Odysseus. 29. ~reXe/ut6[uerot.] So Schol. Vet. MSS. oroXept. 30. Lev —re.] Cf. 01. xv. 15. The poet refers to exploits not related in our Iliad, but probably from the ballads which formed the Aethiopis of Arktinos. From the frequent mention of Memnon this group of legends seems to have been a favourite either with Pindar or with the Aegingtans. Of course the fight with Hektor, II. xxv. 402, may have been in the poet's mind among the dXXwv Lx6wXCWv. 32. exOpd, K.r.X.] 'Fell detraction then (as may be inferred from the above-mentioned instance) existed even of old.' 33. oXoqppaSes, c.r.X.] 'Deviser of guile, mischief-making calumny.' 34. Cf. Apollod. (Brunck, Gnom.) IV. 12, 7rpos &yap ro XajLrpov 6 fd06vos 3iderat i o-0AiXXec r EKcetvovU OVSs v vzfWau rTXn; and for ficratc, Od. xI. 503, ot Kevov Pi&owvrat eepyoueIv r a7ro rt/S -(Dissen). For a&Crwav cf. Pyth. i. 84, xi. 30. Render

Page  91 NEMEA VIII. 91 a7r\Xo'at co'CSf ea7rrTol/av, Oavovr A9 7ratoC /aXo Tj7 o SvfaCoLov 7rpoa'hw). Xpvarv eV`ovraL, 7rIElOV 3' fTepoL a7repavTolv' ey a3 ao7 o80v Keca XOov 7ryvla caXv4fraLf/', 65 alveov avi7ra, /o/^4dV ' errarTreipwvy aXtrpoS. 'ArT. 7'. 40 aaperac 3S apera, XXwpa9 eepo'awt ( re STE vpeov aa creEp ev cooos advSpov asepfeire eov J icatotg re 7rpo? vrypov 70 ' which doth violence to the illustrious, but sets up a rotten notoriety of the obscure.' Lit. avreivet oaOpSv = rears on a rotten foundation. 36. a7rrroi/zap.] For the dat. of something realised cf. Pyth. vIII. 6'0, uLavirevctrwcu eta&Caro cvTyyVOLol rdvats, 01. I. 86, ic4laaro gireoft; for the genitive of something not actually realised cf. Nem. ix. 47, 01. ix. 12, o'rot xauatrereftWov XSyov f4tateat, where the meaning is the same in other respects as in 01. x. 86, L. and S. notwithstanding, while in Pyth. vIrI. 60 the verb means precisely the same as 01. i. 86, i.e. make use of.' In Nem. ix. 47 the meaning is 'attain,' here it is 'keep to.' Cf. aXov, 'I got,' Xw?, 'I keep.' The word illustrates the relation of Xpao/Lat, use, to the V of xeip and Xpdw, xpacLv, Xpaivw, graze. For metaphor of. 01. i. 115, Nem. i. 25, ix. 47. K\XOS o 'j rH 6 6rTO paovP.] A reputation-not that disgraceful one.' The -r refers back to rwv dctadvrsv saapopv Kv^os. 37. eVzoYvTa.] For suppression of ol puv cf. II. xxII. 157, T7 pa xrapaspa.drg'v, Sbeb-ywv o6 ' ortcr8e 3tbKsvc, Eur. Iph. Taur. 1350, KOVToiZs e nrppav etXov' ol 3' oerWrirwv' uyXvpav ieavi7rrov. For sentiment of. Frag. [206] 242. 38. ey?5,.r..X. ' But for me, may I even till death prove a favourite with my fellow-citizens for praising the praiseworthy and scattering censure on wrongdoers.' The aorist participle dcriu = 'as an established favourite'; or is it the participle of the gn6mic aorist? of. Nem. i. 62, vii. 3. With many misgivings I have not adopted Shilleto's explanation given on Thuk. i. 90 ~ 3, 3paiaavrs Tt Ka2 Kvauve1'Cai, 'do something if they must risk their lives'-in effect, 'may I please..., if I die for it.' He compares Aesch. Choeph. 438, 97retr' eyd Yocrqio'a 6c dXoLctar, Soph. El. 1079. Here, however, the idea of death is not involved in that of pleasing. 40. XXwpas.] Cf. 0. and P. p. xxxv, Frag. 99 [87], note, agero.] MSS. iato l et I oroiZ. The text is Bockh's. 41. ' When exalted to the elastic air of heaven among men who love song and justice. Many are the uses of friends. Most important is help in regard to toilsome achievements. While the delight (of success and rest) seeks to get evidence set before men's eyes? I.e. in the first flush of triumph men long for perpetual commemoration of their exploits. Though substantial help is most important

Page  92 92 PINDARI CARMINA. aitlepa. Xpelat 8e TravroLat s\xewv a8piv' ra a, Fev a/ dpi 7rvo's t7reporTara',Laar-evEt, Se cal repsv eJv "ti aal O&eOab i7rrzLt. (3 Meya TO 8 avr? Treav grvXav Koyl/aL 75 'ETr. 7. 45 o/ pot 8vvaror' lceveav 8 ' eXri&ov xavvov T7Xo' ore- e 7rawrpa XaptaSaa9 re X4J3pov vprepea'a XlOov Moo-aZov O '/cKar roSwEv evvV/) V 'U v 80 S? ri S8vowv. Xaipw oe r po'cropov ev eIEv ep7) /co/ovo te9, 7raoacS 6S' d8vjp 50' vSvvov Kcai TtL' c/tJIarTov jiceV ^v 7y paLDv erLtKwtoc vl Vo9 85 8q 7rwXact cat 7rpiv fyevacrOat rav 'A8pda'rov 'rv re Ka~8elov Cptv. as leading to success, yet success cannot be enjoyed unless one gets lasting credit for merit by confirmation or proof of song. Dissen cites 01. x. 5, tcEXy6pve 6us vo I |arepwv appXal Xo-ycv rdXXerat Kal r rrrO v OpKLov serydiXats dperais, Ovid, Ex Pont. i. 5, 32, sumque fides hijus maxima vocis ego. 45. Cf. Pyth. ii. 61, Xauv^ rpavi' 7rakaqtovel tered. 46. Xaptadoas re.] Dissen thinks that the pparpia of the Chariadae included the 7rdrpa of Deinis; but perhaps re is explanatory as in Aesch. Ag. 10, 210,1503, Eum. 107. Xdqpov.] Cookesley would read r' iXaLpov =' it is easy,' comparing Nem. vii. 77. Schneider proposed Xanzrp6v. I think the text should be kept. Here as elsewhere Pindar may have recorded a rare meaning akin to which is that of Xbpeos, 'neck,' being secondary. Cf. the use of 0o6s, Frag. 139, rrrivavres 0odv K\XtaK1' es obpavbv aClr6v. 47. (I can) uprear a lofty stele of song on behalf of the twice illustrious feet of two men. Cf. supra, v. 16. 49. ev ~p7.] ' On the occasion of an exploit.' 50. Kai Tr.] For the position of re cf. Pyth. r. 52. The poet is meant; his ode is a proper expression of triumph, while at the same time it is a spell to soothe physical pain. For sentiment of. Nem. iv. 4. OiKcv.] Gn6mic aorist. ye Adv.] 'Nevertheless,' i. e. this is no new thing, for though detraction existed in olden time (v. 32) there also existed the antidote of laudatory poetry even before the foundation of the Nemean games by Adrastos when his host set out against Thebes. There is a double opposition: the antiquity of his art opposed to present effort of the poet, and the beneficent art itself opposed to coeval detraction. 51. 6.] ' Already'= 61.

Page  93 NEMEA IX. ON THE VICTORY OF CHROMIOS OF AETNA WITH THE FOUR-HORSE CHARIOT IN THE PYTHIA AT SIKYON. INTRODUCTION. FoR Chromios see Introduction to NTem. i. In this victory Chromios won a crown (vv. 52, 53) and silver bowls (v. 51). The ode was composed some time after the victory (v. 52) soon after the founding of Aetna, i.e. B. c. 474 or 472 (v. 2). As Pindar seems to have been present the latter date is preferable. The rhythm is Dorian and the ode is processional, accompanied both by lyre and flute (v. 8). ANALYSIS. My. 1-5. Invocation to the muses to inspire the chorus to celebrate Chromios' victory in games sacred to Let8 and her children. 6, 7. Let not a deed of prowess sink into oblivion. 8, 9. Strike up with lyre and flute in honour of the games instituted by Adrastos. 9-27. Myth of the Seven against Thebes concluding with the flight and engulfing of Amphiaraos. 28-32. Prayer that Zeus may grant lasting peace, civil order and glory in games to the Aetnaeans.

Page  94 94 PINDARI CARMINA. W. 32-34. They are fond of horses and, strange to say, are above considerations of gain or economy in their ambition. 34-39. Chromni is a mighty warrior such as few besides. 39-43. As Hekt6r by Skamandros, so Chromios by Hel6ros got glory, and elsewhere too by land and sea. 44. He has earned a peaceful old age. 45-47. He has been blessed with riches and honour. 48, 49. The banquet loves peace; fresh victory is enhanced by song, which is inspired by the bowl. 50-53. Let the prize bowls be filled with wine. 53-end. Zeus is invoked to note the excellence of the poet's minstrelsy. 7p. a. KcoLL&aofMLev Trap' 'AVroAXXvoo EIcvoeoO, Moo'as, Trav VEOICTriraV CE AlTvav, epBv avarrerrTa/Levat ietvwv vevItcap-rat Ovpat, 5 tX30ov e? Xpoplov 8a)/p'. CXX' 6rewov 7\Xvcv v/tvov 7rpao'FTerat. To Icpar-t7jt7r7ov p yap E~ aps p ayala/vwpv FarTep Kcal tSv;LOLe vrai&Seaav avSav tuavv'e I1 1. Kw/acioo(Tote.] For the future tense referring to the time of recitation of. Pyth. ix. 89, xi. 10. Bckh and others make this and o'po/Etev conjunctives, Don. on v. 43 deliberative futures, a needless distinction. 2. ava7rerrTagevat. ] 'Flung back.' ~elvwv.] For the gen. cf. Soph. Aiax, 1353, KpaTre? rot rTo v (ptXwv vLK/JCevos, Eur. Med. 315, o7pyqSotFe~oOa, tcpea'ravtv vLKc/6evot, Madv. ~64. For the hospitality of Aetna cf. Pyth. i. 38; of Chromios cf. Nem. I. 19-25. The Schol. on Aristoph. Acharn. 127, rovcrae evtiLetv ouderor' 'oXeit y' - 0vpa, has come down to us with the strange misquotation of this passage —v&' apa rrerTra4 -vawv teIvwv veiev Trav 0ipawv. 3. rpactcrerat.] Cf. 01. II. 7 for the phrase, in which the ode is regarded as a debt. The majority of Mss. and editors read 7rpcoi'oere, but it is not easy to see who is meant, as the Muses do not claim songs but inspire, and so forth. For the addition of eirnwv cf. infra, v. 7, and Nem. vii. 16. The d\X' favours the reading irpio-eTrac. The chorus must discharge their obligation of minstrelsy before partaking of Chromios' hospitality. 4. Kpar-j't7rrov.] 'Team-vanquishing,' according to analogy probably, but cf. Pyth. ix. 86. =ardpt, K., X.] In honour of

Page  95 NEMEA IX. 95 5 lOTlvuvo alvWtriF buoicaXadpoLs e7rrtrra. %a^ X al crTLya XVcaXviraL Oecvrrecrta ' rewov Kcavavt aoEta 7rpo'o-opo9. 15 aXX' avac tev /poulav 06oplyt7', dva S' aviXov d7r' avTav opaolbev i7rrrlwv d6Xoov K~opvcar, ae o Dol3) Olcevp "A8paro-To er1' 'Acraoro peefpoLS' dov eye 20 Io0 vao-Oe( ' e'rafcQo KcX\vraaS qpcwa rvtattl,:rp. 7. Os TOrTe /Lyv 3aarXeveov fceLOL vEaoil' eopTavS 25 l'FXVOr T dlvSpcov a' iXXas ap,'aal re 'yXaQfvpovs da,atvJe cvzaivwv 7roXtv. Leto and Apollo and Artemis. Cf. Pyth. iv. 3. ftavtet au5dv.] 'He gives the signal for a strain.' The seeming interpretation of avoav by the Schol., ro OaWuaeao-e0at, may have been due to a false reading d-yav or to a true rraidoeaa' dTyaOal. Anyhow the meaning of /avJeL is singular. 6. For sentiment cf. Pyth. ix. 93-96, Frag. 98 [86]. rererec/ePvov, K.T.X.] 'Hide not by silence in abasement the achievement of a deed of prowess.' For the infinitive clause cf. Pyth. ii. 24. For the participle cf. 01. ix. 103, Isth. vii. 12, Nem. vi. 2. ErX6v.] Used in this sense Nem. v. 47, and almost = 'victories,' ' prizes,' Pyth. vm. 73. Cf. the poet's use of aperXr, Nem. v. 53. 7. 7rewov.] Prof. Paley rightly takes this gen. after docid; otherwise we have a vapid truism. KaVXacis rpdrq5opos.] 'Is well adapted for loud acclaim.' Cf. 01. ix. 38, and for sentiment 01. xi. 91 —96. nSS. give Kaixas, which Mommsen reads. The genitive KavXas might be like avd&yKase, Nem. viII. 3, and qualify &7refwv dodci, but 7rporpopos without a dative is awkward. Kayser, Rauchenstein and von Leutsch alter e7rewv, which it is true may have come from v. 3 and is not wanted. I would suggest Oea'Treoa'i. ' epfw KauXas aidota 7rp6ocpopoS, 'But I will utter loud praises meet for divine minstrelsy.' 8. diX'.] Resumptive, going back to vv. 4, 5. Cf. 01. iv. 6. ppoiazv.] 'Pealing' (Myers). Cf. Nern. xi. 8, Xvpa 8 cpL f3ppi era Kal dodac. The root p/pe/L properly denotes deep sound or great body of sound. Ir' avre v I. C. KopvpC4dv.] 'For the very prime of contests with horses.' The phrase refers to four-horse chariot races generally. 9. 'Aworrou.] For this stream, which flowed on the east of Siky6n, cf. Nem. iII. 4. 12. aipeaet.] Bickh and Dissen take this dative as dependent on &uiXats, comparing 01. v. 6. Cf. also Pyth. vi. 17. yXaqpvpo?..] 'Carved.' B3ckh. ducpaLve tKvsacivwv. Both these

Page  96 96~ PINDARI CARMINA. 46irye rya'p 'AuCludpn6v me Opaav/ j8Ea xal 8etva'v arcraoav 30 arvpwwv oKlcwv crw6 TF "A pryeo9 a'pxA.3' ovibc &'' kaav TaXaoi 'Yrvat3E9, /taa-Ovrev \vqa. IS cpcuaov & xaw7rav 'c ciKav i-dy 'irp6aocv dvp. 35 Zrp. 3'. Jv.po&4jtavrr' 'Epuiv'Xav, 2pct0ov a0 fire OTror6v, 06'VTES ObAcXei&' ryvvabKa, words are elsewhere (Pyth. ix. 73, 01. xi. 66) used of victors; but here of the dywvo06lr- Adrastos, who conferred distinction upon Sikytn, the city whither he fled from Argos when expelled by Amphiaraos' faction, by instituting sacred games there. Pindar ignores the fact that Kleisthenes had suppressed Adrastos' games and substituted the Pythia in which Chromios gained his victory. 13. 0eiye.] 'Had fled.' Lit. 'was in flight from.' 14. TaXaoD wai&s.] Adrastos and his brothers Parthenopacos, Pronax, Mdkisteus and Aristomachos; these were descendants of Bias, Amphiarflos of Melampus, Kapaneus of Proetos. hVg.] Cf. Hdsych. NVae crdars. Meaning at first, no doubt, not faction generally, but a struggle for deliverance from oligarchy or monarchy. 15. Kp~oaau'.] 'Of superior intelligence.' Cf. Xen. Meem. r. ch.ii. ~~ 16 and 47, and perhaps Pyth. v. 102, Kp&Torvra exlJV iKLaau I voie Vitp)3eat. A Schol. interprets Kpelocawe qjveis rl oU-vYe-rcrepeS. Kr7T7raVe(.] For KacarrXret. For the assimilation cf. 01. viiT. 38. nKa-t.] 'Quarrel' generally. The whole line is a gnbm6, condemning protracted litigation and here applied metaphorically. I have fol ~avOolcoAa'v zavacav &raav 40 lowed most editors; as it seems to me that this line must refer to what follows on account of the asyndeton (or r') in the next line and the fact that alers refers to the same subject as gare-0Sercs. There is however a difficulty about -rae wpirOee, which one Schol., Thiersch and Mezger avoid by explaining 'For a stronger man putteth an end to the former right (of sovereignty)'; i.e. might goes before right. But it does not seem to be the poet's cue to suggest that Amphiargos was a better man than Adrastos; while -a'- 7s-plO-E quite applies to the quarrel in question, which was of long standing at the time of the reconciliation, and of which the acutest part was at its beginning. The shade-of meaning given to n-K?7 again is at least unusual: and lastly-why should Pindar say 'might is right' just before telling of a compromise by which the former right was recovered? 16. iss. give dea3po4sre 9r' and deYpcv-dLeC -r. Pindar uses the epithet in reference to her bringing about Amphiardos' death. en tire.] Cf. 01. vi. 2. 17. Oin-KXEG.] Amphiargos. e're;fS er;'a.] 'It was after they had given...that they-were.' 65, ri t;'.] The mss. have here a lacuna. Bdekh got the text from

Page  97 NEMEA IX. 97 cal 7TOT EI e7rra7rvXouv r/ 3a2 ayayov acparTv cdSpov aw-'tav ov Kcar opviXwv o6o ouVe Kpovitv& aTrepo7rav eXeXiVaLs o'lKoOev, tapyovUlevov9 45 20 o7'yeiXLp e7Trw7pvv, aXXa ficatsa ^ ice\Xev0ov. Erp. e'. iatLvo/,evav S' ap' e? aav '77retSev Otz/JIXO I[ceocOat 50 XaX/Cov '6wXoTora-iv T7rrELOLS' T~E 0VV C ITWEU 'ICrl.rtl1OV 8' 677r' o'YXOaaf ryXv/ voo'ov epetoarJievot XevKcavOe(a owpar e7TrlaVav Kcarvov' 55 E7TTa yap aicyavJTO 7vvpOl veoyvtov9 U (bwa 6 (37S' 'A0 )Atap,, 7ra t a/ 25 ZeCv' TOP /3av aTpvorpov %ova, Kcpvfrev 8' a1,3' 'wTrot,0, 6o TErp. c. ovpUL IIp6cvp/XLevov 7rptv VwT v a TV7'V7T /aXacrdv 0v1.ov alcrXvvO0)t/Lev. ev yap $atofLvioiaOot pb3oto (eVyo7VTt Kcal 7rai3Ses gerv. 65 the VreUCOev 3d of the Schol.; literally ' In consequence of just this.' 18. Cf. Aesch. Ag. 104-119 (P.), esp. 104, otiov KpaTros aci'ot, Aesch. Eumn. 740, rrapopvtdas dboos. Note that aio a v pvsXowv is a genitive of quality after o3Sv. 21. Cf. Archil. Frag. 98 [65], (PaIvoLevov KLaKOV Ofca3 a' dyeO0at. 22. avv.] For position cf. Pyth. I. 59, Nem. x. 38. 23. fperad/4ePoi.] ]3ickh and others read epvocoa-tevot, 'having stayed delightsome return.' Cf. Od. xxII. 244; but the phrase is not quite parallel, 'Hc3 p la-T'. So too in Isth. vii. 53 the object of bPVvro, 'were wont to check,' is a person. The text is unsatisfactory. -iss. give epvcudfevot and epetocrauevot. Mommsen reads the latter. Hartung alters to darovupdcevot (cf. Hes. Scut. Herc. 173), Benedict to oXe-crad-'coi. F. II. Rauchenstein proposes diroTd^aevot or avavvo/evoi. I suggest airetarci fevo as nearer to the is. reading, if epeteaievot ('having set fast on IsmCnos' banks delightsome return') is to be disturbed. It is supported by the Schol., avuToS Trij 0'iKOt dvaKOzLBIv aTreOepo. 23. XevKav0a Oc yar'. ] 'As pale corpses.' Old Iss. give a-icAaet (v) criavav; some editors read ^UaScr rtLvav, taking XevKavOea 'whitewreathing' with Kacvnv. As white myrtle was sacred to the dead (Isth. III. 88) Xeuvav0tda may mean 'decked with myrtle.' The text is Bickh's. 24. 8aieravro.] Carries on the metaphor of c'rlavav. 'A/citapp. ] The nom. and ace. of this name in Pindar end in -pq1os, -preov. This dative is from a contracted form in -p-; which changes its declension by apatiogy...

Page  98 98 PINDARI CARMINA. el SvvaTov, Kpovwov, 7relpav jLtev dylvopa:otvucoeaeer ToaxTov araaXoua CyXeva rcLravv Oavdrov repat cal w dva/3O'XXoat jv wrodparoCTaa, jFoLpav 8' elUolpov 70 30 atireo ee 7raterlv 8apov Alrvaiev ow7ra'ev,:~rp.~ '. ZeD wrarep, 'yXa'" ' azv 8'acrTuvofto f7r etrtfa Xadv. evi rot tiXtrroL T'' avtrotf Kat cTreavcv fvUxa? eov79 icKpecrovac 75 avrpeq. aTrOrTov ee7r' at8Sw ryp v7ro pv fta Cepf8e K\6e7rTrTa/, epe, c o a fopec 80oav. XpopCIo KEV vwracrTrlcwv r apa 74reo3oa?- t7rTroL? Te vaNw T7 iv ptatxatl 8 35 e1cptva9 Av XcIv1vvov oetla9 av'rac, Zrp. y'. ov~e/eV eV 7vroXe/ ( E IietiLa e ' rvTv avrTO 85 Ovlw6v alXyarav dfvev Xo0 c ev 'EvvaXiov. travpot se /SovXcUVCuat 4Xvov 28. 'If it be possible, son of Kronos, I am for putting off as long as possible the talked-of gallant struggle for life and death with the host of Carthaginian spearmen.' For cvaaciXXkoAa cf. 01. I. 80, uaapacXeratc yptov Ovya7p6s. 30. 7rdiet^v.] Cf. Nem. iii. 9. 31. dkYaiatftv.] ' Celebrations of victories.' Cf. 01. xIm. 15 note, Pyth. vi. 46, Nem. I. 13. arirrwovdts.] Lit. 'In the city' (cf.aOypvog/os, ' rural') i.e. 'enjoyed by the citizens,' generally rendered'public.' Dissen renders dayX. dcr. 'decora ludicra (01. ix. 99) quae ad urbem pertineant.' Iprefer the more usual sense of cyXat'a, as it involves a commoner meaning of acTrrUvoos than the other, and compare Isth. v. 69, 01. vII. 21, xi. 11. It is not necessary to assume that te,*ictor gave a public feast, but!! '!~.:::. the festivities in commemoration of a victory would be general. ert'ctia.] Cf. 01. i. 22, 91. 32. KCreavwv, K.r.X.] 'With souls too lofty to grudge their hoards.' Cf. Pyth. viii. 92, tXwv Kp^ro'aova irXeoVTrov jipcptgvav. 33. atiws, K.T.X.] 'Due love of honour (cf. 01. vii. 44) which bringeth renown is stealthily sapped by greed.' Mss. give vTdrKpvcu, but the Schol. suggests by v7roKXerrrerat that there is a tmesis of the preposition. 35. 'You might have formed an idea of the danger of keen fight;' because Chromios was ever in the thickest of the fray. For Kev-a-v cf. Goodwin ~ 42, 3 with notes 1, 3. 36. Ketiva Oe6s.] AI'gs, who is personified by Iesiod, tF. and D., 199. 37. Perhaps the similarity of

Page  99 NEMEA IX. 99 -77ap'Trlov veJe~Xav TpeBataL 7ro-rT& 8voJpEpvov dv'ppwv o7TLc9s 90 xepcKtt Icat 'ryjv wvva-roe XyE-rat yapI '1EKTopL /JPEV KXEoS dvaoiaat $cc/1a&v3pov xevlt_4aotv 40oaryXo, /atvxp4/ixoo0-t 3' apfo alcrratts 'EXr)pov, 95:'rp. 0'. E[VO' 'Apelca '7ro'pov 'OpvoTlrot k1aXJOwtGt,.OopieEV 7raL& TOV T-r T 'Ayiqo-trov Oeyryo~ ev aXLIct'a 7rpcvTa{' 'i-a ' ~ XXav? adeupavs TOO phrase to aaxaravJ Oveov, vv. 26, 27, is intended to mark the contrast between Amphiaraos' lot and Chromios'. 38. 7rapwroltov.] 'Imminent.' Cf. Pyth. IIr. 60. vefedXav.] 'Storm-cloud.' For the metaphor cf. Isth. vI. 27, Iv. 49, 50, in. 35, Verg. Aen. ix. 667, pugna aspPra surgit: quantus ab occasu ueniens, pluuialibus Haedis, I uerberat imber humum; quam multa grandine nimbi | in uada praecipitant, quam Iupiter horridus austris I torquet aquosam hiemem; et coelo caua nubila rumpit. 39. Kaos daic-a.}] For the phrase cf. Pyth. i. 66. 40. See Introduction. 41. 'Apeias.] Sc. -rryiY's or Kpvyrs; cf. Kp6rvov (X6;bov), 01. I. 111. The Schol. gives a variant i'0a 'Peiag. For the compendious construction for ' where is the ford which men name from Ar6s' spring,' cf. II. xi. 757, Ka 'AXetLaov Ev6a KcoMXv i KdKXT-'rat, Soph. Trach. 638, ev0' 'Eh\dvwv cdyopal TIvXarTSes KaXelvrat, (Ed. Rex, 1451, evOa KXreTrat i ou/os KItOatp&v oros, o' K.T.X., Eur. Ion, 11-13, Isth. v. 47. Mr Postgate takes 'Apedas as ace. plur,, supplying aK-r&- from above, as he does not see why a ford should be named from a spring. The alteration iv0a 'Peias (Peas) has been suggested by Beck, Hartung and Bergk, 'Pieas 7ropov meaning 'I6vtov iopov (Nem. iv. 53). Cf. Aesch. P. V. 837 (856, P.),.far irprs plyav KO\N6TOv 'PIas...... Xpo 5e r7bov /XXovora 7rOvrTOS JuVXO...... 'lovos KeKXaj-erat. It is, however, open to question whether iropov would be used of the sea when a river had just been mentioned, and whether it would apply to the open sea off the Heloros. Western Krete lay at the entrance to the Ionian sea from the Archipelago, and so the Krdtan cult of Rhea probably gave rise to the old name recorded by Aeschylos. &edopKev.] Cf. 01. i. 94, 'shone forth and still shines.' This perfect is like XeXo-yXv, 01. I. 53. 42. rouro.] 'Such.' Cf. 01. Iv. 24. ev aXtKca 7rpcira.] ' In his earliest prime;' i.e. when first he became distinguished. B1ckh and others render wrongly 'in his first youth.' The battle of Hel6ros (Herod. vii. 154) was fought at least before B.c. 491, when Hippokrat6s the victor died, but at the date of this ode Chromios was probably more than forty years of age, for from v. 44 we might gather that his old age was not very distant, as indeed from the general tone of both the odes to Chromios. ra 6'.] Perhaps ef. Nem..I. 17.::*.:* t.-i-:'

Page  100 100 100 ~PINDARI CARMINA. 7FOX~h /~LEV v i covia Xepot T a CE 7EITOZJ WrOVT&o a roli/at. 43. Cf. 01. xii. 6, 7r6?'X' aew.. ra 6' ai5 KairW. Render, ' And his honours won at other times, many mid the dry land's dust, others again on the neighbonring sea, wvill Ii proclaim.' The idea to be supplied with the neut. plur. pron. must surely be suggested by KN&9 avdijacr (V. 39), &iOPKceV TOVroOEQy,yos (vv. 41, 42). Dissen understands 7rpaX64Vra or irpaX6-~va and coprsAristoph. Ban. 281, &I' OVT0S 0 rerer ECTTLV, 0o) T& O7ptce TM &elv' OaGaK CeKeu'e, where an infinitive verb is obviously suppressed, or at least a participle. But I venture to say ocauogat can take an accusative like Kesiva KEO'Oi liP d70o 9p-ya, 01. viii. 62, /A?7'6 aiywi'a qOlpTEpOi aui56cc/LEe, 01. I. 7, Ta& 5' auiTbg * a" TL* T-'X-q, A~reral TLS iUaUTei EiSOxci Tare q5cio~ae, Nem. iv. 91. KOefIg.] L. and S. gives this as an adj. under KO'etos, a subs. under X~PG-og. I1 prefer the latter view. 'yelrop 7r6erc,.] The sea off Cumae. For the battle cf. Pyth. i. 71-75. O~a-oluat.] Pindar also uses the middle forms y/xiro, Ocio-Oat, which may in all five instances he well rendered 'in the second and more definite sense of tO-qui, to affirm, declare, &c.' (Don.). lie uses Obapizvy, Isth. v. 49, of the utterance of a wish. This OUbcbo/Lut then has a different shade of meaning from p6XTW, and has no proper connection with the following theory which Don. propounds in this place. ' Pindar uses a middle form for the future of active verbs signifying "Ito utter a sound -;" as aWL cej~ai feP6iaoV X6-yoe, " I will solemnly swear," 01. II. 92: KEXaZS'qv6/LeOa ilpoe-rcie, " we wvili sing of the thunder, " 01. xi. 79: KcWJJc'&(-oaL, "1I.~i]J raise the comus-song," P. ix. 89: and here 4>Wogatc, "1 will affirm." In all these cases of fuiture assertions he uses the middle form of this tense, for the reason which I have given in the passages above referred to-namely, because xvhen we speak of something which will make an impression upon our senses or feelings, or, in general, befall us, as future, we consider ourselves as merely the object of these outward impressions or accidents; but when we speak of their present effect we consider ourselves as an agent or inchoative in respect to them. If, however, we -use the future in a deliberate or prohibitory sense, the idea of agency is not lost; and thus we find that Pindar not merely writes V'&oloaoee, "I will speak" (01. ii. 92), but also Aui7 amidcro/Le, "let us not speak" (01. i. 7); and not only KW/Lcgoouai, "1I will raise the comussong (P. ix. 89), but also KW~a'/LcuTAct,, "Ilet us sing the comus-song " (supra, v. 1). Similarly, although Maoiio/at is the regular Attic future of j~oaic, we have in Aeschyl. Pers. 640: iraieraiXau" SiXn atace/ao6~w; 'lamn I to go on proclaiming my woes?9" Nowv ad'6ioe/Aat, 01. xI. 92, is distinctly reflexive, as the -utterance of an oath binds the utterer. Ke~ka54o-oie~a. is neutralized by KeXaVo~w, 01. x. [xi.] 14. Don. should refer K(O 'a-o/u~at to his KW/Lci~ouat, Isth. inI. 90. This mid. is used cansatively, I I cause to be celebrated in (or ' by') a k~mos,' only used in the first person sing. in reference to the poet. Cf. also Nem. xII. 12, 27, vi. 26. Perhaps KeCol&., 01. XI. 79, is causative. Thus there ii no instance in Pindar to which Dr Donaldson's ingenious explanation of middle futures to active verbs will fairly apply.

Page  101 NEMEA IX. 101 eC TVOV(WV 0, oF' TVV veoTarL tyevcovTabt 0V1 Te 8iKfa, TvXE\et rpps? yppas alwv adiLkpa. 105 45 'T7ro aXopv 7rtpD 8at Ldvov OavfJctaro'v O\/3ov. ZTp. t. el yap aaa xr eavoS vro\XX\o? e7ri-Ao4ov "pp-ral I1 Cv(os0, Ovcer' e'Tt 7ropocW Oval Ero'v 't co7rtas aXX\\a &f!irac0Oat 7ro(oov. adrvxa 6e (i\el JeLV CrvLTVrdOoo veoOaXhr 8' av`!eTat 115 taXOaKca vLfcajopt'a oav doL3S' OaporaXea 8e?rapd cpaTr7pa pcova yIverat. 50 EYKLpVU7TO T71 aLv, /Xr\VCVV KfC ov 7rpoV0b7rav, 120 r7p. ta'. apyvpeato- 8se vwpcOaroc ftuXatac /3tarav da/re7Xov 7raT8', a wroO' a7trOL icTr/7&EYLa Xpo't,~7rO t'7r7rot KT'I~o'a/xeva X to/t 7r~rav Oe/LrefCTroL fUa 125 44. elc 7r6ywv reXEOet.] ' Is the natural outcome of toil.' ot' ye'v^rat.] See Goodwin, ~ 63. ve6rar,.] The classical youth includes our middle age. Pindar speaks, Pyth. ii. 63, of Hiero's veoras in connection with the battle of Himera (B.c. 480) and yet of his povXacl rpeafi6repat, though the date of the ode is B.c. 477. ad/pa.] For altwv fem. cf. Pyth. iv. 186. 45. t'arTr XaXcOv.] Cf. 01. VI. 8, Nem. xi. 15, Isth. I. 68, vi. 27. 46. For sentiment cf. Pyth. i. 99, Nem. I. 32, Isth. i. 50. 47. For metaphor cf. 01. i. 115, Nem. i. 25, vm. 36, Isth. iv. 23. For 9rt cf. Eur. AMed. 1077. 48. a6derca.] Cf. Pyth. x. 10. Render, 'a victor's honour (the status of a vziKicq56pos) putteth forth fresh blossoms by aid of soothing minstrelsy.' For metaphor cf.Nem. vIII. 40. 50. e'yKpvroaTJ Lt3.] For constr. cf. e'yXv KprTpa, Soph. Frag. 149, ' To mix into the cup'= to pour in and mix. Cf. Isth. iv. 25. rpociarav.j] The bowl is the interpreter of the Ks/AOS because it adds vigour to the performers and stimulates the faculties of the audience, raising both nearer to the level of the poet's inspired genius. It would appear that another ode was to be sung at or after the feast. The Schol. indicates a variant Trporyrprjv, which does not scan. 51. Cf. Nem. x. 43. Silver cups were also prizes at Marathon, cf. 01. ix. 90. Probably the wreath was universally given as a symbol of victory in games. 52. a,t7reAov nra5'.] ' The masterful child of the vine.' Conversely (Aesch. Persac, 616), adKxparov re zjrpos dwyptis tiro l 7rOTOr, 7raXatds &urdAou y'avos Tr6e. In the Schol. the quotation from Nem. v. 6, yaTep' olvcvObs 67rSapav is misplaced and put under v. 48. It appears

Page  102 102 102 ~PINDARI[ CARMINA. ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ V7T'ep 77TOX'X(O' TE Tt/a/\po A0WMt9 130 55 vbcav, a'IKOVTL60V OKOW-OV a~y~tro-a Mot c-ar'. that Chromios did not himself attend these games. Oq~ttwXK-r~ts.] I prefer the interpretation of one Schol. Vojdp11eWS Ktal,ca6'OK'ovw 7sr-Xe-yjtfi'os, 'twined with clue ceremonial' to 'fairlytwined,' ' twined in justice to him,' i.e. ' fairly wona.' For crowns won hy horses cf. 01. ii. 50, vi. 20, Pyth. iri. 73, 74. But the plural is used for the victor's crown for a single 53. LEpas.jI The Schol. refers this,epithet to the partition of the victims between gods and men at Mdk~nA close to Siky6n. Cf. Hes. Tlzeog. 535, hut the fact of Pythian games being held there is perhaps sufficient ground for the attribute. 54. ed"Xquat.] II pray.' Paley II flatter myself.' aiperaY.1 ' Glory (in games);' cf. Istli. i. 41, iv. 17. ode Xa~pItfeo-ut] For the association of the Graces with Epinikian poetry and with Pythia cf. Pyth. vr. 2, Nemn. x. 1. For -o-at crils ef. Isth. iis. 17. v73-~p iro\XXV, K.'r.Xk.] 'And that more than many (bards) I may make victory of great account hy my verses. ' Notice the aorist KeXca6iorat referring the poet's celebration of the particular achievement, the present 7-t~ta\Nbe~ referring to his general habit. For inf. cf. Goodw. ~ 23, 2 note 2. A Schol. gives an unhappy v. 1. nrohXdv... WK'EVi which Christ gives as his own emendation. For i'ri-p wro\\5v cf. Isth. ii. 30. 55. dIKOVr-w] For the hurling of the javelin, one of the contests of the qxsinqnertium, cf. 01. xiix. 93, Pyth. i. 44. Foc the metaphor cf. 01. r. 112. KoWOroi.] Mas. give O-Koi-oD, hut cf. Pyth. xi. 41 (where I find Christ had anticipated my suggestion of pao~o~to), 01. xxii. 35, i-7arpi's Ui Oco-o-aXot' ix-''AX~e'ov jieOpoio-iv aryXa 70oKiV cu'ctKEITat, Isth. i. 16.

Page  103 [ NEMEA X. ] ON TWO VICTORIES OF THEIAEOS OF ARGOS IN THE WRESTLING MATCH (IN THE HEKATOMBAEA AT ARGOS). INTRODUCTION. THIS fine ode is proved by vv. 22, 23 and the thrice-repeated mention of Hera to be composed for an anniversary of the Hekatombaea at Argos, in which Theiaeos son of Ulias of Argos had won the wrestling match twice. He had also won thrice at Nemea, thrice at the Isthmos, once at Pytho, but not yet at Olympia. Dissen argues from Amphitryon being called an Argive that the date falls after the destruction of Mykenae by the Argives, Kle6naeans and Tegeaeans B.c. 468; he also fixes the later limit, B.C. 458, by the consideration that Argos joined in an invasion of Boe6tia in that year, after which Pindar would hardly compose an ode for an Argive. It is probable from vv. 29-36 that an Olympian contest was at hand, that is that the date was either B.c. 464 or 460, as Mykenae was probably not taken till late in the year and the poet would hardly be likely to transfer the myths of Mykenae to Argos immediately after the destruction of the former. For such transference in the Tragedians cf. Aesch. Ag. 24, Porson on Eur. Heracl. 188 (Elmsley and Barnes). The confusion was made easy by the larger meaning of Argos= Argolis (see on v. 42). As one of the victor's ancestors claimed intimate connexion, as their host, with the Dioskuroi (vv. 49, 50), and as these deities were patrons of athletic games, and as the poet has given the most beautiful episode of their legend, we need not suppose that the myth

Page  104 104 PINDARI CARMINA. has reference to the victor any more than is the case with the allusion at the end of Pyth. xi. Perhaps from the relation of the favour with which Zeus entertained Polydeukds' entreaty, Theiaeos might deduce encouragement as to the result of his own prayer v. 30; but I think Mezger refines a little too much in suggesting that the implication is that the Dioskuroi will intercede without stint for the mortal Theiaeos, even as Polydeukes gave up half his life as a god in intercession for his mortal brother Kast6r. The poet may possibly imply that as a friend of the Dioskuroi he has a second claim on the favour of Zeus, who is introduced in three important passages, vv. 11 ff., 29 ff., 75-end. The myth may incidentally contain a veiled allusion to the struggle between Sparta and the Helots in Messenia which began B.c. 664 and lasted beyond B.c. 460. Leopold Schmidt considers that the myth inculcates the trustworthiness and good faith of the breed of gods (vv. 54; 78, 79); but the trustiness of the latter passage is that of a mortal comrade, and there is little analogy between Polydeukes' self-sacrifice for his brother and his good faith as a divine patron. I think that either rravpot a' Eyv rrOv 7r,1roi tpordv refers back rather to the general sense than the particular application of OEfv rrrrovT yevos, and is in fact almost a false echo, or else that the recurrence of rlcrro- is a mere coincidence. It should be observed that Polydeukes distinctly avows a selfish grief at the loss of his brother, which is most pathetic and appropriate in a presentment of deep affection, but which would tend to mar an illustration of disinterested good faith. Mezger points out that vv. 37 f. form the middle point of the ode, referring the victories of the family to the Graces, who are invoked v. 1, and the Tyndaridae, who form the subject of the close of the ode. Polydeukes is vividly presented as the ideal exemplar of brotherly love, and it is hard to believe that the poet wished a beautiful picture to be blurred by any occult references to Theiaeos. Dissen sees that the exaltation of Polydeukes' brotherly love is the point of the myth, but gratuitously proceeds to infer that Theiaeos' unselfish brotherly love is indirectly celebrated. The poet implies, v. 54, that he is just; but beyond that no indication of his character can be traced. The rhythm is D6rian with a few Lydian measures.

Page  105 [ NEMEA X, ] 105 ANALYSIS. Mv. 1-3. Invocation of the Graces to land Hlra's Argos. 4-18. Mention of legendary worthies of Argos (see note on v. 12). 19, 20. The poet must refrain from reciting the blessings of Argos. 21-23. Still he calls on himself to turn his mind to wrestlings under the influence of the festival of the Heraea (Hekatombaea). 24-28. Enumeration of victories of Theiaeos. 29, 30. Invocation of Zeus to grant Theiaeos' prayer. 31-36. What it is, is well known. His Panathenaic victory is an omen that it will be answered. 37, 38. His successes are due to hereditary worth and to the favour of the Graces and the Dioskuroi. 39-48. Mention of victories of Theiaeos' maternal ancestors. 49-54. No wonder, since Pamphaes (a remote ancestor) entertained the Dioskuroi, the faithful patrons of games. 55-end. Myth of the death of Kastor and self-sacrifice of Polydeuk6s.:~T.a'. Lavaov wTO"XLv py Xao~povw TE T rEvTl'COTa Kcopal, Xacpt-res 1. ayXaoOpvwov.] So old nrss. Tricliniafn dyXaooiWKwv. For the meaning of the epithet cf. 01. II. 22, Pyth. Im. 94, Nem. iv. 65, from which last line we may gather that at Aegina the Nereids were represented enthroned. In Eur. Iph. in Aul. 239, golden statues of the Nereids stand on the sterns of the ships of Achilles. So also no doubt at Thebes and Argos were the local heroines thus sculptured in some public building. The Fates, Seasons, Nereids and Danaids would scarcely suggest this attribute without the intervention of plastic representation demanded by solemn cults. With the great deities the case is different. See Addenda. Xaptres.] For the Graces as patronesses of epinikian minstrelsy cf. 01. xIv. 12-14, Pyth. vi. 2, ix. 89, Nem. Ix. 54. The Seasons and the Graces had been sculptured by Polykleitos on the crown of his colossal statue of Hera in the Htraeon at Argos. This fact may have influenced the poet in

Page  106 106 PINDARI CARMINA. "Apyon "Hfpac? 3c'4.a OeowrpE7Trr t4?vc'7e' JVE7E 6 3 ape~rat'; pLptat9 16pywv Opace&ov veVKev. 5 /aKpa -LEV 7Ta flcpo-/og alb& Me3Otta' Fop7yvo' r i 7 woXX ~ 3' A'>Yt"rr,Ca7coLTEl acTrl Ta' 'Ew6Oov '7v-a uatv o43' CrwpC j Inra 7rapE i-XctyXOfl,, ltuov rabov E') KOXEew) KaTaoXotda q%9. IO his invocation, but it is rash to be positive on the point. 2. 8&/xa.] 'Home;' cf. Soph. Oe.R. 28, 29, ro\Xit...&5,ua KagS/ivo. The Argives constitute a family of which Hera is mistress and foundress. OXeyeraC.] For metaphor, cf. Pyth. v. 42, xi. 45, Isth. vi. 23. aperas.] Dat. of manner. 'Distinctions,' cf. 01. xiin. 15, Nem. vII. 51. 4. JiLaKpa.] One MS., MIedic. B., gives KaKpd, an interesting error; this vox nihili is corrected in the lemma of the same MS. to Ka.apa. In Isth. v. 56, avay7oraacrat is expressed with /LaKp6'. Cdtii.] 'The tale of Perseus with respect to the Gorgon Medusa.' There is no need to render ra IIpo-eos Persei res gestae, and to strain the force of the preposition to certamen circa Med. with Dissen. The myth of Perseus' birth makes it probable that the name is from the \/PARs, Skt. \/prish, 'sprinkle,' while Dana6, Danaos are connected with Danube, Don, 'river' or 'water,' not with avo's, 'burnt' fr. SaFavos or SaFvos. 5. MSS. ir. 8' At. KaraKti0aev d. T. 'E. 7r. Mommsen, r& KarKTrLev, Bockh -ra KaTrKiaev with the subject Argos understood as in vv. 10, 13. The latter alteration is the best, but I do not like to reject the Ms. passive form absolutely, as -LJK1faev might scan as 2 + - - =2 + 1 + 1. The plural a'-r7 is distributive, hence the passive verb would be plural. rcira'das.] Merely 'agency.' 6. 'Tirep/urrjTpa. ] Mommsen with the Vatican old MS. omits the v. Cf. Hor. Od. II. 11, 33, Aesch. P. V. 865, Ovid. Her. xiv, for the story. oSi...rape7rXdyXO37.] An emphatic meiosis; 'trod the path of honour.' For 7raperX. cf. 01. viT. 31, atl 3 qpevrv rapaXail 7rap'rhaayCav Kai caoOpdv, Pyth. II. 35, ev;al US irapdrpowoi s tKacorar' capoiav uahXov irorl Kacpo'v iLvr' (see Addenda to Vol. I.), Nem. i. 25, ev eeiatsi dSoi's a~relXovra. Aov6oafov.] So MSS. After the Schol. Vet. Mommsen -pos. The MSs. reading should be preferred as the less easy. For the transference of the attribute of the person to the instrument cf. the Homeric?qX\EL aXaKw^. Here the adjective should be taken adverbially. Cf. 01. vi. 8, 6aAL6vov r r6a, where again the attribution of the quality of the whole to the part is on a similar principle to the transference to the instrument. aararXoi-ra.] The aorist would be appropriate to her sudden re. solve not to draw her sword, if we rendered 'because she retained,' but it is simpler to render 'when she retained.'

Page  107 [ NEMEA X. ] 107 ''Av. a'. Ao w aa TFXavxos g`Ol7KE yata (' El E) j/3at VW7Te(3EKTO KepavPOOe-tfa Ato, )3Exea-tv 15 tkUVTCV LOKXet(3av, woX4oto ve'oo Jo Ical yvvat3 l KcaXXtK6O/JO toL-Lt apto-TeuEt 7wXatw ZoLs9 67r' 'AX/KcaV 1.aavc aa' T6 /LOXdi/v 'roVrOiV KcaTe ave XyoirO' 20 Ila~pl r' WA(p/cr-i-,oo Auryd TC Opev 1eapwol) EVOEL ovvap/J.ev 81/ca'Ew., a'. Opcle (' atlXz&v 'A1btwtpbcovo 6' (' OXIp 8(o pTaTOIl 7. Ato/jLsea.] A Schol. tells us that Diomedds was endowed with the immortality forfeited by Tydeus when he ate some of Melanippos' head. Diom6d6s, the reputed founder of Argyripa or Arpi in Apulia was deified as a hero of Helldnic colonization of Southern and Eastern Italy. 8. ev.] Near,' cf. 01. vi. 16, where the fate of Oekles' son AmphiarAos is being celebrated. As Amphiaraos was running away when engulphed, the addition of 7roXiaoeo re'os is a graceful concession to Argive feeling. L. and S. should not say '-yaa VTrd&eKro alrov, the grave,' for the earth rescued him from death. 9. 7roXlAoto vbos.]s Cf. II. xvII. 243, etreil 7. V. 7rept 7CLrra KCaXV7rre, | "EKrcp. Vergil's nubes belli, Aen. x. 809, is differently applied, to a shower of missiles. For more general application of the metaphor cf. Isth. iI. 35. Lucretius' Scipiadas belli fulmen (ii. 1034) is quoted. 10. apLtoreveE.] Argos is the implied subject. The wrong punctuation before 7raXac is due to Lepo-rinus. 11. For Alkmene and Amphitry6n being reckoned as Argives, see Introd. TorTo7.] MSS. roY, Bergk and Mezger eriT, comparing Schol. on II. I. 133. Text from Schol. Vet. 12. lraTpi.] Talaos. /bpeCYv KapTov.] ' Experience,' cf. Pyth. in. 73, Aesch. Sept. c. Theb. 593, PaBetav,XoKa 3a1 4>peYvs Kap7roUeev0s. Frag. 193 [227]. The order in which the worthies of Argos are mentioned is not so confused as appears at first sight. First come two sons of Zeus, the younger first; then an example of feminine courage and rectitude; thirdly, two immortal heroes, the younger first; fourthly, four women; fifthly, two wise and just heroes, the younger first; and lastly, Amphitry6n and H6rakl6s, who through HEb6 is connected with Hera of Argos, whose cella contained a silver altar on which their marriage was represented. 13. Opeie...] Argos is again the implied subject most probably, though Zeus might be. Note alX-,uY' 'ApA. = aiXL-rTav 'A 'A crpVwYa. o 6', K.T.X.] Partly owing to the corrupt condition of v. 15 this pas

Page  108 108 PINDARI CARMINA. KET~7 yE~al, iEvt Ey, XCL4aEot9 0WXxa9 25 15 TXc/37h as 6"Pap', eV- 0' O,hf0ev eCv/LEtvO9 a'Oavcvrwv /acotXezk? a3v'Xv EO-'7jXOev, / I 1) I jla70 ~PI) CT I. I? I UIr ow7Tppt' ~e~t'au- ov piwv 'HpaKXhoso ov icar 7r01 30 a`oXos'H/3ca TlEXEIa 7rctapa /tcaTepL /atvoao- EM7l, KcaWX 1(oa O e v..TP. /8. cavayloao-0, 0oo'v 'Apyeiov [LOt f70/LC 7Tf exe Te/LeVOS 35 20,LPotpayecV XoV4v eoa-r,. 8 KtKps-& pS'rv /3ap Ns avTtao- at sage has caused much difficulty. Commentators have explained 6 6' as Zeus and Keivov as Amphitrybn or vice versa. The objections to o6 ' being Zeus are obvious. Again Amphitryon was Zeus' descendant, therefore le could only enter his generation by birth, not, as MVezger supposes, by virtue of Zeus' connection with Alkmne'. It seems more appropriate to refer K6eivo to the first word of the ode, Aiavaov. The Schol. divapowros avro6 TuIXe36as suggested to Mommsen evapovros for the MS. gvapev. ri ol, the alteration being pretty easy, first to evcpovrt by assimilation to the case of an interpolated ot and then from -ONTI to -ENTI, -EN TI. The rhythm however rather points to 9vap' (see the corresponding lines), so I suggest gvap', eJ 0' oi, or lv 0' ot (cf. Nem. vii. 78). I see that Goram has already proposed vapf eYr' oi. oi. For 0' Foi cf. O1. iv. 9, Pyth. iv. 105, Nem. vIIi. 10. Bockh read vcapev Kai ol with crasis of the diphthongs. Hermann gave gvapev, ol. The expedition against the Taphioi or Tdleboae was an integral part of Amphitry6n's bliss, as it was the condition of his union with AlkmneG, so that a parathetic structure of the clauses after 6erel (v. 14) is not inappropriate. Kayser's alteration of 6'Afi to oX\3oe (supported by 01. ii. 22, Pyth. III. 105, v. 51) is needless. 17. irr. 'Hp.] Cf. Isth. vi. 7, 'IpaKXeLots yovais. 18. reXeit.] "Hpa reXea or yafLXfia or 'vuya was the Goddess of Marriage, luno Pronuba. The phrase r-Xos 0aX\poto yciaoLo occurs Od. xx. 74; cf. Soph. Ant. 1241. On the sceptre of her statue in the H6raeon was a cuckoo. Near this statue stood a chryselephantine statue of H6bd (Paus. ri. 17). 3alvoor' eoi.]I ' Walks for ever' (Holmes). The participle is perhaps adjectival in such constructions, cf. Madv. ~ 180 d. Most edd. read a-r7. 19. Cf. Isth. vi. 44, ppaXb etK~a-Oat. The idea is elaborated by Vergil, Aen. vi. 625. 20. 8 KaL.] 'And besides.' For KOpOS, cf. Pyth. I. 82, viii. 32, 01. n. 95. dvTrcacri.] Cf. infra, v. 72.

Page  109 [ NEMEA X. I 109 aXx' o/tco) evxop~ov eyetpe Xvpav, Kcat raXatoa-fTrwv Xak/e bpovrT' acdov rot XaXKfEO 40 8a"pov orpVvet 7trorlT ovOvc'lav "Hpas ad6OXwv re KCptoap OvXia vraTs 'EvOc vtcda-av &? oYxev Oeeato9 evXb6 -pwv Xadav 7roVWV. 45 'AvT.,8. v tcrrparov I~vBovt, vixa 25 exIpa-rno-e E fcal 7rof' EXXava cr-p7a76iTo Tv05Mv, TVyat Te IJO\XWv fca' 'v r 'IrO, o' fIca NeT/a O-Terfavov, MocatCLt vT &eoc' apo'as, rTp p ev EV Trv TOV 7rO rvXa c aXo, 50 Tp6S 3 Kcatb Je/vobL 8a3reaot0 ev 'A3parTelw vPo[Lp. 21. This bold metaphor is, I suppose, the original of Gray's 'Awake, Aeolian lyre, awake.' Cf., however, the Psalmist's "awake, lute and harp." Suscito musaiw, crepitum are different and much less artificial. The poet addresses himself. 22. XdcXKeoi.] Cf. 01. VII. 83, o r' iv "Apys %aX\s '^yvw vw. The brazen shield given as a prize at the Heraea or Hekatombaea (see next line, fovOUvalavx). 23. Kpiacv.] Cf. 01. IIi. 21, Pyth. Iv. 253. The line recalls 01. v. 6, Vi7r fPovOvuo-tts iiCOXwv re 7re/jrratiEpots &aiiXacts. 24. Grxev.] 'Gat,' cf. 01. iI. 9. eV bpopw.] 'Bravely-borne.' The Schol. interprets 'profitable,'which seems to be a comparatively late sense, and would here be proleptic. Xcaav.] Cf. 01. I. 18, (mr/yaros) Xa<a d7ro/ic oabi eu6aitlovi ye&OLT' iv. 25. KPUT)rvae.] For this sort of zeugma where the verb is taken in another of its own meanings with a second object, cf. 01. I. 88, he'eM 5' OivogJov 3icav 7rapOevov re crvevvov, Eur. Ion, 666, V/uv U acyav, Ncwi &ae, X\yw t rde, ) 0'varov elhroveracL vrpos 3ci/apT' iai*v, Aesch. P. V. 665, eirt-LcrKrrovoa a Kai fLUvOovyvrl ('lvyXc) JOe?'v E/,... KL /ixj Oeoti, 7ruvpWsri cK ACls tioXeT Kepauvv6. For eKpar. arTpavov cf. Nem. v. 5, infra, v. 47. "EXXava r-rparov.] Cf. Pyth. xi. 50, 'EXXavica trTpaTtiav, xII. 6, 'EXX6da PtLKiavraT, 1Pyth. xil. 6. Trvx~.] Equals eTruxla, cf. Nem. viI. 11, Pyth. III. 104, 01. II. 51. dpo'ac-.] For metaphor cf. Pyth. vr. 2. For omission of object cf. L. and S. [i3wLtI, 4. 26. For omission of rov before Ne/,. cf. Madv. ~ 16 b. 27. 7rvbXaic.] Cf. 01. ix. 86, ev KopivOov 7r6Xats. XaXj'v.] Supply o-re~cavo from above. For,ev/... 3 cf. Isth. III. 8. 28. eu/uV. Sar.] The plain of Nemea. Locative, cf. infr. v. 35. ev 'A. v6uy.] 'According to Adrastos' institution' (cf. Nem. viii. 50, 51). For the preposition cf. Pyth. iv. 59; Dem. p. 496fin. The alteration to voUci is worse than needless. For the use of vb6xW Cookesley compares the use of Te06os, infra, v. 33, 01. vi. 69, xii. 40.

Page  110 110 P1NDARI CARMINA. Zcv w-7eap, o'rv a'.v eparat fpevpt oyvya ola-r'l-aa w 2v 30E \,fC. 7LV (PYV';~) 'X060L Kap~lta voo~fpa-" wvr'Xcua 30 v T'rV Ep ycoit 0V8' a/.to ~tp K t(t~ w G pEpco T0XJ vrapatTeLt Xacptv 55 'E w. j ' yr c 8WT a 6ELt-30J 7O r KCa' 0T-L9 aL UXX aTatt 7rept a'XaTWZ aEOXWV KOpVccLc" V7ar ov 8' S EX EP 1llirt 60 iHpaKwXEs- TEO/Wo'v a3E-ta4 lye pe'v d,4pooXa'cv 29. Theiaeos aspires to win at Olympia, cf. infra, v. 33. oi.] For this dative cf. 01. Ix. 15, Nem. vii. 22, 40, Pyth. Iv. 48. gray, K.r.X.] 'All issue of deed is in thy hands.' i.e. rYd 7rpac — ofJ.evwv fpyywv. We have rai- 7re7rpayfLivw'v ippywv; rTXos, 01. II. 15 -17. There 'the effect,' here 'the completion' is meant by reXos. For sentiment, cf. 01. xIII. 104 -106. For dv riv, cf. Soph. Phil. 963, &v eol Kal rO TrXeS'v i/ade: a little different is Nem. vii. 90. 30. o68', K.7.X.] 'But adding a spirit of daring to a resolution that shrinks from no toil he makes an indirect request for favour.' He hints at, a wish which he is too modest to express openly, or rather he mentions incidentally in his prayer the petition which he really has most at heart, but is too diffident to lay stress upon in words. Mezger renders 7rapatre?-Oac, ' eine neben hinausgehende Bitte thun,' comparing the use of 7rapa in rapac/uev X6o-y,O 01. vII. 66, &c. rrapdcyetv, Pyth. xI. 25, Nem. vii. 27. Other commentators have rendered the verb ' obtain,' 'supplicate for,' 'decline' (L. and S.). In support of 'request indirectly,' 'request by the way,' not given in L. and S., cf. the use of 7rape-yyvaw Soph.. Oed. Col. 24 (Campbell), and of,rapaqf0feyyopat and rapac^wve'w, and perhaps Aristoph. Equit. 37. 31. The older Mss. give Kal 6o-rs, the rest x' w's ri. Dissen follows Hermann's more than needless alteration yvcwra Oetat rer- Kal 6'oTS. Kayser with almost equal temerity reads yvwur' aieli oe re Ka 6I rris. The poet says that he need not tell more precisely to Zeus or any athlete who aspires to Olympian victory what Theiaeos prayed for. 32. e'gX. Adi. Kop.] The various contests at Olympia, each of which is a supreme contest. The superlative is reinforced by KopvOacis, the genitive not being partitive but 'of definition.' Pindar twice uses esx-aros in a good sense, Isth. III. 29, with a reference to sailing to the pillars of Herakles, and 01. i. 113, To 6' 'erXa-ro (of greatness) KopvUPovrTa paiao'Xevsa, a metaphor from a mountain height as here. The Schol. quotes Sophokles Frag. J77r yhap 93pa ZeuS evm &X ar. fewvie. v'7rarov.] This sentence explains the last somewhat vague phrase. Note the order, and render 'HIrakles' ordinance which Pisa received is highest.' For sentiment, cf. 01. i. 7. For cX. cf. v. 24. For reOpi. cf. v. 28, Nem. xi. 27. 33. ade'at ye /Iev.] 'Yet right sweetly.' Though the not having won an Olympian victory was bitter, yet the Panathbnaic victory was especially sweet as being an omen of an Olympian victory. This tv=igad, cf. Pyth. IV. 50. adloXdeave.] ' By way of prelude.' Cf. Pyth i. 4, Nem. vii. 77. [Don.]

Page  111 [NEMEA X. ]11 III El) TEEcI Ns Aaviwe 35 Keluo/lcavclI ryat'a 8e IeavOelo-a 7rvp, a'l eX/9 6 E/J4Oev eHpa9~ ro1 cvcwopct Xao~v El) awyyeov eplceo-tv 7aruct/LcOLKXov9.:~rp 7. 6WEecLL 86', OetaLe, [L-ta-)(l)v 7roXVy7VCO'Fr0 7ye'VOS V/J4ETC'pcov 70 evay&wv TtJa\ Xactp&reou-re TEIca~ o-v)v Tuv&apt~3av Oa 34. -reNcraF3.] The Panathe'naea, at which the prize was oil, from the M1opiat or sacred olives, contained in a vase burnt earth, see the next verse. Mr Jackson has suggested to me that Mopla means 'belonging to a tribe, division.' The winners on the Panathb'naic vases are represented with crowns of olive. Athbnaeos, v. 11, tells ns that Panathhnaic victors were crowned, and Suidas, s. v. Hla'aO?5vata, and Pliny, IN. H. xv. 5' (4), specify the olive crown. Hence Pindar has drawn anl augury of success in winning the olive crown at Olympia., wioyai.] Coianected by Curtius wth 617ra, eni-ov, &c., but (as there are few certain instances of aspiration of a tennis after a nasal) better $by Fick with \Vambh, Lithuanian amb-iti, ' to scold,' amb-r-iti1, 'yelp.' Cf. Frag. 129 [266]. 35. }yaig.] Dative for locative, eV f'pK. being in apposition. Ui.] ' For.' 36. 7ra/juroLKiXo13a 'Rieblypainted.' For Panathh'naic Amphorae (our Schol. speaks of hh&piat) cf. Brit. Muss., First Vase Room, tablecase A, 24 (The Burgon Yase, 5th cent. B.C., 2). Second Vase Room, Table-cases E. G. Though the six amphorae there displayed belong to the fourth century, the archaism traditionally kept'-up imitates the ceramic style of Pindar's time, tbe designs being chiefly in black and white- with incised lines. On such vases "1Athhn6 stands between two columns which are usually surmounted by cocks." They are inscribed TON A0E NEGEN AOAON or TON AGHNIJHOEN AOAQN, the former of course in Pindar's time. Cf. P. 0. Brbnsted, On Panatheneaic Veses. 111on. dell' Inst. di Corrisp. Arch., x. Tav. 47, Annali,5 1877, pp. 294 ff., 1878, pp. 276 ff. 0. Jahn, Kurze Beschreib. ci. Vasensamini. in der Pinsaloth. zn ]liiiochen, no. 445 (and eleven others there enumerated). 37. E~elraTc.] Here governs an accusative as in late Poets. To suppose the ellipse of a preposition b7rl or 'si is merely shifting the difficulty. Cookesley's ellipse of dsdp, throughout the whole line of your maternal ancestry " is not admnissible, especially with Ona1='KL3 ' repeatedly.' He seems right in obj ecting to Kiihner's explanation that is`ercacu implies or expresses motion to a place. In this case it may imply, ertension beside, if it be not the ordinary accusative of the direct object as with seqseor. 38. ei''-coyW 7-rftd.] 'Honour from successful contests.' For the compounded adjective instead of its substantive with an epithet in the genitive Mlatthiae compares Pyth.

Page  112 112 112 ~PINDARI CARMINA. a4~LWooelIqV KEV, EI)v epauV'KXov 40AV71ac r7e Vryyovos', v~pe p7rTELZJ ~bOa 7 O/L,#aTroZI. PtKacbopat, ryap oratq JilpoIrtoo TOt83 t'7wwoac~-rv Oa'Xqo-ew. Ko,~ivOov T'r JV /,vxyos-, Icat K-Xcrovaawv wrpol aV8pro3v Te-rpalct9v -. 2, apr -opeav ynipag, Pyth. vi. 5., Eur. Hippol. 67, 1092. ou'v.] For the position of the preposition, cf. Pyth. ii. 59, Nem. ix. 14, 22, infra, ye. 53, 84. It is omitted in the iuiss. before the following, -rvz'- The position of OaItcLKS seems to shew that it and the prepositional phrase are to be taken more closely with ev'ai-y. -rtlu. than with the verb. Don. Dissen and Biickh take OauaaKts as = c'"a, but it is better to ren der ' oftentimes' as in Isth, i. 28. For the Charites, cf. supra, v. 1. The mention of the Tyndaridae leads up to the coming myth. 39. Not 'I should not think fit to veil,' buit I'I should think myself justified in not veiling, &c.,' i.e. 'in feeling and she-wing pride.' Cf. Nem. vir. 66 for the form of expression. ceis.] I. q. et' efir. Thrasyklos and Antia's were two of the mater-' n~al relatives of Theiaeos. 41. Yaats.] Exclamatory, though the idea of ob 3vpaoi'p IkeeN'7 — XEIJ may have originally governed it in the poet's mind. The text which is Biickh's (except the stop after Oa'Xques) is unsatisfactory, as the list of victories is much too small for Argos, of which Proetos was perhaps joint king before his expulsion bry his twin brother Akrisios. In Frag. 269 [1413 the Schol. on II. xiv. 319 states that Pindar said that Proetos slew Dana6. Perhaps he regained the kingdom when Akrisios fled from Perseus who subsequently to avenge DanaP de throned and slew Proetos. This form of the legend is not incompatible with Apollod~ros' (ii. 2. 6) tradition that Proetos gave Biads and Mfelampus each n third of his kingdom, but differs from Ovid. (Met. v. 239), who makes Perseus kill Proetos in Argos in revenge for the expulsion of Akrisios. Talaos, son of Bidis, was king of Argos, which seems to tell against the Ovidian version. The Aiss. read coats Orrorp6oe~o aloru -rA (or Tr6.) llpo'rozo OahX-qo6(v), K.7-.X. I propose oa-ats l7poi-rov 04ouav Li-wot-p6 -(pop ao(T7i Pahijoat, as e for at is a common error (cf. infra, v. 72) and 11POITOTOC CAN easily passes into -T010 OCAN and then the last four letters are cut out as a partial repetition of OCAIC. The omission would lead to rearrangement to suit the metre. 42. KoplvPov Tr' Ep [A.] At the Isthmian games. The phrase is precisely equivalent to Cis /3aoocauiv 'Io-0Ao0, Isth. iii. 11. Not "in the recess in which Corinth stands" ) "ICorinth which lies in the recess of the Isthmus;" for Koriuth is not in a recess, but in 'a corner' of Argolis, jev~q~pAp-yeoY 17r-wo/35-010. Koriuth might be said to stand on the gulf (gsvXos) of Koriuth, but the Isthmiau games were held on the opposite side of the Isthmos. This clause begins an answer to the half-question of the preceding clause. KXewV. 7up. d6'6p.] 'At the hand of Kle6naeans.' Cf. Nem. iv. 17.

Page  113 [ NEMEA X. ] 113 'AV7. 'y. 4txvaWO0e 3' dpyvpwO(v-rc9 uvv oC wqpa" Ota~at '7wL /3az', 8o fic 3E llXaXcava,- E'7tteoTSa/LEaQLst vJoTOp 1_kaXactat-ac KpolcattS 45 a'A x \ v,luvpiov cv 3uPa7ov 6EXE7XEtW- /IaKpoT p alS/a y\p adp tOu~lt qcat roXO~a 85 oil-c KXetop lwca Tey&'a Ical 'A atwv v'-<aTct woXtC'kNt A3Icatopv 7Tap At09s I7/CEe OpO/J// O1)P 7T03 Wi XetPW v TE viEacat aTOVPEt. 90 TER. y', Kafo-ropo96 3' e'XO0'vro3,' E'~ ~iav a'rp Hajtbc~a 50 ica\ Kaac-t71yVs jTOI Hohvlc5cos, ot3 Oai-ta TO1fo-w E77lyEpk ep/_zEV aeOkq7-at- ayaOoE(-oyp- EW7e EupVXpov T-a/Hdat EvTap7CTa dyc'wvo ~Loipav 'Eppct" /cal oav 'cHpaKXe- 8LE7toPTL Oc Oetav, 95 43. EZKUSvoe.] Fromthe Pythia founded by Adrastos at Siky6n, cf. Nem. ix. Introd. apyup.] Cf. Isth. iI. 8, 'with gleam of silver shining on them,' perhaps. For ~ub, cf. L. and S. s.v., i. 7, infra, v. 48. dire3av.] So Iss. Aldine and other edd. 6eripav. Schol. Vet. interprets dcex'pqracav, and a gloss (Triclin.) dTrriAov. 44. Cf. 01. xi. 97, 98 for the prize of a large woollen cloak, chiamys, at the(Apolline) Theoxenia or the Hermaea, or the Diaea celebrated at Pellene. 45. XaXK. uvp.] ' The vast number of prizes of bronze it is impossible to ascertain.' This included no doubt bronze shields won at Argos and ra edv 'ApKa6ig, p-ya of 01. vii. 83. 46. aaKp. oXok.] For this descriptive genitive cf. Madv. ~ 53 b.; the act of counting is measured or valued in terms of the time required. F. II. 47. ovre.] Sc. aX\KOV governed both by OgKe and by vCKaocra, cf. Nem. v. 5, supra, v. 26. The games at Klpeit6r were Koreia in honour of Persephon6 and Demhthr, and at Tegeg Aleaia in honour of Athen6 AleS. v/iP3aroi. ] Upland.' 48. i0Ke.] 'Set by the racecourse of Zeus as prize for men to win, &c.' L. and S. wrongly class it with Frag. 154 [164], ',mlde to win.' Join 7rap Al6s 6p6Cuy. For the Lykaeon cf. 01. xii. 108, Paus. viii. 38, 5. The prize at the Lykaea was a bronze tripod. The singular verb is an instance of the so-called schema Alcmnanicum. 49. llcaq/ca-7.] Probably a maternal ancestor of Theiaeos. 51. g/lYev.] Taken twice (Mezger), ' that it is innate in them to be, &c. Cf. Ner. xi. 33. 52. ra/iati.] 'Kings,' cf. Pyth. v. 58. caydw. a/oTp.] Cf. 01. vi. 79. 53. sbe.] Cf. supra, v. 38. 8

Page  114 114 PINDARI CARMIINA. i6aXa,iev dvSpcov 8Icawtv 7reptKa80o/evoL. tcal Pdv 06c/v Trri7ov 7eY6o9. I00 $7p. 8'. 55,ETrajLeL/3,6/evoL ' CvaXX&at tp4pav 'rdv t v 7rapa ararpl Ac, veuovraL, rdv 8' VTro KcevOeat ryatlaa e? 7?vdXo eepa7rva-, o05 7ro7/Lov d/atL7rivrTe~s otiolov' oret 'roVroV ) T7rdTra-av Oo60 eft/levat oIECelv v ovpavj etXer' alwva ^QBeObvov IloXvAetSIcq Kacrropo9 ev 7roXe'tv. 110 60o'rv yap 'lSay dptvl /3ovcrtv twro XoXwoel9 E"pWre XaX\c6a? Xdy7xa d/itra. 'Avr. S'. atro Tavrye'ov 7lre8avyacdwv iSev Avy7ev)s 3pvto ev are6XX6e I115 54. irtcr6O.] Cf. infra, v. 78. 55. They both together live in Olympos every other day and lie together in the tomb on the alternate days, cf. Od. xI. 303. For the temple of the Dioskuroi at Therapnae cf. Pans. iii. 20. 56. yvdXots.] The Schol. explains by u6ro-yea, 'an underground vault,' but this seems tautological. Therapnae lay in the valley of KoiX? AaKeaticLtwv. 58. fi.] Forsuppression of #aXXov cf. Madv. ~ 93 c; II. I. 117, oX\o/,o' eTyd aby a6ov f/o /xevat dwrokiOat. 59. Note the position of IoXve6SKVS. 60. da/l p/oviv 7rws XoXOetJis.] Cf. Hes. Scut. Here. 12, Xwaacevos vrept povurt. The further recital of the cause of quarrel is dismissed by rws, 'as some say.' The Schol. mentions another account of the feud, namely that the Dioskuroi had carried off the brides of the Aphardtidae, Phoeb6 and Elaeira, daughters of Leukippos. Apollod6ros, II. 2. 3, tells us that Idts and Lynkeus, sons of Aphareus, whose tomb was at Sparta (Paus. II. 11. 8, 13. 1), dwelt in Artna in Messenia. They had been cattlelifting with the Dioskuroi and cheated the latter of their share of booty. The Dioskuroi in revenge made a raid and drove off into Lak6nia all the cattle they found in the possession of the sons of Aphareus, for whom they lay in wait, expecting to be followed home by their foes. They were espied by the miraculous eyesight of Lynkeus, and Idas was thus enabled to kill Kast8r. 61. rre6avyiwv ] ' Sending penetrating glances after them.' But old mss. give r68', 7r8', and so suggest a doubt as to the original reading; as 7rod' aveyadw, 'seeing its foot clearly' (cf. Pyth. xI. 36),

Page  115 [ NEMEA X. ] 115 'I7EIYVQ 09. K~tPOV 7ap EWQ~OOJIW aVmW YEVET OVU77eov E cetvov ryap EvtXxYLU rov0Y 3Y V V1L' 6'u/,ta. Xat-4nqpo^V 3~ 8 7-roEa-o-tv aap leltK'o-Oav, Icat ' dya fpyov ELty'av7-' f'Keo) 120 65 Icat r a'Oov 3ew6v waXxaesav 'Ajapr-rraat Ato',d av3Tiica 'XOc A 'aa9 7raZe &&COy'K( Tot evglavTa oradoev TrV/143(1 XEO-eov 7TaTpW~tY 'E7r. 8'. EVO 0 vapwaaVTE9 alyaXL' 'AiMa, ~60IOV?,E'Tpov, 125 /3aXov T' TPV(L) IOXV36VE'/)K609 d'XX O[" PLt bxahcav, gives a sense nearer to the ordinary usage of au'yciaw. The quotation from Stasinos'(?) Kypria is as follows: aba c& AvyKEvs ata e AUTKeVs Taiyerov rrpoaepaiave roalv -raxecaaoi rewrotOc6s. 'AKpOrarov 6' cvaphs &e6epKero voj'ov cararav TavraXiSov IIeXo7ros, raXa d' ei'tite KVl5fcOS p7ws...?... 6q0a\X/Moo'tv o'iw Apvos L evcw &poW *K KOIXAs * Ka'crTopd O' ir7r6rSafLov Kai deOXo(popov HoxvaevKKea. Nvee 6' dp'...... Hence one is prompted to suggest repavyciu'dv. L. and S. miss the meaning of avuyaceat, Hes. TV. & D. 476, where it is not 'see distinctly,' but 'look longingly, keenly,' the middle denoting the mental emotion accompanying the keen glance. Lynkeus, whose name is connected with Xetuo —j, was said to be able to see through all material barriers to sight, stone, earth, sea, &c. Cf. Apoll. Rhod. i. 153. 62. }iUevovU.] So Bockh; but some of the old Grammarians corrected r'jcevos (old Mss.) to jfxlevov. They seem to have thought that Pindar meant to imply that Poly deukes was not with KastOr when he was espied and attacked, but was conceived to be hiding somewhere near, probably west of Kast6r, as the Apharetidae did not flee back into Mess8nia. But they may have attacked from the East or have had to double back in the flight. The Apharetidae were a spear's throw off when Polydeukes left the tree. Aristarchos cited the Kypria, according to the Schol., surely to prove that Lynkeus was not in the tree (iUteo): Didymos cited the words to defend the plural u1^vos, -ws. There is no ground for impugning with Bergk the accuracy of the Schol. as to the readings of the Gramman ans. 64. ecaavrc'.] Mss. 4eu^rjnar', -avT'. The insertion and omission of v are common errors. Cf. Od. iii. 261. 65. Kal.] 'And accordingly;' cf. Nem. Iv. 32, tpSovrd rtci cUa traOelv 66. Aqas, rais.] Polydeulks. They stood face to face hard by the tomb of Aphareus. 67. dy. 'Aila.] A sepulchral column, stdel, consecrated to "Adio5s. For the genitive Dissen quotes Eur. Electr. 143,,uXos 'A'Sa, Suppl. 783, '8ov/u Xo\ral, cf. Isth. III. 81. 8-2

Page  116 116 PINDARI CARMINA. Ov' ave'acvav' 'foppa0e^ 8' "p " fcovT o0, I130 avexao'o'av oat? ~' ~ap a coor 70 'Xaae AvycfeoK E0 7rkevpaoa' XaXKovY. Ze~ 83' e'r' "IJ8 7rvp0%pov TrX~ae #foX6evra KCepavvov. 'aa 8' eKcalovr' e'pri/mot. XaXerrca 8' esp dvaOpc7rovt oJatXev xC pearo-aov. 135 Srp. e'. TaXCWo9 8 e7r' a"EXdScxeov /av rwdXv W CpVrOev 6 TvvSaplIas%, cal tftv ovtc TeOvaor a'rOpar 8'e. plicrovra rvo0 ^ICXev. 140 75 OepPld ' r'yrycov w capva oarovaXa^ opOtov sbowvaacre' larep Kpovlov, TrIs 8) Xvcrav eaerxe 7rtrevOewv; catl e4/ox davarov ctv T'8' e7rlte\Xov, dva$. 145 oiL'Tac Ttcda Q)L\Xv 'ra'ro/UevW coTrl' ravpot 8' ev s7roz 7rrF7ro /porTSv 71. The tmesis drm ---rNc&e has caused corruption. Mss. give Eir 'I8a wvpfuopov wrXa~e ioXdevra KeKpavvor. Edd. with the Schol. Vet. alter "I6a to "156. Matthiae's citation of raietv Eigoos only half-supports ir' "I8g 7rXae Kepavvdor=paXc\ Kepavuov E'r\X7-e~v Iav. 72. CKaiovr'.] MSS. &S Kovr', e for at and vice versa are common errors. epIrlot.] With none to aid or avenge them. XaXe7rd, K.r.X.] Cf. supra, v. 20; 'a strife with higher beings is dangerous for men to encounter.' Eris is half personified. The order is involved. For inf. cf. 01. viII. 19, vII. 25, Isth. II. 37. 74. do-6/ara. ] ' Drawing his breath convulsively in suffocation,' i. e. with the death rattle (ruckle) in his throat. Cf. Nem. in. 47; a-Of/a is 'laboured breathing.' The MSS. give qpiaoovsr' ava-(da)Trvods, which will not scan; 'ruffled as to breaths' is a strong but intelligible metaphor, which is helped by the accompanying shuddering of the whole frame often observed in deaths from mortal wounds. Mommsen's yi&vas for 7rvois is not happy. 75. r-yywv.] Cf. Soph. Trach. 847, aSd&Cwv XXwpav' rtyyeet aKcp6wv &xvav. For S i Mss. give 6e. arovaxais.] Dative of accompanying action, cf. Madv. ~ 42, II. xxiv. 696, Od. xxiv. 416. 78. Apparently adapted by Euripides, Hel. 274, Kal iAXwv rnrwuIEsVy7 60oVXr K0caO'r-7K', though loss of friends to a Greek woman was a very different case to that of a man. The faithlessness of mortals is contrasted with the trustworthiness of deities; cf. supra, v. 54, Introd.

Page  117 [ NEMEA X. ] 117 'Avr. e'. IcafTdrov e~Taka/fL3dve6V. gc5c rvTcre' Ze~t ' lrvosT i\XvOe ot, So cail roS' teav'8aa' terroy' 'Eo'-i / Fot ' vitoe' T'8 ' e7retra W7rO7(9 150 c7rrep ja Ovarotu!arp Tea 7reXacratL a'raev Vpo. d\' dye raovSe rot 4 i7rav atpeaLv 7ap806o/'c" el' Oeav Bdvarov re vypwv cat y7rpac a7ryeX0of/evov 155 avt7Or OS\vAv/ rov voe1s oce 6/oL* UvV T 'Aavaia KceXatveyxe T' "Apet, 'E7r. 6'. 85 Tcrrt co l rovr ' XaXo' et ce Kcaawryvqrov 7rept I 6 czdpvacra,, 7rvrcov 8e voe dw7 rodo4cracc at Yov, ffLtoav /L I e 7Trvrot 7ata za vvrvepOev &Wv, latrav 8' ovpavoD Ev Xpvc'eot so tota's. 165 &k ip' av8croav-ro' ov 7Y'vja 8t wXo6av 0Ero /3ovXav, 79. lieraXcaLctvctl.] 'So as to share.' For inf. cf. Madv. ~ 149. ri7e7re.] So uss. Elsewhere evv. 80. 'Eolot /o, vios.] And therefore immortal. Irots.] Tyndareus. 82. I incline to read 'pwc', as jpwc seems too prominent. 84. Between 06XvuL7rov and oav r' Mss. give 0eiXets or OeXeLt only, with defect in both sense and rhythm, Pindar elsewhere has iewNc, which will not scan here, in verbal forms, except 01. vin. 85, though he uses the participle of OAXo (Pyth. II. 69, x. 5, Isth. v. 43, and 01. Ji. 97, where my note is incorrect on this point. The iss. give 0AXwv for eKcw at the end of Pyth. In. 69.) The Schol. interprets..o.fioXec rov oupavov owev w' eV COz, K.T.X. and renders voeds, v. 86, by PofXet, whence Kayser gets voeTs o01iKv euoi (for the position of preposition of. supra, v. 38). The letters - ONNOEI( OIKE IN MOI would be peculiarly liable to corruption as E, 0, C were often confused, and also IC and K, and IN and M. Thus Ohlets or iiX~ets would be a gloss on vods. Mommsen reads veAUetv /XXets eOiol, Bergk CXesi valetv eolt. The word FiXXets is so utterly inappropriate that Mommsen's suggestion may be at once rejected. Against the considerations in favour of the text, for which cf. supra v. 58, the only point to be urged is the tameness of the assumed repetition of voeas. For the position of o^v, cf. Pyth. II. 59, Nem. Ix. 14. 86. toov.] Note the emphatic position. For 'o-o= 'an equal share,' cf. Soph. Oed. Iex, 579, Eur. Ion, 818, Iph. in T. 1009. L. and S. only give n6 tov. 87. 7rveoes.] Observe the phrase: he is to live in the tomb.

Page  118 118 PINDARI CARMTINA. 90 ava 3' SXva7cv -LEV J4OaX/-sOv, tircra & 4covalv XaXxcopuirpa Kacrropo9-. 89. oil, K.,r.X] Polydeukils 'of- we regard Polydeuk~s as the author fered not a double plan to his jndg- of the release. ment.' That is, he decided without XaXKokATrpa.] The li-pa of a warthe least hesitation. nior was a broad woollen girdle faced 90. Note the change of subject wvith plates of bronze, worn below back to Zeus: unless with Mezger the tc~ua.

Page  119 [NEMEA XI.] FOR THE elarmpta OFFERED BY ARISTAGORAS OF TENEDOS, PRYTANIS. INTRODUCTION. THIS ode (enkomion) was performed before the altar and shrine of Hestia Prytanitis in the Prytaneion of Tenedos upon the occasion of the installation as rrpvravs, or president of the o3ovX4, of Aristagoras, a wrestler and pankratiast of great strength and beauty, son of Arkesilas (v. 11). It has nothing to do with the Nemean games. The date is probably later than B.c. 470; but there is no clue except the style. The subject of the poem belonged to the clan of the Peisandridae who claimed kinship with both Amyklae and Thebes (vv. 34-37). Short though the poem is there is much of lasting interest in it. The doctrine of the mean is propounded with reference to excess or defect in honorable ambition, and mention is made of the uncertainty of the future and the inevitable approach of death (vv. 13-16), natural topics in connection with the installation of a constitutional dignitary. The theory that hereditary excellence displays itself in alternate generations is introduced in a way that reflects rather severely on Aristagoras' father, who supplies an instance of droX/uia. ANALYSIS. rIv. 1-10. Invocation of IIesti, Prytanitis. 11, 12. Praise of Aristagoras. 13-16. He is reminded that excellence gives no exemption from death.

Page  120 120 PINDARI CARMINA. 17-21. He deserves praise for his athletic victories in local games. 22-29. The timidity of his parents debarred him from chance of distinction in the great games. 29-32. Over-diffidence and over-confidence are alike detrimental. 33 —37. The noble ancestry of Aristagoras. 37-43. Hereditary excellences develope themselves in alternate generations only. 43-46. In spite of the future being beyond our foresight we embark on ambitious schemes. 47, 48. Insane yearnings for things unattainable hinder our setting due limits to our desires. 2rp. a'. lHa TPeaa, &ae vrpvraveta X'Xoryvxs, Ecrlra, Ztrov v orlov r caartyv?7ra Ical ooOpvpovo "Hpa9, ev jLzv 'Aptcraytpav 8Etca rTeov? 0dXapbov, e 8e' eralpov dyaX a r crca rro 7rXa?, 5 ot ae yepalpovreC opOav pvXadaoLcriv TeveSov, 5 'Avr. a'. rroXXa pJve Xotj3aacrv adya6.klevo 7rpowrav Oe>v, 1. 7rpuraveta XXoyXas.] As the goddess of the family altar and hearth generally, Hestia was naturally the deity worshipped at the common altar and hearth of the state under the title Ipvravirts. It would appear from Thuk. in. 15 that a IIpravls, whether pact^Xe6s, ripavvos, or one of a numerous body of officials, held the title as president of the pov\X-. For X6Xo7yas cf. 01. VII. 55 ff., ix. 15, Aesch. P. V. 228, oTrws rdciLra T rbo rarpcov Es OpoYov | (Zezs) KaOe-eT' evivBs at/ioa'sv ve'P(A yipa I| diX\\X aMXXa, Kal &8CTOLX IiCTo | apXv. 3. OdXaiov. ] A sanctuary or shrine within the rrpvTravev. 4. eracpovs.] Members of the fovX5. CKarsrrt.] This allusion shews that there was a statue of Hestia in the 7rpvraveov at Tenedos, as there also was at Athens (Pausan. I. 18. 3). The sceptre is an usual attribute of Hestia in art (Dissen quoting Welcker). 5. 6p0dv.] Extension of predicate; 'in welfare.' 6. rp&Tav. ] 'The eldest;' cf. Hes. Theog. 453, PeFa 6' vtro6yOe?iaa KpIrCp TrKe f alca TKVac, ta'I7KrV,1 A/v7r7pa, Kai "Hprv xpvUor07rd&Xv, tfq50iYv rx ' 'At]V.. Kal...'Evvoatyatov, Ziyva re, whereon Prof. Paley-shews that Homer makes Hera the eldest

Page  121 [NEMEA XI. ] 121 7roXVa ' Kvlioa Xz'pa & o'-ot /p~e'e-rat Kca a Kat ~evLov ~LO aOKr/cTat W/.kv aelvaOvS Ev Trpa sa. a'XXa\ a-vv 8y Tre',Xo9 10 1o 8v(oe3E1aJL?7V0)Y 7r~paaait acv rpwwor 1paaca. 'Ew. a'. avppa 3' Jywo,ucuaccpt(o prv 7rcraEp' 'Apiool-iXav, t T\ OCVT\v (3E/Lac apC/kV TE arYYOVOV. I 5 et TL8 0~4301) er3ov [to a 7wapa1tELe7CTab adXCv, eV T aEAOXtOlJ dpwt-TremvW rreo~ez' /v31av, child of Kronos, and Zeus the eldest son. 7. o-i.] 'At their bidding.' 3pjoaerac.] 'Peals.' Cf. Nem. ix. 8, /3pofllav 065ppuyya. 8. Guests of the state were entertained at the 7rpTraveiov and suppliants to the state sought sanctuary at its altar. For Themis being associated with Zeus Xenios cf. the similarly worded passage, 01. viIi. 21-23, gv0a Zorecpa Ados evilov rapeapos o'eTKtra Otilts oXy' dvOpbS7row, where Aegina's just dealing with strangers is intended. The connexion of the goddess of right and order with hospitality is illustrated by the phrases 8rau-s exirs, adp6orov sel7rvov. 9. iv.] 'With;' cf. infra, v. 17. For the perpetual public hospitality of Tenedos etc. edd. quote the rpa7reai evtcKal of the Kretan ocrvoorla, Ath6n. iv. 22 (p. 143 c). dXXia.] Cf. 01. II. 12, Iv. 6. acrv.] The repetition of a-b in the next line has troubled critics greatly; so that oa 8v tsca has been altered to vvv and rol at6 i, crvvSh6av, aov and VLV 6;ta (with irepaaLc). L. and S. give Bockh's 7rep-ciats (ev). Others alter 7repacru arov into 7rephoat L (T or 7repaoal vuv. Mezger rightly defends iuss. and Scholia. For -ra a -uv cf. Isth. InI. 17. 10. arpiryT.] For the metaphor of. Nem. I. 48. 'Without annoy.' He might have discharged the du ties of his office 'with credit' amid continual dangers and anxieties. 11. &avpa.] Emphatic, cf. Pyth. ii. 29. The meaning is almost 'So far as I may congratulate a manI deem his father Arkesilas blessed, and I laud his (Aristagoras') admirable form and innate hardihood.' I agree with Mezger in making davpa refer to Aristagoras, but I take advpa as an accusativus pendens; though easKapi'w takes a double accusative. Aristoph. Vespae, 588, rovrl yap rot oe tisvov rouraWV Wyv e'prxKas jCalKapltw (Fanshawe). The sense might be the same. ' On the man do I congratulate his father, aye on his (the man's) form.' I cannot see the point of congratulating the son upon his father, who kept him from winning the Olympian and Pythian games (v. 22). Again if dvipa is Arkesilas, his too is the Oa7Torv e' as K.T2.. No doubt the passage is unsatisfactory. I think reKeos 'ApKeicXa may have got corrupted through the incorporation of a marginal note. Dissen is probably right in recognising the zeugma, the sense of alivw being drawn from gsaKapi'w with rb Oar-ov e/ias K.r.X. Note that /iev is answered by 6i, v. 13; 'though I praise, let him remember.' Otherwise Mezger and Dissen citing 01. v. 10. 14. CIrdhetevs.] Frequentative aorist. The future rapaceo-euerat

Page  122 122 PINDARI CARMINA. 15 Ovara& /LeLLff d-O) 7rept're XX.v eX?7, tcat rcXevrav aTravrrv ryav ' 7rItea'-'O-6 evs. 20 Trp. /'. ev Xo'yoe? 5' daorTvT dayaOoli vLv aiPveoOas Xpeov, ab /eXyo8ovrotobt, 8atbaXO\evTa pe,<XVLev doatSalS. C 86 7rpticTLovwov EKcKalec'E 'Apt'Tray6pav 20 ayXaal vuEcab 7radrpav Tr EvcOVVtOV 25 Ea'eTbaPrwo'av 7raXa Kcab /,e7cavXEt 7raytcpaTlto. 'Ar. 3'. XWIErlSe o' ovrporepac ' ovowvratS /3lav 'XVrxov Hv lv twv 7retpa-Oa gcaL 'OXvp/Trla aeOXwrv. refers to moments of future selfsatisfaction on the part of Aristagoras, as well as to the future generally. 15. 'Let him remember that the frame which he bedecks is mortal and that at the last of all he shall don a vesture of earth.' Cf. "muddy vesture of decay." For construction cf. 01. vi. 8, Isth. 68. reptarTEXX\\.] Cf. Eur. Ale. 663, (raicasa ol) Oavo6va (re i reptrTeXoOet Kal 7rpoOcaovrat veKpOv. The verb repwrTeXXcw is the regular word for arraying a body for the funeral. 16. reXeuvdc.] Accusative in apposition with the sentence; cf. 01. in. 4, vI. 16, Isth. II. 7, Aesch. Ag. 225. Here the use is similar to that of the "adverbial" apXjv. yadv ecrTe-.] For the phrase Don. quotes Aesch. Agam. 869, el 65' v reOv7yKWs, Wts erk'j0vov Xo'yot, I Tpo'aFaros raY rT'p6awv O 3evtrepos XOovbs rpljAOtpov X\axX vav EIqvUXEL XaJsP'c, J aitra4 EKCTTCj KCaTOavWv t' jopqcp art; Nem. vIII. 38. Hemsterhuis (Ad Hesych.I. p. 1352) besides the references in L. and S. gives Simonides, Apud Athen. in. p. 125 D, Frag. 168 [227], avr&p (XL&'v) 1K45OGv0 (Person edcbipOi) Moi ITLepllv 7y^v 7rterLr'aca Pv. Eur. Troad. 1148, yv raY' 7rarcito xovres. This warning to avoid excessive pride is peculiarly appropriate in an official ode composed for a civic magistrate. 17. Xoyots.] 'Friendly (fair) discussions.' Cf. Nem. VIII. 21. For i cf. Pyth. v. 97, supra v. 9. 18. For sentiment cf. 01. vi. 6, 7. 7LEXLEi~FEV.] Mezger supposes that there is a change of subject. Herman alters to L\XELtv ev: Mommsen to FgeAlXO' ev. With the text dotais is scanned as a dissyllable. I think the infinitive goes with ie\Xcyo6 -7rowaL (Madv. ~ 150), and that Kal couples ev X6-yoi and 6act68\0tra. 20. e6iwYvVLov.] Perhaps an extension of the predicate. As NtKl7 is often represented in Art holding out a wreath there is probably a half personification of the Victories here. Note that Ir TreptLKT. should not be taken with vKat but with the verb, meaning ' on the authority of, at the instance of the neighbouring peoples.' The 8e = 'for.' 21. /.e-yavXeZ.].MS. i IeyaXaUvXe?. 22. EX7ri6es doKVTporepat.] 'Too great diffidence.' Literally 'Too shrinking apprehensions.' We can speak of 'confident hopes' but hardly of 'diffident or timid hopes.' For eXrls cf. Nem. I. 32. 23. &o^ov.] For the inf. without

Page  123 [ NEMEA XI. ] 123 va tad aydp Zpcov, e/'rdv otav 7rapu2 KavraXa 30 '25 Kat 7rap' ev;evSpw poXo3v oXOcp Kp6vov,Kdca ov av 8rPtCv'vrwv evo'rTr' darVT7raX6Z, 'Ewr. "3'. '7evTaeTrlp18 EoprTav 'HpaccXeos vreO/tov 35 fcoaWo-ataS avs1Coa/Jtev~o T~E lcoLav ev 7ropcJPvpeoLS pveao-tv. adXa /3porowv TO' p/EV KeVEO0(fpopec avatb 30 ad7yaOOv e/'3aXov' vov 8' au Kara/eCLf/i OE7vr' Tyav 40 la'-X o qtcelrv W rapecrcaXev KaXWv XeLpo eX/cKcOv o7rwcr'r O v/uLO STOXp{LOS eov. Srp. y'. aCv1a&aXde7v Fav evfuapE 7'v 0 Tre TIHecrd-apov v7raXat ai~' a7ro r7apras. 'ALcXcaOLev yap i/3a ov7V 'OpeoTa, 35 AloX\ev TrpaTcav XaXcevrTEa &vp' adva'yov' 45 cKa 7vrap 'Io-LTvvov peoa'v ce/cpaCpevov,g cf. Madv. ~ 210 Bern. 1, Soph. Aiax 70, acyds d7redipwjo oV rpo'roiiv cloritev, Isth. I. 60. 24. -ydp.] 'For else.' eqa&vY o 5a.] Cf. Aristoph. Pax, 232, Kal 'yap e4 f a etY, |yP' dPzAr, [ Agxcet. These are accusatives of ' extent, range, sphere,' Madv. 31 c, like rb eJi'bv ppos, Tr car' ei/e: but instead of qualifying the action or state predicated, they qualify (make conditional) the predication, like an infinitive, e.g. /oicet eireiL acKOEivC, with or without Ws. Cf. Madv. ~~ 151, 168 b. rapac.] Here and in the next line to be taken after 86VpiLWVTwv, while aoXwd='had he gone (thither).' For the victor's return cf. Nem. r. 24, 01. vIII. 67-71, Pyth. viii. 81 —87. 26. Medicean Iss. &vd(i)o-ravr' by dittography. 27. Cf. Nem. x. 33, 01. xi. 57, 58, 01. xm. 40. 28. 7ropfvpeots.] Cf. Hor. Od. IV. 1. 10, p'rpureis odoribus. Like Xpvieos, 01. vmII. 1, Nem. i. 17, and elsewhere, rnope. = 'gleaming,' 'glistening,' 'rich-coloured.' 30. ayaOiz'.] 'Blessings of victory' (cf. 01. vII. 13) are of course included under the general term. et- eiaXov.] Tmesis. Frequentative aorist; so 0rape'crqa\Xv, and e&OK. v. 39. Render 'cast down from.' Kavraue/fqOe'vr'.] 'Disparaging.' 31. oKEiWo.] 'Proper,' 'within his reach.' 33. avujLiaXev.] 'Infer,' 'gather.' re.] Taken up by Kal v. 36, from 'AvLuKXaOev to davaywv being a parenthesis. For i/Lnev suppressed with 7rciXa a7rb ZErcpras of. Nem. x. 51. The Achaean Peisandros was said to have been driven from Sparta on the Migration of the )Drians into Peloponnesos and to have joined Aeolian emigrants from Boe6tia in that country, whence they sailed to Tenedos. 35. XaX\Er7Ea.] MSs. XaX\KerYTw (one XaC\KWJ re, -wP being expressed by a superscribed"). 36. In Thebes.

Page  124 124 PINDARI CARMINA. EK MeXavlrwrolto o LaTppwoo ' dpyaat 8' upeTal 'AIT. y'. ad4fiepovT ad\Xao'uLeva fyeveats avSpacv 0-04vo' ev arepp 8' oV'T' c'v JLNacvat Kap7rov eScocav apovpac, 50 40 8evSpea '" owe ee Xet raat ere' v repoaot avoso evw0eE 4f peiv 7rXovrcp Yrov, dXX' ev a/detl,8ovr,. icaL Ovarov ovr co? SOvoz a"yet 'Er. y'. puotpa. TO 8' e/ A9o? acv0pwJrovt CTaaa ovX eTreTra 55 reicJap' AXX etL7rav oeoyaXavpopiat9 cL/3 aivo/pev, 45 spra Te 7ro\\da.evotv&Jvrev c8eerat ryai p dvaltee 37. iK MIeavlrroto gIArp.] 'With the blood of a daughter of Melanippos.' 38. For sentiment cf. Nem. vi. 8-11. adcfppov-ac.] For the voice cf. Pyth. vi. fin., 0dpeaOai probably transitive. Here the compound means 'return, 'yield;' not 'raise up,' 'bring with them.' 40. oKs OedXei.] 'Are not wont.' L. and S. only give prose examples of this sense. Don. would render 0MXc as= - vtaaa here and Nem. viI. 90. irepo6ots.] For wrepL6ois, cf. repaCrarwv, Pyth. III. 52. 41. 7rXoUry'-'oov.] Dat. of manner; 'in equal abundance.' 42. ev dAFieovrt.] For the gerundive use, 'in alternation' (= dXXaoua/evai), of the active participle cf. Thuk. I. 142, iv ry gi ieXe\ErvTi, Madv. 180 B. Rem. 2, Soph. Oed. Col. 1219, OTayv Tis es rXieov werrv I roD 0\XoVros, Aristotle's TO avTLrre~rovOs. Compare our English confusion of abstract nouns in -ing with the participle (which originally in Saxon ended in -nd). Pindar's suppression of the article is noteworthy. Perhaps the usual expla nation given above is wrong and fret is to be supplied in thought from erewv. Kasa...ovUrs.] 'Even so.' 43. rod ' ieK Aids.] 'As for what comes from Zeus.' Cf. Nem. nI. 17, oro'a 6' &/e' cdOXots I Ttzo77,liat eoxcorairotL rpoX'yovTra.. For sentiment cf. 01. xn. 7, 8, Soph. Oed. Rex, 978, rpoivota 6' eoriv ovSevbs raq5ic. Isth. vni. 14, 15, Eur. Here. F. 62. 44. exiai'vo^ev.] 'We embark upon.' Metaphor from navigation followed up in v. 46. 45. Te. ] For the coupling of a participial clause to one containing a finite verb cf. Soph. Oed. Rex, 740, -bsv 8 AdCo ibY S(pvv I rit' eXe (ppaie, riva 6' aK/Cjv '4j7 fs fgwv. Also with the participle preceding 01. i. 13,14, 5p7rwo /ieY... i ayXatai'erat 6, Isth. I. 14, Aesch. Again. 97, rovrwv Xkecac' OTt Ical vsvarbv j Kal OBJt aiveiv, 7ratv re yeeoO Trio'6e eptivs.s': where however, as in Choeph. 547 (P.), re seems= ' accordingly' and is hardly copulative. In the present case I think the construction is Kara arsve'tv, as though AeyaXavopiats contained fJe-yahcvopes 6vTes. ie6erTa.] 'Constrained.' Perhaps

Page  125 [ NEMEA XI. ] Xr7trlL yvla' 7rpokaOdeac 8' dL7rofCEL'VTaL poat. KCepCEoV Sa XP" /peTpov 0O'IpevE6Jev' a7rpoolfrTo)v 8' epWTrOV ovTrepat zLavial. 125 6o a metaphor from a slave chained to the oar. Cf. Pyth. iv. 71, vrts 8 KivUSVOS Kparepois duaua vros 7raev CaXos; Pyth. IIn. 54, cdXXu KepSet Ktl aoqia 6Seerat (with which cf. Bakchyl. Frag. 4 (2), os 8' a'TraE el7reOT, Opprva KaC ruVKPapv Kp86OS avdOpWirwv [tarac). dvaYtSe.] ' Improbus, ' unconscionable,' 'unreasonable.' 46. rrpoLaOiacs.] Mezger and Postgate rightly join the genitive with poa. Men strive or drift in a variable, uncertain course, but foreknowledge, if they only had it, would bear them along steadily like a current. No doubt the mariners of Tenedos were familiar with and often grateful to the strong Hellespontine current. For the metaphor cf. 01. II. 33, poai 5' caX6r' cdiat elvOuVtUiY Te /ETaL Kal 7r6vIdv es ivSpas iflav. For the general sentiment cf. Solon, Frag. 13 [4], 65, Irrwt 5ei rot KivSvvos ge ' epy/caarw, oSfee res o Jfev | X o'jctiv E?\\~EL irp'wyJLaros dpyoXy vov. Theogn. 585. 47. For a more general statement of the doctrine of a,ierpov cf. 01. XIII. 46, t-re-ras 6' ev KCiary feirpov' voaatc 8l Kctp apbs dpsoos. Also Hes. W. and D. 692, Pyth. In. 34, Isth. v. [vI.], 71. 48. For general sentiment cf. Ner. II. 30. For /arvia cf. Theogn. 1231, oerXL' "Epws, AJaviat o' ErtOrnv'jaavcro Xa3ociras. So that Plato's classification of "'Epw under cuavia, Phiaedr. pp. 244, 245, was perhaps suggested by poetic diction. 6'.] Equivalent to aXXa. Cf. Soph. Ai. 12. o4vTepat.1 Don. refers to Matth. Gr. Gr. ~ 457, thus making it doubtful whether he would render the comparative by 'too' or ' somewhat,' 'rather,' or as merely equivalent to a positive. It clearly means 'too acute' in the medicaI sense of 'acute.' Cf. 01. vIII. 85.

Page  126 ISTHMIA I. ON THE VICTORY OF HERODOTOS OF THEBES IN THE FOUR-HORSE CHARIOT RACE. INTRODUCTION. HERODOTOS, son of AsBpod6ros of Thebes, was one of several Theban victors at some Isthmian festival of uncertain date. Some consider that As6pod6ros had been exiled from Thebes (vv. 36-38); but this supposition is not consistent with the most natural interpretatioh of the passage vtv. 34-46, and seems in particular to involve making his father's exile too prominent a topic introducing the most striking part of the ode. If HMrodotos himself had been exiled at the time of the Persian war as a young man of about twenty he would not be too old to act as his own charioteer (v. 15) in B. c. 458, 01. 80. 3 to which date Dissen refers the composition of the ode. He thinks that the alliance between Thebes and Sparta before the war in which the battles of Tanagra and Oenophyta were fought is figured in the association of Kastor and Ioltos vv. 16, 17 (but cf. Pyth. Ix. 59 ff. composed B.c. 478); that war is suggested by the allusion to GQry6n's Opao-eat KVYES (v. 12) (but Prof. Seymour justly remarks, agreeing with Don.-"This was the most distant point reached by Heracles, hence this clause means 'whose mighty deeds reached even to the ends of the world"'); and by a 7roXE~kLCv v. 50 (but see my note) so that the premises can hardly be said to be strong enough to carry Dissents conclusion. Leopold Schmidt on altogether insufficient grounds places the date between the third Isthmian and the fifth Nemean, that is, in the first period of Pindar's poetic activity. Pindar may merely intend to apologise for the slightness of the composition and the thinness of the senti

Page  127 ISTHMIA I. 127 ments when he mentions his engagement for the men of Keos. It is to be safely inferred from vv. 39, 40 that Herodotos was an aristocrat. (Mezger thinks the father was obliged to retire to Orchomenos through loss of property by actual shipwrecks, reading epeiuroLevov v. 16, a view which I cannot at all admit.) The main thread of the Ode is the enforcement and illustration of the glory conferred on the rrarpIs by a successful pursuit of dperi and the consequent reward of praise and remembrance due from fellow-citizens (cp. vv. 12; 17; 30, 31; 35; 40; 66, 67; 1-6; 43 —46; 50, 51; 67,68). This train of thought is peculiarly appropriate if HcIrodotos was reestablished at Thebes in consequence of this Isthmian victory, which may be inferred from vv. 39, 40. ANALYSIS. MV. 1-10 Invocation of Th6ba, with an apology for laying aside a poem for the men of Keos to compose an Athenian ode. 10-12 Since six prizes have fallen to Thebes. 12 -13 The birthplace of H1rakles. 14-16 In honour of Herodotos victory in the four-horse chariot race the poet is ready to compose a Kastoreion or ode of Iolaos. 17-31 The athletic prowess of Kastor and Iolaos. 32-40 Allusion to the victor's family and to his exile and return to good fortune. 40-52 General sentiments in praise of prowess and enterprise glancing at Herodotos. 53-59 Enumeration of some of his victories. 60-63 The scope of the ode prevents him proclaiming all. 63 Often what is not mentioned gives the greater satisfaction. 64-67 A hope that encouraged by poetic praises Herodotos may win at the Pythian and Olympian games. 67, 68 If any one hoards and finds fauilt with those who are lavish in pursuit of honour, he does not consider that he will die 'unhonoured and unsung.'

Page  128 128 -~~ 128 PINDARI CARMINA. Y-rp. a' Ma"TE9 e'af TO TEOV, Xp/fvitraG-mr Fi)8a, 7rpar/[ta Kaii aaXoXta9 vlrcpTEpo07 04ao/Lat. 1,t [.tot lepavaca VE/LEaaoact 5' T _ibXTEPOv KE3 VW TOKEW7)vda~ IEtov C)?ioxxamavtcs< p /JOT pa Tot XaptrcovI~V 1 r0TPC am'6 4'eU4C -rc'Xos,, Xpioartw.]I This epithet refers to a statue of Th~bdl, perhaps that which is mentioned in flag. 177 [207], cedppnre, xpv~ooXira',!epdrct-roi' cvaqTaua, Oiflla. For the prominence given here to the shield compare the shield on coins of Thebes. The hypothesis that the epithet has reference to a state of war mnust therefore be established independently, which I do not think possbe(see Introd.). For Th6bA, daughter of As~pos and Metbpb,, of. 01. viT. 84, 85. 2. r-payba.] 'Thy interests,' the requirements arising from the recent ]Isthmian victories of her children. daryokas.] ' A pressing engagement.' Plato, Phaedr. 227Ba, refers to this passage, o6K Cb' oflt /M Kran H1viPovP0 Kal (even) dayokias C'rsrprePOV VOL'CEO-Oat 76 O-cP7 Kai Aci-iou &arpt~q'tf drKouraat;-also Plutairch, de genic Socratis, p. 575 n, dcii aid drXoktas zhrfp-rcpov ego-Oat KTier 7-bP Hiviapov 7vi icpo t'XOc~v 4Eiii i-rI> &frw ' 4. AciXos.] D61os, as the birthplace of Apollo, was interested in the paean which was being composed for the Isle of Keos. The Schol. rashly states that it was to be sung at Bo~los. K6Xujcaz.] 'On which I have been pouring forth my soul.' Cf. Cie. Att. x. 18. 2, in qua....omnes profudli uires anirni atque ingqenit rnei. Disisen points out that K6X VjAdP0 (et 7-1, 7/iCC it) is generally used in a bad sense. 5. The claims of parents, i. e. in this case of Varipit, are paramount. A respectful apology is needfol to excuse his taking up a human theme, when engaged on a paean. The poet does not ask leave to postpone the paean, but prays to be excused for diverting his attention for a time from it. Possibly the real motive for the apology is vanity. To be chosen by the countrymen of Bakchylidis xvas a high compliment. See, however, Introd. 6. d'wroXhauoisd.] 'Beloved of Apollo.' The tutelary deity of D36 los is entreated to respect the poet's devotion to Th~b&t even as she appreciates the devotion of Apollo to herself. For the personification of. Pyth. vi. 6, xii. 2, 01. vii. 13, -14,_ Nem. i. 4, Frag. 64 [5-8]. Others explain Apollinea urbs, quoting Ovid, Met. xiii. 631. Xair. 'I shall combine the performance of both obligations' ('favours' is hardly respectful enough); cf. Pyth.:in. 72. The phrase ~-ci34at dkLgos, N~em. i. 7, is a different application of the metaphor. Dissen explains, wrongly in my opinion, utriusque hymnni (Isth. ini. 8) cum dhil perteranmftnernt.

Page  129 ISTHMIA I. 129 'AT-, a'. Kat ToV aKctpeKo/aP( Dopov xopevcov E v K e'o a' apVa O(V 7WOVTIOtS aPapaO-LP, Ical -rap axteplcca 1o-O/oi3 I0 0o actpa'r E7TE6 tTfa\ -TcvovS o dwao-ev Ktquov a-TpaT6(9 c aE1O/ov, KaXXPLUKCO VTa7-p~t KVcoS. 6v 4 Kabl tpY El/LavroP 'A-X/kyPa TE'KEZ 'Ew. a'. 7TaL&a, Opaoe-aa TOP 7T0OT Thqpvo'a Opi'av KVPVESI. 15 ~ix' byci 'HpoUTW ` TEVXOJP To\ JLE\ V /.pltTt, TE0t7 —r7 y7pas-, 7. dKELp.] "Milton's ' unshorn Apollo."' Prof. Seymour. XopeUvwv.] 'Composing a choral ode for'-is what is meant, but he represents himself as the XopTyos, Kopviatos. Cf. L. and S. s.. v. opeVw ii. 2, where Eur. H. F. 871 is placed wrongly instead of under ' II. Causal.' The Schol. says that Pindar was asked by the men of Keos to compose a paean to be sung at Delos, inferring the place of recitation from v. 3, eK T70oroV 8\Xov, o5r els AAXov fypaqpe Keiots, but from v. 8 it is clear that the ode was to be recited in Keos, perhaps in the principal temple of Apollo at Kartheia, in the xopr-yeov of which Athenaeos tells us (p. 456 F) that Simonides, who was perhaps dead at the date of this ode, was for some time %opo3doa-KaXos. The Schol. however on v. 9 says Kac Vcrrepov aol rciaXv rb'v eriiKov (Bdckh alters to i Pvov) carodwodw. Hartung and Mezger argue from ieriv'tov that the ode for Keos was not a paean, but epinikian. But all this e7rivcKov can effect is to nullify the testimony of the Schol. Pindar's language decides in favour of the paean. F. II. 9. 'aXepKEa.] Cf. Pyth. I. 18; here 'barring sea from sea.' The epithet seems to be in contrast to d/aqipvrrq. Observe the hiatus, -ea 'IJo-tov, cf. infra, vv. 16, 32, 01. vII. 74. HArodotos was clearly one of several (from four to six) Thebans who had won prizes in the recent Isthmian games. 11. crparo.] L. and S. rashly say 'since Homer o-r. always means the soldiery, the people, exclusive of the chiefs.' Now, Pyth. II. 87, 6 Xdipos ro-par-s means 'the democracy,' in Pyth. I. 86, iI. 55, Hiero, in Nem. I. 61 Amphitry6n is excluded. But no such exclusion is intended here, nor in 01. Ix. 95, 01. x. 17, Nem. x. 25. 13. Kvves.] It must remain a question whether Orthros is made plural in consideration of his two heads or whether Pindar is following an unknown version of the myth. 14. AXX'.] The poet checks himself in the praise of Herakles. Prof. Seymour points out that here, and Nemn. i. 33, Isth. v. 19, ei-y introduces the transition to a myth. Cf. also 01. ix. 21, xIm. 49, Pyth. I. 42, ix. 103. 9

Page  130 130 PINDARI CARMINA. 15 dvia ' aXX0orp['at; oii 0 E XE JtoImacv'ra- ' WOE 20 ij KaTTopdcp A7 IOIaiot' 'vap 6' oat 1%tv V'tuo).~ icEiOot ryap 77poowv 8tbpqxarat AaxKEsatwLovt OaI0atq IETEKCJ6oeV GpavTtC-T7t' 25 1~,p. /3' e a dxoue b tityov a7XEW'TWV aywvwv, '8eptrOactcv E&O7J/tJkaV icab rpmo cav 80'/dr.taav GdCov 20 icaLZ XE/3j7TEOO-LP 4taR~aw-& 'e XPUQOV 7EVO/J~E1JOL o'r~/ dkaw ' 6 For reVtxwv...EdXo re cf. 01. I. 14, &prdwv leY...t7Xalt-eramt, Isth. II. 12, Aesch. Agam. 97, eSaaa... 7raio'v re 'yeso, and with the verb before the participle Nem. xi. 44, 45. For /v —re cf. Nem. II. 9, 01. iv. 15. Prof. Seymour takes To Aev ='partly.' For dp/Lart dat. after yepas cf. 0. and P. p. xxxvii. Dissen and others, regardless of the order, compare double datives such as those at 01. II. 14 f., Pyth. vnI. 2 (on which I wrongly gave this verse as a parallel case in 0. and P.), infra, vv. 61, 62. TrevXwv...'yepas = making (-theode-on)-the victory;' the theme is put in the place of the composition, as occasionally with irorw. This reasonable assumption saves the passage from the charge of corruption. For TeuXXwv cf. infra v. 67, 'working,' 'causing (honour).' Or is it 'making for Herodotos the gift due to the chariot'? 15. vYw/dacavT'.] Ace. agreeing with bAy. 'For that he managed the reins with no alien hands.' Note that X\XoTp. ov0 Xepo-=oSK cdiorp. Xepai. 16. 'IoXaoc'.] Mss. -dov, but cf. 01. xIIi. 35, Ner. ix. 55. evaplcatu.] Cf. Isth. vI. 20, Nem. IIn. 11, 12, for the kind of phrase. The strain of Iolaos was probably a variety (perhaps Theban) of the 'ir-rtos VO6los, the Kao-r6petov being another variety of the same, cf. Pyth. II. 69. As Iolaos was charioteer to H6rakles (Schol.), perhaps an 'IoX. ipAV. was sung in honour of an actual charioteer, as v. 15 suggests. Iolaos and KastOr are mentioned together in a Theban ode, Pyth. xi. 59. Were H6rakles and Iolaos Theban Dioskuroi? 17. irTKV. KpaLrtroe.] 'Were the best that were born.' For the predicative adjective containing the most emphatic idea cf. Isth. iI. 12, Nem, x. 32. 18. gv r ad0Xoiro.] Cf. 01. VI. 7, xiii. 51, Nem. I. 34, II. 32, infra vv. 34, 57. Mezger, quoting Friese, Pind. p. 28, joins ev with the dat. to 0yovy here; to eariKvpaldt (so Dissen), 01. vI. 7; to 7rp6o'opov, Nem. vnIi. 48; to dpapora, 01. xi. [x.] 82. In the last case I give the same construction but suggest another as preferable; in 01. vI., Nem. viI. I altogether disagree. For the prizes mentioned Dissen compares II. xxIi. 264 ff. Elsewhere Pindar has a dat. after OLy-; cf. the similar phrase aGperais 0-yoto-a, Pyth. vIIi. 22. Notwithstanding the accent of the participle 01yov is a frequentative aorist. 20. Xpuvro.] For gen. of material cf. Pyth. iv. 71, 206. 21. yEvsvojeot.] So two (the old Vatican and Munich) inss. The rest aevd/oevoo. Cf. Ner. vi. 25, Isth. Iv. 20.

Page  131 ISTHMIA I. 131 vtKaCJopWo' Xa/a7~reE 8 ac a f'rs apera 30 eV Te Yv/jVOtlb ( TalovS o4IftLv (V T aOcr7rtSt 8ov7rotL'v oTrXrra9 S3po'pot'A 'Avr. i3. ola re %eprtv aEcovrtioVrT aE Xgasa, 25 Kcal \XtOlvots O'TO r eV f(Tco rZev. ov cyap 9rv WrevTac0\to) a, XX' e eIcaTrT epy/aLaTt KceTo TreX?. r7v dOpooS dv3ryv'c/erot Oca ebctL 35 epvreov xairas' peeOpoto-t e AlpKca ecavev cal rrap E vpa 're'Xa, 'ET. 3'. 30 'IJbCXEO9 / aLv 7vra,? o/o8aCxos EzWv v7rapri3v yeveL, 40 Tvv8aplSa 8' rv 'AxyaocLS vtrL7reo0v Oepawr'vas olcecov 22. YtKaJopwv.] 'Brought by victory.' Cf. 01. xIIi. 15, note. Xdau7ret.] Cf. Pyth. xi. 45, 01. I. 23. 23. 6orXirats.] Cf. Eur. Electra, 442, daartirTal aOx0Oot. For yvfUvoiri, which is in contrast to dacr-8., cf. Thuk. i. 21, Pyth. xi. 49; for the causative use cf. Nem. vii. 61. 24. Mezger takes 'ev also in this line as well as in the next without inserting with Dissen after old re"feXaF/jev d pe-d c oitoiv 6 ro6'," making ola='How' exclamatory (cf. 01. Ix. 89, 93, Isth. v. 62); but I prefer 'and as to the casts they made'; Kal coupling ev clO-Kois to aKOVTitovres. For the dat. aiX/as 'with javelins,' cf. Nem. i. 18, 01. xi. [x.] 72; alcXi- is probably derived from the root IK (Schleicher). 25. ev 5tiKOti.] 'In hurlings of the discus.' Dissen quotes Xenoph. Memorab. iII. 9. 2, fev 7reXrats Kal daKovriLS... ' r6Tots...ta7-ywuvieOat, cf. also Pyth. xi. 46, ev p/aicI KaXMiiKOF, 'in chariot-races.' Mss. give d07rre without ev. 26. wrevTcaeXioo.] For form cf. Pyth. vIIi. 66. The first invention of the pentathlon was said to have occurred during the Argonautic expedition. Cf. Schol. Apoll6n. Rhod. iv. 1091. But Prof. Seymour quotes Od. viII. 123 ff., where the contests in the special exercises of the pentathlon are still separate. 27. KelTr.] Pass. of TO07u/t, cf. 01. I. 85, Nem. x. 48. r-X\o.] 'Prize.' Cf. 01. xI. [x.] 67, Pyth. ix. 118. 28. -rcv.] Sc. arefivcowv, from Xcd/aTre to Kceio TrOoS being a parenthesis. 29. 95avev.] For ebdivr-av. For position of prep. cf. Pyth. ii. 11, Nerm. ix. 14. 30. 'If. 7racs.] Iolaos. Mrap-rcTv.] The 'sown' men who sprang from the dragon's teeth. 31. TvvSaplias.] Kastbr, son of Zeus, putative son of Tyndareus. 5viire8ov.] Lit. 'lofty-sited''highland.' Cf. Ner. x. 47. olK4wv.] A spondee. For adjectival use of participle cf. Nem. iv. 29, vii. 65, Isth. iii. 5, 37. 9-2

Page  132 134 PINDARI CARMINA. Xablppe. Keye) 8T Iloa'eLSaOU r' Io' 0-o Te 'aOe'a 'OYXraLat-v r 'o aiorearo-tv 7repL-TrreAXkW aoSaZv yapvo/oLa6t TOv8' dcSp6o Ev TtLCoa'tv dcyacK\ea 'Aow7ro8oSpov wTaTpos acoav Y.Tj 45 Tav 50 P. 7. 35 0PXO1U."oi-7t Te 7warpcsv apovpav, a1 EtV pepeto/keJoP v'avaytatts e alETerp?7Tas a 01; EV KPUOcpra7 &~~CtTO (UVVTVX IW~ viv 8' aVTL'T oppXalis' E7re/3aae 7TO'T/0 55 40 TV~yEfvijS EIudL-teptaS 6 -rovriaag- 86 VOW Katc wpo/-k Oetav cepe~. 32. Xaipere.] Addressed to the heroes, the topic of whose praise is thus dismissed. Dat. commodi, ' in honour of.' 33. At Onch6stos on the shore of Lake KbpAis was a temple of Poseid6n. Cf. Isth. in. 37. 7repo-TXXwcv.] Metaphor from the toilette, of. Nem. xi. 15. 34. yapvi'ocac.] A true case of a middle fut. of a verb of sound. Note Y77pvw. 4ayaKXia.] Part of predicate, ' as right glorious.' aac-a.] ' Career,' cf. Nem. vY. 49. 35. 'OpXotWevoi o.] Gen. after dpovpav, Irarp cav being predicative. 36. Vtv.] AsSpod6ros (Mezger). Dissen is clearly wrong in referring it to the father. EpeiaoUeov. ] Hartung, epeltr. needlessly. Don. renders 'driven ashore.' But as 'driving people ashore alive' is not a specific or an usual function of shipwreck, it would hardly be attributed thereto in a metaphor. Bender-' hard pressed.' He was shipwrecked in the ' fathomless brine,' i. e. factiontorn Thebes, and swam to shore, i.e. fled to Orchomenos. The plural Yauayiais expresses more than As6 - podoros' own misfortune, including those of his friends. Mezger takes vavaytiais literally. 39. iwijrace.] Supply vtV from v. 36. Cf. II. viII. 285, for metaphor from horses or chariots, rO3 Kal r-jX60' eovra euiK\eirf7 7 erij8T7ov. The aorist is apparently idiomatic, referring to the time of the lately won victory, on the strength of which Herodotos was probably restored to Thebes. 7rOTJLos vTyyeYi7s.] Cf. Nem. v. 40. 40.' o 7rovaoats.] A variation on,rdOeiL idOos, Aesch. Again. 177, Schol. 6 7radwv Kac r(T v y irpovOiq's yi7veTra. 'He who hath endured, brings accordingly fore-knowledge to his mind,' i.e. adds fore-knowledge to his other mental powers; Kad is rightly placed to emphasize the connection between wr6oos and irpoPLidOeta. Perhaps the poet means that lHrodotos has learnt wisdom by experience and is therefore not likely to incur unpopularity again. /epel.] The past experience is a store whence at any time he can draw the basis of fore-knowledge; thus the present tense is appro

Page  133 ISTIIMIA I. ta'pca'rt IcaTa'Ketrat 7rcttav op 'yav, Xpy1 v"' EpovTeo-o-tv ayazvopa K1O/Jr01 [U),Oovcpat'at cepetv 43 avc,aa. e7Tet Kcovka 8oot9 avp? Icxofrj^ 1 3. 'Arr. r/._ 6o priate. Here 7rpoyiiOeca means ' the faculty of fore-knowledge' so that, as in Nem. iii. 18, the present 95ipc contains a reference to the past, ' hath won for and adds to.'I Dissen's O~pe, tXEL is only partly right, while in Nem. iii. 30 Opipewi does not = gxep hut Ito hear,' ' endure.' The activepe/'pw is used indifferently with OE'porae, hut here, r6wp heing reflexive, the active is natural. Cf. Nem. vi. 15. 41. Kard~craiat.] Xenoph. De Ven. x. 8, eLi3 7o-07ov 7-251 o'pY-q'P Ka-i~eTo, e~ftnidere solet, seems the nearest parallel, apera being a dot. terinini. 'If he (6' 7roy 'o-ats) be expended, every impulse of him, on distinction.' Hermann's aipera& (cf. Isth. iv. 17) cannot stand with rac-ac Sp-yd'v. Hartung's kcaraO v-ii re. moves none of the real difficulty. Dissen explains the verb as nearly equivalent to 9IYKEStcrS, 6E7ri'KCiri, inezembit. Kayser proposed Aper&... ir~ac-i Odp-ych. It is clear that rrdeava ip-yaiw is an ace, of reference, not = -srdi-ra rpo'wov (Schol.). For sentiment cf. Isth. iv. 22. There is no need to supply Tt3 (of. 01. vi. 4, Nem. vir. 16). Prof. Seymour's rendering of tpe-ra, ' excellence and the praise for excellence,' only errs in being too precise. The wvord cannot convey at one time with equal vividness the subjective and objective phases of an idea or ta fact and its consequence. He quotes Theognis 29, 30, where alp6 -TIEs is 'credit for virtues' rather than ' rewards for virtue;' Soph. Elect. 626, Opcio-os J1 -ro5' 0luK dXzi tessg, where the causal genitive gives ' the punishment of,' so that the citation is irrelevant; 01. vii. 89, -Eur. Med. 297, where the notion of reputation for bravery, idleness is predominant; and OId. xiv. 417, K' MTaOP MltVe-, ' eat the fruit of (our) toil,' which is only remotely relevant. 42. ciieb'cpov. ] Cf. 01. i. 104, vi. 17. 8awcis'acg.J Dat. of reference, or sphere of action (state). 43. &iydvepa stcourop.1 'Praise for thorough-manliness.' Cf. Iath. iv. 24. 44. Dissen explains rightly; those who differ from him have got wild. The key to the passage is to recognise Pindar's (and others') irregularity in giving a general apedosis to a particular protasis (of. Pyth. xi. 41-44, Nem. iv. 79-84) or vice versa (Pyth. xi:. 54, 55, Eur. Orest. 566-570). Here indeed the protasis is not exactly particular but only less general than the apodosis. The construction is Xp'' O/JpGoi Klliwov cVp6v-reooi- (dat. of remote objeet after Oipuv) vt' (&pe-ra', direct objeet after sbVpdrr6LCeo-, cf. 01. vii. 89, i-b4, 'perai'p ev'ppiira). bu) 950ocepailn.] The negative is to be taken with the adjective as in 11cm. viir. 37. 45. KO q0a 66creg.] Cf. Eur. Bacch. 893, KOiJ(Pa 'yip aasrh'Ma ceosi~e iYXVPi 7-613' 9XL r 07-i x'aiipa -rb 3atav~pl c-o9nk 'For a poet,' as usual in Pindar.

Page  134 134 PINDARI CARMINA. dvarl iXO0"o 7ravroYatr, v 67r E7rOrvr dyaOodv.vvov opOJaaa KaXOv. 'ET. y'. fLtcOo d ap 5aXXoe XXo bS' 6 etpy /acrv advporrots yXvfC;,V 65 qXo35l-ra r' Cdp T, r prX' pvXoX6x e tKa ov T~roTro rTpE Lt. fyaao-Tpl &8 Trd Ts r Uicvwv \Xov alavrj rerarata 70 50 o9 8' aJ4c ai0X0o9 i) ro\~ei tv apraat Kcv0o0 ua/3p6v, esaayoprOe; xcep8o9 vfwtroTov ecKerab, 7roXtaTav fca\ Ycvwv Xoy\Wacra a2Wrov. 75 Srp. 8'. aduc SC' olce Kpovov o'eco'lxOov' vov 46. 7raTvroaa7r&.] This form is apparently on analogy from tdXoe7roS- iue8- avrbs where the 6 recalls the 'basic' d of Skt. pronominal compounds. For the -ros query cf. Lat. -quus in antiquus, propinquus, &c.? For davr cf. Isth. iv. 25. ebr6vr'.] Accusative. For the change of case cf. Isth. v. 21, L. and S. s.v. ccrvrt, Matth. Gr. Gr. ~ 536 obs.; and without an infinitive Soph. El. 480, Ue'Tcrl Aot Op&dao -KcXiovcav, on which Jebb quotes Aesch. Pers. 913, VXXvTat exvsy yvULw pWdLi7...cSi6vvr', Eur. Med. 810, cot 6...-rdciXovo-av. We have another slight variation in Aesch. Again. 1588 [P] ovUr KaXo'v t Kal T0 KaTOavefv spol, | i6'vra riVTOV rTis &KrS v SpKeaTv.. i. 8 —10, o roXi50a-ros vivou s ajpi3tpX\\Xe-a asoLv j U7flcees, KeXas&e... icKOJievoVS, is slightly different from the two cases in the Isthmians, as the infinitive is that of result and comes between the substantive and the participle. See also note on Isth. III. 11, 8eSadya06v.] Exactly our 'good word.' tvvov.] Cf. Pyth. ix. 93. pOcoae-s.] Cf. Pyth. Iv. 60, 01. III. 3. 47. jt-0t6s.] Observe the position. ' Remuneration, differing for different employments.' 49. 86.] 'For.'. The poet seems not to think of hunting as a regular means of livelihood. aicavi.] ' Teasing,' ' galling.' This epithet suggests a persistent annoyance. Cf. Pyth. I. 83, Isth. III. 2, epith. of K6pos. rTaract.] 'Is intent upon'keeping off.' 50. Prowess in games and war are appropriately coupled as the chief Tritat perai, cf. 01. vi. 9 ff. For sentiment and ipv-rat KV8os cf. Nem. Ix. 46. Here substantial Kop5os is implied by calling Ke6OS, &e. 'the highest gain.' os adprat.] Cf. Goodw. ~ 63. 51. dwTov.] Cf. O1. II. 7, Pyth. x. 53, Isth. vi. 18. 52. Poseid6n of Onchestos the neighbour - of the Thebans. Cf. Isth. III. 37.

Page  135 ISTHMIA I. 135 7yELTO0 (J/ELIopaevots evep7erav aptabTV v I7TWro7pOJ0UoY KeXaSycat, 55 Kcal oe'E0, 'APLbtrpvwV, 7ralSa TTrpoa'e7re'v, 'rv Mvtra Te LUvXov 80 Kal To Aaupdarpo tXAvrov aXroo 'EXeuvalva icat El/I3oav ev yvafr.'Toti^ pO/po.', IlpwrTeolXa, 7T 7TV O ' cdvspov 'AXat^ov ev'cpvXadca -repevo cTv/L/3aiAXo/Lat. 60 rdvaoa a' 6eetrerv,) o'' doywsvo 'EptaEI 'Hpo8o'r' 6Vropev 'Avr. 8'. 85 t7Tr7TO, daatpetrat /3pazv perpov ewO v/tbvo,. 7 fJLav 7'roXXac/cI fca To e aeawraLeLov ev)Ovu/,av ~Le W oepeC. 53. ' Our neighbour, in return for his beneficence,' i.e. in granting the victory. 54. 'To celebrate...as lord of the horse-race with chariots.' 55. Kal.] Couples the games of Isthmos to Boeotian games which are coupled by re to each other, and again by Kal to the games of Eleusis and Euboea. Cf. 0. and P. pp. xxxvii-viii. HIrakles and Iolaos were patrons of the great Theban games, the former the putative son, the latter the grandson of Amphitry6n (oaOev 7ramas). 56. Does this mean the famous Treasury of Minyvs at Orchomenos (cf. Nem. vi. 27) or i.q. /uvXos, Nem. x. 42? Certainly Orchomenos was in neither a corner nor a recess. Funeral games in honour of MinyAs were held near his tomb. Paus. ix. 38. 3. 57. ev yvaajrrros 8p6jtoti.] To be taken with irpoo'-ereiY,' in the sphere of,' a propos of bent race-courses;' cf. supra v. 18. The epithet has especial reference to the frequent turns in the chariot race, cf. 01. vi. 75. Similarly Eur. Iph. in Tawr. 81, apoJLovs re 7rO\XXo0s tS&7r\qoa Kayri — f.a0s. 58. '.] ' Also.' Not quite the usual 8i after a vocative. The poet adds (o-ua3aciXX.) the shrine by which, at Phylak6 on the Pegasaean gulf, the sepulchral games in honour of the hero Pr6 -tesilAs were held. 60. dSetireip.] Cf. Nem. Iv. 33. For absence of /ei after adfatpetra& cf. Nem. xi. 23. aycvtos.] Cf. 01. vi. 79. 62. ibr7roS.] Additional dative of closer specification, cf. 01. II. 14, Eur. Herc. Fur. 179, I'iyaoi rIXevpo's 7rriv' evapfoLaas P3ie, Aristoph. Equites, 503, U'ses 3' btiv Trpo6aoere rois v ow ros ci vatratcr0oL, Od. XII. 266, Kal t grOL fITO rea-e OvpCl. aoatpei-raL.] In this sense, 'prevents,' takes '/ in Trag. For sentiment, cf. Pyth. iv. 247, wpa,yap crvviTrret, where I should now compare Eur. Supp. 566, 1014. 63. ' dUv —Kai.] ' Verily ofttimes that which is wrapped in silence actually brings more satisfaction.' 7roXX/cK.] According to the pre

Page  136 136 PINDARI CARMINA. 'Er. 3'. e6r? fUlv ev(o)Yvwv 7rTepv/efro-v adepevr dyXaa E 90g 65 Ii epi3wv E7tL Kca' IHvO ev 'OX\v7rLaS&ov T etatpe7rot9 'AXbeovU Epveo-Lt (paat Xbpa TLJlav e7rTa7rvaXovs 95 Oej3iao-t TeV;XovT'. el u4 Tv9 evov v/ et 7TXoV'TOV icpvbaltov, AXXoLaL (38 e/tL7riTrTCov T yE, vvXyav 'Atiaa TreXev ov3 OpaJeTat, 860ts aYevOev. 100 vailing theory not a case of loss of final o (s), but a form without the casual s of troXXaKts. TO 0eOwwCrafiYvov.] For form cf. 01. xII. 91. The poet means that often it is politic to say least about the very success which is most pleasing and satisfactory. If Thebes and Athens were at variance, a victory at Athens would be a case in point, and would bring satisfaction as an earnest of Olympian victory. Cf. Nem. x. 35. Some edd. alter to 'reoyatalzYov. 64. e'Vi itv.] mtss. /tv^. For phrase cf. 01. I. 115, Pyth. I. 96, Nem. vII. 25, Aristoph. Aclharn. 1079, Od. ii. 310, xvi. 243; and with pronoun suppressed Pyth. i. 29. For sentiment cf. Pyth. v. 114, vmii. 25, Nem. vii. 22, Theognis, 237, crol /jv cYjy 7rr4p' 96oKa, criY ots 67r' aireipova rvirovrov I 7rrT' Kat 7yv r-acrav cideipdevosp}fry3tlS. The wings of the Muses are songs; there is no need to suppose that Pindar regarded the Pierian goddesses as winged. Isth. III. 27, uaprvpla o05as are borne on the air, dT-ral. 65. rTc Kai.] ' Besides also.' HIvOwoev.] MSS. IIvo06ev. eatcpdrots.] Cf. Nem. x. 32; it only qualifies'OXviwr. fpv. 66. oppatcu.] Perhaps 'fill to the full,' cf. farcio. 67. revXoovr'.] Cf. supra, v. 14, revuXW 'ygpas. v/iCet.] Schol. aLroraiitevlciLe~,os,, 'lay up,' an uncommon sense of v4rCw. Perhaps 'lords it over' is what was meant. Kpvipaiov.] For sentiment cf. Nem. I. 31. 68. 'But inveighs against and jeers at others (who, like Herodotos, do not do so), he considereth not that he will render up his soul to Hades without honour.' Cf. Pyth. xi. 57, Nem. vIII. 36, Theognis, 243, OTcav &voep7js rob KeuOeftI "ctars I pfs 7 roXVKWKVTovs elI 'Atiao S0d/ovs, ov6e dOr' ov5e Oav'v cdroXeis KX\OS, aXXg L.LeXo'eiCs I aq6OTrov avOpwcrots aiiv 'gXv O VO'Lva. Tre~ew.] Perhaps future, in spite of reXeo-e Nem. iv. 43, and Prof. Seymour. For the debt of nature Cookesley quotes Hor. A. P. 62, Debemur morti nos nostraque. For the participle cf. 01. vi. 8, fuTw... Xowv, Nem. xi. 15.

Page  137 ISTHMIA II. ON THE VICTORIES OF XENOKRATES OF AKRAGAS WITH THE FOUR-HORSE CHARIOT. INTRODUCTION. THE position of the Isthmian victory, vv. 13-16, before the Pythian victory justifies the classification of this ode among the Isthmia. But we cannot determine whether the celebration of Xenokrates' three victories by his son Thrasybulos had any special connection with an Isthmian festival, as Pindar had already composed an ode, Pyth. vI., in honour of the Pythian victory, and may merely for this reason haie given prominence to the Isthmian. For the victor's family and the chronology cf. 01. II. Introd. Don. gives both B.c. 478 and B.c. 476 as the date of this Isthmian victory, whereas 01. 75. 4, B.c. 477, is probably right. This victory is mentioned in 01. II. 50, which was composed B3.c. 476. This Isthmian ode was probably composed after Theron's death in B.c. 473, certainly after Xenokrates' death. Donaldson and Cookesley both say that Theron is spoken of as dead, which is hardly accurate. However vv. 43, 44 make it likely that he was dead and the democracy either established or expected. The rhythm is Dorian. ANALYSIS. v2. 1-5. Poets of old freely sang of their favourites. 6-8. For the Muse was not yet an artizan, nor were songs for sale. 9-11. But now we must regard the saying of the Argive'Money makes the man.' 12-22. Verbumn sap. Famous are the victories of Xenokrates who won the chariot-race at Isthmos, Pytho, and at Athens, thanks to Nikomachos,

Page  138 138 PINDARI CARMINA. 23-28. Whom the Elean truce-bearers knew and welcomed to Olympia, 28, 29. Where the immortals gave honour to Aengsidamos' sons. 30-32. Accordingly their homes are familiar with songs of triumph. 33, 34. It is easy to utter praises of men of high renown. 35-42. Praise of Xenokrates' popular disposition, his horsebreeding, and his hospitality. 43-48. NikAsippos is enjoined to tell Thrasybulos not to be deterred by the envy of the commonalty from rehearsing his father's distinction and the odes he (Nikasippos) has charge of, for they were not composed to lie idle. Trp. a'. 0 /LEV 7raXat, Opa, Opavoue) dcre o' XpvafJLtr vi'v 6 &'8fpov Moticr-2Jv 3atvov cKXvra f6ppLyyt avvav7Touevot, pYAoa 7ratelovS? C'EVov tLtLXL'ycpvact 4L voU% 0O77tL ECOJV KaXos' ezXev 'A4Apo'Ta9 5 ev povov livaCuretpav a) G-Trav orwopav. 5 'Arr. a'. a' Mot'-a rdp ov; 4mXoKep8 ' r 7to roT' 7V ov' CPY7t7S 10 1. o.] rMSS. o'Cot. XpuVca/AtcKwv.] Cf. Pyth. IIT. 89. 2. &ifpov Mot-av.] Cf. 01. Ix. 81, Pyth. x. 65, Isth. vII. 62, and for the identification of the Muses' car with a victor's chariot, cf. 01. vi. 23. ovvavrou evot.] Cf. 01. II. 96. Lit. 'coming into contact with,' i.e. 'taking up.' 3. p'0'ta.] 'Freely.' Metaphor from the regular unrestrained motion of a body flying through the air. L. and S. mislead as to the derivation by adding ippitqxa to piwrr for 9pptqxUat < c ppt7r-iat, while jtp/- is a nasalised and aspi rated form of pt7r. For the aspiration of. Kpvfa. 7ratLetovs.] 'Addressed to youths.' e6roevov.] Cf. 01. I. 112, Nem. II. 65, vi. 27, Ix. 55. 4. 6Srcs.] The antecedent is contained in -ratieovs. 5. daYcretpav.] Cf. Pyth. xnI. 24, vdO/LO, eSKX\eC XCaoo'wPv /yvaorrip' dycbvwv. 67rpav.] Cf. Nem. v. 6. Alkaeos, Frag. 61, repbvas v0Oos 6'rrpas. 6. a Moa.] Not Terpsichore, muse of lyric poetry, Mezger, but Erato, von Leutsch. epyarts.] 'A hireling.' The Schol. says that Simonidbs was the first

Page  139 ISTHMIA II. 139 ovzX' e71-pvaavro 7XVKIetUat /dXLbOyOyot TrO7t Tcp~JLqopam apyvpo)Oe-tctt 7rpo'cYo7ra /LLXaaKbc0ovot aotsal. vvv 8' 'Jfbirt To' T(Op7EIOV OvXuaiLI 5 Iofp`7. a.XaOdeal Uo&v dayXLc7Ta /awvov, 'E7r. a'. xarwa XpyyaT avrp, SO KTecWp 04a XebeL'19 ycap llhwvT eco'l 7ap co(Civ 0-000", OV'IC a',Y1wU"7) d',618 poet to take pay, quoting Kallimachos, o0 yap eptyaCirv rpw ( o 7\ rv Movaav c's o Ke?o 'T\XiXov Pvtrovs. 8. dpyupwOe'oaa.] 'With silvered brow,' i.e. with meretricious adornment such as a slave-dealer would dress out females with for sale. Dissen's explanation is rendered by Don. 'With hire in their looks.' For the participle cf. Nem. x. 43. 9. eiq5tpl7.] Doric for 6diqrt. Terpsichor6 is the subject. rewpyeiov.] Aristodemos. Mezger thinks he was an Argive who migrated to Sparta, but the Schol. says that he was a Spartan, quoting Andr6n of Ephesos as enumerating Aristodemos of Sparta among the seven wise men, and also Alkaeos, "f2 ycp br 7rori faacrL 'Apcrra'dSyuov | ev 2wrapr~ Xd6yov OVK a7rciXabvov eireiv' xp?,uar' dvi'p, 7reLvtpos 6e ovBels 7irerT' erois o1vJ rifjos. This I read thus from eireiv (which was probably ei'crzv as also "Os was "'s and paotv Obaiorwv)-Xp-tzara XPju"iar' dvirp, revtXpos 6' ap' ouSei | — ' Xer' eoXos ov6e I rtleuoS. Perhaps we may restore ovierror' at the beginning of v. 4 from Suidas, who s.v. Xprjara quotes apparently another form of the proverb Xp'uarr' cdvp, TresvXPoS 6' O3TroT' 4eOX\Os. Bergk, Frag. 50, alters the order, to accommodate the metre to that of the Stasiotica, Frag. 15 [1], thus "2O 7yp 65Tror' 'ApLcrr66SatO6v aUSr' otK w7rdiXaxvov ev Z7rdpr. X67yov I etrrv' Xpi/ar' dvip, irevtXpbes ' otbels reXer' eTrX\b o668 ritIos. The Schol. explains 'Apyelov as being used in the Epic sense =' Peloponnesian.' 10. dXaOeias 6ow&.] Cf. Pyth. in. 103, el 86 v6Po rte txet Ovarcv aXa0elias O6Ov, cf. 'the way of truth,' Psalm cxix. v. 30. Hermann filled up a lacuna presented by the Mss. with 6cvs, Bergk by eras adjective = 'real' from a Schol. on 11. r. 133, which gives iTsr (from ew rTO VTrpXw, q l) =eTreo, aiXyqOys. faisov.] 'Because it goeth.' 11. os.] Demonstrative, as in Attic os 6' &r^1. For sentiment Cookesley quotes Horace, ' Nil satis est, inquit, quia tanti quantum habeas sis. Odca.] B13ckh; MSS. 0' dia. Cf. 01. i. 17 note. Xea Oets.] Cf. Soph. Antig. 548, Kai ris f3si s fiot erou XeXe/cd&vy qiXos. 12. eo-s 7yiap cwv 'of6os.] Verbum sapienti sat. 'I need not say more explicitly that my engagements for pay have prevented my sending you this ode before.' The poet does not mean that Thrasybulos would not pay him, but that if he had been composing for love, Thrasybulos would have come high on Pindar's list; whereas under existing conditions his commission has had to await its turn for execution. -yap iv.] These particles have almost the force of cdaXX yp: but whereas iXhX is, as usual, adversa

Page  140 PINDARI CARMINA. 140 15 Awpoiw az -, 77- efxzwtta ocd 7tE[L77ev aiiveuoat co 'lvw, 20,-,p. 313. evaplJaTrov aIvpa y epaipcv, 'A Kpayav r Wv r' 0 25 ev Kploa 8' uepvao-OevT) aX^tav. tive, ov is half continuative, half dismissive. ' Well then as you are a man of understanding (I declare withoutmore ado that) right famous is the Isthmian victory-in-thechariot-race that I sing.' He implies that though his praise is bought, it is genuine beyond dispute (cf. 0. and P.p. xxxvii.). Cf. infra, vv. 33, 34. For the dative 7r7rotLt cf. Pyth vI. 17, Isth. II. 16. OVK a&yvrT'.] So Mommsen after the oldest Vatican is. VuLZg. yw. For the predicative adjective cf. Isth. r. 17. Note the recurrence of OVK ay'vi- v. 30. 15. KOdua.] The dative after ore)civuwaa. The verb davaaeo-'Oa takes the accusative. Cf. Nem. xi. 28. Bergk's alteration of avMrU to avlo is due to the Schol. eois ovY Ta "ITo~Bita a-ywtvoofevoes o'XLVov npo, d o-reeavos, v ypob 66e ros Tr Neiuea. Cf. a Schol. prefatory to the Nemeans, 6 6 oTrePavos ecK Xkwpc;jv 7r\dKevrat EAehiwv. 5ta(dpeti e rolo Kard TOy "'Ia0,uov Kaeofrov eKetvos O eXL ir oeXtva (Heyne inserted Bppa). But cf. Nem. iv. 88, where I have followed the prevalent idea. A prefatory Schol. on the Isthmians says r6TOS Ue E r-t ro7o dT' Yos 7rirvs' TO 8 dveKadOev oe'X\va KaI avTro jv o6 -refavos. Another Schol. tells us that the crown was of parsley, because it was sacred to the infernal deities (cf. 01. xiiI. 33 note), and that when the games, which were originally funeral games in honour el8' 'ArroXkov Lv r Trpe T' of Melikert6s (cf. Frag. 1), were restored in honour of Poseid6n by Theseus, the pine was substituted for parsley. Cf. Pausan. vIIi. 48. 2. However Pindar seems to know nothing of the dry parsley or the pine. Cookesley remarks, "It is singular that Pindar should call it ' Dorian' parsley; for the Isthmian games appear to have been a wravyvpts of the Ionians of Peloponnesus and Attica; and they were dedicated to Neptune, an Ionian god." But Nem. Iv. 88 shews that D6rian meant Korinthian. That the D6rians appropriated preD6rian traditions we have seen on 01. vii. 75. It is possible that eXiKq, salix, are connected with XAtvov, but neither salix nor oe — \lvov can be connected with eXio —w eliXw. L. and S. are in error. 16. sre/xtrev.] For the imperf. where one might expect an aorist, cf. Thuk. I. 26, Shilleto, Soph. El. 680. For the infinitive cf. Madv. 148 b. 17. oabos.] Cf. 01. i. 10, vi. 16, for similar use of 6dqOaX/os, 6'Aua cf. Pyth. v. 52. 18. ev Kpica-.] Near Krisa, cf. Pyth. v. 35 and my note on Pyth. vi. 9, and for e-='near,' 0. and P. p. xxxvii. Nem. x. 8. eM'.] Cf. 01. vir. 11, XXdore 6' d'Xov idpis 7ro7rreiTet, Pyth. II. 85, ~ rpavvoev 6epKera... 6 /udyas w6OT/OS, 01. xiv. 4. dyXatav.] Cf. 01. ix. 106, xiii.

Page  141 ISTHMIA II. 141 t A tr~e ctfva'~ 'EpsXBEet83v Xap'~BCL Xa; KaL Tco KEvat aEc~u& %LTEOr7Lv dpapo), 20 -rai Xrwapa'c 'v 'AO 3va0s, OLIK E/~EfO 30 UvAI(Ttpov XeEpa wXaet'rwoto bWTO';, 'Aer. /3'. Tacv Nuco'LptaXO a KcaTa Kalpoy vet-/JL cdraav; apvta9. oL/Tre Kat KlapvlcS pai~v avyvwov, 0r7rovoo0popot Kpo VL'a Zyvzo 'AXetot, 7raOov're 14, Pyth. x. 28, for the meaning 'victory,' 'glory of victory.' MSs. separate dcyX. from cKal r6Ot by a full stop, and give Ka'l riot KXi\ivacu 'Ep. K.T.X. Some Edd. read adX. Kacil rLO KXe\cvis 5' 'Ep. K.r.X. Mommsen alters the full stop to a colon, wrongly, I think, as Thrasybulos was charioteer at the Pythian games, cf. Pyth. vi. 19. Kac t rOd.] ' And so elsewhere...to wit, in glistening Athens.' The demonstrative adverb, as it were, introduces a fresh charioteer. The victory at Athens was probably in the Panathenaea. XapiTrecriv.] Not 'victories' as in 01. vii. 93, 'Eparldav rot vi v XapTCreaELv XEL Oactas Kal - rdXs, but 'favours,' i.e. 'prizes,' or else 'songs of victory.' It is not easy to determine whether K\Xevais is ' renowned' or ' making renowned,' but as XN7rapal and KaXeval are both applied to Athens in Frag. 54 [46], the former is preferable. papapws.] ' Having attained;' lit. 'joined to;' cf. 01. I. 22, Nem. III. 68, iv. 21, Isth. vii. 19, infra v. 29. The subject changes from Apollo to Xenokrates. 20. OVK e/4ef0i0.].] Meiosis, ' he has good cause to thank.' 21. pvo'i ulpov.] ' Chariot-preserving.' For the dangers of the chariot race, cf. Pyth. v. 30-32. 22. ri'... vet/' aTrdacats.] ISS. YvSia rciuats. ' To give the hand to the reins'= manibus omnes effun 35 TOU 7TL OA'XoeVPo ep"oz'. dere habenas, Verg. Aen. v. 818, while Yvi'ewt implies that the looseness of rein was allowed with judgment, the team, even at full speed, being 'well in hand.' KaTa Kalpod.] 'At the right moment,' 'the critical moment.' 23. ovre.] 'He whom,'i.e. Nikomachos, whom a Schol. states to have been an Athenian, the charioteer of Theron and Xenokrates; the latter statement being however clearly based on a misconception of the passage. He seems to have been -rpo',evos of Elis. KdpvKes Wpda.] Cf. 01. IV. 1, Teal 7yap Cpat I| 7ro i tolKi\o~pX7io'P aotias e\to'ao'Lcevaa p' dTre/l/ai v'k/XorTaoTwv prup' de'\wv. Here the plural cWpav may be distributive, ' the heralds of successive seasons (of the Olympian festival).' orovioQo'pot.] Proclaimers of the solemn truce throughout Greece. Officials not unlike the Roman fetiales. Cf. Pausanias, v. 15. 6. 24. -raOovdes K.T.X.] 'Having, I ween, considerable (?) experience of his discharge of the functions of a friendly host.' The use of epyov implies that he was their 7rpo'tevos. The conjunction of r-t rov, 01. I. 28, Kait 7ro Tt Ka2I fipOTrV OdritV I'rep TrV daJaOi X6yov I( daec6aXtaCvot /evSe'&e 7roudiXois (ararawvrt iuJOot - and Pyth. IV. 87, o 7t r ov odros 'AwroXXwv, makes it very doubtful whether or no rt goes with ep-yov. The particles convey a modest expression

Page  142 142 PINDARI CARMINA. 25 CdvTT7rv 76 viv darwd'ovro frwva XpvU-ac sv e/ ovvaOLtva Trovy a Nl ca 'E7r. 3'. ryaav dva 'crerepav, rav j fcabXoiLrv 'Ovpu7rlov A0oo 40 aXro'oy v' ' dOavavros AIvyreLtaS6Iov 7raMSet ev reTav e'ptXOev. 30 Ka 7yap ovc ad7vorev vztv evTIS 0olso OUTe EKW/COOV, ) pa ac'vovX, eparc3v, orce /LeXLdoT'wv daoLSav. 45 $Ip. y". oJ 7<p 7t/70mo, oUS 7'poatvr7? a4 Kc\EVvOoV ylveral, elrt' 7e c86 zv Ev dvSpcwv dIyot TrB-dCa 'EXLKcwt'dSLv. 50 of uncertainty or vagueness, as though the proposition were tentative or too wide to be completely grasped; but the appeal to the sympathy of the audience makes them virtually give emphasis, as in this passage; so with 7rov alone, Pyth. x. 11. The old Vatican us. gives 7rou rt, the other good Mss. 7rov (one Trow) rot. 25. a&vrvdo.] Cf. 01. xIII. 22, Jv 8e Mole' av6irvoos. 26. Xpvucas.] Cf. Nem. v. 7, 01. xiiI. 8, Isth. vii. 5. ev yovvaa-tv.] Cf. Pyth. I. 74 for construction, and for idea Nem. v. 42. 28. arXaos.] Probably not from a root aX- cf. ale, of which a\X- is a secondary form; but from S/ SAR, guard,' 'keep,' whence salus,salvus, sollus, oXos, and also salter, saltus - a whole tract of land,' and perhaps solium, ' reserved seat,' eAXoi, ' consecrati,' eXvI/os, Ekvrpov. To this root sera is rather to be referred than to sero, serturn. For -eos cf. adios, re-os (from ~rer-aos, unless Curtius' theory as to ireaov being from fTrer-aoy, and also his view that t does not pass into sigma before any other vowels except c, u be wrong. He has omitted to discuss the form rit4os, which omission is a serious flaw in his argument). Here aXaros includes the AXrts, which was a portion of the reEveos planted with trees, but, as Dissen on 01. II. 17 points out, dXao-o does not necessarily imply trees, but means 'precinct.' 29. 7races.] A purposely vague statement, as only Ther6n won at Olympia. ev...gtX90ev.J Tmesis. For the phrase cf. supra, v. 19, apapws. 30. Kal 7yp.] Mezger points out that these particles refer to dcavarots. OVK a-yvres.] Cf. v. 12, where the sense is passive. Here it is active as in Pyth. ix. 58 (Xsovos al-av)...ov' dyv7Wra OBpwY. 33. 'For there is no hill to climb, nor does the path even tend to slope upwards.' For metaph. cf. Nem. vi. 47, Isth. In. 19. 34. es av&pwv.] Sc. 66gfovs. Dissen quotes Od. iv. 581, ia 6' e'L Ai'67rroto, Attrerrdos roraAZo? oer.i o]a. yh. er...cyot.] Cf. Pyth. viii. 13.

Page  143 ISTHMIA II. 143 35 raKpr: tLO~Kplat aLOVtiaCTat/JG 'a TOov O, c-av op7 PftPO1paTrfl9 vwrep dvOpO)'woW ryXv1c6Fav ecXEI. at~oi to i' rn, ao~ots~ O/JXEW, 'AVr. 7/. 7n7oTpoc/'as TIE VOJdllv Ev) FraveXXaCvwv volkwy 55 KttOeW-v 83L1LTaS 77-pOIcY7WTVKCTO 7rao-aY V 0 TE4~ 4ca0 Ve8Ji 7p TE6wcrlr 6av 40 0 Oq ' vev'crtv Ver6/C~e-X' ' /VP IS 107 I/ Opot Tpa'7rrrea~y 6o 35. Dissen thinks that the hurling of the discus only is' meant, 'Quare dKov'riao-rati irmproprie dictum;' Donaldson on the contrary says that '&orKjfats is used in the primitive sense of tirKOT from &KEWV.' The latter view is manifestly the best; * iaK-raas = pi'aus, Pyth. r. 45, where, and Nem. vII. 71, the same metaphor is found, cf. also 01. i. 112, supra, v. 3. The poet means 'may my praises be adequate to Xenokrates' superiority.' opyaiv.] Cf. Pyth. I. 89, ecav'Oe ev opy7 7raplevwv. 36. -reip.] Cf. Nem. Ix. 54. yXvKeiav.] Cf. Pyth. vi. 52, yXvKeia U eOppjv |al au v/7rorTatoiv 6u/tXeWv —/e\FXLt'v diauesi/era Tpl7TbOV T6 -Pov-of Thrasybulos himself. Dissen quotes Sol6n, Frag. 13 [4], (8dre) etvati e Y\VXKVK'V We iXols eXOpoFiO e 7riKpdv, 7ros /v alboiov, roif 8e ewivv Ie Iv. For the inf. cf. Madv. ~ 150 a, 01. vii. 26. 37. ai6oros.] 'Loved and revered.' According to Mezger it is the correlative of dvaiSjs, Vf3posrrs. For such correlation cf. Johann. Damasc. quoted by Bergk at the end of Phocylides, AiSis rot vveroiTWv ert' f3Xdpoi'tL Kca?7dOrTa, I i3pts 5' alvve'roit c' oods 6 C Ke roOro 6aeir. Sol6n however gives us the passive sense of ailoios in opposing it to etvo's. Now to his associates a bully is Sewrv6, is hated and dreaded, while a truly gracious, courteous character inspires affec tion and respect. We must render otutXet, 'in their converse with him.' Cf. Pyth. vr. 53, where the same kind of infinitive is rendered differently but similarly explained. 38. ir7roTpopicas] The plural is probably distributive, 'divers kinds of horse-breeding.' re.] For re after au^ cf. 01. iv. 15, Nem. ii. 9, vii. 30. The formula couples two ideas without adversative force, but draws special attention to the first; it may be rendered, 'Indeed... and besides.' vo'diSwv.] 'Practising.' Cf. Aesch. Choeph. 989 [P.], &vwv adratrXioca Xdp-yvporrepif j 3ov vosi/wv. ev.] 'According to.' Cf. Pyth. i. 62, iv. 59, Nem. x. 28, Dem. ~ 496 end. llaveX\davwv vo/p.] Cf. Eur. Suppl. 526, rov lave\\XXivwCv dVOov [ arSlwPv, Isth. II. 47. In the manner of all Greeks who assemble for the great games. 39. Sairas.] Mss. and Edd. princ. S6atias. For the idea cf. 01. II. Introd. 7rpoa7rvrrKro.] 'Used to cherish;' lit. ' had folded to his bosom.' ou e 7rore.] 'Nor did the wafting wind which blew around his hospitable table ever induce him to furl his sail.' Cf. on Pyth. I. 91, where this explanation was, I believe, first given, my note being in print when Mr Wratislaw commented on the passage before the Cambridge Philological Society; similarly Mezger.

Page  144 144 PINDARI CARMINA. d\ eTr epa 7roTr /[eV 'aCPtv Oepeiass, ev 3' Xyeobwvt Xr 'X&W NeiXov 7rpo9 dacrav. 'ETr. '. r u vvvU, ori A00ovepat OvarcwU ()pyeva9 5u/btKpefpxvravt X7'rlae9, /LZ)T apercav wTOT~E cIyaTr Trarpjoav, 45 F14RT6 'ouva 'vivovY' ereEi rot ovc ebpvoa'ovrTa avrovs etp yacaactv. Tav'Ta, Nuca otrwT, aT7roveytlov, oTau le1vov C/ov rO0abov eXO\). 65 41. Cf. Eur. Androm. 650, r'j Xpyv c' a \aYvetv rjv3' i7rAp NedXov poas I 7rtp re 4acu'.. The Phasis, the Nile, and the Pillars of Herakles were the extreme limits of Hellnic (ordinary) navigation. The last had been used metaphorically in praise of Therdn, 01. III. 44, and could hardly be used again for Xenokrates. Note the chiasmus. Oepeiats,] Sc. &pacs. 43. -rt, K.T.X.] 'Because envious expectations beset men's minds.' Cf. 01. VII. 24, 25, atpl 6' avOpwj7rw' (ppaClv ciaUrXa/cicu | &vaptOij7roz KpLtavraL. Dissen says the metaphor is from nets. The poet means that the democratic party were anxious for the Emmenidae to fall into oblivion. See Introduction. 44. oaryarw.] The address to Nikasippos begins at v. 43, so that Thrasybulos is the subject. 45. /ojP.] Cf. ofre...ovSe, Pyth. vIII. 75, 'neither...nor indeed.' iuvovs.] This ode and probably the skolion, of which Athenaeos has preserved a fragment, Frag. 101 [89]. 46. Cf. Nem. v. 1. 47. NtcKar-cirr'.] The transmitter of the odes to Sicily; cf. 01. vi. 85, 86, 0. and P. pp. xxviI, xxix. ao7roetovo.] Impart.' The Schol. wrongly interprets by advcyvwct, quoting the 'AXaiwtv oViXoyos of Sophoklds, cri 6' ev OpovowL 'ypaylctrwv irrTvxds X'Wv \ Cir6velov. 48. jOceTov.] Doric for 3Oeov. See L. and S. r

Page  145 ISTHMIA III. III. IV.] ON THE VICTORY OF MELISSOS OF THEBES IN THE PANKRATION. INTRODUCTION. IN the rmss. and in editions earlier than Bockh's the third Isthmian ode consisted of only one strophic system, ending at v. 19 (30), the rest being the fourth Isthmian. The identity of subject and rhythm, the connexion of thought in the two portions, the obvious incompleteness of the first portion and the abrupt and unique character of the supposed beginning of the old fourth Isthmian amply justify Hermann in proposing, and Bickh in adopting, the union of the five systems into one ode; but I think that originally there were six systems, of which the second has been lost (see note on v. 19). Melissos, one of the noble and wealthy Kleonymidae of Thebes, probably gained this victory in the spring of B.c. 478, in the year after the Battle of Plataea (vv. 34-36). The mention of Herakles' conquest of Antaeos and his clearance of the sea possibly glances at the Hellenic victory over the /3apf3apot. The ode was probably recited at a meeting of the clan in a temple or before an altar. The rhythm is Dorian. ANALYSIS. vv. 1-3. One who enjoys good fortune in a moderate spirit is praiseworthy. 4-6. Zeus, the source of good capacities, makes the prosperity of the devout more lasting. 7, 8. The man of prowess must receive a meed of praise and song. 9-12. Melissos has gained two prizes, this at Isthmos and one at Nemea. 12-17. His merits are hereditary, as his noble and wealthy ancestors competed eagerly in chariot-races. F. II. 10

Page  146 146 PINDARI CARIMINA. 18. But only gods are exempt from vicissitudes. * * - % - s S - 19-23. By favour of the god Melissos' victory gives the poet ample opportunity for praise of his prosperous family. 23, 24. But the breeze of mortal destiny varies and shifts. 25-33. Praises of the prosperous Kle6nymidae: 34, 35. Yet in one day four fell in battle. 36, 37. But now the winter of their sorrow gives way to the spring of success. 37-42. Poseidon, their neighbour, and the patron of the Isthmian games, has roused from slumber their ancient fame. 43-47. Their former achievements. 48. For they were averse to the obscurity of the unenterprising. 49-53. But in contests the issue is doubtful. Craft gets the better of sterling -vorth. 53, 54. Such was the case with Aias whom the Greeks drove to suicide. 55-57. But Homer made him famous everywhere for ever. 58-60. For good poetry is immortal, and universal as light. 61-63. May the Muses grant me to kindle such a beacon-flame for Melissos: 63-69. Who is brave and cunning, though of insignificant physique; 70-73. As was Hlrakles compared with Antaeos; 73 —78. H-brakles, who after a glorious career dwells with the gods in bliss. 79-86. In his honour the Thebans celebrate yearly funeral sacrifices and games to his eight sons. 87-end. At which games Melissos, thanks to his trainer Orseas, won three victories. Mezger sums up the fundamental ideas of the poem as follows. "Melissos and his clan should be highly praised because they are fortunate both in wealth and in victory, and yet keep their pride within bounds. For though they like all mortals are not exempt from vicissitude and have to endure much sorrow, yet still in the victory of Melissos and the consequent reawakening of the fame and the poetic praises of the clan a fresh spring has brought back what the winter had taken." He tells us that Perthes rightly says that the

Page  147 ISTHMIA 111.17 147 - myvth of Aias -refers to the unsuccessful efforts of the EKieonymidae to jn icoriswhile Melissos in his success resembl-s H~rakles. No doubt the uncertainty of human affhirs is one of the main strands in the thread of song, but another conspicuous strand is the power of song to reward merit (vye. 7, 8; 19-21; 27-29; 39, 40; 44, 45, 55-63; 90). One difficulty with respect to the interpretation of the ode is that vv. 37 —45 quite ignore the victory of Melissos in the chariot race at Nemea and (which is less important) the three victories mentioned at tbe end of the ode. This difficulty is solved by the assumption that this Isthmian victory was the first success which had been specially celebrated by a poet. If he won at the INemea-just before the battle of Plataea the,disturbed state of affairs at Thebes would quite acce-unt for there riot having been an ode. Another difficulty is the suggested disparagement, of -rE'xa (v. 53), though the victor is represented vv. 65, 66 to have won by riyva. But in the latter passage the word used is not TE'xva buta tg and so in v. 53 we must take -ri~ya to be coloured by X.FtpPwmv and to be used in a bad sense as in Pyth. ii. 32. Thus the poet makes a genteral insinuation that the elan had been depriv~ed of their full share of honours in the great games by dishonest or dishonourable means. lIt is however possible that the success of Mlelissos was unpopular, and that though crowned he was not hionour-ed (vv. 3, 55, 77). So that as far as honour went he himself was like Aias. V. 66 is decidedly apologetic. The word 7-EXva would cover nice objections lodged against his manner of conducting the struggle. A third strand is the ascription of worth, fame and happiness to the gods (vv. 4-6; 19, 23; 33; 37-41; 61; 76-78). We may accept the poet's own criticism of this ode. He calls it, v. 39, ToP~e Oavu~acor0v V'/.kvov. ~Tp. a'. Et' Tv~ a'PLPO'V EVTVXl7Gctt 17 cup Ev,86~O1S aCEOxov~ 1. a-is]~ The construction with course the preposition is to he this preposition is half-way be- taken with 66irvXi~i-rat. For diet'tween that of Pyth. i. 38, o-is Xlw, in connection with games, cf. (mnerely 'in connection with') ev'. Nemi. i. 10. 956vots OaXlats 6'vv~aoa-,-cv, and of c-'156OLS.] 'Glorious' rather than Nem. x. 48, 'by means of.' Of 'glorifying,' cf. Pyth. vi. 16, p"10-2

Page  148 148 PINDARI CARMINA. I crEvet 7rXovTov KcaTeXeb fL paarv alav1q Kopov, ato? eOXoaylaLt dacTrv /ue^lxOaL. 5 ZeiO, JLeyXat 8' apeTral OvaTro e7rovrTa 5 eK CoeGev' we &e p/alTcroUv oX/3o d7rwtope.'vwv,?rXayTa 8e [vp eEa rIv oVX 0out 7ravra Xpovov oAXwov O6tLLXe. 10 yyoeat-Ovcarov ed3oeov. In short, in an adjective qualifying a sphere of action the causative phase of meaning is too clearly implied to need special attention. 2. aeOve,] Cf. 01. Ix. 51, 5uaro7s ad0os, of a flood, Frag. 84 [74], 10, YtQero 70 Ol-vos u7rrp4Qaroy, in a list of overwhelming calamities; so that in neither passage is the idea of 'might' absent, and therefore Dissen's 'copia' is inadequate. Here again the rendering 'abundance' is unsatisfactory in view of Pyth. v. 1, '0 7rXoTroS eSpvufrev's, when combined with dperCT KaOapa, cf. also Isth. iv. 2, 3, Frag. 207 [243]. Besides, esrvx-crats cav 7rXo6rc alone would involve the idea of copia, so that its expression would be otiose. I conclude then that acrvoo 'rXov-rov means 'potent wealth,' cf. 01. vi. 22, crfevos itjvYW, 'strong mules.' KargXet.] 'Keeps down,' cf. So16n, Frag. 4 [13]. 7,?jxov O' j7yeq6 -PYWV tKOS Y OOs, Otw etro'iovY 1 i;3pIos eK LSe'yd\i)S aXyea oroXX& I raO8ev' o yap ericrravrat KiarXetv KOpov o6U wrapovuags I evpo-vvas KoaJtketv 6airTs 'ev fovXl. Theognis, 321, el 3 Oebs KCaKr avpo v al lV Katl rXoOrov ordra?7, [ aqd)paivtov KaKtiv oO 86barat KarTxetv. ppa-tv.] Locative, cf. Nem. x. 28. aiavuj.] This epithet is applied, Pyth. I. 83, to K6pos, the ' surfeit' of hearing excessive praise of another. In both places it means ' disgusting,' sickening.' For the present use of K6pos cf. Nem. I. 65, 01. i. 56, KaraTrCau atI yav 6Ipov OVrK 6svudoUrO, KopTt 6' Xev j drav vi7rporwXov, 01. xIII. 10, note. The victor's KOpOS is parent of jipts, which is parent of other people's c6pos at the victor and his praises. 3. eSXoyiats.] Cf. Nem. xi. 17, ev X6-yots airw&v dya0ol?-... alveirOat. jueAtXOat.] Cf. 01. i. 22, Nem. Im. 68, iv. 21, Isth. vi. 19. For the perfect cf. 01. i. 53, Nem. II. 84, ix. 41, Dem. p. 564.fi., rpv'Kaura...re 7 rp&rov letrv &aoCeiovu Katl Xt'ovS 7renro7jKaTre TVV7eeis u/pezs. 4. je'yX\at aperaL.] Signal merits,' such as success in games, proper use of wealth and modesty in prosperity. 5. ec a-eev.] Note the emphatic position. utdo-aw.] For the comparative cf. Nem. viii. 17. Not even piety and modesty can prevent great prosperity from being unstable; cf. even Pyth. vII. 20. 67roLevwv.] 'When folk revere thee;' cf. Pyth. viii. 43, i. 26, infra, v. 49, note. 7rXayiats.] ' Froward.' Cf. Nem. I. 64, 7rXayil K6copy. 6. oU% OWis Trdvra.] ' Scarcely any.' An exaggeration veiled by meiosis. For OwCs rdvra, see L. and S. o/uws. d\oXwv.] Cf. Pyth. vii. 21. 6/tUXe?.] Cf. Eur. El. 939, 7'Xefs rts eval roitt Xp'Faoit ~Odvwv 7s & 5' osdev el itt &ipaXbv bitoXijrat XpoOvO. i 7yp 0tVtLS 3e3aitos, ovu a, Xpr/4tsara. If, /Yv yap aet wraoaevovta' at'pet Kdipa' d 6' 6'Xfos- dc6tKoos Ka

Page  149 ISTHMIA III. 149 '.APT., a'. EVAXCoV a' ~pywv iwotva Xp?7 pev;Yvavat& 'Arr aV. q' K6' lcrolL6avTo' dyava-,~ Xap' ecr /?aao-Taa. eaTt ~6 KcaL &3 v de'O~ wv MeXto-cp 15 io kocpa 7rpogs eiipoo-tiav aTpEtaz eyXvcctaP frionpZ,4' /3acoo-atatv '-1.kopo a/LUeva ( O-PTEW eavwOU-, Ta 86 \oOtXa X'OVToS ' i3avovurp Pvov vawcra K pvfe ()R/av 20 IEP ap~~~~~~Lw Owwo'3TTpO~at ApaT6PWl a'VYpc'V 8' dpE"a6 OuIuvTov n] KUaTXE7Xet.,cerA TKCaitWV vc~v I eT7rraT' otk'w, azTcKpbv dv'iOats Xp6vov. Pyth. v. 2, o'Jav rTs....UTOd (TrXoirov) avaiy j iroX60itXov e7rSrav. Hes. W. and D. 324. 7. aroLva.] Ace. of 'general agreement,' cf. Isth. vII. 4 and 01. vII. 16, where I explained darotva as a quasi-cognate ace. like (KeXa8o'at) 7rorirvv Trepitrwv, Pyth. I. 59, which I then regarded as a substitution for Uicvov, but I now think it simpler to regard this roew. reOp. also as an ace. of 'general agreement.' Xp77 MCv', /.r?.X] Cf. Frag. 98 [86], rrpe7ret, ' X\oitLiWv L fiveeriOa KaXl\arTaLs docarZs, cf. also Isth. vii. 59, 60. 8. XpI) S.] For Dr Kennedy's 'peculiar idiom of Sophocles in sometimes repeating the same word with each (dev, U),' of. Nem. xi. 3, 4, 6, 7, x. 27, 28, vi. 10, 11, i. 62, 63, 01. xIII. 14, 16, Pyth. Ix. 123, 5, Isth. iv. 30, v. 71. xaplTercri.] 'Songs.' Cf. Isth. vII. 16, Pyth. Iv. 275. For the epithet aiyav. cf. Nem. ix. 49, fjvaXOarcai ao dort3. L. and S. are rash to give Curtius' hesitating connection with yacvvu/al, 7yeios without a query. The sense points rather to adKoyac, dK-jv, &c., and there is plenty of analogy for the change of K to 7. ao-rdo-ca.] ' To exalt.' Cf. 01. XII. 19, cr7erravwxoCievo5... Oepo'a Nv/tqapv Xovrp&i ao-rcetis. For probable etymology see Lewis and Short, s. v. gero. 9. Kas &Oi 8 wv.] 'Even twain.' 10. rppart.] For infin. cf. 01. I. 9, KeXae&vt, ilfra, v. 61. 11. ^cid-aoatw.] Cf. Nem. in. 21, x. 42. &eta/ervy.] The subject to rpe'a& is /oipa, as the dative agreeing with MeXLo-cp shows on comparison with IKO/YOUS, 01. i. 10, for which cf. Isth. i. 46, v. 21. For the meaning ' win' cf. Nem. In. 4. o-refdvovs.] For the one victory in the pankration. For the plural cf. Pyth. x. 26. rd 4d.] Cf. 01. x. 95. For the change of construction, here involving a change of subject, cf. 01. I. 14, Spef'rwv gLe.r.,dy XaeraI 34. 12. Je.] Note the position. OjIpav.] The Eponymous heroine stands for the city; cf. 01. vi. 85. 13. Kparcwcc.] Cf. 01. ix. 112, Nern. v. 5 for the tense. B'.] 'For.' There is a sort of hypallage in this sentence, 'the prowess of his worthy kinsfolk.'

Page  150 150 PINDARI CARMINA. 15 aTre,iav KXeowvV/,ov 3ctav 7raXauwav appairL ' 25 icab LarTpo0e Aa/3Sacilatr-tv crvvvo/iOt 7rXovTrov LEcrreTElto Trepaoptav rOVOvL. aiwv e Kv\tvX1V8o/Jecav^ al epaL ta XX' XXo' Xae. adrpWort 7ye /tav 7rates Oecwv. 30:Tp. f'. eO'earT /J OELtv efcaLt Jbupla 7ravTra fcevOOS' 16. For the dative cf. Isth. ii. 13, Pyth. vI. 17. 17. -V;'voieoL.] Mommsen on 01. ix. 16 points out the rarity of two consecutive syllables in different words beginning with a single -, so he reads ivVO/COL. Instances occur Pyth. iv. 217, Nemr. ix. 54, xi. 10, a corrected instance Pyth. I. 37. dtarrectov.] liss. &tea-rtov. Hartung 7rXo6rT, &&raXo Kai.... Dissen and others take 7rXoOrov with &doaretXov, comparing itd rX'Vs Uiva, Soph. Oed. Rex, 773 and similar phrases, but L. and S. (after Thiersch and Cookesley), s.v. 'rivvo/oL, rightly take the genitive with the adjective. The verb ='they walked consistently,' 'held on their way,' (8dpXovratU cLOTOVr rXos, v. 23); cf. Nem. i. 65. Thus rO6voLs is a dative of manner (not as Dissen, commodi, 'they were wealthy [enough] for,' nor as Mezger, of accompa'nying circumstances). 18. arw'.] 'Fate.' Cf. Nem.ii. 8, and perhaps Isth. vii. 14. KUvXvI.] Locative, 'as days roll on.' Cf. Isth. vii. 14, S6X\os aiwY,...eXiao'C fliov ir6pov, Verg. Aen. Ix. 7, volvenda dies, Aen. i. 269, Philisti6n (Meineke, Corn. Ed. mi. p. 1039), radivs -yap 6ec rTWY ' KaIcKW wreptrporrvI. del y&Dp Wis rpoXos 6 Xpouos Kv\ivsXeTat, 11. I. 295, rppirporwv itaTuruas. iectXXae.] ' Is wont to produce divers thorough (et-) changes at divers times.' CirpwTot.] Cf. Nem. xi. 10. -ye /anI.] 'IHowbeit.' Time and change and fate affect the gods; but, come what may, they are unhurt. wraes Oecsv.] The Schol. rightly interprets 'the gods themselves,' cf. infra v. 54, iraiea-o-tv EXcivws. For sentiment cf. Pyth. x. 21, ItA ipOoYepas K OQeSY \I reraTpoTwiaitS eTK6paatev. Oe6s elt I d t7rc7jwv Keap. 19. This verse used to begin Isth. iv., which however is manifestly the same ode as the foregoing eighteen lines. But from the break in the continuity of thought and the similarity of the ideas of the six verses 19-24 to those immediately preceding I infer that eighteen verses are lost, and that the gap caused the division into two odes. The general sense of the lost passage may well have been, 'Mortal man cannot hope for the abiding welfare of gods. They are enough blest by precarious prosperity, which indeed may be made more lasting by virtues such as those of the house whose praise I have to sing'-in short, a variation on and development of the theme of vv. 3-6. KeNevOos.] For metaphor cf. Nem. vi. 47, Isth. v. 22. -

Page  151 ISTHMIA III. [ IV. ] 151 20 W MeXurrc'E, EvAaX)avuiav Yp &eavas 'JIO/Jlotl vzj'erpas apera9 /vlt) W0fceLV' 5 a r KXeCouvv/ula( OaXX\\ovTe alel Calv Oe&J Ova-TOv EtepxovTra i T Trou Tveo. SXXOTE 8 cXXoto9 OVpOS oupo~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~LLh7 7rdvraTa dvlcpowrovu e'7raltoco' cXa v et. I0 'Anr. 03. 25 Tro7 /ULv oWv ~03aer Tta6evre9 dpPX'aev Xeyovra Op'~eot' 7 ' '/ 0LKtOU@[ ('E0aos( 7 op~avob wrp 4evoi r' dv/Ktcrtdovwv KecXaecvv(^ T' pqao f3ppwos.' o-ra 8' ErT dvaOpwJrovs lraac iLapTvpla bO~pEvwov row)v TE bWrTWV '5 20. EvlciaXaviav.] Cf. Pyth. ix. 92, cyaXbv X Xavliav ^p7yy opvywve. Thou didst open up abundance of devices for pursuing in song (the theme of) the merits of thy kinsfolk and thine own.' 21. Vi/,erepas.] 'Of you and yours. ' &aCKeiv.] Cf. Xenoph6n, 1Mem. II. 1. 34, ovirco 7rwCS WLLKEtL IPOLKo r777v 'IT aperrs 'HpaKcXoue 7trai&evrtv. 22. Death alone has put a period to the prosperity of the Kleonymids. c0a'Xovres.] Note the repetition from v. 6, del reproducing vrawra Xpovov. For iiepXovTra cf. v. 17, 8feoretXov. The present tense includes the present generation. 23. PLcorov.] Two inferior Mss. and Ed. Renm. rob 3iov, good mss. /iov. Cf. Isth. vn. 15. reXos.] Render, 'span of life given to mortals,' or less literally, 'span of mortal life.' For 5tepX. reX. cf. Aesch. P. V. 285, JK0, ioXtXi^s Tep/a KEXe60ov IaUec/a~LeaXX. acXX.] Cf. v. 18, Pyth. III. 104, 01. vni. 95 supra, v. 18. 24. irafltawv.] Not 'making a dash,' L. and S. on ieratas, IJ. I. 146; but ' rushing, sweeping over.' For iXa6eve, of the wind cf. Eur. Heracl. 431, xeprOOeP rvoaizv iX\aOro-aav els iroVrov. 25. -rol,Clv wd.] 'These indeed.' The case of the Kle6nymids is an illustration of the vicissitude which is the portion of all men. The particle wd (ovw) gives emphasis to the persons mentioned (Paley, Gr. Particles, p. 59) or to the statement, while /jv is taken up by ciXX, v. 34, cf. 01. ix. 5, Nem. in. 20, Isth. iv. 46, vnI. 56. For this use of pev oaV cf. Lysias, pro Callia, evoAtLoav A^cV oau... vv se, Thuk. I. 71, ~ 5, /expL ei/ ov' Trovae... vUv E. rt/LaeYves.] 'As dignitaries.' X\yovTra.] Cf. Nem. II. 18. 26. They displayed both princely and civic virtues. KeXaB. ipLoos.] Not ' noisy insult,' L. and S., but 'loud-voiced, hectoring insolence.' Dissen compares 01. xiii. 10, vippv OpaufiJvOov, which is rather unbridled as to the matter of speech than 'blustering, hightoned.' 27. 6'o'a fapT. acira.]:For the metaphor cf. Isth. I. 64; for the witness of song cf. 01. Iv. 3; for 7rI' cavp. cf. 01. II. 10. 28. re.] Note the Greek idiom of using a copulative particle where we use a disjunctive, 'or.' Cf. Isth. v. 15.

Page  152 152 PINDARI CARMINA. a7rx\rov /ol:a, 'ere'rav cav c 7r v r'eXo' avopea'u ' acarXatatv 30 oiIcoev arTaXaca'tv a7rTov' 'Hpa/cXelae. cL. Lycer-t tCaKCporepav carvreveV adpeIrv. 20 'ErT. t'. 7T7rroTp6/ot T' E7yEOz/7ro, Orvo-pop T 67,EV60TO XaX\ceV' ' "Apet d8ov. dx\' adepa yap ev,uLi 25 35 Tpaceta vtiabs WroXe'voeo Craa-pwv dv8EvSpv 4prjfw-coev tfataitpav eraial rvy 8' au i/LerTCa X epov 7rouK/Xowv nwxvv 'V 6oov XOov (Cr76 ofwOtVKetcOLt a'vOrOaev p68oV 30 29. a7rVXrov.] For derivation ef. Pyth. III. 106, where for Hermann's d'rNXerog Bergk (ed. III.) reads 4 7roX\s (quoting Solon. 8, rKret rot KOpos ii3ptv erav 7roXbs 6'Xoos rPTT-ra,) and three instances of 7 7roXXd, one of 4 A/'Xa in Pindar. evrtftavaav Kard 7rav rXeos.] ' They attained with regard to every kind of perfection' (or ' of dignity'). An exaggeration no doubt, cf. Pyth. x. 28. For r7Xos cf. Nemr. III. 70. Dissen renders " quoquoversum ad finem usque," comparing "KarTd vravra (ganzlich)," so that Mezger's "c. 7r. r.== Kara -radra (ganzlich)Dissen," is misleading. The exaggeration is tempered by the use without a case expressed after it of e7rtacow, which Pyth. iv. 92 with a genitive means 'aspire to,' seek.' dvopeats 8', K.T.\.] Cf. 01. III. 43, 44, vvV ye rpbs eaartarv Ebopwv dppeTrattv iK- avco ar7eraL I| otiKoev 'IHpaeKVO o-raXay. bTO T7ropao ' f rTI ofos5 ds3aerov I Kcda6qots, Nem. iv. 69, Isth. In. 41. Here '=' for,' and -dvopdat is dative of manner. For the dat. araXaiarL cf. Pyth. ix. 120. 31. Hartung, COv yv/-ert aKcpo'ep' rv o-r. dp. Christ (Mezger), -ra OUK vLWt JZaKporepav aTr. ap. For the infinitive cf. Pyth. II. 24, Nem. ix. 6. Emendation is needless, as Kal =' verily.' LuaKpordpav.] For the adjective with adverbial force cf. 01. xni. 17. 33. diov.] Has the initial digamma; 'found favour with.' 34. dXXd... 7ip.] Indicate an ellipse, ' But they have not escaped vicissitude, for, &c.' Probably the great day of Plataea, B.c. 479, is meant. 35. vrpd s roXd/uoto.] For the kind of metaphor cf. Isth. iv. 49, 50, vi. 27, Nem. Ix. 37, 38. Contrast Sophokles' more vague and commonplace 6opbs ^v Xet/Oit. 36. 7roKtv cl77)vcWv.] Generally taken with p'oots, or, at any rate, as a genitive of time with wTre xobv dv-0laev, an order being assumed, for which, as has been remarked, "it would be hard to find a parallel." Now I take the words almost as they run, ' but now once more after (their) wintry gloom of changeful months (they blossom [av recalls the idea of OdXXovres, v. 22]), as the earth blossoms (every April) with red roses, by the counsels of the deities.' The winter of sorrow (cf. Isth. vI. 39) probably lasted

Page  153 ISTHMIA III. [ IV. ] 153 &aLqtovvwv /ovXatLSX 6 KLZ'l7vqp 8c 7yp 'OyXY'7T(V o/ ctK y&/vpctv vo-ozJt a t p' KopivOov -rtXov, 35 Ica re aooi yV~ OaV/JXW-T1) vL35 40 7K veopoiv avev&a 0avacaw waxCttvov 40 '/C XCX' 01L-tL ~Eav 7ra-Xat ' from Metageitnioln, 01. 75. 2, to Munychi6n, 01. 75. 3, i.e. from August to the next April. These months are decidedly more changeful than those of late spring, summer and early autumn. Chrysippos agrees with me in making A6d5ov metaphorical. Schol. XpJvTr7ros 5&- /er' 'KEIci7V rirvY aTrvulav Kal rov XetbLva ivO-qcav. Is not the phrase ' many coloured months' too artificial for Greek, at least of such an early period? See Orelli on Auctumnus... varius, Hor. Od. II. 5. 11. Very likely the coming otLLKKeOLf'L determined the choice of 7rotKiXwC, but still there is the contrast between metaphysical changefulness and chequer and the general, comparatively lasting glow of the natural Spring. Prof. Paley thinks that by pOotls " the scarlet anemone is meant, which in Spring is said to fill the woods both in Asia Minor and the Peloponnesus. They are alluded to Pyth. iv. 64, in a simile not unlike that of this passage." I may here note some other instances of deranged order, namely 01. Iv. 1, vIIi. 5, Pyth. iv. 24, 106, 214. Of these, two are to be explained by my suggestion that the beginnings or ends of consecutive verses were regarded as contiguous in position, so that to the five instances I give may be added 01. iv. 1, real yap cpca I UTr 7rITOKXOb06puLyyos doiLas ie\o — e-o/6eva i — ' e' re/Iaev, Pyth. Iv. 24, ayiyvpav ro-ri-X\XKbEyvvv vPal Kpy'qfvavTVY, as well as Nem. Im. 68, iv. 1, Isth. III. 70, iv. 19, 43, v. 39, vi. 46, vn. 28. In Pyth. Iv. 214 the last word Ov5vuv7r6Oev goes with the end of the next line but one, the intervening line being short and with all its words in close connection, ev d\Xrq 'evaLcTaa KcK\X, so that the order falls in with the general principle of my suggestion. As to 01. viII. 5, AatoIwuPUv e-yciXdav dperm'Y OeU/y Xafei?, I demur to the rendering "-the desire to achieve great glory," and propose 'yearning in heart after great prowess to achieve it.' There remains Pyth. iv. 106, apxatav KoeticwPY...Titdai. In this passage rUdav is separated by three lines from cipaiav. But pa(nXevojivav...r dv keep up the connection. I ought to have recorded Chaeris' reading, given in the Schol., cdpXadv a'yKoeiciv. Otherwise the Schol. makes ipXalav a noun, comparing Od. xix. 73, dcv'yKair7 ydp eJreiyei. See Eustath. 475. 1, on II. iv. 297 ff., won-rep ^ cr-eX~jv ae-7vXarl \X4yeTrai KaTc rrapaywyoyrv... Kal j dcpXri dpiaty, orwc Kcal v davatyK7 CaaylKai dtv r7t o'0pa Kal OVcK e0OXWV TIS dvaCyKai) roXe/ziu'. 37. Sat/icYovw 3ovaus.] Mezger compares Oewv gKar in the same place in the preceding strophe and aSev OeQ (v. 23) similarly placed to K Ci06t (v. 5). O KLvrOT2p yas.] A paraphrase of 'EYvocrXcIw, 'Eivo'e-yatos, 'EXeXitx0v. 'OyK)ortr6 oiKe6W.] Cf. Isth. i. 33. For oiKewv cf. Nem. vni. 65, but here the god's neighbourhood to Thebes and patronage of the Isthmos may give the cause of the Theban's Isthmian victory. 38.?yqpvpav.] Cf. Nem. vi. 40, r6vroov re ytOvp' aKaidavTos.

Page  154 154 PINDARI CARMINA. EKvCX\ewv cpywV v wVTpVW 7ap rov aXX' dveyetpo/Jeva xpwova Xah/7reL, 'Acorodpoo9 OayITos' acr'pot, ev d\xot' 40 'AT. y'. m Te KPV yoUvop 'AOav Sp pJLa capvaLwc vicav ev T' 'A8paTrTeloL9 ae\OL LXotCU zVO W7racev 45 45 ToalSe rT&v T T vrO v O 'XX\\ do8Swv. ove Travayvpiwv p vpuav a'Te6Xo KcaLi7rvXov 8&lppov, HIaveXXdveao-e 8' cpt4'tAevo SaTrdava %alpov t7rTwo. 50 Tv a7wrewpadTrw yap a7yvwOTOt actcora 'Emr. 7'. eoTV a' da'Oveta mvxas icat 1/apYva/evwv, 41. ev 'irvTy.] Compare the Biblical ' fell on sleep.' For the metaphor cf. Isth. vI. 16, aXXad raXhai -ydp-evO'et Xdpis, and for iv cf. Pyth. I. 74, os cqt iv e sr6vT PAXe0' atiKtaY. 7r&Tev.] 'Had fallen.' ade-yetpo/eYa.] 'Now in her awakening her form shows fair and bright.' Cf. Isaiah Ix. 3, 'the brightness of thy rising.' 42. Cookesley compares Milton, Lycidas, v. 168. 'Aoa- is one syllable. 43. re KC.a] ' She (Fame) who indeed.' For Kjv (Bergk after Medicean mss.) Mommsen, after Vatican B, KeVs, 1Bckh KaiV. 'AOavav.] Mss. wrongly 'AOqiVas. Mommsen reads 'Asav- except in the epic form of the goddess' name 'Aqvsala, 01. viI. 36, Nem. x. 84. yi PKas.] For present cf. on Nem. v. 5. The subject is dppa. 44. Cf. Nem. ix. The subject of wcracrev and of vr-ev above is pda'fia. The family fame is first personified in a highly realistic manner and then confused with Fame in the abstract. 45. roe6e. ] Refers to r6Se v. 39. r(v ror' 6ovrv. ] "From the bards of those days.' VIXX".] Metaphor from the spv\XoAo\Xa, cf. Pyth. ix. 124, Pyth. VIII 57, Nem. iv. 17. For the idea of weaving crowns of song cf. 01. vi. 86. 46. rava-y. vv.] The four Great Games. 47. HIveXXcivect.] Cf. Isth. II. 38. 48. 'The silence of oblivion is (the portion) of those who make no essay.' Cf. Isth. vii. 70. aywxroL. ] So Mommsen, for once omitting to notice the v. 1. a-iYW-TO (Bergk). Two good Mss. give M.'s reading lvwxrov, 01. vi. 67. According to Cobet, Novae Lectiones, p. 191 (ed. Leyden, 1858), ""Ayawo-ro bene Graece significat eum qui intelligi non potest." For sentiment cf. Isth. vii. 70. 49. 'But there is uncertainty about fortune even when men are contending.' One cannot say that Hermann's " eorum qui certant " is wrong, for an ancient Greek would grasp the sense without feeling any ambiguity inthe grammar, but as we have to analyse, it is perhaps best

Page  155 ISTHMIA III. [ IV. ] 50 7rpTv Te\o? afcpov Lt/ceOat. Tov Te ryap Kac rTov iSt3o 155 55 Kab lcppeo7ov av(Spow') XeLPovWV EcocaXe Te'XVa ItaTaacZap'dfatT. t-TTE [taLv A~tavTro' a'Xcacv co t'vtov, rcV 0 #I ct Ta valel) Ta a w' ItoEv 2/217 4 tC y W-CP I' 6. 0 Oauy 1.zoav e~v Xet 7Tjat&croG't 'ETXXc'vo, O"G-ot Tp'v 1 0av. 6o; rcha' OCJnp6o Tot TeTiJltaCtEV (St acl)Opwow, Oh al'Toi to choose the true participial use, unless better sense is given by the adjectival use. Cf. supra, v. 5. For certain participial use cf. Pyth. VIII. 43, cS' erse /capvaP/uyvv. 50. Treos dKpov.] Cf. Nem. vI. 24. The verse means 'until one has actually secured the prize.' Here the first place, highest achievement, is meant, but in Pyth. ix. 118 the phrase means ' first prize.' 51. rwe P e Kal T-r.] Partitive genitive, 'bad as well as good,' cf. Pyth. vII. 22; of mere variety, 01. Ii. 53, Nem. I. 30, Demosth. p. 560 med, irl 8 rd i Kal d r rewrovOWs ' 6e?va, OUK eXd/l3ave 6iKVY 7rapu '~/ou, Theognis, 890, roX-Lcai ra re Kal T -icpetv. 53. rTXEa.] Here guile,'' sharp practices,' see Introd. KarafJcipf'ucr-a.] 'Is wont to get a good (Kaca) hold of and throw.' Metaphor from wrestling. i'o-re.] 'Surely ye know of the valiant heart (CiXKa) of slaughterous Aias, for his having transfixed which on his own sword he lays the blame on, &c.' For co/&av Xwov cf. Aesch. P. V. 445, jAe'c/I oIdLv' cavOpwr7rocis xco, Eur. Phoen. 773, warie /yot y[o/0d? oXe. Thuk. ii. 41, r- vT7rfeKOC KarTaueluf'iv e xe, 'afford the subject ground for complaint' is not an analogous phrase, while in the passages cited by Bergk, Eur. Heraclid. 974, 7roXX\v cip' eets [edILvL, el spoeta-s 7ra6e, and Isaeos, Or. xi. 39, the phrase is used in the passive sense absolutely: so that there seems to be no support for the passive sense of fJ/o/cpdv eXet if a dative follow; we should expect v7rb r raicwv (Cobet, Novae Lect. p. 500), though Bergk's 9X' ev raisea-a-v gives a possible construction. The imperfect however seems unsuitable, and an alteration, in the face of a possible interpretation of the MS. reading, is objectionable. With the hero's death as the result of his loss of the highest honours the poet is here concerned, but not at all with contemporary judgments on the suicide. My explanation gives point to the Cj and to the tense of Xet.. 61 la ev VVKT'.] 'About dawn,' when, according to the Schol., the Alethiopis represents him as having slain himself. 54. reptL] Cf. Nem. vIII. 23. -rau. 'EXX.] Cf. supra, v. 18. 55. Vc'.] 'Right through the world.' As certain fanciful critics seem to object to this use of 'right,' I may as well quote 'right against Jericho' for their benefit. For special mention of Aias in the Iliad cf. Nern. ii. 14, and add of course II. vII. 161-313, where, in the absence of Achilles, the nine champions draw lots for the single combat with Hekt6r, and eaK 5' 0Oopev K\Xpos KvUY'Iq 6v dp' O6eX\ov

Page  156 156 PINDARI CARMINA. irgaav opOcocavs a~pera vc Kra pac8/3ov paoev 65 Oecr7rea'ov eTrewov Xou7roi dOvpetv. 70roV ryap adcvarov ftpovev epVrer, e Tal e TrE t' ecua lrdyKcapwrov e7rr 9va o ca edra r'701vT /37 aKev 70 60 epYaTrwv dxalrk IcaXwv da'/Searo9 aEi. 'ArV. 8'. wrpobpdvov MoLa-v rvXotpev, scecfov iar)a rvpcr-v 4IrWvoV el U ].L PO.) avtro, | Aavros-and I1. i. 768, 9 quoted on Nem. vII. 27. But still it is probable that the poet had especially in mind his authorities for the later part of the story of Aias. Cf. notes on Nem. vII. 21, vIII. 30. 56. OdpWoats.] ' Exalted and,' cf. Nenro. i. 15. Kard pldP;Sov.] Mezger, after the Schol., advl ro U Kara oiXo, ' in the course of his epic poems.' Cf. Aesch. Pers. 430, rctX7jyopoiv7 (L. and S. oToeX-). Dissen ' auctoritate,' citing passages referred to by L. and S., s. v. pd3cPfv, i. 5, who render 'according to the measure,' and Hes. Theog. 30, Kal tot crK~Trrpov a5ov (MoOecra), 6fvhis e7rti0Xeos 6^ov. See aetaror, aOKirrpov. This laurel wand seems to have marked the singer as the suppliant and minister of Apollo and the Muses. To Pindar it suggested a metaphor for the continuous strip of song constituted by an epic poem. For a different connection between pAwrecv and 6pa3 -8os (cf. Nem. ii. 2) see II. xII. 296, gvrooOev ie joeita' paf'e Oaeteids Xpvo'ei1s pai3oo0r 'i &t7eKeLY rWepi KVK\OV. This passage suggests that an early kind of stitching among the fathers of the Hellenes was joining skins together with thin skewers and wands for rugs and tents, so that the p&I38os was then both needle and thread. I am not forgetting that weaving and spin ning were known in the primitive seats of the Aryan race. Prof. Jebb, however, Journ. of Hellen. Stud. June 1882, p, 15, renders "' by the wand of his lays divine'-where rcara pa6,3ov=KrcaTr T7rapdcSootv, the branch being the symbol of tradition." 57. XolTrot dOvperv.] 'For aftercoming bards to celebrate.' For infinitive cf Madv. ~ 148 b. For adOpetv cf. Pyth. v. 21 and Tralwo. 58. adcivarov.] Cf. Frag. 98 [86], OvdKeiKE 8 eayanevi KCXobv tpyov. Perhaps best rendered' it lasts on everliving, never voiceless,' or ' it lives on in vocal immortality.' L. and S. and a Schol. render pirec ' spreads,' but in Pindar poetry generally travels like light or on wings, and my rendering is supported by 01. xIII. 105, el e 6 al/uaW yeveXOos e'piroc. Moreover the idea of 'spreading' is given in the next line. 59. ei-cfir1.] Cf. Pyth. VIII. 13, note. Kal Trdyr/.] 'And so.' 60. For metaphor cf. 01. xIII. 36, Pyth. viii. 96. Mezger notes evcKXwv ppywv, vv. 7, 41. 61. d/aL.] For inf. cf. 01. I. 9, supra, v. 10, v. 11, ecaueyvy. note. For the metaphor cf. 01. ix. 21, 6y 70ot IXp\av iro6Xtv AaX\epas e'lq5Xeywv doi6aSs, -dyyyeXiav irdtw TraTav.

Page  157 ISTHMIA III. [ IV. ] 1.57 Kca MeXiocro-, vrayKcpaTtov a-refadvwoL ewracdov, 75 epveI TcXeo-teoSa. o yXpa rycp etLcWO OV/ULoV ept/3pEfJe7-rav Orpwv Xeovrev 65 ev 7 OVrO rtv rLv ' aXctrvT, alerov ar dvara7rzalava poJL3ov 'itXeL. 80 XP 8e 7rav epaovr' a4pavpw3o'a Tra eXpov. 'ET. 8'. ov 7ap f vtv 'RapLovelaz eXaXev' aXX' ovoroo z/v i &rsOat, Keivov.] ' Such as Homer kin- trXero. died forAias.' Cf. 01. vi. 7, KCeoS aleroT o, dzop. Nem. ix. 42. eagle.' 62. oTreFqdcwjj.] Cf. supra, v. 45, va7rtrvcap Q>AVX' doti~l. The beacon-fire does on his back not shrink into a wreath, thanks was not, as to e7raStov. For the metaphor cf. ming to be Frag. 160 [170], vq5alvw 'Aleuvaovl- its back as 6atS 7rTOKi\ov dvr'7/JIa. ros rroalv a 64. 0lpSv.] So Mss., thus giving rd 6 auciono verb. Bdckh and Dissen read Melissos w Oqrp after a Schol., which however Eusebius (c has oicelos div for eIKWS or whatever Olearius on was read in its place. Bergk and calls rov XeMommsen take &Opwvi as the noun perhaps the in apposition with XeOvrwv, the the dvaK\XL former quoting Eur. Here. Fur. Antiq. s. v. 463, TO\rX, re 07pbos c/Lfp3a\\X e ar 66. wrav Kapa I X|eovros, and Epimenidgs ap. means,' cf. 7 Aelian, Hist. Nat. xni. 7, 0Jpa Xebvra. sentiment ci But it seems as though a gloss on fpSovr' dap pptfip. O6qp. had taken the place of gpovra /ccavf the verb, which may have been r4- stances Mss /avrTai (Kayser). To say that a gives uavp. man Orpevet dperdv or 7reiavrat ofVc PaUvpouvrt Oeo adfitopos aip l 7rdXg Kvwaye-raS (Nem. bveip T7r. C vi. 14) is very different from saying ad/avpos is n 0qpsq rA6Xaav or OBvoiv however super- V/]xap, shine lative; since the very highest likely than daring, courage, spirit are actually /mu, shut, x possessed by many. fuwpor (Ved. n Mezger after a Schol. wrongly and suffix po takes Osprv as gen. after Xedvrwy = ing is ' blind ev Oqpotiv. Nearly a dozen emenda- 67. fu'o-Vv. tions have been proposed. vi. 5. Ori6n 65. itrTv 5' acidhrNn.] For the as gigantic. accusative cf. Pyth. v. 104, Odpo-os 68. ovor7' 5e 7ravv'wrepos I| v bpvtsit aler&S Oavparo's, 01. 85 fPov,.] ' The circling eYa.] ' By sprawling.' This trick of the fox Dissen suggests, sham-: dead, but fighting on s a Schol. says —vrria [Uitverat ra o'v\kkafo/jim7 iovsa-and again that as KUX\rTTKOS. What quoted by Dissen from I Philostratos, p. 818) 6/oevoov rpoirov XauCai was SvrrTraaSbs a variety of owrcX-1, see Dict. of pancratium. ip8ovra.] 'By any rv,, rad^ra troite. For f. Pyth. II. 84. ~avpc'at.] Bockh reads ). But in all three ingive c/iavp-. Hesiod TW. and D. peta 6 ztMv i, L0ovUr oui otKOPv urtius' suggestion that tot-shining, I privative,and suffix Fo, is less a derivation from the whence Aiw, Lt. mi-tus, ifira), with prosthetic a-. The primary mean] 'Physique,' cf. Nem. was handsome as well s.] For voo-ro's, cf. I. 28, direlpaTos, 01. vI.

Page  158 158 PINDARI CARMINA. aurvJurretv 8' dfCfaCi apvS. 70 Ilcatrot0 7r' 'At7ralou 'SLOVQ,02I3av oTro Ka8afelavr topf>av 1/paXv9, vXuav 8' a/caxwrros, 7rpocrraXalaowv 'JXO' adqp 90 Tav 7rvpo46opov At/36av, fcpatlviot opa ervwv raO'v 11ooca'dwov rot &povTa cXOot,, 'rp. e'. vioh 'AXK/JJ5va-' 8t Oz)Xvunr6v8' i/3a, 7yaia9? re qracraq icab c av/cafpyo vov 7roXta 54. The / seems to be NAD, of which NID / of 6vetios is a phase. Cf. dovivvt for \/ NAND, enjoy oneself (Fick). 'Insignificant.' 69. For inf. cf. Pyth. vi. 53, Isth. in. 37, 01. vi. 26. Take cvr7reare literally, ' to fall with,' for a struggle on the ground in the pankration. /KUa.] Dissen renders ' robore.' I think it means ' at the crisis of the struggle.' Schol. Kar TOUS a7 ywvaT. Christ defends the Mss. al/a& by Aesch. Ag. 483, Choeph. 630, but here andProm. Vinct. 405, a'y,= 'temper,' has an adjective with it. MSS. also give aiXga for dajej wrongly Nem. vi. 54, x. 60. 70. Though insignificant to look at, yet he may be compared to glorious H6rakles. The Kal -ro seems to answer an imaginary disparager of the victor's personal appearance. Mss. give Kai rot (rot) roT'. Of course rotr' is for rort. Note that 7rdr' 'Avr. 3d0'. go with the end of the next verse. 71. fpavus.] 'Short,' relatively to Antaeos and Ori6n and such giants, and to his own breadth and strength. rpoaraXaiowv.] The object aOur is supplied from 'APraiov. 72. Atl'av.] For acc. after kX 95 AXos oeuvpsV Oevap, Gev cf. Pyth. iv. 52, 118, 134. Antaeos was the mythical king of Irasa near Lake Trit6nis, who used to wrestle with and kill strangers. In Eusebius the story of his gaining strength from contact with his mother earth is interpreted of his skill in the above-mentioned mode of struggling on the ground. Kpaiots.] The frieze was anciently adorned with skulls of animals, whence arose the sculptures on the metopes. See Eur. Bacch. 1206, aipoa-ff Xapiwv It7K7wTv rrp ps OtKcouS K\kdKwP 7rw pooattupdt'Ecie, Us 7traa\eorwo Kpaira rpryX\bOts r6e } X\ovros, Verg.Aen.x.406-8. Dissen tells us that Scholia on Pindar 01. xi. 19, I. 114 say that Kyknos and Oenomaos each meant to use the skulls of their human victims to build a temple to Ares their father. Note the omission of the pronoun and the rather rare construction of a participle after a verb of hindering. L. and S. render ipeqtovra, 'wreathing with garlands,' but it means decorating the roof of.' Hermann suggested Hoa-e do is cr ' Ep errovra, the syllables corresponding to lpep- elsewhere, being each one long syllable. Perhaps pibesv i gv should be read. (For omission of AIj] cf. Eur. Or. 263, Xy rtoWe - 7r6aY 8uar ir fw7rt' Tara.) 74. wroatas.] I think ' wan,' rather

Page  159 ISTHMIA III. [ IV. ] 159 75 vatVaIUtGI Te 7Top6/ ov a/2kepwccrat,. viv 83' 7ap' Aiyt60'Xq K/AXXYTaor o X/Sov alp erwv vatet, TETi/J-a-ai re vpos; cavt:mwv cfJ:Xo% IH(Wv T, O7vte, I00 XpUOOW 0(1o9(0) advaw Iat yaTa<SpXto' eT Ipa9. 'APTm. c'. rC3 tU~v 'AXEKcTpaV v~T ~POE7 &LL9 W7o7-00-VPPTe, a So Ka\ veo'-ata7a o-Trebavmflzara 8/3optV auopv 105 C[17Tvpa XKaXToapa)v d'nTO OavO'vTOV, TroZ Mefycpa 7T/KE ot KPTovrC vLovY T0tc~tP El) 3U~ptaOLcrU avyav jho~ a l EvEXo/tEv a oTvveycj 77-avvvXtIet, 110 than 'white with foam.' Cf. 01. I. 71. 09vap.] 'The hollow bed,' here of course especially the shores and shoals. Cf. Nemr. II. 24. 75. vavrtLiaart.] Dat. conmodli, abstract for concrete, vav7rXois. wropO/'dv.] Not 'the sea,' L. and S. after Dissen; but 'the passage thereof.',u/epwca. ].] Dissen quotes a fragment of Sophokles from the Schol. before the Isthmia, ods rapaKriav j OTreiXwp avzjtepwo-a KvwBXA&v 366v, and Eur. Here. Fur. 20,847. 77. TeriCa'rat.] An echo of rerl/LaKev, Supra, v. 55. For the theme cf. the end of Nem. I. 79. v7repOev.] The funeral sacrifices to the sons of Herakles (by Megara daughter of Kre6n of Thebes), whom the hero slew in a heaven-sent frenzy, were celebrated on rising ground outside the gates of Elektra on the road to Plataea. 80. veo6uaara.] Mommsen always prints 8/ijr- which he defends unsuccessfully on 01. III. 7 against a great preponderance of MS. authority. The last part of the compound is almost quiescent, or means ' made,' caused,' as in fOe6eoarol 01. III. 7, Frag. 159 [169]. So a Schol. j) Kara, 7rapa-ywyrjv e'tpoe rd Neuea (read vea corrupted through duplication of ve) veo6/cara. The altars were probably permanent, not like the 8arTa provided fresh every year. ato/ev efarvupa.] ' We sacrifice victims.' Cf. Eur. Ifippol. 537, povStrayv vov d^etv. 81. XaXKoapcav.] Is this Pindaric form distinct from XaXAKrpr's; but for XaX1coFapqs (cf. QOptiwv Nem. in. 10) =' fighting in (or 'with') bronze,' cf. Lat. 'vir'? Gen. abs. ' since the eight warrior sons (viobs taken with the relative clause) suffered death;' but perhaps gen. after 7ervpa, cf. dyaX/' 'Ai'a, Nem. x. 67. 82. TiKf ol.] MSS. oi reKe. 83. A Schol. says 0oes irpos Svurs Lepovp7yeZv Trot iS pwOa, Kara& ra dvaro\&s rois Oeoo. The Schol. on Apoll. Rhod. I. 587, sa. s the same of oi harotXo'Aevo, and 'OufpavpSau. Dissen. roto'v.] ' In their honour.' awyav.] Gen. after dvO/uaartv. Several times au-yal stands for

Page  160 160 PINDARI CARMINA. at epa KIo-ael'TtL XaKrT'fot-a~ icarcVo, 85KCa't &e6Vpov (alap ET6LOOV TyP aeOXcOV 'ET. e'. 115 7/VeTat, taxvo; e9yov. eJOct XevIc&OEt9 Kaptpa ALt P T0L9 0o acvlqp &t?7Xoav vl~av avecbvaTo K walaw rpirav 7rp-opaOev, Kq/3pv8a47pos' otatco07-pc/v 120 90 ryvwlpa 77-7rtnwV '7-OXv/3OzX0X. crZ) 'Opcoe 8& vt Kw Ala.oa l T1p7TIU6 r w v xVoI'. 'light.' Aesch. seems to have adopted the phrase, Ag. 1123, Piov 6v5rOS atyalis. 84. \aKrloetca.] Has the metaphor a reference to the kicking up of the pankratiast when struggling on his back? 85. evTrepov dacap.] For this somewhat unusual accusative cf. Isth. v. 46, Aesch. Eum. 108, 90vov Wpav oi6&evs 7rov~'v OeoO, Eur.Bacch. 722, Madv. ~ 30 note. The notion of ' on' or ' at' is joined to that of 'during.' T-p/Lca.] ' The end consisting of annual games.' The "periphrastic" "pleonastic "use of rep?/a and rAXos is an eftwXov. The idea of 'end,' 'limit,' 'consummation,' is indicated in all the alleged cases. 87. Myrtle was sacred (not exclusively) to the dead. Cf. Eur. El. 323, 512, Ale. 172, Isth. vn. 67. 88. cbrlp.] I.e. tvrppwuevos. 89. cwecwaviro. 'Caused a return to be made of,' cf. Nem. vi. 26. Kal Trailwv.] iss. do not give Kal but 7rai&wv (riv) -rpiracv. Bockh ractwv re Trplrav. The construction -rawv tiKav is exactly paralleled by Kv5os dvspCv, 01. ix. 88. 90. 7rertO.wv.] Hartung 7rercdws. Hermann —rio-wos. 7ro\Xpov' 'OpcrEa ilrv cot d 8 s. Cf. Pyth. In. 28, note. The meaning 'obeying,' ' guided by,'is clearly needed. There is not sufficient evidence to pronounce upon the isolated intransitive use of the form. 8e.] 'Accordingly,' cf. Isth. vi. 23. Orseas was his trainer. Trainers are celebrated at the end also of Nem. iv., vi. KUctao/.at.] Causative middle;' I will cause the k6mos to celebrate.' Cf. Nem. ix. 43. Don. with one good Ms. reads Kwc( ofcat. For the future cf. Pyth. xi. 10, Nem. xi. 1. Itrra'-wv.] So Schol. Yet. The best ItM. airo-rCwov and the other old Mss. erwCroavt'. For metaphor cf. Pyth. v. 94, vIII. 57, Isth. v. 21, 01. xi. [x]. 99. XapLv.] 'Song.' Cf. 01... [x.] 93, ri'v ' cive~rrs- re \upa yXvx\Ks r' avXis avcLar'otrffe XcpLv, ib. 78, supra, v. 8, Frag. 53 [45], 2.

Page  161 ISTHMIA IV. [V.] ON THE VICTORY OF PHYLAKIDAS OF AEGINA IN THE PANKRATION. INTRODUCTION. PHYLAKIDAS of Aegina, youngest (Isth. v. 6) son of LampGn, was brother to Pytheas, for whom Nem. v. was composed. Phylakidas had won an Isthmian victory, celebrated in Isth. v., before the occasion of this ode (Isth. v. 2-7) which was soon after the battle of Salamis, vv. 48-50, i.e. in the next Isthmian games, B.c. 478, 01. 75. 3. The ode was performed in Aegina, according to Dissen 'undoubtedly' at Lampon's house; but, as Theia was clearly worshipped in Aegina as a patroness of games, the ode may have been sung at a family gathering before a shrine of that goddess. The rhythm is Dorian. The third syllable of the fourth line of the epode perhaps had the value of two long syllables. ANALYSIS. vv. 1-10. Invocation of Theia, bestower of wealth and victory in speed and strength. 11. For prowess gains distinction by aid of deities. 12, 13. Well-being and good fame are the two things needful to give happiness to the wealthy. 14, 15. Be content with participation in these blessings. 16. Mortal aims become mortal men. 17-19. Mention of victories of Phylakidas and Pytheas 19-22. The occasion, having brought him (in spirit) to Aegina, demands celebration of the Aeakidae. 22-25. For since the island is devoted to noble deeds the meed of laudatory song must not be grudged. F. II. 11

Page  162 162 PINDAIRI CAIRMINA. 26-28. Her warriors have been sung of for countless ages. 28-35. Different states revere different heroes-Aegina reveres Aeakos and his seed, 35-38. Who twice took Troy. 38-42. Who performed the mightiest deeds (in the second war)? 43, 44. Achilles of Aegina. 44, 45. The island has long been a conspicuous example of lofty virtues. 46-50. Much might be said on this theme. For instance, Aeginet1-an sailors won the battle of Salamis. 51-53. But enough, Zeus send vicissitudes (i. e. reverses as a punishment for boasting). 53, 54. Athletic victories too (as well as warlike achievements) love to be celebrated in song. 54-58. Praise of the family of Kleonikos for perseverance in the labours and expenses demanded by athletics. 59-61. Credit is given to Pytheas for his brother's style of fighting in the Pankration. 62, 63. The poet bids himself take a wreath and send the ode therewith to Phylakidas. Ma'Tep 'AeX~ov 7roXUW0VV.LE ~ekta, UEO eC~aTb I~cal,LeryacrtiE) VO/lktoctv T-p. a'. L - i_ U 1. Odea.] Mommsen, with the S chol., would derive this name from Gncw with reference to the movement of the stars or from OedojLuL, which Mezger prefers. The word may be connected with,-rio-q or Oiroavro, cf. Nem. v. 10 note, or else may mean ' mother.' Cf. her sister TqO6t (Curt. No. 307). She was a, Titanid (Hes. Theog. 126 -136), mother of H61ios, Sel~n6 and E~s (ib. 371-4) by Hyperibn. Weicher, quoted ~by Dissen Biickh's Pind. ii. 2, p. 511, identifies her with a Lemnian goddess Chrys6 depicted on a vase found in Magna Graecia, while Biickh, with more certainty, lpoints out that she is the Eurypha6~sa of the Homeric hymn to H6lios. Pindar's rittal of Theia are given by Hbsiod to Hekatb', Theog. 409-443. Note that here Theia is connected with Xpvo-03 and VIKU, while we have Xporea Ni Ka, Iath. ii. 146. For wroXvCV'Vvpe of. Aeseb. P. V. 210, PI'da, 7roXXde; 03vojauirv gopo'A /fete: s0 7roXuu'vvjLe of Dionysos, Soph. Ant. 1115; and of Aphroditbl, Soph. Frag. 856, ~'jrot Kzhiptr oi K6wpts fe6vo5, ciXX' firrL 7roXXCaY ' 6so Ta-WV 6frrWVV/eOg.2. CEO fKa7-c.] So Bergk. mss. O760 (roi0) y' &m-z. The- Scholl. ignore the y'. For the digamma of FEKart of. 01. xiv. 18. Cf. Atils EK. iflfrat v. 29. Kael. ] Mezger, "Ias well as other desirable goods." Dissen would, with a sort of apology, couple -this

Page  163 ISTHMIIA IV. [V.] XpVG-o dV O rpwOt wpt(0ot0v a"XanrP. icat yap cptofLEzvat \ e I r/ ell 5 vacs~ Eu VTV o( Kat vp apaIacWrti) tT7TOL 'ta\ ral', (0 /ac-a-, rTLLLa wKc~Va1JrovS 0avptacryra' rrwsOXoTaw 163 5 e 'A r.Xa't 'Ayr. a'. ev 7 rywov iocs( dc"OXO t 7roO\V KEtco9? brrpa~v, Zvrcv' adOp6oot o-'lfxtot I0 X~~p"Z vL8vaav'Oet a XEc-b lvt~ao-arT avye ocLv E6ELpav Ioi '7aaXvTart 7ro&3. 1pivE'rat 8' AX/ca\ 8ta &acLova9 'ivap83v. Uvo ac 7' rot ~a dorov pioiva 7ot[LpaivoVrt rov IXwrV1 -OTOP evavc1'6 ca~v X/pv, 15 Kal with r', v. 7. Both seem mistaken. Pindar is explaining why men actually go so far as to esteem gold as more potent than all besides. yeyaacoevp. ] Cf. Isth. iI. 2. The order shews that the adjective -is an extension of the predicate'men even (Kal) esteem gold as potent....' Dissen however renders in honore habent, quoting Heindorf on Plato, Gorg. p. 466 D, 01o vo/i'e'Oaet kjKOLye 5OKOV'tL. vo6uo-av.] Gnomic aorist. 3. Xpvso6v.] Schol. iK OeIas Kal 'T7repiovos"H'Xos, ecK 6e 'HXiov Xpvsdos. EKacrTY c r wv darepwv kvX Tw s avdayerat, XO\qo,LV 6 Xpvs-6, Zlei\jvY o a'pyvpos,"Ape' aiSppos, Kp6vy F6Xt63 -6do, Alt' 'XeKrpos, 'Ep.Aic Kao'-irepos, 'Appo61i XaX\Kos. But Frag. 207 [243] we find Atos 7rats o XpvU-os. 4. Katl 7p.] Elliptical like dXXa -yap. 'Aye and I can say more for....' The poet goes on to ascribe the speed of the swift and the strength of the strong to Theia. IepOAevCat.] The competition of ships in speed was for commercial objects, like the present competi tion of tea ships. Vergil's shiprace, Aen. v., is an anachronism. 5. iiq'.] So Bergk for ev, from the Schol. The old Medicean Ms. omits the preposition. Dissen thinks that the poet alludes to mythical war-chariots, and quotes Isth. v. 19, Xpv-acipJcaro AlaKI6at. Mezger thinks the waggons full of produce and merchandise are meant, which is very improbable. 6. nrtLav.] 'Through thy power,' 'prerogative,' rather than tuo beneficio (Dissen), which is 'through the exercise of thy prerogative'a different form of expression though the thought is the same. Cf. Pyth. iv. 51, S'v rac 6eweds 'bythe-aid-of divine power,' ib. 260, arv OeCwv rtais (distributive), lit. ' by-the-aid-of the several powers of divers deities.' 8. 7rpaCev. ] Active for middle, cf. Pyth. ii. 40, 0. and P. p. xxxix. 11. Kplveral.] Cf. Nem. iv. 1, vii. 7; 'becomes distinguished.' 12. aXrr\Tvsrov.] Old iss. dvArirTrov. Hartung proposes 7roicaltvet loev dXcyitrrov, as one Schol. has rbv oiKTrpOv Tiy dCvOpdTrcw rigov, but 11-2

Page  164 164 PINDARI CARMINA. el 7T9 e r TraCrXv XOov Eo Xo'v aKov'-'7. Vi7 pdrTev Zeiv yeveoCOa wra'vr' eXecs, I5 eb o'e - TOVT AV pop ebiicotro caXwv. Ovrar OvaTroZab rpefre. Trv 8' Ev 'IJao-/x 8rvX6oa OcdXhoar' dperd, JDvXaKcLia, IecLat, NeIPea 8e cKa dfbov, IlvOea re 7raytcpaTCov. TO 31' OV 20 ov0c dep Alalauv rceap V/Io)v yeverTal X pv Xacpatv 8s 'eoXov Aa^trwrovo vtiot 'ETr. a'. 20 25 this olKrpbv is clearly a rendering of WcivXrtarov. The plural rroifaivyovrt is to be expected because the two ideas are represented individually, cf. Kiihner who quotes Xen. Anab. i. 4. 4, - oav 6e mraOe a S6o reltXr. eaviOe.] Causative. Here twa?, cwsTov is the choicest of the avOry produced by o'X/os. 13. e " rcarywv.] Cf. Pyth. I. 99, r6 5e iraOeY eu IrpsTroP dcOXwv eo 6' Koeiv 3e euVrpa toeop'* nATorTpoLor- ' dciv8 p I O av' eyKdprp Kail 'X, req5oavov VdcTrov 6CeKTra, Pyth. III. 104, Nem. I. 32. This 'enjoyment' includes of course good health, of which Theognis says X~mrov 6' vytaivetv, and which Metrod6ros made the summum bonum. Cf. 01. v. 23, yicevra, ' el IS 6\/SoY apep6L | _EapKcSwv KTcreaTrecT Kcal eiXoyicav rporTrOeds, jrL) Mazremc"r Oees yev&Oa't. Xoy. ieX. dK.] See L. and S. d3olew, III. 2. 14. For sentiment cf. 01. v. 23, quoted above, and: Pyth. III. 61, /j, \lXa c iXi?, ploev cLOtvarov crTreucie. 15. el...e0icoKero.] For constr. cf. Pyth. viI. 13. 16. For sentiment cf. Soph. Frag. 528, Eur. Bacch. 395, Pyth. IIi. 59, 60. Frag. 39 [33]. 17. OdXXoto'.] Cf. Pyth. ix. 8 note. Here 'luxuriant' because watered by the dews of song. For metaphor cf. Nem. vIi. 40, Isth. v. 63, 64. cpera.] Cf. Nem. Ix. 54. Join with rayKpacrTovu. 18. Kezrat.] Cf. 01. XIIi. 36, af-yXca rowv CavaKctLrat. Ne/cq.] Dative for locative, cf. Nemr. x. 35. Note that 8u7rX6a does not affect this clause, except so far as one victory a-piece is a two-fold victory. The Nemean victory of Phylakidas is celebrated, Isth. v. [vi.] 3, see the Introd. to that ode. 19. Sc. TiY re before IIvO re. Dissen quotes Aesch. Suppl. 480 (474 P.) for the brachyology, ab yeLv 7rcrep yepact rwvse rapsOwv {| KXa6ovUS re...Xa/SCjd... 8 s, where to supply at-ras dye before KXc6ouvs is easier than Paley's explanation. 19. vrac'ycparTov.] Genitive of origin, cause, of. vi. 22, viKav 7ra-yKpaTeov, Isth. vn. 5, ieGXAw Kcpcros. 20. o0K darep.] 'Full of the praises of the Aeakidae.' 7yeIrat.] 'Is now sipping the sweets of.' Cf. Nem. vi. 25, Isth. I. 21. 21. abv Xcip'alv.] Cf. Pyth. vi. 2, ix. 3, Nem. iv. 7, x. 1. Paley's 'with my poems' is not so good. &koXov.] Idiomatic aorist of the immediate past. Whether Pindar was present at the recitation in person is uncertain as -raiv' does not imply the poet's presence, cf.

Page  165 ISTHMIA IV. [V.] "I '` 6i 7e crparraba Tal-~) E9 EVVO/LOV 7TOhtV. E1L&T~p7~t 0eo8-rwv Cpyov KceXeVOov Av Iaaapcav, / 0L?7 cB0vco, O/-k7rrOp 7ov EOtl' T d' 25 KpPCIC/ae arVTn 7rovom. 165 STp. 3'. 30 aCl yap ~pcowv a~ya~o\ 'roXejttca-a X6ryov eKlpteavav, kIXeOPrat 3 eV Te o pplLvyyeac eV auXcop re Wa/4wvovt o/Lpo/cXatS' 35 'A mr. /3'. pyvPlop Xpvoilo" /F)eXeCaV y 86o\ fJcrTa'ts Atd,~ eGa7t rrp6o-,8avoP ce,&'6pevot, Pyth. ix. 91, 01. v. 20, vII. 25. Cf. also 01. vii. 13, Frag. 53 [45], 11. The last verse of this ode makes it probable that he was not present. vitos.] Dat. commodi. 22. epvogorv.] Because Doric (Mezger), though Eunomia is also connected by Pindar with Lokrian Opus, 01. ix. 17. For the virtues of Aegina cf. 01. vIIi. 21-30, Frag. 1 [4]. rprpa7rrat.] Cf. Thuk. II. 40, ~ 2, Crepots irpo's pyca -reTpag/j6oti (Fanshawe). The subject is 78e 7r6Xis. The voice is middle rather than passive. L. and S., s.v. rpirow I. 2, 3, make rpatire-Oa passive. In several cases the true passive forms CTrpp00vlY and Trpa7rr3'v seem to mean 'was guided, turned, obliged to turn,' rather than 'betook oneself.' See Shilleto's note on Thuk. I. 76, ~ 2, drre-rparero. For the sense to 'roam' L. and S. compare II. xix. 212, where the corpse of Patroklos Kerat iva& 7rpopvpov rerpaciuJL os (!!), which illustrates Pindar's preposition av for Cvad. 23. KX\EVO. av Ka8.] Cf. 01. vr. 23, q TraXos oqpa KeXe~0(c T' e KaOap I pfa'rofev i KXov, 01. vi. 73, Oavepav odo8. For metaphor cf. Nem. Ix. 47. 24. For sentiment cf. Isth. r. 41-45. The poet addresses himself. KOT7rov.] Cf. Nem. viII. 49, Isth. i. 43. 25. Kitpvaev.] For metaphor cf. Isth. v. 3, Nem. III. 78. avril rovwv. ] Cf. Isth. r. 46, iII. 7, Nem. v. 48, vII. 16. 26. 'For indeed in the age of heroes her brave warriors were wont to win fame.' 27. iv.] Cf. Nem. II. 79, 01. VII. 12, qbdptsi"ys riOCra/95~oiat r' ev gvreca-v acOXv. racvWoits.] Cf. last note and Pyth. xnI. 19. OJoKXats.] ' Blended notes.' 28. Jvptov Xpovov.] Cf. Soph. Oed. Col. 617, Avpias o g.vpio's %p6 -vos TCeKourat v6Krars i/eipas r' iwv. AeX. 68 oaq.] ' Now... a theme to poets.' The poet, when supporting the general statement of vv. 26 -28 Xpvov, begins by mentioning the heroes of other States. Virtually vv. 30-34 dXX' constitute a comparison. Cf. Pyth. i. 42 for ao boTras. reiNtoufzevoL seems to agree with 7roXejscrai, the insertion of?ypas gXeL making an anacoluthon. 29. ACoS YK.] Cf. supra, v. 2. I

Page  166 166 PINDARI CARMINA. 30 ev,ev AIrcXrhv ( OvaticL 4faevvra Olvei'aU xparepol, ev 8e ~f13aLe 7rr7roaoas9 'IoXaoq 40 7yepa~q XCE, TIepa'ev6 8' e "Aprye, Kataropo? 8' aiX.d HoXvSe&vce ' r e7r' EJvpora pee'Opovt. 'Er. /3'. adX' ev Olvwvva feyaXrfropeop opyat 35 Alacov Jralowv re' roL al ca V h ' aat4 45 8&v ro\Xv Tpwwov qrpdOov, e'7rofpLevo, 'HpafckXj Trpo'epov, ical tv 'ATpel68ae. gxa vvv fot 7redB0e' Xeye' Trve KLvOKVov, iTve9 "Ecropa 7trerov, 40 calb rTparTapxov AiO7Trc0ov d4o/fov 50 Mepvova XaX\coapav; 79 dlp' eCXtov TIXeoov Trp caev et oops Ka'fcov rap oxOcal; $rp. 7. ToctvZv A'lyvav Trpoe'peptl aro4a 7rrtvpav 55 30. v / 4v.] For leiv —8 with a repeated word cf. Isth. II. 7, 8. 31. Oivet&at.] Meleagros and his brothers. 32. hriro6as. ] The two old Mss. tr7roa's. 33. KCdrTopos aIXtea.] Cf. Nem. x. 13, Pyth. xi. 61, Kaoropos plav, Isth. viI. 54, MAwvovos giav. 34. dXX'.] 'Yea,but' with more reason. This dXX' is not correlative with /,Lv, v. 30, but extends the & clauses. Olyvdv.] Ancient name of Aegina, cf. Isth. vIII. 23. tL7y. opya;.] 'The active greatheartedness.' Lit. ' the great-hearted impulses.' Sc. 7ypas gXouvc from the last verse. 35. rot.] Demonstrative. rvv.] Cf. Isth. II. 1. 37. Cf. Nemr. iv. 25, II. v. 638, 'AXX' oWdv TWd ca'ct a fc 'IHpaK\Xretrv elvat, eFoyv rarTpa Opaculiepvova Ovgoheovr~a, Os TrorTe Sep' Xo\0Ov bex' t7rrjrwv AaoeLdovro0;oi's abv vevo4 Kal cavs dpcdi ravporTpotcrv 'IXIov ieaXdirae OIXLv, Xypwore 6' dyvta's. Laomed6n withheld the horses he had promised HErakles in return for his saving H6sion6 from the sea-monster of the Troad. 38. 7re8dOev.] Not e cadpXs but penitus. ' Go on from this point categorically.' The adverb would not suit the literal meaning of eXav. Mezger is bold to render 'over the ground,' comparing 7re8toto lec-Oat. The old Medicean MS. gives ira860ev. M. Schmidt proposes ao-irt0ev. Prof. Seymour ingeniously explains ' rise, O muse, from the ground to a more lofty height.' 39. KV6KOV.] Of the Troad, not the Kyknos slain by Hdrakles. For the rhetorical interrogation, cf. Pyth. Iv. 70. 43. 'They (i.e. Achilles) whose mouth proclaims as their home the

Page  167 ISTHMIA IV. [V.] taT7rpeTrea vaa-ov' TETELXtcroTl 8 7r' Xac 45 7rvp7yo9 vrr7Xas aperal aval/alwetlv. 7ro\ka /ev 'p tl7rr} rOXXa' /'V dapTLEer?) 7XCy\oa pLOt roteV/ u ar eXe repi Icelvov KceXaSeetv Kca vuv v "Apes fLxapTvpra-ct A'aVrTO opOwOecTca vavTraTL Ev TToXv'06pp ZaXasA? Atot SOC/3pq 50 avapBlojlwv daSpwOv XaXacadevTt /6vp. AXX' 4eows KcaXi77vya IcTLTaTSpee 'crty ZeV' Ta Te KaZ rT ve/et, ZEvS 60 Tar'Tvv KcvpLo. Ev 8' epaCLeEvw 167 Kcev 7ro\tc 60 'Avr. 7'. 65 illustrious isle of Aegina.' For dative cf. Nem. x. 29. It is to be taken both with rro'da and 7rdrpav. For the plural referring to one person cf. Nem. i. 58, Frag. 53 [45], 10, 11. 44. -rereitrat.] ' So long since hath a tower been built up with sublime merits for men to climb' (Bockh); cf. Frag. 197 [232], r-6 -TepOV 'lK t TeXlOS r tLov, 0xKOLtaS dardratats dvafjaive ertXO6vtov tybvos dvpcwv-and 01. viII. 27, where Aegina is called &vois KlOVCa, also Nem. ix. 47. The virtues of the worthies of Aegina are both a conspicuous glory to the isle and an example by following which her sons may reach the height of renown. 46. gLtV.] For gFL...dXX' odcus, v. 51, cf. Isth. III. 25, 0. and P. p. xxxviii. 47. roteegar'.] A similar metaphor follows the mention of Achilles' exploits, 01. ii. 83, cf. 01. I. 112. Kelvwv.] Aeginetans-a general. ized reference to vv. 43, 44. 48. KeX<aSdeLv.] For this infinitive and acvafSavev cf. Madv. ~ 148 b. Rem. 3. Mss. KCXaaoaai, Bergk ieXapoSatL. 7r6Xts A'avTos.] Cf. Nem. iv. 48. dpO8wOeia.] Perhaps a nautical metaphor' righted by themariners.' Mezger compares v. 44. 49. Cf. II. v. 91, Hes. W. and D. 488, 626, for Atios olpos, Nem. ix. 38 for the kind of metaphor, and for XaX. bov. cf. Isth. vi. 27, XXadax aZtiaros. For order cf. Isth. v. 18. 51. KardppeXe. ] 'Drown,' rather than 'moisten,' steep.' Cf. Frag. 225 [269], iu) ocry} pfpexe0Ow. 52. ra re Kat ra.] Cf. Isth. IIr. 51, Pyth. vi. 22. iMss. Trd e (and 7rae) Kaci ra. 53. Cf. Frag. 118 [105], 0e6s d Tr 7ravra TreUXwv. ev 6' EpaTretV I 4XArTL.] ' In the sphere of lovely honey (song, cf. 01. xi. 98, fL4rAct e(viopa rogXCv KCTappCpX& v, and Klpva/ev supra, v. 25) honours also such as this (i.e. victories in games) love a joyous song of victory.' For iY cf. 0. and P. p. xxxvii., Nem. I. 34. Edd. generally join eYv p. clX. with KtaXXizKov XCPdp/a (for ev Mezger quotes v. 27, 01. v. 19, Nem. xi. 17, 01. i. 15, the last reference being apparently a slip). Nem. xi. 17, &v \Xdyois alvefOat= ' to be praised in discussions.' In the I

Page  168 168 PINDARI CARMI[NA. Le'XLTL Ica' TotatE -rytla' KaXXVLKOV)Xaip~' "apva-Ow rvr p8cav 55 a4.5' d&9Xotutv 7eve&'v KXEOVIKov cxpracOanr ov'ros 'relrv'cjwras,Laxpovq.to'yOos-. dve~p z oO3'tro'caab &virava& s3Xrt'& v b ~ c- &rwTt. a tv ca Ica i llv ' ~v 7vto a/Jxtts dryar6 obvrt. 70 'Er. y'. 75 other two cases, as in 01. vii. 12, Kern. iii. 79 (which last is the closest parallel to the alleged construction), this use of fis occurs in connection with musical instru.ments. Dissen says " cpa &P iducrt h. e. fLEXCOreI', cf. alia ap. Schaefer ad Longum, p. 404."' 54. vectatd -ibtat.] Two Schol. bear witness to a reading retz~de,rtjui, which Bergk adopts. fpdwm]j Cf. ern. vii. 11 note. 55. do '] Cf. Kern. ii. 17, vi. 14. K'XcEovt'KO.] Cf. Kern. v. Introd. 56. bqzLa~aiv.] We should say 'Let anyone learn well before he strives.' Cf. Thuk. r. 20 ~ 2Ti-pan'see denta diioOaeed, Shilleto's note, and Dem. p. 530, Xopq-yO's tWe V -ere'eOets. For XIS Prof. Seymour wrongly compares Isth. vii. [viii. ] 1. rErvq5w-rac.] ' Hath sunk into obscurity,' of. Simonides Frag. 4, 5, eercrow 6' rotou-rop ob'-r' d~put's [ eSO' o 7racisajxcirwp cimpszeoiet Xpdees. 57. &edp8Pe.] 'Its men,' including Lampdn with his sons; of. Isth. v. 73, 74. 58. JArtOs.] Genitive of cause, origin, after dcnruism, as Aristarchos (so Schol.) explained it. 9KetGo'.] 1155S. & Vt(~, i s '. The Schol. says that Aristarchos (reading 0irt) explained 9Kew-a v7i pwe5 The reading d'irt gives -a much better sense. The frequentative aorist is appropriate to the recurring irritation of expenses. Render 'check by frequent chafing their regard'(for games or for deities as shewn most conspicuously in devotion to games). The nom. to9Kheir' is the substantive clause dirdir. Bar. fAr. 59. 6s -yuzodaa'atg.] Generally taken, after Hermann, with Xeport, giving the most flagrant violation of usual order to be found in Pindar. The two old uvss. give 'IuXa~it3a (cv). The Schol. took yvto6uiUaaw for dOXvqrahs (so too Mlommsen), a notion which may have led to the corruption of ir~a-ya?s to i'rXa-y~e (iwss.). The alteration irXa-ya~h is Hartung's. Render, '1I declare in praise of Pytheas too (as wveil as of Phylakidas) that Phylakidas kept on a straight course amid crushing blows, an antagonist skilled in fight by-reason-of-his-intelligence.' For XEpIrd 'in boxing and wrestling,' of. Pyth. x. 23, supre, v. 9. I take this difficult and much-disputed passage to mean simply that Phylakidas never got ' wild'Iin his fighting, but in spite of ' punishment'I persevered in his clever tactics-thanks in part at least to his elder brother Pytheas, who either trained him or practised with him. It is strange that L. and S. say that the sense of &e~c6s is the same Kern. iii. S as here. There it is ' fittest,' or ' happiest,' (' best-olmened');

Page  169 ISTHMIA IV. [V.] 6o 'lDuXcaxi~av?i-Xaryat's~ apolov evOvwropqcaL XEc8.e~tOv v0O6 aVP-rlraXov. Xa'4t/3ave' o1 o-7-Elfavov, ~E'pe 3' eV`/LaXXoP /Ubwrpav, icab WTePOEVTa vEov c1J(J4TE/J.frOI i'jwov. 169 So here ' dexterous.' Those who follow Hermann put a comma after weoi1 arnd take &-tkV v'6cw d'vr1iwrXoP together, but Mommsen (after the Schol.) puts commas before and after Xcpo-l 6~tco'p, rendering "Imanibus habilem monte haud indoctiorem." Most edd. read t. 59 f. ce56vropio-at "IPhylacidae plagarum. cursum. recta praeivisse " (Dissen). Bergk conjectures e'z (sive Ir') -yvzo8api&ov43VXcUKi5 7rXey6v 6p6Aov ei6e-. n-opi~oaei So Christ, except 7roi for ciV. These readings are open to the grave objection that ol ought to refer to cb'riwra~op and to Phy. lakidas. Nothing but apparent necessity could reconcile Dissen and others to referring the two last verses of the ode to Pytheas. The old mss. seem, to show that the scribes of Triclinius' uss. found hoth proper names in the accusative and altered the second to the dative, perhaps partly because my alteration of the, first makes a hiatus (but of an admissible kind, see 0. and P. p. xlii.), and portly because an accusative after aii~w seoms so natural. Of course Hlu6'q is a dat. commodi. 62. The poet bids himself (of. supra, v. 24) take a crown (in spirit) for Pbylakidas and send therewith a fresh ode. furpas.] Cf. Nem. viii. 15, 01. ix. 84. The epithet moans ' of fine wool.' 63. -7rrep6evra.] Cf. Pyth. viii. 134, Isth. i. 64, iii. 27.

Page  170 ISTHMIA V. [VI. ] ON THE VICTORY OF PHYLAKIDAS OF AEGINA IN THE PANKRATION. INTRODUCTION. THIS Ode is in honour of the same person as the preceding ode. It was probably composed soon after the Isthmian games immediately preceding the battle of Salamis, 01. 74. 4, B.. 480, certainly not later than this date. It is clear that it was composed pretty soon after Nem. v. Prof. Jebb, Journ. of Hellen. Stud. June, 1882, p. 35, says: "In the fifth Isthmian ode, Pindar gives a most brilliant treatment to the initial episode of the very theme which occupied the east pediment of the temple at Aegina-Heracles coming to seek the aid of Telamon against Troy, when Telamoa gave his guest 'a wine-cup rough with gold,' and Heracles prophesied the birth and prowess of Ajax. Here then is a case in which we can conceive that the poet's immediate theme may have occurred to his mind as he gazed on the sculptor's work in the splendid entablature of the temple; and we recall Pindar's own comparison of an opening song to the front of a stately building," 01. vi. 3, 4. The ode was in all probability sung at a banquet in Lampon's house. The rhythm is Dorian. ANALYSIS. vv. 1-9. Comparison of this ode and Nem. v. (composed for Phylakidas' elder brother) to the second and first libations at a banquet, and expression of hope that the third libation may be poured out to Olympian Zeus in honour of a victory gained by one of Lampon's family at Olympia. 10-13. For when a man (as is the case with Lampon) grudges no pains or expense in earning distinctions and the deity

Page  171 ISTHMIA V. [VI.I 171 gives him renown, he has reached the utmost limits of prosperity. 14-16. Lamp6n prays that he may feel the satisfaction brought by such fill of success before he is visited by death or old age. 16-18. May K16th6 attend to his entreaties. 19-21. The poet is bound to celebrate the Aeakids when visiting Aegina. 22, 23. Broad roads carry their fame all over the world. 24-35. All have heard of Pe'leus, Aias, and Telam6n, and of the exploits of the last as the companion of H6rakles on his expedition against Troy and the Meropes of K~s and Alkyoneus. 35-56. lirakles, when he went to summon Telam'n to this expedition, found him feasting; and, being invited to pour out the first libation, prayed for strength and courage for Telamsn's son. He interprets the good omen sent in answer, the appearance of an eagle, and proposcs the name Aias accordingly. 56-58. Pindar can now say no more about the Aeakid heroes, as he is engaged to singr of the victorious brothers and their uncle. 58, 59. The oqe shall proceed with extreme brevity, in Argive fashion. 60-66. Praise of the three victors just mentioned. 66-73. Praise of Lamp~n for hospitality, moderation, prudence of speech, and patient encouragement of athletes. 74, 75. The poet offers the family a draught from the fountain of DirkO which was raised by Mnnmosyn6 hard by one of the gates of Thebes.:rp. a'. eaxov-rp~ a'v~p(wv WS, 0TE OU/ -WOCiOV.E607pov lcpa~ypa Moto-aalwv /.cXc' 1. OACXXopros.] Cf. Hor. 6atTa [P. note], and the following Schol. Octav, EiTawivfl TCOaXvifl. on our passage, e " e-ra r7z' rpi Ws 6TCE.3 Cf. 01. vi. 2. 7tWP CWP KpcLT'pa Kcpciodu, W'K?'c7ca2. &6e'repov.] For the three cus- Tros aviToU T & 0XcOXnao Tta 6p Tipt'TO tornary libations cf. Aesch. Ag. 237 Kparipa Acts lwrijpos Mcyoi,, Kaoa'

Page  172 172 PINDARI CARMINA. clpvae/ev Aad/hrwvov evacOXov yrveav f7rep, ev Nea /,v,rpW7rovZ, 5 ZE, 7Ti adrov uOcfabevo acre>CaOwv, 5 vvv avre, 'Io-poO v ecroTa, NTpet8earoai Te revTricovra 7ra1'8v Or'XoTraTov JvXa[cita vtcKWvTOI. er& Se rTpirov IO croT7pt 7r0opcraivovTa 'OXv/trlT Ait'avavr carT a7rrTuvezv /&eXfXbOoy7yot dot8a. 'AYr. a'. IOe I rap Ts dvOptrcwrv &aTrdva Te %apels Kat Zo0oKX?7 iv NavwrXi' " Zebs vIrcuvuLVUre, Kal Atds Cwr7pitou j rroW3r) TrproU Kparipos'" Trdi ef 'y&p rpOirov Aits 'OXv/7rirov Kipvacav, Trv it 6esrepov 7pwLjwv, rod 8 rpirov AiLOs Twrpos KaOa Ksa ArXvXos ev 'E7rtyvoss "' Xotl&s Atls Fcyv wrpiirov wpatov yd/ov f "Hpas 7e." etra' " T7v &viTepav ae'v K jpwte v v77P w." eCra"rplrov Atos TWrijpOS eCVKraiav i/la." Hence Aeschylos calls Zebs " o-wrlp rpiros" Suppl. 26, Eum. 729, 730 [P.]. Pindar's first bowl of song was Nem. v. For the metaphor cf. Isth. iv. 25. Moataiwv.] MSS. skuolto'v. 3. Adtrwcvos.] Cf em. v. Introd.,uiC.] Taken up by aurts v. 5, cf. 0. and P. p. xxxviii. 4. Tiv.] iss. give text. Many edd. riv y'. The particle certainly emphasises the pronoun, for, having begun by winning in games sacred to Zeus, they may hope for the third victory under the auspices of Zeus of Olympia. But for the sense 7' is not really wanted, and though riv is short, Pyth. I. 29, Nem. x. 30, the form retv shews that it may be long. For this dat., and &eorr6ra NlXpeedo re e, cf. Pyth. iv. 23, 01. xiii. 29. &c-roV reqTepdvW.] Cf. 01. v. 1, ix. 19. Here the expression is not quite superlative, ' a choice crown.' 7. ef-t.] For the accus. 7ropearoevra cf. 01. I. 11.5, Pyth. ii. 96, Nem. vII. 25, Isth. i. 64, Od. in. 310, xvi. 243, Aristoph. Ach. 1079: with dat. Theognis 1153: for suppression of pronoun cf. Pyth. i. 29, II. 83. rplrov.] Sc. Kpar4pa. 8. vropraivov7as.] Sc. &ias, i. e. the poet alone or with the chorus included. 'OXvsu7ri.] Not immediately 'of Olympos' but of Olympia. Of course Olympia was named from Zeus of Olympos. KarTs a trewvev.] A metrical tmesis. He 'pours over Aegina' the wine of song (cf. infra, v. 21) as he pours (in fancy) the material wine on her soil. For the compound and construction cf. Eur. Or. 1239, SaKcpotS Kara'crr&vw o-', 'I make a libation over thee (the dead Agamemnon) with tears.' Secondarily the meaning 'to honour with offerings of tears' (L. and S.) is right, but KaTraa7rivPo Ala would not be likely to occur. 9.,eXt006sqyyots.] Appropriate, as wine was sweetened with honey. For metaphor cf. Nem. III. 77. 10. 8a7rdv.] Cf. Isth. iv. 57, i. 42.

Page  173 ISTHMIA V. [VI.] 173 teal rWore rpaTroeLa Oeo/larovs apedTa, 15 17vv re ot o al.ov w qvreVe& 6coav cTrripaTov, eoaar-ax s 4'rjS vrpos oX/3ov /3daX6Ter arcvpav OeoroTt/ o e'o. TOltao-tv opyab? EUeXTa 20 15 avTarcat c a aav yrjpd' Te eGarOata 7roXtov 5 KXeoviKcov vra' e7) S ' v riOpovov KXwcO) Kca'LtyvyTava re 7rpo-evveTrrco ecvreo-Oab cXv vp lov Mospa eTa. avSpoS OflXov Motpas e`06T/,Ua<?. 25 'E7r. a'. v/J,/JL 7T, ' Xpva-apcaTot AlaKcLat, 20 7'eOCov - Lo06 L aa' a'rc' rov eva Tora e7rtaxreivXora vacov patvelev ev otila9t. 30 11. rpd-raet.] 'Achieves,' cf. Isth. Iv. 8, Pyth. In. 40, 0. and P. p. xxxix. aperas.] ' Distinctions,' cf. Nem. v. 53, Isth. I. 41. Perhaps 0eoLaCirovs suggested the metaphor of Isth. iv. 45. 12. av- re.] 'And if at the same time,' cf. Eur. Herc. Fur. 785. ot.] Dat. conmmodi. vurevet.] Cf. Pyth. Iv. 69, Oe6 -7roLuro (pt p rtc rtial 9 pvrevOev, Nem. vIII. 16. eXariatsm.] So the best Ms. and Schol. Bockh eVXartds. Cf. 01. IIi. 43, Pyth. x. 28, Nem. iII. 21, 22, Isth. II. 30. 13. p3dXX\T'.] For aCXXerat. 14. ' Such feelings (i.e. of satisfaction) in supreme success doth Lamp6n pray that he may attain ere he be visited by death or (Isth. IIn. 28) hoar old age.' Dissen gives for opyal the forced rendering "quae quis appetit." For the participle cf. Nem. vIII. 38, Isth. vi. 40, Thuk. i. 20 ~ 2. We should make it the principal verb. For USao-Oac cf. II. xvIII. 115, Kjpa 5' y7W r6Oe 5to.Aac o'7rrorr Key &7 I[ ZeSr 04OX71 reXaarcu iq5' d6cidvroe eol AXXot. 17. eo-t7raOat.] Mss. care'o-Oat. Edd. after Pauwe the late Epic ao7-reoOat, but the aorist is better. Perhaps we should read '7reo'-re'Oat, cf. Pyth. iv. 133. KXvraiF.] 'Loud,' cf. 01. xiv. 19, KXVTra' dyyeXclav, and Isth. vi. 19. 18. cavpos.] Lampon. Moipas.] For position cf. IaXa/Is, Isth. IV. 49. ebere^?s.] Here 'entreaties,' 'urgent prayers,' cf. II. I. 495, Oe'7r 8 ' 5' XOer' peTfeLas I ra s eov. The word usually means the 'behests' of a superior. 19. v'byte.] Ace. after patvcLev. 20. rO/tlov.] 'A most clear prescription,' ' most clearly prescribed.' Cf. 01. vII. 88, xIII. 28, Nem. Iv. 33, x. 33. 21. -rai6'.] For this pronoun not implying the poet's presence cf. Pyth. ix. 91, 01. vIII. 25; but here the whole tone of the ode suggests that the poet was present. e7rilTrexovra.] For the change of

Page  174 174 PINDARI CARMINA. FLvpiaf 3' Spyawv caXcv TCTjLr7)vO' ecZaro/t7re8o& ev 'Xepw fce6ev0oi, canl 7repav NeXoto 7rayav cal BL' T7rep/3opeov' o e-tv aLV OUT(O f3ap/3apos o'Te 7raXy'yXcoro's 7TOMs, 335 25 Tart ov lXeoso a'et KcXeo? ripod, Ugevoaltovo! eya/J3pov 06Cm', Erp. 1' oV3' /at' A'avro9 TeXalcovPtcSa Kcat 7rarpo6 rov X7aXcoXadpIav 6E '7roX\ftov daye ovz TtpvUv0ioIrOb rpodpova av'pltaXov e'" Tpo'av, 7tpcoo-tr ItQd00ov, 40 AaoP/6e8ovreLtv tv7rep d' rXaKcav 30 eov vavov 'AX/ctyva T6eKO. EIXE 86 IlepyatLi[av, 7rEvev 8E o-)v ievtM Mep6orwv 45 case from the dat. JLx cf. 01. I. 10, Isth. i. 46. pawvLev.] For metaphor cf. supra vv. 8, 9, Isth. II. 90, 01. xi. [x] 97, KXV TOV P voEs I AOKpwCV aJp0areaOov J\tT' I evavopa irb6XI KarapPeXcv, Nem. i. 13. 22. -r/eLr7v0'.] Muchof the ancient Greek road-making consisted in cutting rock. For metaphor cf. 01. vi. 73, Isth. ini. 19, Isth. n. 33, Nem. vii. 50, 51, and especially Nem. vi. 47. CKatro'7rr. eiv oxepc.] A hundred feet broad continuously. ev oXepP.] Cf. Nem. I. 69. 23. Cf. Isth. in. 41. This is a stronger expression, meaning beyond the furthest regions known (by name) to the Greek, south and north. The slaughter of Memnbn by Peleides spread the fame of Peleus to the south, perhaps there was a legend that Telam6n was with Herakles on one or both of his journeys to the Hyperboreans (cf. 01. II. 13-34). But the ex pression does not require this particular interpretation, cf. Isth. III.55. 24. iraXiyyXwaoros.] Schol. a\XOKOTOS. Xo6coro?. 25. dcte.] mss. adie. Schol. Vet. KaTaKovuL. yalqpo3o.] Cf. Nem. v. 37. 26. arts] Sc. oUcK aet. 27. rov.l I.e. TeXasciv~ a. XaoXKoepav.] As Telam6n was 07WXir'W this epithet may be in apposition with rov, not in agreement with ir6XOeJov, 28. Tpwtavc.] mss. rpofav. The phrase -jpwoa- kto'0ov (in apposition with Tpwtav) refers to both Trojan wars. uodXoY.] Cf. Isth. VII. 11. 29. mss. give-rla, -Kiav. Kayser gives the text after the Schol. 30. For the late position of the subject cf. infra, vv. 35, 40, 01. xi. [x] 31, 34, 0. and P. p. xxxvi. 31. IIep-yaiaav.] Sc. yijv. Cf. Eur. Phoen. 571, p p'v P? k yv 'rv,'...Tpo7rcaa rcs dvacotrrols At; 573, E\Vyv 7CrTpav.

Page  175 ISTHMIA V. [VI.] 175 Oveca, Kcab rTov / 3ov/30rav o t'pel 'cov Xeeypaatvv evpovvA 'AXfcvovj o'-eTrepas o;u ei'arTo Xepoiv 13apvfSOyyoto vevpdc 50 'Azr. /'. 35 Hpa/cXAeK?. aXX' AlaclSav KcaXewv E9 7rX\Oo TOOOV KVpy0eeV atOLVVELvOV. Tov itev eV ptLV XE\VTOS ao-rTcira te, ra'aTo vecrapeatL aTrov8cativ 5p'cdb 55 cap-TepacLiXJaav 'A/LcTrpvoavtaav, avcWoKce 8 auwTo (epraTro 40 olvoUSov cO bXav Xpv'crf 7rrepfptk'viav TeXa/oJv^, 6 acvaTreivats ovpavc Xetpa? adLaXov 60 a3oaare TOLOVTrov Etro E' tOTr' earf v, ( Ze ' rarep, Ouvj Oe'Xwv adJv afcovaas, KEivy.] TeXawpvt. For theme cf. Nem. iv. 25-30. Mep6*fwv.] Men of K6s. As H6 -rakles was worshipped at Kos as Alexis (Mezger), the Meropes whom he conquered may have been Egyptian or Kirian or Phoenician oppressors of Greek inhabitants. 32. Povu36irav.] So called because he had 'lifted' the cattle of H1lios from Erythia. For the epithets with and without the article cf. 0. and P. p. xxxvi. For the simile cf. II. xIII. 754, Wp/r-qO7 6pei' vitbcevr7 eotKWS (of Hekt6r). 33. XD\eypaLclv.] In Thrace, cf. Nem. I. 67. npeprepas.] I.q. eais, see L. and S. 35. ecaX'ew7.] Is this future? 36. es r\X6ov.] To the abovementioned voyage. The old Vatican Mrs. reads es 7rX6ov K?7pv —re acvv/,Levwv, leaving a lacuna of a spondee's length before the last word; Triclinian Mss. es \rX6ov K6prce 'rdvrTi v Ba vvl. iwvyv. Mommsen from Schol. e.. r. rourov Kuprlcev 6atviWevov. Pauwe e. 7r. K7jpvIePv acriay atYvv/Ci'ev. From the Schol. I get e. 7r. trOroY Kvpr7'Cev auavvuJLvov. The TO-rov is natural as the account goes back to the beginning of the story of the Trojan expedition. 37. dptac.] Mezger compares for the construction with dat. Nem. ii. 25, where a6vgLeXe? pwvqu is most likely, as I took it, dative of manner. The Schol. says that this scene is cK rTwv icydycXw 'HoWvy (see L. and S. rjoos, in.). 39, 40. ep craros-TeXauC^.] For order cf. 0. and P. p. xxxvi. 7recptpKvav.] 'Embossed, 'rough,' cf. Yerg. Aen. xnI. 87, auro squalentena alboque orichalco...loricam, ib. ix. 263, aspera signis pocula. According to a Schol. Aristarchos said the metaphor was from a boar, bpi7as ev Xocpt4s (Od. xix. 446). 41. ovpavo.] Dat. termini. Cf. 0. and P. p. xxxvii. 42. rotovrov.] Ass., old TroOUTrov rt, new rotovrosv r'. Even without a following F-ov can be long, cf. Pyth. ix. 114, Nem. i. 51, 69, vi. 60. 43. OXfwv.] Cf. 01. I. 97, Pyth.

Page  176 176 PINDARI CARMINA. 'Ewr. i'. vvv ere, Vy evxacu? v7ot Oe6rffreTrLav 45 Xla'a'oCLa rai^a Opacrvv I 'Ept3o9La? 65 adv6pl rwr3se, evtY', d poap jopl3i tov TreXEcra 'ro6v ILE app77cTov UCv, oarTp roSe epva vv 7repa7rXavarTa 067po9, ov wra/fcrporov ade\Xv IrCevt' 7ror' e Ne/Pea 70, II C 5 fvos 8 ~rE7o0. TauT cipa ol fa,'v' 're 3' e0o$4 50 dpotv olovwv eyav atetvo adSeLa 6' vSov vvL 6e/CPLeV irp. y'. et7rEv Tre w roaati aTIe -cudvrvt dvvp' 75 iI. 69 (Mss. B0Xwo, some edd. ecwv), x. 5, Nem. 84 note. 44. U7rO.] For the unusual use of the preposition =' by means of,' of. 01. v. 6, vro /JovUvoiLat (4-yepapep), Pyth. v. 94, pavf0eav V7ro xe6 -nLaa-is, Nem. VII. 84. 46. Old Vat. MS. avS6p roile IeTPot adoi, fL. T. Old Medicean nMs. dvspi r7vde Kecvov a/iJO JU. r. Triclinian 1ss. advpl r S6e, etLov alfaov,I. T. Hermann and Bockh follow these last Mss. except in reading rp6e for -r se, interpreting ' a son to make my friend perfectly happy.' For 5. a. Rauchenstein would read 5etvoertIt, Schnitzer Eivto'v /uov. Bergk divpa roive 5euvov cWaov L. r. I propose the text or Kelvov,juap jOIpltovs, comparing Pyth. Iv. 255, KaL ev dXoCXoa7rcl s | erepp' dapopats rurTaiKLs vJerTpats CaKTrlvs O' 3ov 86 -5aro FLOepI&ov j| alap 7 VKTreS. Cf. also ibopatylos alwiv, of Epaphos' birth, Aesch. Suppl. 46. I think that cauap Jotpi6tov is the accusative, like Sberepov adap, Isth. III. 85, and that TreXeat is to be referred to Zeus reXetos, who was usually invoked before the first libation, a similar use being found in Eur. Bacchae, 100, 'TrCK e a' aYKca Moipac tr\heaav ravpoKepwv Oedv. 47. ro'v eyv.] 'To make him.' Zeugma with reX/eat. The particle /ies is to be taken with cuvdv, correlative with Ov/uLOs U, v. 49, cf. Nem. Ix. 39. dpp7rKToV.] 'Stout,' 'stalwart,' not 'invulnerable.' Pindar seems to have told elsewhere of Aias having been wrapped up in HIrakles' lion's skin and thereby rendered invulnerable, cf. Schol. Arg. ad Soph. Aiac. pvw'.] For the meaning 'physique' of. Isth. vi. 22, cf. also qp5 -r-v, Nem. VI. 5, Isth. III. 67. wt7rep.] For the compendious construction of. Nem. ix. 41. 48. rdcirpwrov &eOXAw.] Accusative of general agreement. Cf. 01. II. 4. 49. OuvAis ' eirOew.] 'And let his spirit correspond.' Cf. 01. I. 22. Don. Others, 'let the spirit (of a lion) accompany (the lion's strength).' 4qaE^/Y.] Cf. Nem. ix. 43. 50. Observe the expressive sounds of this line. &9^,ev.] ' Thrilled him.'

Page  177 ISTHMIA V. [VI.] 177 "Efercral rot 7rat?, iov al-reZs, c TeXatw'zv' tcai vW opviXo 4avexvros fecXrCeT EwrwvUUov e..pvfi3av A t'avra, XaWv Cv 7r6voLv /cxrayXov 'EvvaXtov. 80 55 cs6 Spa eITWvr avrutca cJ~r. etoL Se LaKcpov 7racat aYaycrao'aa01 apera& (DvXaKtiaa yap MrXOov, ( Mo-ra, raytas lIvOe4a re KcWtio EDvuOvte vet ro v 'ApTyerlv rpowroV 85 6tlpro'erat 7ra ' ev /ppaxiTro6?. 'ATv. iy'. 60o cpaVTo yap vlccaVro t,r aycpariov, rpebs a7r' 'Iao'0/to, Ta4 ' w' a er evfv\ov Ne/e'as, adyao wrabSe' re cxa ftLaCrpoS. Ldvd 3 ayayov? es os otav p-obpav ivLwvr 90 rTav aXvXa&'v ae 7rdrpav XapLrov apaovrt caXV\irT 8pocpr, 65 'rv re 6aOepTlov o pOwo'-arev ol ravte ro6tv 95 O6eoqlX7 vailoLtc. A/aTOrt)v 8e,eXerav spyots dorCLoa CaHlLat6ov jdLXa TJ4L rovr' eros, vioboi re,bpdwOv 7rapatveb, 100 53. 'And Zeus calls (idiomatic aorist) him, by a name commemorative of the appearance of the bird, mighty Aias.' ApollodOros gives the same derivation. In Soph. Ai. 430-432 we have, as Prof. Jebb rightly says, a pun, not an etymology. 56. /jaKpov.] Cf. Nem. x. 4, 19. dperis.] Instances of the worth of the folk of Aegina. This verse refers back to v. 22. 58. For these names cf. Nem. v. ILtrod. Tro 'Apyelwv rporrov.] Cf. Aesch. Supp. 196, 269 [P.], p.Kp 7P yev 8j pAi"O' ov rpTetpye 7rXt S. Soph. Frag. 411, jQ00os 'yap 'Apjyo\XtrTl rvvF. II. rtzLreLv ppaxvs. Dorians of Argolis had colonised Aegina. 59. K'.] For Ke (ci) with the future cf. Nem. vni. 68. 61. ras 5'.] Cf. 01. xI. 6, roXX' avw, r& 8' au KCar, Nem. ix. 43. 62. Cf. Isth. II. 39-42. oCav.] Exclamatory, cf. 01. Ix. 89, 93. 64. For metaphor cf. Nem. viir. 40. 65. opaO'ravres.] Cf. Pyth. Iv. 60, Isth. I. 46. 67. Hes. W. tand D. 409, ov yip eTrwo'oep'yos civcp 7rt7r\7Xt Kak\Xt ^, odu' dvaipacXX\ evos' fieXr\T bi we 'p7yov 6SX~XeL. Pindar of course means athletic exercises by 9pyois. 12

Page  178 178 PINDARI CARMINA. 'Err. y' VYovv dcrer ictcr^ov ec 7rpocaaywov. 70 CwaL Evwvro evepyeclaL dya7raTrat, 4zerpa pxev ryvcO/ja &WKcov, perpa 6e fIcal careXWO' ryX3a<ra 5' ovi et'o pcpev3v' 4apSi e x: vv dvSpacrw deOXrTa'to-v e4/,/ev 105 ~EBX~~ai SlU CA If O NatLav rrerpas ev eaXXatI %aXKco8aa/avT' adcovav. 7rclro 0e A^pKca9 ayIvov v8eop, To f3a0TSwvo Kgopal 75 Xpvo'oTerTrXov Mvaaocv'va cEvrveTkXav 7rap eVTretXErt Ka81ov 7rvXals. IIO 69. wvv'v.] Cf. 01. vii. 21, xi. [x.] 11. 70. evepyediats.] Dat. of cause. Cf. 01. vi. 90. 71. For the repetition of a word with /Lev —8 cf. Isth. II. 8. For sentiment cf. Hes. W. and D. 692, TrCpa vXuhXicrreacu, KdLpos 5' e7rl r&,tyz atploTos. 72. ouC e'[w pevwCV.] ' Does not go beyond the bounds of wisdom.' Schol. ov 7rporercws qeO&y'yerat. Mezger, ' does not say one thing and mean another.' oarls, K.r.X.] MSS. ~al[dS Kc PoP &dvp' (dvapa) ei dOX\Trailtv. Heyee, Hermann, Beckh, 0. K. v. avspacotv dc. Mommsen, qf. K. MIvav8pov ev aei\., after the Trichnian gloss, rOl atXetrrvV Me'vavSpov evact toxov, which is a wrong interpretation drawn from Nem. vi.. 48. Bergk gives the text. So the Schol. etri-o 8' av rts aurTo rov Acaurtvwa, elvat roioUrov avspa 4v rois a&OX7Tra, o'av, K.T.X. The Schol., however, needlessly regards Lamp6n as a trainer. 73. Ni'aia.] The Schol. says that the best whetstones were those of Naxos in Kr[te. XaXKcohaAatcr'.] For this termination in the feminine gender cf. &avpodalccavr' 'Eptp~Xav Nem. ix. 16, froraciitC 'AKpdtyavr Pyth. vi. 6. 74. 7rita.] I will offer them as my 4eisvov a draught. For the future referring to the time of recitation of. 01. xi. [x.] 79, 84, Pyth. ix. 89. The causal forms rla-w, everCo-e (Frag. 88 [77]) are referred to the late 7rtrTri'K by lexicographers. For the double accusative Cf. irorlt?. aoe.] ThePsalvyhidae. For Pindar's house near the fountain of DirkO cf. O. and P. pp. xv, xvi. 75. Xpvcro7re7rov.] Our phrase 'golden memories' recommends this epithet to us, but very likely it recalled some celebrated picture or piece of sculpture in Pindar's time. er7etXei-t^a.] 'Of the well-built walls.'

Page  179 ISTHMIA VI. [VII.] ON THE VICTORY OF STREPSIADAS OF THEBES IN THE PANIRKATION. INTRODUCTION. STREPSIADAS, a Theban, nephew of Strepsiadas son of Diodotos, probably gained the victory celebrated in this ode at the Isthmian festival of 01. 81. 2, April, B.C. 456, soon after the disastrous defeat of the Thebans by the Athenians at Oenophyta, which threw the government of Thebes into the hands of the democratic party. In this battle Strepsiadas the elder, maternal uncle of the victor, had fallen (vv. 24-36). The rhythm is Lydian with Aeolian measures. ANALYSIS. 1-15. Th&bA is asked in which of the ancient glories of Thebes she feels most delight. 16-21. But as men forget what is not immortalized in verse, the poet bids the chorus celebrate in song Strepsiadas. 21-23. For he has won the prize in the pankration at Isthmos, and is richly endowed by nature and made illustrious by minstrelsy, 24-36. And has given delight to his namesake and maternal uncle, who had recently died fighting like a hero for his country. 37-39. The poet was bitterly grieved at the defeat and the deaths of his countrymen, but now Poseidon offers him calm after the storm. 12-2

Page  180 180 PINDARI CARMINA. 39-42. A prayer that divine envy may not disturb his tranquil enjoyment of whatever pleasure presents itself as he awaits age and death. 42, 43. For all must die alike, but are unequal in fortune. 43-47. If a mortal be ambitious, he is too puny to mount to Olympos. 47, 48. Sweets unjustly enjoyed are in the issue most bitter. 49-51. Invocation to Apollo to grant Strepsiadcs victory at the Pythian games. 7Tp. a'. Tlvn ToV Trapo9, C fUdacatCpa ~~/CGa, /ca\cv eTrLXoeplov aNdrXo'ra OvjloV 'eov evcfpavas; p'a XaXKcoK/po6Tv 2rapeSpov Aatavrepo advuc' evpvxaLtav 5 avTreXa9 AtOVVaOV, 9 XpVo0 ~eaCOVVKTiOr vl(OfvTa 8e/ajeva vrov ieprarov Oeowi, 5 'A/r. a, o7ror' 'AuJbpTpVWvos ~v OvpepoV.s Taa els eaXoyov /cLer 0XOev HpacXeCioLs y/ovalc; 10 2. KaXc\v rtXwpiwojv. 'Local glories;' the phrase is used in a rather different sense, Pyth. v. 108. 3. ' pa.] Cf. Pyth. ix. 37, xi. 38. XaXKocp6orov.] An epithet of Rhea transferredtoDemetdr, ' worshipped with clash of bronze,' i.e. of cymbals or jxea. crdpelpov.] The connection between Dionysos and Demdeter, wine and corn, is natural: Ter. Eun. 4. 5. 6, sine Cerere et Libero friget Venus. They are represented together on several antique gems. Mariette, Traite des pierres gravees, II. p. 1, P1. xxxi. 5. Xpvuy' viq5ovra.] ' Snowing gold at midnight.' For the dative cf. Isth. iv. 50, Nikophon (Athenaeos, vi. p. 269 E), vLtbrw evr adXQlTrocs I taKCa'ro 5' iprostov, verow 3' irvet. For the adverbial use of adjective cf. 01. xIv. 11, xIII. 17. L. and S., regardless of order, join Jer. &e$advua, but as the legends ofZeus and showers of gold at Argos and Rhodes (01. vii. 34, Philostr. Imnag. 2. 27, Postocs 86 Xeyercat puors et oOpavov peerVa Katl tai7r\X7cat Cr0(Y TiS oiKlfa Kaul aTrevoWrobS ves$X\ ei au70ro s prfavros Tro At6s) very likely rested at least partly on a shower of meteors, seo-oviKrtlov is quite appropriately attached to vlpovsra. It seems as if one of these stories attached to 7roXvxpuo'-o, dyXaa Ojfpai. 7. 'yovais.] Cf. Nem. x. 17. Dative of purpose; Schol. Vet. irt rast'H... f. Isth. VIi. 27. Dissen compares however Nem. x. 69, e&opfa0eis adKOvt 0o0.

Page  181 ISTHIMIA VI. [VII.] 181,1 r d/tfcl Tetpelca 'rv cLvatia 3ovXa; 7 or adpLqO 'I'Xaov i7Vro/ T 7Ttv; Io r Craprowv ca.ca/avToXo7Xy v; rj) re Tcaprepa '"ASpaoTroVr e aXaXats dawerrcfras opavorv 15 [7vplwv rcapwv eO "ApYoi 7rTTrLov; } aCpl'0 cd7rolfclav oSvvefcev opgW ea-raGaS' e7rt ca(fpvp) AaKceacoviovov, 'Aov S' 'AIvFcXaI5 Alrye3at creOev el/covoL, JzaPvev/cats- HIvOloLt; aXXa 7raXaLa ytap EUiSEL %apt9, Ja/d1C/ajove e f tporoi, t 7 crO"ta, CaO Taov aKcpov KcXVTra ' 7re)ov poaciVY eliK7CTra vryvrev, 'E7r. a'. 20 7rp. 3'. 25 8. Edd., after Heyne, needlessly read 7ruKvas Tetpeaiao, but by taking i as y (the accent going back in pronunciation to the preceding syllable) we can keep to the BSS. In this line and the next )' or' scans as one long syllable; Mommsen reads )' for } in both places. For dafkt /3ouXaics, d/ci' 'Io6aov, 'concerning,' after efJcpavas OvAozb rebv mentally supplied from above, cf. 0. and P. p. xxxvii. The construction of dluosl with two different cases but the same sense in consecutive lines is remarkable. 10. 1ZraprCv.] Thewarriorswho sprung from the sown teeth of the dragon slain by Kadmos. The five survivors of their internecine fight (Ov. Met. III. 126) helped Kadmos to found Thebes and founded five Theban families. The gen. is causal, cf. Madv. ~ 61, Rem. 1. XaXas.] Cf. Nem. II. 60, where in the note read a comma after Pyth. I. 72. 12. For the theme cf. Pyth. v. 64-76, Pyth. I. 65. For the order Awpi8' ai7rotiKav... AaKe6aScJoviwv cf. Isth. II. 36, Pyth. iv. 214-216. 12, 13. 6pOoG...irl cabvpo.] Cf. Hor. Epp. i. 1. 176, securus cadat an recto stet fabula talo, where Orelli quotes Pers. 5. 104, recto vivere talo, Eur. Helen. 1449, op8Oo Pr31vac roNs. Cf. also 01. xiii. 72, diva 3' traXr'1 opO 7eroSi. Kallim. in Dian. 128, rWv 6' oeibv eir' C-Ivpov 6POdv aCLeT79r. 15. /eavreviacil.] Causal dative. 16. c\XX&...ydp.] 'But, since.... KcoUa' Eetirerev, 'then, this being the case, celebrate, &c.' The aXXa dismisses the topic of the ancient glories of Thebes somewhat sadly, still they are not dead but only asleep, cf. Isth. II. 41. 17. adicvdAoves.] A hit at the Lacedaemonians for not helping Thebes before Oenophyta. 18. aroqtas.] 'Poetry.' aIWrov.] Cf Isth. I. 51. 19. K\vratS.] ' Sounding'? Cf. 01. xiv. 19, Isth. v. 17.

Page  182 182 PINDARI CARMINA. 20 Cofwac' e7rELT~ev d2vLXe6 a~vv iStvp!ab -rpefrDSa- cEpe ryap ' IJa0,o? vticav 7rayKpaTrlotu c've T6' ecrayXo0 18eiv re pvopfaetL, cet Tr aperTa ov/c axl-tov uva. 30 'Apr. 3'. XAEy6eTaL ' Zo/3oarTp'xotor- Mol-acs, pa drpGt 0' ojeOaVtU ) &e38eCe KOLVO'V aXo0, 25 XaXcao7rrt C rOT/rrov /ELV "Apv eL^tev, 35 T-ra a cyaaoaltv avrTifceraL. I'otTrO yap 'aafe9, o'rTt ev ravrTa veIXe'a XcXacav atbaTo9 7rpo blXa9 7rd-rpa dC4veraTa, 40 'E7r. i'. Xotyodv [d4.Uvcwv] Evavrl CarpaTcr, cdaro v 7evea /je/y-Irov KX\ov ai;ov 30;'ov Tr' a7to Kca Oavcov. poaatv] Dat. of means with ieSKJrata, of remote object with vuye'v. uryv?.] Cf. Isth. In. 3. The metaphor is here of a tree planted by the water side, only slightly different from that of Nem. vIII. 40. Edd. placed a full stop after this word. 20. Kxka.'.] ' Revel in the kOmos.' 21. Drpeac6.] Dat. commodi, cf. Nemr. I. 24.,0peL.] 'He is winner of,' cf. Nem. III. 18. 22. viCav TracyKpariov.] Cf. Isth. IV. 19, apera arayKapar7ov. a0tvet, K.T.X.] Cf. Nem. II. 19, 01. vIII. 19, ix. 94 for sentiment; also Isth. v. 47-49. atyeL dCperdV.] ' He holds virtue to be as fair a possession as fair physique' (Isth. v. 47). For dyet cf. Soph. Ant. 34, TO Irpayjt' ayetv oux Ws 7rap' ov8tv. Dissen renders ayes, 'habet'...veluti merces, opes, Od. I. 184. afo-tov.] Predicative, as is usual with this construction. For such an accusative which Cookesley says does not occur cf. Madv. ~ 1 b, Rem. 3, XpThtiLwrrepov voluitovao- Xpr-. &aTra j daseX\o6s (Xen. Memor. 2. 3. 1). Dissen does not take the neuter adjective as predicative, though Matthiae, to whom he refers, gives no parallel case. Mommsen reads alal.w. 23. qX\yserat.] Cf. 01. ix. 22, Isth. III. 61. 6'.] ' Accordingly,' cf. Isth. I. 90. Lofoe-rpvxoiat.] So Schmid. Mss. 8' io7rXoKcixolat against scansion, Mommsen ae Fto7rXahcozt. Cf. 01. vi. 30. 24. KoIzvO.] Cf. Pyth. v. 96, vI. 15. ' Of interest to him.' OdXos.] ' Wreath,' but used with reference to vv. 18, 19. 25. An inversion of the use of ilcryw found 01. i. 22. 26. drriKeCrat.] 'Is the meed' in return for their life. 27. For metaphor cf. Isth. Iv. 49, SimonidBs, Frag. 89, 106. 28. dt6Yv.] Thiersch, vra drdpwv. 30. -o6wv.] Participle.

Page  183 ISTHiMIA VI. [VII.] TV Be, AeorToto 7rar, /LaxaTav atvewv MeXe'aypov, aiv6ov 3e Katl a"Eropa 'ApL(ladpn6v Te, evavpO a7re7rreva'a aXtctav 183 45 Trp. 7. 35 7rpotadyawv v t/XoluoV, orv8 apticrot 50 C0"XOV 7roXe toto v eera ' 7rv. CrXav Be 7Tre6vos ov faro6v' d\aXh vvv i.,ot rFaeaoXos eibiav " T7raacreY EK c Xeqyvo. adelo/tat Xalrav crro.e votoTLv ap/clp'ov. O6 ' dOavP&drwv /t Opao-reTro 06ivo>oS 55 'Avr. Vy. 40 o TL TcpTepVOv efajpepov aWg/coW eKaXo! WeiLeL 7y^pa! e$ Te Trv jLOPCrt/JLOV dro... avAiv.] Tmesis. 31. StrepsiadAs, the uncle of the victor. 32. atlew. ] 'Aemulatus,' Dissen. Meleagros was brother to Hdrakles' wife Deianeira, and is thus connected with Theban legends. Hekt6r was said to be buried in Thebes by the fountain Oedipodia, Paus. ix. 18. Aristot. (Pseudepigraph. Bergk 46 [41]), "EKTopt rov&e s 4yaV BoIwTtLOLc &cpes frevLav I Tv/i/oz i7rlp 'yaijs, o'a}' eTLrrt'yyJOfvois. These two heroes fell fighting for their country like Strepsiadas, the victor's uncle. The allusion to Amphiargos is less special, but not open to reasonable objection. Bergk's violent alteration to av' 'AjL0iqpezo involving alterations of the two corresponding verses is quite unwarrantable. If Strepsiadas fell near Amphiaraos' shrine, that would quite account for the mention of the hero. 34. aXtKda.] ' His manhood's prime in its full blossom.' Cf. Simonid6s, Frag. 114 [61], ad' iLeCp7T'v 7Ireep '?XLKIPv. 36. gaXov zroXaolto vYEKOs.] Homeric, cf. It. xiv. 57, xIIi. 271. EXr\riatv. For the sense cf. Nem. 1. 32. 38. For metaphor cf. Isth. Im. 35. 40. pdEAgepov.] Not'short-lived,' L. and S., but in diem. Cf. Eur. Cycl. 336, oa'yei roi50' /jpav. 'LKwKv.] For the (to us) inversion of participle and verb cf. Isth. iv. 56, v. 15. For sentiment cf. Pyth. vilI. 92, Cev' ' 6Xly? lporwv TO rep7rIvov a6eerat. ovrw 6e Kal 7rtrvei Xcatuac, I daorp6orpo ry, a recretodvove. Cookesley quotes, Ille potens sui laetusque deget cui licet in diem j dixisse uixi. Hor. Od. iii. 29, 41. 41. The poet himself was about sixty-six at the assumed date of this ode, but the prayer is of general application. Here EKaXos seems to mean "in unambitious ease," i.e. holding aloof from party strife. He seems to warn his oligarchical hearers not to aim at supremacy in the state, but to rest content in the assurance that democratic

Page  184 184 PINDARI CARMfINA. alwva. Odacracoxjerv ydp o6ps a7ravTes' Saicluv 8' raiuo ca tua&cpac el' T? e 60 7ra7rravet, a3paXvs eitce'Oas XaXicoTreBov Oecv e3pav' o roL 7rTEpO6te eppt6ce U11ayaoao 'ETr. y'. 45 8ao-7rorav 40ieXovT' ovpavov araOtLovs X\0Oev pef' optayvptv B\XXepoQbpvrav Zyvo?. Tro Be rap 8ixca yvXcvt) 7rtpoTaTa [eEvet Treevrca. S.iLp 8', W3 Xpvoea EK6oa OdBXXov, rope, Aotia, 50 reatlav at'XXato-tv euavOIa ca IvOo'i aTrEvc: ov. 65 70 licence, T Tarp aiKCaY yXv6, will be punished in good time. 44. wra7rr7ave&.] Cf. 01. x. 114, Isth. vii. 13. fplXxs. 3 ' Too puny to,' cf. Nem. x. 19 for construction, and for sentiment Pyth. x. 27, 6 Xa\fos ovpaYOS o0v 7OT' cTPj3ctTars cvTros. 0 rot.] Mss. orn (so Bockh, "quando quidem"). Schol. o y7p 84. 45. Medic. mss. 6eOXovTe- ovpavo5i otrat0jov'. 47. Zrv6s.] For order cf. 0. and P. p. xxxvi, Isth. IV. 19, 20, 43, 44, v. 28, 30, ib. 39, 40, vii. 28, 29, ib. 49, 50. 49. Xpwerq.] Lit. "with luxuriant golden hair." The Pythian games fell about four months after the first Isthmian games in an Olympiad. 51. evavOfa.] Cf. supra, v. 34. Kac.] ' Even.' EIvu4.] So Choeroboskos (Bekker, Anec,, Tom. III. p. 1202). Perhaps acd&6 should be read II. x. 238.

Page  185 ISTHMIA VII. LVIII.] ON THE VICTORY OF KLEANDROS OF AEGINA IN THE PANKRATION. INTRODUCTION. KLEANDROS, son of Telesarchos of Aegina, had been victorious as a pankratiast at Nemea and at the Isthmos. There is much difficulty in determining the date. Mezger would place it between the battles of Salamis and Plataea, but the ode is clearly Isthmian, and as Salamis was fought after the Isthmian games of B.c. 480, 01. 74. 4, I do not see that this is possible. Most authorities give the Neneean games next after the battle of Plataea, which would be in the year B.c. 477 according to Unger, according to B]3ckh in the supposed 'Winter Nemea,' six months after the battle and siege of Thebes. The first Isthmia of 01. 75 fell in April B.c. 478 (not long after the date of the supposed winter Nemea), when Melissos of Thebes was victor in the pankration. I infer that the ode was composed for 'the Isthmian festival of B.c. 478, Kleandros' victory having been gained at one of the three consecutive Isthmian festivals immediately preceding the Battle of Salamis (April, B.c. 484, 482, 480), Phylakidas being the successful pankratiast on the other two of these three occasions (cf. Isth. v. Introd.). As this ode was a commission for the celebration at a fixed date of a victory gained two or more years before, it was probably composed before Isth. IIi, i.e. before April, B.c. 478, as might be gathered from the less cheerful tone of Isth. vii. compared with Isth. III. The vocabulary, which presents an unusual proportion of exclusively epic words, and the somewhat tame effect produced by frequent demonstrative pronouns at the beginnings of clauses bear evidence to the painful effort made by the poet in rousing himself

Page  186 186 PINDARI CARMINA. from his troubles to compose a triumphal strain. The ode was recited in or before the rrpoOvpov of Telesarchos' house. The rhythm is Aeolo-Lydian. ANALYSIS. Vy. ' 1-13. The poet rouses himself and the chorus from grief, of which the worst is over, to requite Kleandros for his victory with an ode of triumph. 13, 14. It is always best to attend to the immediate future. 14, 15. Fate is treacherous and makes the current of life turn and shift. 15, 16. But if liberty remain even such troubles as those of Thebes admit of healing. It is a manly duty to cherish bright hopes, and it is a duty for a Theban born and bred to offer a choice song to Aegina. 17-23. Because she and Theba are sisters, beloved of Zeus, who made the latter queen of Thebes, while the former bore to him Aeakos. 23, 24. He settled disputes even for immortals. 24, 25. His descendants are distinguished for bravery and wisdom. 26-47. [Myth] Consequently when Zeus and Poseid6n were rivals with respect to Thetis, who was destined to bear a son mightier than his sire, Themis persuaded them to agree to her marriage with Peleus. 47, 48. Of Achilles' youthful prowess accordingly poets have sung. 49-58. The exploits and glorious death of Achilles are mentioned. 59, 60. By mourning for Achilles the immortals showed their approval of celebrating worthy men in song after their death. 61. This is right now also, 61-63. And the car of the Muse hastens on to raise a memorial of song in honour of Nikokles. 63, 64. Honour him for his Isthmian victory in the boxing match; 64, 65. Since he had already defeated his neighbours.

Page  187 ISTHMIA VII. [VIII.]18 187 65. His cousin Kleandros does him credit. 65-67. Let his compeers weave wreaths of myrtle in honour of Kleandros; 67, 68. Since he has won at Megusa and Epidauros. 69, 70. He has made it easy for a worthy man to praise him, by winning distinctions in his youth. Ya-,p. a'. KXea'vap~p rv a"XLK1~ TE 'Xv',pov EV.3O~v, ()vEO KaliaTwfl 7ra7-po0 ayXao'v Tekeo-pov wcipa 7tpoOVOVpl N\V dve CyEtpET(O K% lOV -Oplta'&os '-re v(t'ccu~ a`wowa, Kat\ Ncjt&eia 5 1. r-es.] The indefinite pronoun with the active is often found in Greek where we should use a passive, while in other cases it occasionally refers to a definite person or persons, sometimes with deliberate vagueness, sometimes with solemn mysteriousness, sometimes with sinister or pathetic effect. Cf. Nem. viii. 50, where it means the poet, while here it means the chorus, Wl ri'ot, v. 2, also being addressed to the chorus. Matthiae, ~~487, 511, quotes Soph. Ai. 245, dpa ru"' (us) 7'7I6- Ka'pO. KaX6/Jtaac-i Kpvi/a[ter~or 7reoir~ KXolnra' alpeirat, ib. 1138, -roOr' et's Jiar -r~ov'ro 9PXerat r-vt (thee). Aristoph. Ran. 552, 554. Cookesley's ' every one ' (iDissen omines) is not wrong, as au explanation, if we limit it to ' of you, the chorus,' as it~fra v. 65, a'XlKWu 7-it s=I every one of his equals in age;' in II. xvii. 227, it means 'every one of you my allies.' Professor Seymour, for "' Isome one,' 'many a one,"' compares Ii. ii. 382, where however u~ir ig... 61 i-rt seem to mean ' some of yen, others of you' (Dissen refers to tbis place to support ' Pron. i-is usitatum in hortationibus ubi omnes intelliguntur '). Cookesley (after Dissen) cites for I'every one' Herod. viii. 109, where Matthiae's alternative 'let the houses he rebuilt' is better, for Themistokles cannot have meant literally 'every one' to build and sow. He also cites It. xxi. 126, where ' many a one,' not 'every one,' is meant. In rendering into English, our own indefinite pronouns should generally be used in such cases, as our idiom somewhat resembles the Greek. c'i~vdg i-c.] Generally taken as a hendiadys (cf. Her. Od. iii. 4. 43. Mezger's tbree quotations from Pindar, inf. vv. 46, 55, Nem. vii-i. 46, are quite irrelevant); but from v. 67, I infer that the poet hids the chorus raise the k6mos-song for Kleandros and his youthful companions in the h~mes (cf. Pyth. II. 74). XirpOr KCtaUicirw.] Cf. Pyth. v. 99, i-r Kca\XtKuoz XVi-i'io IOPcrarvxi pe~os xipiur, 01. vii. 77, 7i0A Xi-rpoV G-Vu9i5ep69 01Ki-pat yX'UKV', Isth. iv. 25, 3. irapui 7r-po'Ovpor.] Cf. Nem. 4. cdhrot'a.3 Accusative of general agreement, cf. Isth. ini. 7, infra v. 63. NeJLLa.] Dative for locative, cf. Nem. x~. 35, Isth. iv. 18.

Page  188 188 PINDARI CARMINA. 5 aeOXov Ttr Kpa'ro ec:evpe. ry xal ey Kairep '' vvpevov OvJ6bv, alr'eoyam Xpvaceav,caXecab I0 Mo'crav. erc,~eyadXcov 8e WreveOCWv XvOevzre J7r' ev op8fpqavla TrEawev a-recovwv, 5 pJrre ac3Sea Oepaf'rcve' r'avoTa'pevoL ' d7rpacTrcov xcacowv ry7X vxtv ayc 8aFiwoo ea icac perA 7Trvov' e7ret,?) rOv V7rp 6cEbaa^1i 20 To TbO Tavrreaov Xl6ov 7rapad 7t erperev 'Lptj u eoe, $rp. #'. dr6X\aoarov 'EXX'a8 6XOov. aXX' C/xob bel/a peV 7rapo1oluevov 5. dO\iXwv Kpdros.] ' Victory in games,' cf. Isth. iv. 19, vi. 22. r7.] Cf. infra v. 65; 'wherefore.' dXvv6/evos.] Grieving over the troubles of Thebes (see Introd.) and in particular for the death of Nikokles, cf. infra vv. 61-63. aitrotact.] For the pass. of persons cf. Aesch. Choeph. 471 and Paley's note. This use of the simple verb is almost confined to the participles. Xpvueav.] Cf. Isth. ii. 26. Moie-a KaX.] Cf. Nem. III. 1. leyTXwv.] Cf. Kaprepav, v. 13. They are still in grief and anxiety which can only be thrown off by an effort, but the worst is over. 6. ev.] Cf. Pyth. I. 74. crTeqcivwv.] ' Festive garlands,' i.e. festivity and song, cf. infra v. 67, Eur. Herc. Fur. 676, Io)?v CLer' afiovaias, del 5' edv o'epavolt.rL 7. d7rpCidKTW KCa\XV.] MSS. C7rp7qK. ' From bootless, idle, sorrow.' Cf. II. xxiv. 522, "Xyea 6' LiTx-s | ev Ov/fL3 KaTraLKeti0at eCarofJev, davvLevoI 7rep' ob 'yap Trs irptis rA erac Kpvepolo yooLo, also ib. v. 550. 8. Satxwco'yeua.] 'We will delight the city folk with.' Cf. Aristoph. Pax, 797, ascribed by a Schol. to Stesichoros' Oresteia, ro0tde Xp' Xaptrwsv vY?[wL/araL KaXX\tKOt'wv ry soQpbv T0rovTiv UY5vev, the words -rov cosbv TrotvrYv being of course Aristophanes'. This Schol. interprets BacL/aara 6 rA 3rj/oUa~I 460[/eva. The Grammarians seem to ascribe the sense tUoKoo7reZ,V rratleav to Plato. Cf. Dobson on Plato, Tim. p. 161 (I. i. 217). Perhaps &/wtxLa is rather a 'popular song,' 'popular phrase,' than 'a jest' or 'popular pastime.' Kal Fera& 7ro'vo.] 'Though after a painful effort.' 10. roV.] Mss. re, Bockh ye, Mommsen Kal, Bergk are. I propose rav which is corrupted infra v. 65. For theme cf. O1. I. 54-58, Bergk, Anacreontea, 22 [20], 7q TavrdaXov 7ror' Tar 1 Xl OoO?pvUyTv ev 6xOcL5s..rapci... rp.] Tmesis. da'tzc.] Dat. commodi. 11. 'EXXd& AF dXov.] Cf. Isth. v. 28. dX' i/oit:] So Mss. Bockh aXXd ftol, Bergk dAX' i' o0i with Kaprepav IJepqlvav. 12. e/La....rapocX;pevov. ] Mss. 5. [. 'rapotXot^Cvov. Mezger Seua

Page  189 ISTHMIA VII. [VIII.] 189 /caprepav eTravce teplpJvav' rTO 'e rpo 7ro608 apetov ac *afc7OreWv* 25 Xpnua 7rav. S6\oq y7ap alwv er' avSpa ic pebft'rat, I5 EXlV'wv /lov vropov- laara 8' ear /3poTrot0 o-v' ry eXevOepla 30 Tcal Tr. pr) ' cYyaOav eX7rl' /avpi a de\etV xp 6' ev frT7ravpXoLt t '"/av' Tpa'evTa t~7' O~pLO pQ~ 35 ATylYva XapiLwv aworov 7rpovewetv, vrarpo ovpe/ca b'v/iai; EyelovrTo 0v'yaTpe 'AorowTrl8ov 07rX6raTat, Zyrvl Te [8ov /3ao'tXE. 40 o Tav Lev Trapc /caXXtpop6 20 Lip/ca )i qXaapL'Trov 7r6OXtOS o c ICLtrev aye/ova' roV trapotxo,,evaw with 0eos for suppressed subject. Mommsen Xaip/a /ev rapotxo/ue'vov suggested by the Schol. eol 5i rwcv 'pOaa-ar-W KcaKK roV 7e ()6O30ov Kalc r?)V pe'piYLvav ai vvv T71S VYKS evdppooYvaCIPt Xvav. For the construction of the text, ' the passing by of the terror,' cf. 01. ix. 103 note, Pyth. xi. 22, 23, Thuk. I. 100 fin. ols 7oXejLtov 97v rT Xwpiov at 'Eviea 6o'6 KTCL6o/ePoe, also Nem. VI. 2, ix. 6. 13. The Mss. give no infinitive verb. The Scholl. give asKore'v Kal evT &artOdvat and 7rpofp\EVret and dvrxreXOaLc. Thiersch, Bockh give orro7reti': Bergk now reads dpav before dci. For the infinitive cf. 01. vII. 25. For 7ro rpib p ro3 cf. Pyth. II. 60, x. 61, rTWv ' eKcaoroT opovel, I rVXW;' Kev dpwraXeLav e-Xio ofpovriOcL rav 7rap Tro6os' \ ra 5' eis evtavTrv drTeK/apTov 7povoi'cat, and for sentiment 01. xnI. 7. 14. Xpi,2/a riv.] Here 7raY ='in every case,' cf. Nem. v. 16. Bergk reads Xp4/a. 7ravoS'Xos. alcw.] Cf. Isth. mI. 18. For sentiment cf. Nemr. xi. 43. ETr'...KpefcLarat.] Tmesis. Cf. Simonides Frag. 39 [54], a&OpLrWvj d\Xyov Jlvs Kapros, a7rpaSKrot 8e /eXT6ves, aiit' 6 wTravpy 7rTOVOS e dt 7rrPi' o 6 ' ad5VKTros OtcWs etrl'KpLCaTaC OVaVrTOS. Archiloch. Frag. 53 [45], /i-6' o TCav'X\ov X0os Trr70o' sirep v,7r0ov KPEGaCdo'oW. 15. eXal-wv.] Cf. Isth. iI. 18. pov propov.] For metaphor cf. 01. ii. 33. Some Mss. give i6Trov, cf. Isth. II. 23. vv y -' eXevOepig.] ' So freedom but remain.' Kai ra.] 'Even such a fate as ours.' Cf. Od. v. 259, 6 5' ev reXvT - CaTo Kal Ta (Prof. Seymour). XP.] Cf. Isth. iI. 7, 8. 16. Xapirwr.] Cf. Isthl. II. 8, Frag. 53. 2, ' songs.' 7rpopVev.] ' To give lavishly.' 'For that from her sire were born maidens twain, youngest of As6pos' daughters.' For the daughters of As6pos cf. 01. vi. 84. 19. 6'.] Mase. demonstrative, cf. vv. 23, 49. Paley however takes it to be for ) o'. rad.] Theb-. 20. qtXapi. ] Cf. Frag. 83 [73]. 5. cyefiYva.] Only here used in the feminine gender. 'As tutelary deity.'

Page  190 190 PINDARI CARMINA. STp. y'. o-e 38 e vacov O'vowrav eVefCoV CTE V AO'V 0VOvr. EveVcov *KcotLaTro, 32ov v&a Ke6c 45 AlaKcov /3apvuoxapaEycp 7rarpL Ice8POrarov e'rxOoviw 8 CCa 3aicLove-a'ct lK/ca? erepaiwe' TOV fev avl'rOeo 25 iaP'revov v eeSE vi6Ew dpyic'Xoo TralSe advopea xaXedf~ov crrovoYv7) dpabe'retv o/ia8ovW aC0~4povES T eyevOVTO 7rtvvToLr e Ovpzov. 50 55 ravra xac facKacpwv tefLetvavr' daopal, Ze) oUr' d/Atj O6TL0o dyXa6's T' ptcra%, loaretiSv, dya/fp, 60 aXoxov ceveiSa O;Xwov eadrTepo edfv 4fpev' pw O F yap eXev. " Ue.k v a 6Bv?rpa30o XX' ov oWbv I p3porot eXe evo-av vva rpa7qe[$, 65 Srp. 3'. E7-rel 0e a'Trwv eTrraEovcravr e7're evi/ovXOSY v fUeoO-Otat O/6Lt, 21. 0c.] Aegina. OlvoIrfav.] A variation of OlvWvY7, Nem. vIII. 7, the old name of Aegina. Cf. Ov. Met. vni. 472, latere inde sinistro 1 Oenopiam Minos petit Aeacideia regna; I Oenopiam ueteres appellauere; sed ipse I Aeacus Aeginam genitricis nomine dixit. fev67KWV.] Bergk qfepwY uKOeiaro, Kayser e. otlaacre, Hermann gVIKE KOlAi re. The dative after KOLti-O is supplied from od. See L. and S. 25. dpiarevov.] Cf. II. xi. 746, aptTeueutKe r6EdXeaOat. XC\Keo.] Defines while rrovievra is descriptive, of. arovo'eres i apos Soph. Tr. 887; rXayya, Aesch. Pers. 1053. eyZovro.] 'Proved themselves,' cf. Nemr. In. 71, Pyth. II. 72. 27. ptuiai.] mss. and Momm sen, Schol. and Edd. pi-acv, taking HIoetavY as nominative. ytaLc.] ' With a view to wedlock.' Dative of purpose, cf. Isth. vi. 7. 28. 0eAw.] So Mss. Bb'ckh e6 -ei' dOeXhw^, but cf. 01. in. 97, Isth. v. 43. 29. eciv.] Taken with koXov evei&a. For order cf. 0. and P. p. xxxvi. 'Xev.] aiss. etxev, tev. For suppression of object cf. Pyth. In. 17. 30. eidav.] Cf. 01. vI. 6. The word is probably allied to our wont, Ger. Gewohnheit, wohnen. 31. erdicovu-av.] Bdckh after Medicean Mss. ijcovcav. Schol. rc-v teleyaotpavdrw Kar7rKovcav. Bergk eCvvTrKav, Kayser Oa6gar' aiFov fvverev 6 -. Text, Tricl. Mss. etre '.] So Mss. Bickh eirev.

Page  191 ISTHMIA VII. [VIII.] 191 etve6eV 7Wre7rpcoLjevov?v, bepTrpov 7ryoov avaicra 7raTrpos T~EKE~Cv 70 vrovrrav Oe6ov, o9 Kcepavvov Te Kpeoarov AtXXo f/eXo9 35 '&elet %epZ Tpto8ovTo r7 aaLataKcerov, At 76 /ury7otxv7av 75 /3 Atos 7rap' deaeXforoL'tv. XXa\ rd a/ev 'nwravare' c3pOTecov;e kegeoV rvXoora vlOv EIct6ET70 Oa6OvP' EV 7ro\E0LW, 80 Xetpa9 "Apet T' evaXlyfTiov alTepo7rato'l r' dic.cuv 7ro86v. 7O /Uev /t o6, lX6e 7ydaLov Oeo/iopov 85 oTrraorat yepas Atlac a, 40 OvT' eVao'e/3eaTaTov LbaTLe 'IcXCov o rpadeEtl Teiov' ZTp. e'. tOlTCOv 8' e9 d&70Tov avtpop evOvs Xeipovo7 avrltc adyyeXa' 90 3Xe& N7lpeo? Ovrya7rtp vetKcewv 7reraXa tZ E7ryyvaXmETrw 33. Mss. give text, the last syllable of ybvov being long (cf. Pyth. ix. 114, Nem. i. 51, 69, VI. 60). Edd. have altered variously. If I altered I should read 7raiaa for yovov, as the supposed hiatus before (F)avaKra might cause alteration. e'leKev.] Equivalent to oOoiveKa like oveCKa ='that.' Don. would read ouve~cev. Proteus repeats this prophecy to Thetis, Ov. Met. xi. 221. Ammonios, s. v. ocveKa, says that Kallimachos wrongly used elseca = o;r. 34. I7ovriav OeBv.] Thetis. 35. Ad ye.] Mss. omit ye. Att is one long syllable. Edd. Zlvi. /juLyoeovava.] 'If united.' The particle av (ce), added by Bergk, is not'wanted in the apodosis, as the consequence is certain. For the theme cf. Apoll. Rhod. iv. 797. Aesch. Prom. Vinct. 786, 7 (Paley's notes), 941. Bergk reads Al capuaposuvav. By zeugma cto-^yoJevav is taken as csvatoudvav with Acis 7rap' dc5eXq0eoo'c. rt Utdv.] 'This prospect,' or 'this rivalry.' Note the transition to oratio recta. 37. Note the chiasmus. MSS. dpei' xepas (xepas) evaX. 38. rob Fv i6ov.] 'It is my counsel.' 0Bcouopov.] McSS. Oed/uopov j ordcat. There is here almost a case of hypallage; cf. O. and P. p. xxxv, Nem. in. 38, Pyth. iv. 255, v/zerpags darivos 6O'X3ov. 40. 5drts.] B3dckh gives the text. Mss. paaoiv (car') 'IawX\KV. Bergk fpacriv and rpacbe5v. For P6leus cf. Nem. II. 33, iv. 50-68. 42. /yyeXtat.] Abstract for concrete. avtlrc'.] 'At once,' evOvs goes with es, 'straight to.' 43. veCtKwv TreraXa.] 'Let not...put into our hands votes about quarrels.' In Athens sometimes, and at Syrakuse, the letters indicat

Page  192 192 PINDARI CARMINA. a4pLrLV' eV 8XO1tjVtiecratrV &e ec'7repat eparov 45 Xot KCev aXtrvovr V' "pwi rrap evia.. s 4dro Kpovr8ats' 95 evvrerotaa Oeca To0 8' eTr ryXeBa6povL vevo'av dOavd'rotortv erewv e Kap7ro9 I00 0o xcarcOtvre. bavrr y7p Or' dxvrycv Oca e. fav o Oyp araroa a xV a e e ' a V cKac rya/ov ~e r)os? cvalcra. ical veapav yseitav aTOaT' darelpotaov apetrv 'AxXeos o Kcat MzUtoVLV dpiTeXoev 5o a'ipate TrXf\Eov /tXaviX palvov fbovw tre8lov, 105 1io:~Tp. g1 yEefvpw o'e T' ATpeti1ata'r voTroV, 15' 'Xevav T' Xv~craro, Tpwoias ty L pLv oUol e /zaXa, evaptxLtva excra/laov op4 ral,v porAro TraTe uapyaS 'apqz/p6rov "epyov rv re[Cl 8 copv'covra MEAoro', TEe Ji' av 1 15 '. ing ballot-votes were scratched on oliv6-leaves. See L. and S. s. vv. wreraXcayo's, EKvkXXo\op0po. 44. &sXouYIfvea-cra.] Cf. Eur. Iph. in Aul. 716, 717, rivsc ' ie 7#pa, 'yace?; I IraV oaeXrYvs eiruvXs \XB KVK\XOS. For the plur. Dissen compares vPtICreS Pyth. Iv. 256. Perhaps the plural covers the sixteenth day of the month, which is avspoyovos a'yaOr, Hes. W. and D. 783. 45. Xuot.] For the active, which generally refers to the bridegroom, cf. Eur. Ale. 177. ern.] Tmesis, eiriveuvav. KapTrs.] Cf. Aesch. Sept. c. Theb. 614 [P.], el Kap7rbs o-rac Gea -fdroti Aofiov, Enum. 684. 46. 4vv'.] xlss. vvaoX^yetv. Text Bockh. Cf. Soph. Oed. Col. 1752. 47. Kag -yas&ov.] Explains the cognate ace. dv'. Ka..] 'And accordingly' (Mezger). Bergk reads dwvacras. al'vuav r'. teietav.] Plural with distributive neuter plural. Old Mss. ve' diiG. Triclin. veW r e. Text Schmidt. ao(pwv.] ' Poets.' For the theme cf. Nem. Ii. 43-58. 49. o'. Cf. supra vv. 19, 50. Cf. Isth. iv. 41 for the subject. 51. The metaphor is perhaps suggested by the famous bridges of the Persians. It occurs again in Polybius i. 10, &eacat KapyXqoviovu olovet yeqbupc3o'ua r-)v es 'I-raMia av'roe &caiTaiv. 53. Evas.] Cf. Lat. nervi, Plato, Rep. 411 B, eKTJicview WcTcrep '- vespa EK T27S /vUXs. poTro.] ' Hindered,' cf. v. 1, Nem. Ix. 23. 54. Kopv-'rovra.] In the active this verb seems to mean 'to be at the head of, 'to make a head (crest) of,' see references given by L. and S. Mejvovos re Slav.] For Memn6n cf. Isth. iv. 40, Nem. Im. 63, 01. Ix.

Page  193 ISTHMIA VII. [VIII.] 193 55 vrpOvpov 'Eicropa r' aXXov9 T' ap'Tear oa Soa (epoaeqovaa 120 ivzvvOv 'AXA ';Xe, oupos AlaKtLav, A'iryLvav c.erepav Te pilav rpocfcavev. TrO peyv ove Oavovr' ao6ta\ e'XtLror, 125 dx\d ot Irapad re 7rvpadv raov O' 'EXucLWvtat rap0evoC cv, Err M p 0pVov Te 7rovfa/.ov EXeav. e'Ao' apa p cal doavd'rot, 130 60 eoX'v ye fc3ra Ica[l cOplevov 5/.vot' Oeav SiSO/fev. STp.. To fcat vvv e'pet Xoyov, 'evrav re Motocraov apda NK/oKXcoS0 mvaJaLa t7rv7fcaaov KeXraS8jrat. ryepatpere tlv, 8 l rO0 -/,ov aPv va7ro; 135 Aoopiowv e\aXev oreXvwov' eTre 7repucrltova 65 Evitcaae si 7Trore Kca Kcewro, avSpa; adVPfc'Tr XepL /Xo VECOV. 140 83. For the formula cf. 01. i. 88, Pyth. xi. 61, Isth. iv. 33. 55. oipos.] See L. and S. s. v. (B). o4/erTEpav re.] Not a case of hendiadys (Prof. Seymour), but ='and his stock,' the Achaean Aeakids. For the metaphor cf. 01. ii. 46. For the idea cf. Isth. iv. 43. 56. /,v...aXXa.] Cf. 0. and P. p. xxxvii, Isth. II. 25, 34, iv. 46, 51. The hiatus in this line is of an unusual character, cf. 0. and P. p. xlii. 57. Cf. Od. xxiv. 58-64. oL] Rather dat. commodi than possessive dative (0. and P. p. xxxvii, Nem. x. 29, Isth. iv. 43). 58. eirl...g eav. ] Tmesis. 60. &86ouev.] Cf. Pyth. iv. 67, for sentiment cf. Isth. III. 7. 61. 0bepet X6yov.] 'Is reasonable.' But Pyth. viII. 38, X6yov 4epets, ' thou earnest the praise.' 62. Cf. Isth. n. 2, 01. vi. 22-27. F. II. 63. v2uLa.] Ace. of general agreement, cf. Pyth. i. 58, KeXaCSjeaL troevdv reOpwrrrwv, also Isth. III. 7. KEXaScoUae.] For inf. cf. Madv. ~ 148 a Rem. yepalpere cIvw.] Old MSS. yepaipetral Lv, new yepcupaLpa r7e Lv. av vearos.] Hermann from old MSS. avaaro. New Mss. av 7re0ov. Cf. Isth. in. 11 for the idea. 64. Aop. e\X. ] Cf. Isth. n. 15. 64. rrepccrlovas.] Cf. Nem. xI. 19. 65. Kca KeiYos.] MSS. KiKetvos. So in 01. ii. 99, perhaps read with Mommsen and Bergk KCai Kelvos (old Mss. cc K~ervos, K tKeiVO) for Eetlvos new MSS., Edd. rov,a...yCved.] Old Mss. against scansion rb fev...yeve'v. For sentiment cf. Pyth. viII. 36, Isth. iII. 14. KPiTOU.] 'Distinguished.' Pyth. iv. 50, Nem. vII. 7. 13 Cf.

Page  194 194 PINDARI CARMINA. Trv Oev ov /caTeXEryXEL KcpTOo 7yevea wrarpa3eXfeo'- aXeccov 7wc rTs 3pov 145 adL rrarycpariov KXeavSpT 7r\wXKeTc uvpc-lvas afrefavov. crei vwv 'AXcao'ov r' adyv crbv ftlx Ev 'E7rt8avtpo TE 7rpe v eicrTo veoTra' I50 Tovb ablvev drya0o) 7rapeXeL 70 /3av ryap ov/K acretpov v7ro xe~a scaaXwv &f4acrev. 66. KXedv3pp.] Dat. Commodi ' in honour of.' aXIKwv r4 rts.] Cf. supra, v. 1 and for r43 v. 5. 67. JLvpeivas.] Cf. Isth. II. 87. The revellers in the k6mos were to wear wreaths of myrtle. 'AXKcaOov.] The games at Megara held in celebration of the death of Alkathoos son of Pelops. avv Trua.] 'With prosperous issue.' Cf. Nem. vI. 11, x. 25. 68. MSs. ev 'E. re vesras 7rplv g8eKTo. Hermann. ev 'E. re v. CKcerT 7rptv. The text is Bergk's and also mine. 69. 7rapexet.] Cf. Eur. El. 1080, Kiatrot KaX\WS 'ye owppoveiv wrapeze -eot [Mezger]. Cf. also Herod. i. 9, II. 142. 'It is easy,' 'opportunity presents itself.' Note that it requires Jper& to appreciate and duly celebrate aperd. 70. 'For he did not make his youth a thrall to obscurity for lack of essaying noble deeds.' Strictly V7ro xe~ goes with aretpov ' having no experience through keeping close) in a nook (hole)-of noble deeds.' For the general meaning cf. Isth. II. 48. The order is strained.

Page  195 I. IMeMIONIKAI. 1. [4.] * KXet~VO Ailacov Xoyos, /cXeLwa e 3 a lca vavOruLcXvro9 'TXXov Tr Kcal AltLpoov A^optLEv 0'XOv orpaTro eKTlcro'a'TO' TCOV P/V VWrO (CTC''/jL9 vefLOVT-at 5 ov OEtv ov'8 sl cav evwov r ep/3a ivovTOV7 o6 o (' aperav 8A\eXv6E Ev TrOvr, rTatlac Tre (o(fo0 Motav aY)YoviwV 7' aeO\Xov. 1A. B4 2. \ O ' vvc/.evo? catp \ 7ro O 0e OEXW1 Te Ecal (UVa/jeVOv a/3pa 7rar-Xetv rav 'AcyaLL4e Tre Tpofbwvti 'ETca3rao0oXu ova o'vf4ovXav Xa/3aov. 1. Given in the Medicean family of MSS., apparently the exordium of Isth. vIn [Ix]. 1. 2. a'foa.] Cf. Nem. vi. 49. 1. 3, 4. Cf. Pyth. i. 61-65. 1. 5. Cf. 01. viii. 20-30, Pyth. viII. 21-27. 1.. e6. X4ves.] For their speed cf. Pyth. it. 50, 51, Nem. vi. 66, Frag. 219 [258]. ra/liai.] Cf. Nem. vi. 27. 1. 7. adeOXwv.] 'Prizes.' 1 A. Schol. Lucian. Dial. Mort. II. Edited from Vatican ns. (Pal. 73) by E. Rhode, Philologus, xxxv. 199. The Schol. ascribes the above fragment to one of Pindar's Isthmian (MS. ICOMIONIKON) odes in honour of the Rhodian boxer Kasmylos (cf. Simonides, Epig. 154 [212], Elrbv ri, rlvos e'oi, Trlos Trarpisos, ri 6' eils s; [ KatuAXO, 'Evay6pov, nII5ta 7rv, 'Po6os. 1 A. 1. cipp& -draXes.] Cf. Sol6n, 24 [o], 4. 1 A. 2. Cf. Frag. 31 [26]. 13-2

Page  196 196 PINDARI CARMINA. 2. [.]= B4 5. AloXt3av 8e ro-vcfov /cXovrT i ar&cA T7l'XecOavTOv OSpCra ryepas a7roqbOqjev MeXt1cepra. 3. [2] = B 7. otC 87 T)'rpoorro ee0Kcv\XLa'e v6v. 4. [3.] = B4 8. Eustath. Od. Ix'. 1715, 63, o't 8OKeL TO TO LOVeTOV Karda Tyvo Eip"-Oat ov'8ETrpov, (s e'fJLatlvct IIv8apos Ev EI '0/tovtKcatS Etrw. TpCaL KpaTia '7TO Kpaara. 5. =B4 9. Serv. Virg. Georg. I. 31, "Generum vero pro marito positum multi accipiunt,...nam et Pindarus ev iTro 'Itro-Ouots yapPpops lavTl oC vvCbtov dixit." II. TM N O YMNO2S A ~HBAIOIl. 6. 7. [5. 6.] = B4 29. 30. 6. 'IJla voav 0 Xpv~'aXcfcaTov MeXtav, 2. The Isthmian games were originally founded as the funeral games of Melikertes. This fragment is preserved as rb Ev 'IaO/AtovIlKaLs TliY8poU by Apoll6nios Dyskolos, de Synt. ii. 21, p. 156, where he explains that g is not Tr 2o-v'fov, for Pindar calls Melikertes 'AOatzavrS'aav (Bergk 4, Frag. 6), but Tr aCutrs, i.e. 'Ivous. So the Introductory Schol. to the Isthmians says Xopevovcat roivvv rort at N7pet'es e'da'vlcTav T,^ Zolt'O Kal K\Xevoav es Trtjlv TOU MeXIKcpTroV y ev r&"IcrOU a. 3. Apoll6n. Dyskol. de Pron. p. 368 A, as an instance of vcv plural. MS. e6AKviaOff8. 6. Lucian. Demosth. Encom. c. 19; also (vv. 1-5 T rTa-) Plutarch.

Page  197 FRAGMENTS. 197 'l Kp epov,/eozW dvSpov, / Ko(3oor, I q owap-vr tepov eyezvo a op P, fj Tav vavad/Trvmca O@Vn3av,?7 To 7radVToXpfov ro'Oero pHpaKXeos, 5 7 trav ALoVVJtOV 7roXvya0ca TFiadv, 7 rya/kop XevfIwXeVov tAptuovilas vzuvsaoutev...; * * 7. Ilpcroz /v evjovXov e/VX,e v ovpavlav Xpvaeaov l troTt 'l eavov 7rape wraryv Motpat 7roTr /cKlXaKca crepvar aryo OiX/trov Xt7rapv Kca0' '8o"V 5 CoWTpo9 adpxaav aXoXov Atos ',pLev' a e 7rd ' Xpva'dtalTrcc a d/yXaoKdpTrov TfCTrev 'aaOeaQ "O.pas. * 8. [7.] = B4 31. Aristid. II. 142, IIhvYapos 3 7ro0rav`r'v V7rEpJpoXjv 7EWrot'crao, (ore evl AtoAs ya/c) Kat rov cTOV O avrov TO rfcrv epoouevov rov AtoS, Et TOV 8sEOLVTO, alrrjcrat 7LroiLa/roOaOa ' TLVWa aCTyd Oeovs, OL'TveE ra T/eyada ravT Xpya Kal 7ra-crv yE o rrv E(KELOV KaTaOKV.rjv KaTaKOO(Jfja-ovO- Xoyots Ka2 \jOVOcLKJ. Cf. Choric. Gaz. p. 305 ed. de Glor. Athen. c. 14, where is the story of Korinna having criticised Pindar's sparing use of myths, whereupon he composed this hymn 6eLtaSceCvov U6 ry Koplvvp yeXdoaaoa EKEiv) r.T XetPit Ev e 0 aetfEpeLv dXX&,/U 6X\ Tr' OVXaKcy' Tr yap ov'rt o'vyKepdcaa Kat cv/Lfopra'cas rav7rnepflav Tiv t fiuOv IItvsapos els rTO jLOS e6VXeev. The Schol. on Nem. x. 1 tells us by implication that it was composed for the Thebans, and the Schol. Lucian. I.c. that this was the beginning of Pindar's Hymns (as collected and published). 6. 1. Meslav.] Cf. Pyth. xi. 4. For MeXiac, a kind of nymphs, cf. Hes. Theog. 187. For the style, cf. the opening of Isth. vII. 7. Clem. Alexandr. Str. vi. 731. Bickh saw the identity of rhythm with Frag. 6, and made slight emendations accordingly. 7. 2. Xpuvo. tcr7r.] Cf. 01. I. 41, viii. 51, of Poseid6n's horses. MoipaL.] HMsiod, Theog. 991 ff. makes the Moirae daughters of Zeus and Themis. 7. 3. KX\iaKa.] Cf. 01. ii. 70, where Kp6vov Tvpov seems to answer to KX., AtoLi OOv to Xrrapa'v KaO' I6ov, the 'milky way,' cf. Ov. Met. i. 168-170. 7. 5. 9,utev.] For inf. cf. Isth. vii. 63, Frag. 53, 10. 7. 6. dXaO. "Op.] Cf. 01. xIIm. 6, 01. xi. 53.

Page  198 198 PINDARI CARMINA. Boisson., bero57otcre tlvapog Kala OEov doKvoUrasT vfiJvqcaat Tcr Tro Atos ciS dvOpWrrovs LAXort/Las. 9. [8.] = B4 32............................... * ToD oZV alcovae Kaoto? ttova-cad v op0av eTrt8eitKVVp6ev *. 10. [133.] = B4 33. * "AvaKra rTOv * racoV v7rep/3dXXovra Xpovov f'caKaPam rram'oo VvrepfiaX oa ' pov. * 1A. [9.] = B4 34. KO ica'L TVWreLv JcryZvS WreX'cL TECEKTO 4avOav 'AOdv vav. * 11. [10.] B4 35. Kelvwcv Xv0evTrwv crai v 7ro Xepciv, ava~. EIJ AMMQNA. 12. [ll.] = B36. "Apucov 'OXzi7arov 83cr'rora. EIJ IIEPSECONHN. 13. [12.] = B4 37. IIorvta Oecraofope Xpvacavov...... 9. Altered by Bockh from Aris- not especially ascribed to Pindar, tides, 11. 383, dXX' 6'rt Kay rohs 11 B. Ib. An example of the Iam"TwvoLs &ejtwv repl -rcT, v daravrt Tr belegus, given just after a verse of Xpo6v '-vtupaLwv6vTrwv 7ra6ocrTrwv rols Pindar. dvOpdb7rots Kal r7jS erapoXjs Top 12. Schol. Pyth. ix. 89. Cf. Kd68iov 07~o-iv (IIvapos) adcoOoat Pyth. iv. 16. Pausanias, ix. 16, rov 'Ar6o\Xwos FouVcLK&v odpOcdv eir- tells us that Pindar dedicated a beKcvv/Lvbov. Plutarch. de Pyth. statue by Kalamis for a temple of Oracl. c. 6. Cf. Pyth. II. 90. this god at Thebes, and that a 10. Plutarch. Quaest. Platon. hymn to Amm6n sent by the poet viII. 4. to his Libyan temple was there "AVaKra 76v.] MSS. cava T3v. Text preserved in Pausanias' time on a Hermann. three-sided stWlM. Cf. Frag. 36. 11 A. Hephaesti6n, 91. An 13. Vit. Pind. Cod. Vrat. A, example of the Pindaricus versus (0. and P. p. xii. lines 8, 9), where

Page  199 FRAGMENTS. 199 EIJ TYXHN. * 14. [16.] = B4 38. 'Ev 'pr aaut 8e vuca" rvXa, ov aOeZvo0. 15. 16. 17. [14. 15. 13.]=B4 39. 40. 41. Pausan. Iv. 30. 6, ILe 8oE a KaL oIrerpov Iltv8apos aXXra re Es rjv TVXMv, Kalt 8j Kal +piE'roXLv aveKadXeoev avrTjv. Plut. de fort. Romt. c. 10, 'rv 8~ Tl'Xqv Kat oL JuC e? KErvov eOav/tacrav /SaaiX e v 7k pwroTroAXtv Kalt rcrvov Kav K epaeroXtv Tr"s 'Pw/'s dXa705E Kara TlIv8apov. Ibid. c. 4, ov3 Liv yap a7revOVj (Tv'x) Kara II'vapov, o'83e 8vtovLov acrpcovara rrXoa8Xtov.-Pausan. vII. 26. 8, ~yc uev ov lIIwoapov rd re aXXaa 7re[OoaL a rP 8, Kat Motpcvv 'E etVat,lav 7jV TvXiyv Kal vl7rp rds adeXpia's TL IG-XV'tV. 18. [171] =B4 42...'AXXorploo'-wv /r) 7rpocavlev, r1, Efxperat ),a', Fb6#0o9 4aLLvvw Troro,y/ 'rot epeo' icacv o uev tRv,Jt0opaV Te Tep7rvlv eW 69 eov [ pr X? racwr Xa6 8eKcYvvpLat el e Tt4 davOpoTr'oa Oeo 'oro0 acra 5 7rpoa'TV'x, ravrav ecorTe Ecpv7rTrev c owCcev. 19. [173.] = B443. 7rovTrov 07poS vrerpaiov XpoWr JucbtaCra voov 7rpoao'prpwv ra'acts vroXiecrav 6'pil\Xec' T' 7TrpeoVTL 8' t, e \ erwatvir'at' e/cov aXXoT' daXXoa 4p6v1EL. the hymn is said to be to D)mkt~r. 14-17. Cf. 01. xii. 2. Pausanias, ix. 23. 2, says that 18. Stobaeos, Flor. cix. 1. For Pindar calls "Ait6s XpvrvLos in a sentiment cf. P. iI. 83. hymn to Persephone. 19. Athdnaeos, xII. 513 c. 14. Aristid. iI. 334. Cf. Isth. 19. 2. vrovritov rpos.] I.e. IlovIII. 49-53. XvuroSos. Amphiardos is advising

Page  200 200 PINDARI CARMINA. 20. [23.] = B4 44. Lactant. ad Stat. Theb. II. 85, "Ogygii Thebani ab Ogyge rege aut amne. Sic Pindarus in Somniis (Cod. Gud. Frising. Cassell. Somnis, Boeckh Hymnis) V" 21. 22. [20. 21.] =B4 45. 46. Antiattic. in Bekk. An. I. 80. 8, dpXaLtec-Tpov. 1&r8apog Y/zvoms. — Gramm. Ibid. 339, ayptos eatos, 'v ot 7roXXot aypLeXatov KaXoiorLv, "(I irapa IIvSap ev Yl/vots. 23. [18.]=B4 47. Et. M. 821. 59, IIvSapos 8E v ~ Y/~vots eplKov /LexoFiLp pEov, oOtor o/OV Kal I~ET av'T3oV ropevoUrEVov. 24. [17.] = B4 8. Aristid. II. 168, Kou'oi rpV TrVa TpV d aTitrardXwov &ccv, Iva TYv 'XOv 07ypevoas ayeLS, Keat reorovOas raTov ' O tr IvSapov IIXeZ, os vT' re Opas s8jt-apre KatL Tr Epvptiva d&XrarorV Ovra EarrT lrpooraSe Otpev. Cf. Schol. III. 463, 6v "Y/vots MJq-uvr7Tat IIr8apos, OTC Tor EuprV va, Tr ro Ipov rO? 'AKVropo9 7raZ8a, Eva ovrra TrVY 'ApyoYavrTvr, dvrpevovra Kw(v dirVleKTeYE Amphiloehos, cf. Ath6naeos, vII. p. and others suggest, it begins with 317 A, irovXuro6o6s got, 7r4KPOV, gXyv '2tyvtiovs 6' eUpev and ends with e& Yoo,, 'A/c0iXoX' 4pws, I roi'crv 4qpapjt6- airu'. I-ov rWV K KaC Kt iUoV I'K^at. The letters in five versions run 20. The quotation is quite un- thus: intelligible. Perhaps, as Bickh Text opite TwCDeeyPeNo7ro NNHTHCTANe CCIIy Cod. Gud. opite IcCA EEyPaNw NNHTHEta.-NE CCIIII Cod. Frising. opite. twC EeyPE-ONONONNI-THF4a.-Ne CCyNy Cod. Cassell. opite IwCa EETPENy NNNtHIaNE CCIIII Cod. Mon. opire IhCD eeypenoro nnHtHedaHe'- CCINHy [The ranging is mine to exhibit the correspondences and differences as clearly as possible. All the versions have a space after the 5th letter. The other Ms. spaces are indicated by-.]

Page  201 FRAGMENTS. 201 25. [19.] =B4 49. Schol. Pind. Pyth. IV. 388, rav'rqv r 8 (qp['ov e (p rpvLdv) od pev tIIevapos Ev 'Y~[voLs A.l-Lo8tKrjv ScrLv, 'ITrrvas E rPopyW7Trtv, NoooKkXqs 8 eiv 'AOalavrtL NEe'rTqV, (IDepCKUv8s ~EjAtLLTo. 26. [22.] = B4 50. Quintil. VIII. 6. 71, "Exquisitam vero figuram huius rei (hyperboles crescentis) deprehendisse apud principem Lyricorum Pindarum videor in libro, quem inscripsit "Yvov. Is namque Herculis impetum adversus Meropas, qui in insula Co dicuntur habitasse, non igni nec ventis nec mari, sed fulmini dicit similem fuisse, ut illa minora, hoc par esset." 27. 28.= B4 51. Strabo vii. T. ii. p. 91 ed. Kramer, OVK OKVOVo 8E TtVEKaL TO UeXptL TroV MvprXiov VrEXayovs a7rav KaXeLv 'EXXao-rrovTov, ELJr'Ep, CS Tro-LV iEv TroYs 'Y/ vots Iliviapog, o flteO' 'HpaKXE'ov EK Tpo[tas rXEovTEs 8ta WrapOevtov "EXXas Trop0/Ov, ErET Tria MvpT(W) crvv jav, Etl K Sv eraX~tvpoyLr av ZEovpov a vTrr v ecrav r o s. Schol. Aristoph. Plut. 9, Kal T-d JLV Trept roU HlvOivov rTpiro8oO oacopowg Zo-Tropovva Ev 'VTOZ TOVi lItv8apov v'fLvou& EvKatpw& VLJV III. IIAIANE. EI AIIOAAONA IYOION. 29. [24.] = B4 52. 'A+b7roXooa' pcapvpJtevov FpotpLav 7rept 'rtLav drrooXwevat. 29. Schol. Nem. vii. 94. From a paean composed for Delphi. The words refer to Neoptolemos.

Page  202 202 PINDARI CARMINA. 30. [25.] = B4 53. Xpv'caia 8' Ed v7repwoov det8ov KfXli8dve?. * 31. [26.] = B4 3. Plut. Consol. ad Apoll. c. 14, Kat,?repi 'Aya/rq8ovs 8o Kat Tpoowvt(ov brlc II lv8apos, Tv vewv roYv iv AeX0oZs obIKoSoonfravrasv *aiTEv wrapa T'ro 'Atro'XXovos ptL'OOv, r'v 8' aouro's iarayye`XacrOat is si8o1Jrl7v j 'epav awro8ocretv, iv roao'orO 8' eoXecrOatL rapaKeXA'crao-Oat, rous 8e TrotCaV/ras To 7rpocrraxev, T7 if8dprl) VVKT KIcaraKOt/LIOETcra TErXcvTjO'at. Xeyerat 8e Kall avrzTo T, IrLv8apl l 'TLCrKrf/avTr roTs rrapa rTwv Botwrv TW Ire OetrraiV E OeoA 7rvOerOat, rt,gpto'rdv ~ir' v f vOpoto,,oKptvc'Oat,,r o, ' *apLTcrroY v CTW av0pWT0oti, a"7rOKptvaa-oat T7-v Trpo/kavTtv o'OT ovo avUTO dyvoei, eZ ye ra ypape'vra 7rept Tpoo wv'ov Kat 'Aya8Oovs EKElvoV ecraty. E 8~ Kal rretpaOvatL ov'Xerat, I r o Ero\ 4earOat avra)T rpo'8oV- Kat oUvr) rv Oo'tev Bov o lv ivSapov orvXXoytcre0at ra 7 rpos Trv OavaTro, 8 dteX0Oros 8' OdXtov XpO'vov reXevT^rrat. * 32. [27.] = B4 54. Pausan. x. 16. 2, Tov 8e V7r AeXfrZv KaXovpLEvov dofqkaXov X(tov TreTrotrpEvov XEVKo TOVTO ea O eivat TO CV pLcrp ri j7s Lrao- avroL XEyovarv O/ AEX<O)o4 Kalt v '8j Ti'Vt 1t' apos J oXoyovVTr a tGcr'v urrohqcrEv. Cf. Strabo, Ix. 419, Kat iKa KXEo-av Tr y^s 4o3 aXo'v, 7rpoa7rXkacavres Kai JVi^Oov, Ov racrt IIiSapos, Ott cavpLreaOLtev EvTravOa oi aierot ol dte6evTeV vtro ToV At(s, o E apro Tr4S SrOes, d drhro Tri avaToXrS. 30. Pausan. x. 5. 12. The KOvXr- 31. Bergk now considers that 36ves (Ath6n. vII. 290 E, Pausan. this passage refers to the Isthmian KrX}ljoves) were like the Seirens. to which the Frag. 1 A belonged. From Galen. T. xvIIi. A, p. 519, 32. The golden eagles and omBergk gets eifrepO' acuero for e' phalos are represented on a stater vwrepIov. Golden figures represent- of Kyzikos, Brit. Mus. Educ. Series ing these females were suspended of coins, Period iI. no. 12. Cf. under the roof of the third temple Pyth. iv. 4. at Delphi [Don.].

Page  203 FRAGMENTS. 203 *:33. [28.] = B4 55. Schol. Aeschyl. Eum. 3, Itlv8apos jo-Le 7rrpos /'avc Kparqcat Iuovso To v 'ATrdXXAova, &8 KaL Tap-apocrat eTErt aVrov T rI. 34. = B4 56. Himer. III. 1, Xaipe 4cXov faos Xapv vrL E8toov rpocriro' /cEXos yap TL Xapwv eic rvs X!pas E v rv rt Y IVy7rLtav 7TpooJaro/AL, 7~j8es Ev av v 7rLcas Kat avrovs Tovs Xoyovs Xvpav ILOt yEVEecrOat Kat TrOtcLtv, tvaL L KaTcra (TO veavtLevco/iLta, O7roios:L/ Ov[SlJs ' ISllvapo~ KaTa A^ovvtrov Kal 'Aro'XA-vos. Cf. ib. XII. 7, ra e Ora vvv 8Eov KaLL arT T MovcrETr ELKafTlt~aEo OLOV To avro KaC a7rTfrn Kcat Hnivapos el (6 KOJ? )T XrE pV" KaiC Xvpat5, Koo'- cravTeS KVKVOLi TrOXov 'EX ELKWc^a 7re/7rovo', Movcrats Xaptcr vre O/AOV Crv'yXopevrcovTa. EIs AIA AzAfNAION. * 35. [29.] = B4 57. AeSo)vae /eryaC-Oeve~, apLa-roreXva 7rarep. 35. A. Dio Chrys. Or. xn. T. i. 251 Emper. ov 7rdvv KaXw9s 7rotITS3 7tpoo-eLTrev ETEpoS Ao. o&. ap. 7r. ovroS lyap 8r& )7rp3tTOS KaL TEXEtorr'aTos S3yitovpyoTS XOprlyovY XaPo\v T?/a avrov T'Xvq, K.T.X. Cf. Plut. Praec. Reip. Geer. c. 13, o 8E 7roXvrtKOS aptCTro7TXVaS T;S (dV Kaa IISvapov Kal SrjILovpyop s evvotla Kal 8', s: de sera NTum. vind. c. 4, Kat' IILvapoS tckapTvprlcrev o dptLToTreXav avaKaXovmesVOS TOV apXovTa KaL KvpLov aravrwv Oeov, o ' &CKSq ovTa oftovpyo'v: de fac. in orbe lun. c. 13, q rTvos yeyove TroTrjr7q KaL 7raTrp ThrLtovpyo's o Zevs dp apf(TorTEv a. Id. adv. Stoic. c. 14, Symp. Quaest. I. 2. 5 et Clem. Alex. Str. v. 710, Euseb. Praep. Ev. xIIi. 675 B. Bergk conjectures that AacLtoepye 3&iKa3 TE Kat Evvoutas should be added to Frag. 35. 35 A. Bergk's note on Frag. 35.

Page  204 204 PINDARI CARMINA. 36. [30.] = B4 58. Schol. Soph. Trach. 175, Evptwri'8s 86 rpEs' yeyovEvat bqo'tv av-ras (7repo-TrEpa')v oL 8E 8vUO, Ka tV rn)v Fv cd Atfpvzjv datKeia aL 4Sj38BOEv Eis TO ToD- "AJLWvos Xprp7arptov, TXv (8e ElS TO) Trep& T7)V Aw8oo'v7v, os KaL lv&apos lIaoartv. * 37. 38. [31. 32.] = B4 59. 60. Strabo, VII. 328, rorEpov 8e Xprjx' XE'y 'EXXoiv, (os lv8Sapos, IeAXXovis, ok v7rovoovcrtv wrap' 'Ottjpp KE cirOaL, ypOai a /300oXos oio'a oV 'K E 8Co-rXvpcerot a. Cf. Et. M. 709. 38. Schol. I1. 7r. 234, IIvsapos 'EXXoi XwopLs ro 0 aro r 'EXXov ro' 8pvroptov, abr't rrv 7rEpLCrTrpav 7rpworTv Ka-raSedat TO,avTreov. Eust. II. 1057. 57.-Strabo, VII. 328, Kac ol rpaytKo re Kat Iltlvapog O c -rpWor t 8a ELp7Kaocr T'rj A08oWvrqv. 39. [33.] = B4 61. Ti 8' '7XrEaC crofav e'LpevaE, C 'r 0X6yov rot avrjp v7rep dvSppo ' laXvet; ov ryap;o-0' "7rww9 rc Oewv fov\evlJar' 'pevvcahe /3porea T pevlp Ovarad 8' a'rob larpow efpv. 40. [34.] = B4 62. Schol. Apoll. Rhod. I. 1086, ecXlqe s 8 a Trcpl 'v dXKIvovWv a\,ltapov,K c 0x, v. U v \ f )KV 7rapa llvsopov K Iatdvot...eVXo'ywos 8 o'crav d7re rrv aXKcovos (wovj7' v7ao yap "Hpas riv arerTaXJevrdl, dWs fro-t IIt8Sapos. 41. [35.] = B4 63. Tzetz. ad Lycophr. 440, ol Favretrs oL yvrj-to ot EOda8cs TOV ev Aqpatots '0rT' 'A/j84poWv TtLW/O/EVOV 'ArdroXXOvo, ov' /LJ.LvOVEvE L Kal l&yapos &v Ilatacrv. 39. Stobae. Edl. Phys. i. 1, 8. Bacch. 1002. 39. 1. XIarea.] Cf. Nem. vII. 20. epeUvvdY-.] Bickh, Stob. pevvaoal. 39. 3. Cf. Isth. iv. 16, Eur.

Page  205 FRAGMENTS. 205 42. * 43. [36. 37.] = B' 64. 65. Plut. de Musica c. 15, HIItvapos 8' ev llata^crtv ir roT? Ntof/ls ydLOs Oo Ahv Lov apJLOvw/av rpwrov LoaXO17vac (v7ro 'AvOCr7rov). Aelian. Var. Hist. XII. 36, 'AXK/pxV 8EKa (Niobae liberos), M4(PLvEP1JOS ECKOOCt, Ka IlIVSapos Too-oT7oVS. Gellius, Noct. Att. xx. 7, "Nam Homerus pueros puellasque eius (Niobae) bis senos dicit fuisse, Euripides bis sepbenos, Sappho bis novenos, Bacchylides et Pindarus bis denos." 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. [38. 40. 41. 42. 39.] = B4 66-70. I. Amm6n. 70, ~yf)actot KaL rqP/3ayevyts OtaE'povotv, Ka0os AL'vLOs ev v7roJvt/aTtr T 'Trpo7O T1V Hatadvov Hltvadpov raqrt'v, Kat TOV TpiroSa a7ro TOVTov OrqayEvers,re rovr rTov Xpv'crov tel 'I7rjvtov lepov (emendation for 'Iar-jrvov 7rptrov) K.r.X.-II. Schol. 01. I. 26, 7rEpl 8e T1S AwOjptcrtr apoovFa3 ELtpY7at ev IIaLtacn, OTt Acoptov /LEXos egJdvoTaTov lrTLV.-III. Schol. 01. ii. 70, ev 8e Tocs IIatarv etpTiraL 7repI rov Xprlo'ojLO rov KTrrEcrOVros Aal', KaOia KaL Mvacr'as ev rT replt xp7fLtwv ypapet' Aa'te Aaf3SaK387, avLpOv 7rrepIJvpLe rTrdvrvYT.-IV. Schol. Pyth. VI. 4, Ev T7j roXvXpvcrw 'A7roXXwvta va7r7, 7rept 's ev IIacrtv pVa..Ta.... KE ycap rj 'AiroAXXovca vad'rr, rEpct ys Ev IIaL&arv ELprJ7raL.-V. Schol. Pyth. xII. 45, ev yap TrO Kvt-cro ' ol avX7qTrKOl Ka'Xaftot OvVovTat. elptrlat 8E Kat Ev HIIataco Tepi av\r)r TtKry<. IV. AI TPAMBOI. 49. [43.] = B4 71. Schol. 01. xIII. 25, d IlvSapos 8e ev jetv Trot 'YTropxjlao-Lv ev Nat$ /n-Yrltv evpeOvvact 7rpwTrov AOvpa4/3ov, ev 8e rT 7rpcr)T Trwv AOvpdLU/p3wv ev O~7/at, evTavOa 8e ev KoptvOw. 44-48. From Didymos' commentary on Pindar's Paedns.

Page  206 206 PINDARI CARMINA. 50. [44.] = B4 72. 'AX6xO 7rOT6e OopaexOb e 'r ' aX\orpta c'apiwv. 51. [52.] = B4 73. Strabo, Ix. 404, Kat 9 'Ypfa 8e rq^ Tavaypalas vvv Cort, r:rpoTrepov 8e rs ~rP/3alaos' 0'Jov o 'YTpLEVs /fJElEOevTrat KaL q TV0 'pti')vos 7yeve-ts, v qro-T IIti&Sapos ev 'ros AtOvpa loLs (cf. Eust. 264. 44). Hygin. Poet. Astron. 11. 34, " Aristomachus autem dicit quendam Hyriea fuisse Thebis, Pindarus autemr in insula Ohio. Hunc autem curm Iovem et Mercurium hospitio recepisset, petisse ab his, ut sibi aliquid liberorum nasceretur: itaque, quo facilius petitum impetraret, bovem immolasse et his pro epulis apposuisse: quod cum fecisset, poposcisse Iovem et Mercurium quod corium de bove fuisset detractur, et quod fecerant urinae in corium infudisse, et id sub terra poni iussisse: ex quo postea natumn puerum, quern Hyrieus e facto Uriona nomine appellaret: sed vetustate et consuetudine factum est, ut Orion vocaretur. Hic dicitur Thebis Chium venisse, et Oenopionis filiam Meropen per vinum cupiditate incensus compressisse etc." 52. [53.] = B4 74....... TpeX'erE 8e pera TlX\o'vav, al4a 8' alvrT KVwCV (XEovTro&ata.) 53. [45.] = B4 75. I&er' v %xopov, 'OXV,7TrrLo, 50. Etym. Magn. p. 460, 35, 52. Schol. Nem.. 16. Lucian. Cramer, An. Par. iv. 194, 7, An. pro Inag. c. 18. Etym. IlMagn. p. Ox. III. 89, 29. ' Once when drunk- 675, 33. en, assaulted another's wife.' See rpexeirw.] Bergk. Bockh, rpXcov. L. and S. OwpaOjrw, n. The allu- 53. Dionysios Halikarn.de Comp. sion is perhaps to Orian and Verb. c. 22, given an instance trs Pleione. avcTrmpais apioovias. The piece was For 7rex' or eTrexe ef. Schol. composed for the Athenians. Nem. In. 16. 53. 1. I&er'.] Bockh with one

Page  207 FRAGMENTS. 207 7rlE T~ VTcXlaV reretvre %Xapy, 0pOE, vroXv/aarov oTr' aOTreo OtcbpaXov OvEv7ra av racts epalg 'AOAvats 5 oiXveire TravSaiSaXov T evc\E Ty opc'v toSeTav XaXere (rebapqov To)U EapLtSp7TTrco XOtL3av, LAttOev Tr fLE oUv diXaa S'&ee 7ropevOevr' dota 8evrepov e7r KIctctroSeav Oeov, IO rO Bpdo/6ov 'Epl/3av Te /3poTo7 KcatXop/ev. 76vov 'v7raTwv tEv Tarepwov /teXTre/.jLev 7yvLatKict Te Ka/uetlav ZeoXov. er 'Apyeat NeFstea altvnv ov Xav8rvet, MS. 8evr'. Perhaps "Ire 6'. For iet^='regard with favour,' cf. 01. xiv. 15. For 1ibeiv e (es) cf. Frag. 100. 9.,e.] Cf. Pyth. ii. 11. For the invocation cf. Aristoph, Nub. 563. 2. eri.] Tmesis. Edd. frt. KXUvrTaV xdpt.] 'A renowned (or 'loud') song.' Cf. 01. xiv. 19, Isth. vi. 19, vn. 16. 3. 5/u,0aX6v.] Dissen takes this to be the altar of the Twelve gods in the forum at Athens. 5. e~VKX'.] e~K\XCa for eSVKX\ea, cf. Nem. vi. 30. acyopav.] The old forum below the Pnyx, Akropolis and Areopagos. 6. Xaxere.] Bergk Xd/3ere. 7. riv eap. Xotf.] Bockh rai r' eapitpen7rrav Xhoilc. Bergk r- dapiap&rcov' | adiotea&v At. (csioti3. ace. in apposition with the sentence). At60se.] 'From heaven.' dyXaaJ. Bockh. Mss. dayXa'z'. 8. &e6repov.] Perhaps the first occasion was with the dithyramb of which the next fragment is the opening. 9. KLoaoro6Trav.] Bergk er re - KorOKOr6oia. SO Ktso0o6pOS 01. II. 27, Hom. Hymn. xxvi. 1. Eur. Phoen. 651. Simonides, Frag. 148 [205], 7ro-XXaiKt 8' qpvXi)S 'AKajLavrTiSos ev Xopoiapc O2pat I dvcwXoXUvav KITooq6potps erli 80vpcdpEpois I as AsovvU'Cies, /sirpacot &r Kai po'dv ddrotis I oqb0v do8t&dcv e'Kiasacv hXrrap&c eOetpav. 10. TOVr.] 'Whom.' Some place a full stop after v. 9 and a comma after KaXdo/jev. /&v...re.] Cf. 01. iv. 15. rrarTpwvs.] Zeus, while yvvatKc, KacLsaet means Semeld. For the plural cf. Isth. v. 43, roao-tY referring only to Achilles, Nem. i. 58. fLEX7r Euev.] For inf. cf. Isth. vn. 63, Frag. [6], 5. 11. g/soXov.] The poet identifies himself with his ode, cf. 01. vII. 13. Some MSS. ZetkufXJY. 12. Mss. v dapyta svecgw(a) flavrtv. Heyne, e 'Apyeit Nesyqd 4Ldvrtv (i.e. the custodian of the sacred palm tree at Nemea, branches from which the victors bore in their hands). Bergk, Cvapyd' dave/zwv fgavr7-)i'. Usener, ecapysa TreXeov c'aaTra, Christ, evapyta r-Xea lavriitv. Perhaps evapyf' dcave/a, jIdvrTz (OCM for MS.. ME). Heyne and his followers suppose Pindar to have been at Nemea in the Spring. But if

Page  208 208 PINDARI CARMINA. 4) /O Ot uEPTO9 OaraB aou Iotvlfoeavwv ovo'r otOev7ro 'npv 0avdov deoS1jov 6TCrait0iov ap fvr vceircpea. 15 rore f/aXXeTat, TO6' e7r' apI4porav %0or' para tov f063at, po6a re iKofxato-a iyvvrac, aetait oJ6,L)al,exieewv arov avXoEl, dXerat Leqe'Xav et/ccdjxvrv/ca %opol. 54. [46.] = B4 76. 'lQ ra X\7rwapa Kcat ioro'Tefavob Ical doi&otot,, 'EXXa3osq peEo-rfpa, icXeLvai 'AO rava, Satpc6bVov rrTOXieOpov. * 55. [196.] = B4 77. 'OOBt 'a TteS 'AOavalcov e/aXovro '/aevvaZ Kcpfl7rtrS' XevOepia. * 56. [225.] =B4 78. KXDO', 'AXaXa loX\etov Ov/arep, exeov vTpooiqbaov, a Overat avSpe9 (v7rep 7roVXo?) To3V pdO0vrov Oavarov. this were so, there is no reason why he should mention it, as the games were in the summer. Of course ftLvrTv is most naturally the poet. 13. (pocvKoeavWv.] Koch from MSS. q olvKo s EaCVv. Other Edd. before Bergk oivLtKos fpvOS. oixOevros.] Cf. Lucr. i. 10. 14. erati'wtv.] Cf. Nem. i. 14 for the meaning 'feel, 'feel the influence of;' and for the number cf. Pyth. I. 13. Bergk eTraoywctv gap. ~wvra veKrcpea I Tr'e d'XX\eraz. 15. xo6v'.] Var. lect. tpo-ov. 16. ftIyvvrac.] The p'6a softens the Schema Pindaricum (cf. Pyth. x. 71, O1. x. [xi]. 6). 17. dxerai r'.] Hermann's correction of oixvere, v/pvere, from Lesbonax, 7repi oX'7-u7rw, p. 184 Valcknaer. Bergk, dxe? r' after one Ms. 54. Schol. Aristoph. Acharn. 673, Nub. 299, Equ. 1329. Cf. Isokr. de Antidosi, 166. Cf. also 0. and P. pp. xi., xii. 54. Scholl. Aristoph. Acharn. 673, Nub. 299. Schol. Aristid. Im. 341. 54. 1. X -rat.] Bockh, at' e. loTre'Oavo. ] I.e. at the Vernal Dionysia, cf. last Frag. v. 6. Cf. Aristoph. Acharn. 636 ff. 55. 56. Plut. de G1. Athen. c. 7.

Page  209 FRAGMENTS. 209 57A. 57B. [47. 48.] B4 79 A, B. Ilptv tzLv elpre o-XovroTEveta T adota (t0vpa/l/3o<uv a r TO oa cv x/cl$aXov cvwpWTrrowotv aTo c'TO/bjaTwv.,.....*......o P oV fCa cP~ecv arTp c7eyaXa, radpa po6ioL Kv/ua3dwov' ev oe fceXadLOZw cporTaX', aWOo/Leva O cse S v57ro avOaco't rev/ca'. 57C. = B4 80, Kvf3eXa /arTep Oeo3v. 58. [49.] = 4 81........ e ' eyo) wapa,uev alveCo /JeI, v p, r O pvova Td e Adt I+tXTepov LY(I/jLU WaLdL7TraEv ou yadp EOLctX 57 A. Strabo x. 469 (719), AthBnaeos, xi. 467 B, 488 D, Dionysos Hal. de Com7p. Verb, c. 14. B6ckh by emendation and combination gets the text. Dionysos 1. c. explains, elril 5 o' a'CilyLovs '8vd iXas eirolovv, 67qXoi 6 TO7O ro IivWapos, c-.r.X. Such an ode was ascribed to Lasos of Hermione, under whom Pindar studied. The Greeks confused the Phoenician sibilants. The sign of schin M is used for sigma in early Aeolo-Dorian alphabets, while the name T-Lv may be borrowed from the Phoenician equivalent for either schi71 or sain (the 7th letter, zeta). The sigma of the ordinary Greek alphabet takes the place of schin, while the Greek Xi has the place of samech, but its name sounds as if it might be borrowed from schin. ZBta again has the place of sain but the name of tsade. These facts suggest that the ordinary Doric sibilant differed in pronunciation from the Attic and that,<sy (Doric future) may have been pronounced more like our sh or F. II. German sch than like I.s. In this fragment Pindar seems to claim the invention of improvements in the dithyramb. Is &806 -pa/~oos a dialectic form for &SiOepaf3pos 'skin-chant,' the part -apoobeing akin to oifrp? For Pindar's punning derivation see Frag. 62. 57 n. Strabo, 1. c. Frag. 57 A, whence it appears that this fragment is from the same dithyramb as the last. 57 B. 1. Ka-rcpXec.] For tha active see my note on afrdpXei, Nem. iv. 46. 57 B. 3. KEXXad6et.] Irss. KaXXd5iav. Text Hermann. 57 c. Philodemos, wrept euiP. p. 29 (Gompertz). Bergk's restoration from a very corrupt passage. Perhaps it is from the same ode as the two last fragments. 58. Aristid. ii. 70. 58. 1. rapc tvw.J So Bergk from two MSS. and a Schol. B6ckh 7rap ad.qiv, other itss. 7rap' aiv, ' between ourselves.' 14

Page  210 210 PINDARI CARMINA. ap7ra4ozedvwov oW3 v eovTow KcaOqacrOa 7rap' eTi'a, 5 Kal KaCoCv e4Leqcvac. 59. [50.] = B4 82. Tarv X7rapav lIev Atyv7rrvov dX^icprnuvov. 60. [51.]= B 83. 'Hv or'e 'aa9 TO BouLo-ov 'Ovoy ' EYVErov. 61. [54.] = B4 84. Harpokrat. 142, 7raXtva[peTos...M7rL e T?( KaOatpeOevrwv olKo8oLaJLYLTJtv Kat avoLKoSo0L7OevrT(I IfI[vSapos AtOvpcap/ots. Phot. 373, 11. * 62. [55.] = B4 s5. Et. lM. 274, 50, AhOvipa/pfos...nllt&apos 8E ro-l XvO6lpa/fov. Kat yap ZEVS rTLKTOvEVov aVrovi E7re,3a AOv6t paMaia, XUOe pa/&tota, 'iV j XvOitpaLOo KaL aSvpa pos por K iara TprV0 Kat wrkovarotFdv. * 63. [56.] = B4 86. Choeroboskos, I. 279, ELM a" '9 atTtaTLK9 ' jc 8E " L KTLVOY KaTa jAeTa7rXaOcr/Ov -yeyovev KTLvaY, WOrrTep...8tOUpa o/Pov StL8BpajLpa 7rapa IlItvapp. V. I PO OAIA. EI AHAON. 64. 65. [58.]=B4 87. 88. Srp. Xadp', c3 eoSoSdra, XtraporwXo/cdaov 58. 4. Cf. 01. I. 83. For text cf. Frag. 184. 58. 5. Ka KK6v.] ' And so be a 60. Schol. 01. vI. 152. Cf. 01. coward.' vI. 90. 59. Schol. Pyth. ii. Inscr. 64. Philo-Judaeus, de Corrupt. &TyX(KpWvPov,.] V. 1.eL Ks5twv.. undi, ii. p. 511 (Mangey).

Page  211 FRAGMENTS. 211 Ta[ea'a'c AaroV ct epoo'raror spov,,,ra io,cTaos e jpO oaT, 'po, 7T0VTOV OvvyaTep, Xlovos evpela9 aCv)70Tov Trepas, avTre /3poToi Ai\Xop fCiLrKfXO'COL'LV, zaliCapeS 8' ev 'OX4/7TrC rrlX\tavTov KvaveaS X'ov ox ' arTpov..........................*. 'AP/T. )v Tyap TroTrapoLOe /op'r)T KcvlU JcaEreLv 7ravrTO8a7TrV ' avelowv pvTraToLv cXX' C Kotoyevr's O7TOT ' Wveoc't Ooal adyXLTcoKs Ere/3aveve, 87} Trre TEo-rapes opOat 7rpeLvrov d7rwpovo-av XO6viwv, 5 av 8' E7rTfcpdvoL o-'xEov trvepav d'atzavlo7re8tXo L ciOveS evOa reKcoL' evoal) ov EarooraTO ZyeVav. iC verb, eV!, rqt EV AIrINHTAIS EIS APAIAN. 66. [59.]=B4 89. Ti ccdaXLov apXoILtevoo-tLv ) KcaTravavo/LevoLrtLv, ', 0 Y rro ) j3aOtvpwvv T~- AaTw Kct& Ooav ^'wWV re XadeLpav EIS AEA(OYT. * 67. [60.] =B4 90....... lIp 'OXv/ w7rlov ALL6? o6e, 64. 3. aoK[ivrov.] In B. C. 490 Delos was shaken by an earthquake, so unless Isth. I. and this 'Prosodiac Paean' were composed before that date, the epithet means ' unmoved from its place,' as is most likely. 64. 5. D1los was called Asteria and Anaphe. 65. Strabo, x. p. 742 B (485). It is clear from the metre this fragment is from the same poem as the last. The two first verses of 65 answer to the third and fourth of 64. 65. 2. Kotoyev7s.] Leto, cf.lHes. Theog. 404-406. 0oaUs.] Mars. 0rote, Bergk. 60tor-'. 65. 3. e7riepavev.] Porson efreia 655.. av...X%0ov.] Tmesis. 66. Schol. Aristoph. Equites, 1263, cf. Pausan. Ii. 30. 30. 66. 2. EXaretpav.] Artemis Aphaea, a goddess worshipped in Aegina. Cf. 7rroa6Sa, 01. II. 26. 67. Aristid. In. 510 (379). 14-2

Page  212 212 PINDARI CARMINA. XpvOcra K\vTotCavTr IIvOoF, XLcroooat XapTleo'o{ Tre ~cal acrI 'Abpo3ITa ev Sa06~q pe 86'ea %opw 5 ado[8,1ov Lepipl&v 7rpofrdarav. 68. [61.] =B 91. Porphyr. de Abst. III. 251, IIvtSapos 8e Ev 7rpooA)'ots (7rpocro8t'oS) 7ravfTa S o' OEOvs ewrol7Orev, oTrorE v7r Tvx(3VOS StLKOVTO, OVK dVaOpOroLs oJLoLcWOevTra, aXXa X o' s a XXoL (Wesseling TroZs adXoyoLs) 4~ots. * 69. 70. [93.1=B4 92. 93. Ke~tvw fPetv ArvlTa 3e-ctko'9 V'TEpflatoX afL bceLrat. * aXX' QOS a7r\aTOV cepati'e OE'v Tvo6Vv' e&CcrovrcTKapavov cavcyica, Ze- 71raTep, ev' AptloeL 7rOTe. 71. =B44 94. MepJvaiaT' aotaa?. VI. II A P E N IA. IIANI 72-77. 72. [63.] = B4 95. ' IHadV,'ApKa&a cE, Ka'Ap caS eev tvv aSvtrwv U V \a, 67. 4. Xopc.] So Bergk, uZlg. Hermann after Pyth. I. 16 (cf. Schol. Xyp'w perhaps 'the dancing-place' Hes. Theog. 311), Mss. Tuowa 7revat Delphi. For the connection of T7-KOPTCKEpaXaOY. Aphrodit6 and the Graces with 71. Cramer, An. Par. inI. 292, Delphi cf. Pyth. vi. 2. 26. 69, 70. Strabo, xmII. 626 (930 A). 72. Eustath. Prooen. 27. Schol. Cf. Julian, Ep. xxiv. 395. Pyth. II. 139. 70. 2. oKarovTaKcrpavov.] So

Page  213 FRAGMENTS. 213............,.......... MaTrpos9 /eryXaa o7raew, eiJ/Lvav Xapirrov ~reXl/ta TEp7Trvov. * 73. [66.] = B4 96. Si iaicap, o7're E yaXat Oeov Kvva 7ravTro7arrov KaXCeoo'tv '' OX'V/rtOt. 74. [65.] = B 98. Schol. Theokr. v. 14, Tov IHava TOv aKItov' trvei 8e rov 'ArroXXcvd.a arcL TO'v E7rL rT aKTr7j UJlV)/eVoV, f17c-lT 8O e Ka HllavSapos raT daXtewv avrov Opovr[IEtv. * 75. [64.] =B4 97. TO CVTOV /JL\XOS ryXa6ets'. 76. [67.]= B4 99 Aristid. I. 49, Acaoa-tc 8' ar-T KaCl rO'v IIava XopEVT7tV T7 -X Teorarov OeOV ovr7a, co% Iv apos rE vweL Kal oc cari' A'iyvr7rov Xe;TCLCDV 8~~1) ~Y~al; F Iltvsapo~ ~ixvr KR~ Or Ka' A[),wrvoY tepES. KiaTEpLa Oov. 77. [68.] = B4 100. Serv. Virg. Georg. i. 16, "Pana Pindarus ex Apolline et Penelopa in Lyco (Lycaeo) nonte editum sclibit, qui a Lycaone rege Arcadiae locus (Lycaeus) mons dictus est: alii ex Mer 73. Aristot, Rhet. ii. 24. 73. 1. 7ravro0aro'v.] Mr Verrall, Journal of Philology, vol. Ix. p. 150, suggests that IIav is a Boeotian equivalent of Kciwv, and that here and in Soph. Frag. 604 we have iravrodarros =" all-devouring or allcatching, from the stem Sar- of 7rr-,<3 or labialised from SCaK- in <5vxcw if indeed these stems are distinct." But in neither passage is Mr Verrall's assumed meaning nearly so appropriate as that which -rarro6a7r6s obviouslybears Aristoph. Jan. 289, 'taking all iinds of forms;' but for this passage 'universal' is still better. Pindar may however apply rEmpusa-like attributes to the god who was often the author of terror. The name KViWV is not inappropriate to the god of flocks who was also a hunter, when he is spoken of as an attendant. 75. Schol. Theokr. I. 2, interpreting eauvrT 6S'v 'detS. For yXdCvis for KXCeELS cI. yXCo-o-a for KXwKya.

Page  214 214 PINDARI CARMINA. curio et Penelope natum, comiteni feras solitun e cubilibus excitare, et ideo capripedem figuratum esse etc." But Schol. in Theokr. Syrinx, Tov 8e lldva EVLOL" yyEVy CkrropPOVrtv, VtLOL 8e Ai0epos Kal vvt/trnS Oivo(Sq, ws Kal IIltvapos, 'vtLOL 8e 'OSvacre~f. AII OAAON I. * 78. 79. [70.] = B4 101. 102....... KtvY jel 6 e7r' fyav Kai cat Odaaav icanl c'icoTma'crv / eydXas ope&ov vTrep ecrra, ical /hvxWOs 8&voroaTro /aXXoauEVO 'cpTr8as' adXae'wv, ical TroTe roTv TptLcapavovu HlrT)OV KIevOWva KcaTeo-vxee... -* *......vao7r6Xov padvrTL 8a7re8oto-al o/61toXea. 80. [62.]= B4103. Schol. Arist. Acharn. 720, 'AyopadeL v & ayopa 8taTpitf/3 Ev 4%ovacr KaY, nrapprcro riarlv, 'ArruoKS, OOeV Ka~ 4 Kopptvva, Cr~T 'rov IItv8apov aJdrTKtt,, T7re Kal eV Tr prp p rT v l apO EvYov EXP'a-aTro T -'et. 81. [69.] = B4 104. Schol. Theokr. II. 10, IIv8apos 4ryrtv 'v rev oT KEXOpFptJLevots iWv HapIevtLov (7rapOE'vwv), OrTt TV EpaO-TTW ot kecv aVpES C~ eXOVTat rOV HXtoy, at 8e yvvaites EXyrjvrqv. 78, 79. Strabo, ix. 412, 413. Irwdov. The ode seems to have 78. 3. &rvciLaro.] Qy. dXXaio- celebrated the foundation of an ero? oracle and shrine near Akraephia flaXXoxevos.] Cf. Pyth. v. 83, between Mt Pt6on and the Lake vnI. 3. KO6pis. 78. 3. ITrwov.] Bergk, vulg.

Page  215 FRAGMENTS. 215 VII. T IT P X I M A T A. IEPfQNI J YPAKO:IQL 82. 83. 82. [71. 7.] = B4 105. SVe o? 0 TOt Xerywo, aOeCor tEpYjv OtLWVVUlt e rarep Ic'rtToC op A'Trva' NotacSeco-tL yacp ev C tcvOa dx\arat 7pTpaw, ol daj oqaoprrqov otcoov ov reTraTac 5 aXfclE7 e'a Trc'3vSe..... 83. [73.] = B4 106. 'A7rO Taifye7roto /ev Ad/catvav 7rO' 0r7pod' xvva rpe6tLv 7jruxwo'a' ov pvrerov' E77t ijpcn KVCt TpEbEGV 7TVICLvTaTOl Ep7rETOV0 CvpiaptcL ' e? /CjLteXctv yXCa'yoUv a7yes eToxc' TaTat' 5 '7wXa 8' cw7r' "Apyeo [ arpca tO I3aLov' aX dw' a ao rd cyXaoKap7rov,tKceXia oXq)JLa ataSdXeov abarevetv. OHBAIOI EI: HAION EKAEIJANTA. ' 84. [74.] = B4 107. 'Acitl 'AeXiov, L', w 7roXv'/,co7r e/a Oea, L COv ILrTep 82. Schol. Nem. vii. 1. Schol. Note the absence of any forma] inPyth. ii. 127. Schol. Aristoph. dication of the simile. Aves, 925. Cf. Plato, Phaedr. 236 83. Athgnaeos, i. 28 A, clearly D, Mieno 76 D. from the same poem as Frag. 82. 82. 3. It is not certain that this 83. 1. Cf. Soph. Ai. 8. line followed the last immediately. 83. 5. oriXa.] ' Shields,' cf. 01. ZrpaTcWv.] Hiero's charioteer vII. 83. when he won the victory celebrated 83. 6. Cf. 01. iv. 10. by Pyth. ii., to whom he had given 84. Dionys. Hal. de adm. vi the mules. Here Pindar hints that die. Demosth. c. 7. Cf. Boetticher, a chariot also would be acceptable. Annal. Antiqu. 1853, p. 184. The

Page  216 216 PINDARI CARMINA. aaoTpov v7epTraT-ov yd Jpa icKXrTo/levov, EWflca- aadxCavov IcrXvv [7rravovj] av&paap v KCt c aota9 oo6v, eTtClrKo7ov 5 capa7rov erovperva eX v TI pevorepov ) ' Tjpos; aXXa Cee vrpO AtS, i7r7roc06a 0E0S, IfcEr6w a7wpovZJ e9 oXj8ov Ttva Trparos e)/3atsL, w3 jrorTVa 7rayKcotvov repa9. 7roX\ov 3 etl ca cla (epetE T7O(S, v o] rcaprouv Oatil, j vterbeov aOevos 3 vroT KEVEO-tW era 7r~oV, vbreparov c a-*rao ov\op Za 7rar TOYTOV ere WEaLv Cra tre8ov r] 7rayeTovr Xyovo^^,?7 PO'TLOV Oepo3 15 f yabaVy KaTara craiaLca y7caets avrpwo)v Y~0P et dypa^ 769,Po o9ovpoT0aa ovEev 'o T t 7rdro7)v /IEra welao/jLat various proposed emendations of the text are given in Bergk, ed. 4. Ideler supposes that the eclipse in question occurred at 2 P.M. April 30, B.c. 463. WTith this fragment compare Archilochos, Frag. 74. 84. 1. {/uci, K.T.X.] MSS. eU/i GeCw f darep OdjAcrwv. Bergk, ri 70oX\K07T' Ejrwcta, }ciiv p&rep dopJsda'TwV; 7roXv-Kco7r.] Cf. II. III. 277. 84. 2. dfrapov.] Vocative in apposition with dtSI. Cf. Philostratos Ep. 53 (72 p. 949), 01. I. 6. 84. 3. -rravov.] Qy. wrpariSwv? 84. 4. aoqiasg.] Especially augury and fore-knowledge. 84. 6. eXa'.] ' To bring on somewhat more strange-and-dreadful.' Cf. Pyth. iv. 155. 84. 7. IrrooaSa Be6s.] Blass. Mss. criTros ods (OaGods, OaGods). Bergk, iirrovs re 0oaSs IK. 84. 8. -rpdarot.] Vulg. 'rpdiwoo. 'Turn the universal portent to untroubled prosperity for Thebes.' 84. 10. Oi0vos.] Cf. Isth. iI. 2. 84. 14, 15. So Hermann. The asterisks mark the lacuna which he filled up. For the sentiment cf. Eur. Phoen. 894, ets y&p div roXXMv Ler-a JI Ob /e 'ov, el XP'p, 7rei0o/lat' Ti yap rtd0w; Cic. ad Fam. vi. 2. 2. Plin. Epp. vi. 20. 17,possem gloriari non gemitumn mihi, non uocemparum fortema excidisse, nisi me cum omnibus, omnia smecunm perire misero magno tamen mosrtalitatis solacio credidissem.

Page  217 FRAGMENTS. 217 85. [75.] = B4 108. O0eov SE el[avTos apXav - I) l '0 8\ KEXEVOO9 a pe'aY EX, elcacrrTov ev rpayos evUeBa t r Ke~evao? aperay enem, reXevTa[ Te /caXX\\ove. 86. [228.] = B4 109. To IcoLvO TtS aCTCrOw E 6E evUa TL60e6L epevvaoT'rro teyaXacvopos 'Ao'vxlas Tr qOatpov Qfos, rTactlv a7ro 7rpavrwolo erIKcTov0 advexOv, 7rev/a^ 3oreXpav, exOpav icovporpodov. 87. [76.] = 3= 110. rXvgIv;' dTreipotacr 7TrOXe/iOS 7retreLpacfteVL r ( 7tsL Tap3pel 7rpo-LOYTra tV KcapOSia Treptocrs. 88. [77.]= B4 111. / I, UfF 'Evevrtce fclcpatLv' e v aLt'artLL, 7rOX\X( S' Xxe' L,/3aXe TpaXv po7raXov, rEXo9 8' aetpacw 7rpo * * rt3cLpap s E'7rapa^e 7rXevpad, altv S\ & oTrev e' 'ppaio'ia. 89. [78.] = B 112. Atcatawa ftpv rapOepvwv ayeX'a. 85. Epist. Sokrat. 1. Aristides II. 571. 85. 2. ey.] For es, cf. Pyth. I. 11. 86. Stobaeos, Florileg. LVIII. 9. Cf. Polybios iv. 31, where we are told that in this poem Pindar advised his countrymen not to resist the Persians. 86. 2. 'Aovias. ] Cf. Pyth. vin. 1. 86. 3. From this line it might be inferred that Pindar was advising the patriotic party to prefer sub mission to the Persians to intestine strife. 87. Stob. Flor. L. 3. Eustath. p. 841, 32. 87.. 1. rreipoatr.] V. 1. &arepi. re7retpacf/evv.] V... e/reipwv. 88. Erotian. p. 74 (Franz). 88. 3. aiv.] Er6t. loc. cit. 6 vwrtatos jveXos. Perhaps this fragment is on the same subject as Frag. 145. 89. Ath6naeos, xiv. 631 c.

Page  218 218 PINDARI CARMINA. 90. [79.] = B4 113. Schol. Theokr. VII. 103, 'O/JoXas 8oE ~eraXl'as pos, c V"Eopos Ka 'Aptcro'8/qos 4o ~iy/aos, ev oTs crriope 7Trept Ts Coprs TrV 'OptoXwowv, Kat Ilvsapos Ev roT 'YrTopx'uacr-v. 91. [80.] = B4 14. Schol. Pind. Isth. I. 21, 'IJXaos 68 4v 'HpaKXEovs 4voXos, XX' Evpjuara Lv odapov ev 'YTropxrtjvacrrw, (J? Kal Evprja Ka'Cropov, Wos avros XEyet. Bdckh, apMaTa 6e aVTroV EipyjaK KarT TO IItv6apov KTX. 92. [81.]= B4 11. Schol. Pind. 1. x.IIL 25, '0 HIv8apo, 8e E v iEv oTH 'YropxcuacrLv Ev Ndea ('cqrlo4v evprlqOrvat 7rpwrov 8tOvpaftj3ov. * 93. 94. [82]=B4 116. 117. 'O Moto ayerrav lCe caXet Xopeovaa. "A7yos c3 /ctvXTca epadr0ovTa Aaro?. VIII. EFKflMIA. OHPfQNI AKPArANTINf2t. 95. 96. 95. [83.] =B4 118. Bov'Xopat ral acrotv 'EXXdvv/ c......... * 96. [84.]=B4 119. 'Ev 86 'P'o ov...,aT t-,~ev......... 93, 94. H-phaest. p. 78 (46). read rai6eUvLLv. Examples of Pindaric hendecasyl- 96. Schol. 01. i. 16. From the lables. same enk6mion as Frag. 95. 95. Schol. 01. In. 16. Mss. 96. 1. ev.] V. 1. &.

Page  219 FRAGMENTS. 219 evferoS acoptaOevrTe~ v'r7,Xav 7r'\'v d'u 0tvp'.oaL, 7r\Xec0'a ~/ev cSwp' daav'ctroL daveovTe, Eo-e7'o EL'0 VaOV 7TXOVTOv PEpOS. AAEANAP&t AMYNTA 97. 98. 97. [85.] = B4 120. 'Ox\/3v oJu vv/JUe AapSavLtSv, 7ral OpcoV-/rS3evs 'A/LvVTa. o 98. [86.] = B 121...... IpeTEb 8' eA\Xolo-v vuve-Oat KcaXXtlo-TatL aota,' rTOVT yap ada'VTo ' TL/ vLaS 7rOT /aeU~ fOVOV [pO-7]'' 0vaYtFcE 8e cryaOev KcaXOv ''pyov. IX. EKOAIA. "ENOC2NTI KOPINOIlt. 99. [87.] = B4122. IToXtvevac vreva8es, d4tViwoXot -rp. a'. 96. 2. Cf. Pyth. xiI. 2. 96. 3. For the theme cf. 01. II. 39, 40. 96. 4. ve'or.] Apparently suggested by the shower of gold at Rhodes, cf. Isth. vi. 5 note. 97. Schol. Nem. vii. 1, Di6n Chrysost. Orat. ii. p. 25 (Vol. I. 28, ed. Emper). 98. Dion. Hal. de Vi Die. Demosth. c. 26. From the same enk6mion as Frag. 97. 98. 1. For sentiment cf. Nem. Im. 29. 98. 2. 7roTeiavel.] Cf. Pyth. Ix. 120, Isth. IIi. 29. 98. 3. Cf. Nem. iv. 6,Isth. iI. 58. a cryae'O.] So Barnes. Mss. a' erTLTai0e. Sylburg, Bickh, -eTl XaaO'. 99. Athgnaeos, xIII. 573 c. Part of a skolion performed at the temple of 'Aqpo&Tri7 Ovpavia when Xenophon of Korinth offered a sacrifice before competing for the Olympian games, and according to Korinthian custom engaged a number of eracpac, lep68ovXo to attend the ceremony. Such lepd6ovXot are still found in connection with temples in India. The skolia of Pindar seem to have differed from ordinary drinking songs in being choric, or at least accompanied by a choric dance, executed in this case by 100 eraipac. 99. 1. IIoXvk:evat.] For this feminine cf. Nem. in. 2.

Page  220 220 PINDARI CARMINA. IIetoOvs, ev dafve1z KoplvBO, aLe rdc XX\opas X3alvov:avOb &acpq Ovuiare, 7roXXd\\afCt aep' pworwv ovpaviav 7rrEafLeva 5 vvoqLa 7Torrnd 'Apoi&'Tav, VlUv aveuV' darayoplas' e'opev, 3 7raiSe, iEparevai v ev vas tah0axcds wpas atto xapTrov Spe7reO-Oat. v' avdtyKa 7radv /caXov......... Erp. ry IO aXXa Oavtc;a'w, r' pe Xe:ovri 'IaOp$ov Io arxo tov 8ea7rr7Tat Totavie peltapovo dapXa&v CEppoflevov 01fcoXIo &vvtaopov %vvaCOU KOvvatL v. -rp. 8' Sid~ap~ev Xpvcov xafapa /3aaeid. Wo Kv7rpov oS&rrotva, reOv &eVTr' de, aro rg5 opl3a'8v Kopav ayeXav EcaTOyvLov 0 ZEVoW. v TEE7radaycy eVXcXaL9 lavOek. 99.5. vo6qa.] 'Soaring in soul.' Cf. Soph. Aiax, 693. iroTrdv.] The poet seems to adopt the dialect of Korinth. Cf. O1. xIIi. 3 note fin. 99. 6. dveuv' dar.] So Bergk or e7racyoplas. Bockh, viy/tv dr' dvwOev d7r. The goddess is wont to make no excuse for allowing you &c.; i. e. she deems it proper. 99. 8. Wpas KapTrov.] Cf. Pyth. ix. 37, Nem. viII. 1. adro...pe7r.] Tmesis. Causative middle. 99. 9. The constraint is the enthusiasm excited by the goddess. '.] 'For.' 99. 13. &SdazAevs.] Frequentative aorist. ' We prove.' 99.15. eKarro'yyvtov.] Here yvov probably means the whole body, as in Nem. vII. 73, ix. 24.

Page  221 FRAGMENTS. 221 OEOBENN t TE NEAIIt. * 100. [88.] B4 123..rp. Xpiv,v KI caTr Kca3pov eporWo Spv erepv LOa, Ouvp, a'v &Ta Se ~o ~ eovov cicrKTvas rpoorovrov ltapfapv oic-aS SpaKcelt os I r 7r60o KVu/LaveTra, e aaftzavpro' ) oLtdapou KCexa\IXevTaL etXaavav y capslav 'Avr. 5 tvVpa ~ b)oyl, wrpos 8' 'AYpobrasl cdrqwao elO ~XuXco/3X~capov )7rl wpl %pr4/act /IoO'LE b 3 alwo, 7 yvvaiapbcE Opae [*vpaCvJ] (oplrat wradaav o'6v Ocpaveviwv. wo o 3 ) \ ^ C>) e\ 81 e n el aXX' eyw TaaS' ef'ca'n KcrpO wo s Sax0cit CXa 'E7T. ipavy IeXocaav raico/,va,, eUT v 'co r raLWOp veoyeov ~9 r/pav 10 v 8' dpa Kcat TevSeo leOW T revatev Ka Xapt vlov 'A7y/rltadov. 100. Athgn. xii. p. 601 c. For Pindarie dative with 0eparre6wv, ' in Theoxenos of. 0. and P. p. xv. attendance on bold-faced women.' 100. 1. Cf. Frag. 104. 100. 7. vXpdcv.] Probably cor100. 2. plapcapuvitosag.] Edd. rupted by the proximity of tvXpa, jLapyaptp., but one MS. gives text, v. 5. for which cf. juajuapvyj. 100. 8. ra&r' cKart.] iiSS. 6' 100. 4. juXawav.] Cf. Aristoph. carnT. Bergk 7ras Ueart. 'By the Ranae, 470. influence of Aphrodit6.' 100. 5. vuXpa%.] Oxymoron and AXa I ipav.] Bergk. Mss. Xe\yparv causative use; 'chilling.' (XeCKpciv). But Ipav uLeXtcr'ov (Mss. 100. 6. tlacws.] 'Unnaturally,' iXto-ctav) is out of order. Qy. Lpyov cf. Plato, Tim. p. 64 D, Aristot. J~eXtaw'v? Eth. Nicom. I. 5. 8. 100. 9. is.] Cf. Frag. 53. 1. yvvCaKcLC.] Either alter to yvvat- 100. 10, 11. Qy. IIctOw...Xapiv KetOP Op&cos or take the text as a vios?

Page  222 222 PINDARI CARMINA. ~PASYBOYAth AKPArANTINf~t. 101. [89. 94.] =B4 124.,, t ' 'ft Opacrv3ov', 5 eparav dyyyt' dosav roVro rob TwrE/wrw /jtcLrat pwwLOPv -v vvj V ccev K i&Y] auq-Vroratclrv Tre yXVKcpov Kcatl Auwvvaol KapTrw Ktca KcvXItceoaov 'AavalaatoKCVTpov' Serlvov 8e X?7jovros ~VyXcv TrpWoYCahov 5 cKalrep 7reS' dtfoovov /opadv. IEPf2NI IYPAKOSIOI. 102. 103. 102. [91.] =B4 125. Tov pa Tepvravap6o oroO' o Ae&r'/So etpe^ 7rpcro 70 v 8eirvoLcr AvS3wv #raXtbLO davr'foryyov vrhXa9 dfcov twv 7rri7KCroW. * 103. [92.]=B4 126. Mep8' d/arpov rTep tv v 3ev w 7roX Trot CP7pr-Trov avSpl T7ep7rro alwv. 101. Athdnaeos, Xi. p. 480 c, xiv. p, 641 B. B6ckh thinks that this skolion was sung at a feast in celebration of a Panathdnaic victory, perhaps that mentioned Isth. II. 19. 101. 2. ev wvo.] ' At once.' 101. 3. 'AOavaiait.] The best kind of kylix was manufactured in Attica. F. Blass, 3Ius. Rhen. xix. 306, makes doltav, elyi, KapiTWg the ends of the lines of a three-lined strophe, and joins on to this fragment Frag. 203. 102. Ath6n. xiv. 635 D. 102. 1. rdv.] The fBdpfiros or 102. 3. advrl00ooyyov.] 'Of opposite sound.' Terpander, oppressed by the shrillness of the 7r1CKrTs, conceived the idea of the deep-toned papptros. For this sense of vjqX'os cf. v;6pcwvos. 103. Athln. xn. 512 D. From a poem in praise of Hiero of Syrakuse. Bickh refers it to the skolion, whence comes Frag. 102.

Page  223 FRAGMENTS. 223 * 104. [236.] = B4 127. E' KcaL epa'v cal EpO(TM XapL'0o'Oa IcaKra Katpopv 7rpeo-fvTepa apv SptOo Wce, OvAte', 7rp'tbLv. 105. [90.]=Bs 128. Xa'pTas T' 'A.poScrt'ov eptrwov, o'fpa o-v XtIapt efjO;cov 'AryacOwti re KcaVk KorTra/3ov. X. OPHNOI.. 106. 107. [9.] = B4 129, 130. Toto-tl X4af7ret pu pLevo0S aeX\ov Tav evOaoSe vVKcra?ca ret), fotvLcIopO6Sov (' evt Xe\t/wCveo'ert 7rpoactopLV aVUrT Kal kL/3davw octapov Kca Xpuo'eo&e /capTroti f3e/SptOo9. Kca} Tro tLelv t7T'ro0t yv/tzaoiot Tre, Tot GS VreocCaolt, 5 Tro 8( \ Op/7IwerO-crGt pTrovTraL, 7rapa e a:r-a'Lv evavOrj a7ras T6OaXev oX/3o"s O8/Ja 8' EpadroV KcaTaT Xwpov Kci8va7Ta aLel Ova p.iyvvv' T vO 7Trpl Trr\XebavE T ravprota Oe6Jv 67r1 3oso. 104. Ath6n. xm. 601 c. Cf. Frag. 100. 1. 104. 1. e'i.] Cf. Isth. I. 64. ipwrc.] Bergk conjectured pwo'tv, and o' at the end of the verse, referring it to Frag. 100. 104. 2. ' Do not pursue amours when older than the (natural) tale (of years).' For construction cf. Isth. III. 31. irpatv.] See L. and S. s.v. II. 3. 105. Ath. x. 427 D. 105. 2. Xtcapy.] ASS. XeLtap', Bockh xetuappP. Text, Bergk comparing Polyb. xxix. 1. 106, 107, 108. Plutarch. Cons. ad Apol. c. 35, de Occulto Viv. c. 7 (orKvOi- for oKlep-). 106. 1. Contrast 01. n. 61, where the vernal equinox is perpetual. Perhaps the poet could have reconciled the two statements. 106. 3. oKLapo'.] Hermann. Bockh airapg. 106. 7. tivYivrcoW.] ' Since they are ever mingling.' Cf. Pyth. VIIi. 43, 85.

Page  224 224 PINDARI CARMINA. Cf/e v ToyV arepov EpevCyovTratL KOTOv f\xVXpOl 8vopepdi vWVTOI TaroTaLot......... 108. [96.] = B 131. 'OX/3ia 8' a7ravre9 aCr-a Xvorlrovov TvXE6rav. ecab acwDka betv dvrarov aT7rera Oavarcw reptcraevea, wbv 8' 7rL XELe67Ta& alewvo3 e'iwXov' TO7 rydp eoarT fa7OVOU EFc Oew6 ejtUe 8( Trpao-crovrowv /LeX\E, arap evoAvTec'a' v V TroXXoZ9 odVepoev 5 eltKVVVt TEp7rvwV epCepvroLav XaXevrwv re KpltLv. * 109. [97.] = B4 132. Tvxal 8' aace/f3ev vrovpaviot yalwa iroW rat ev aX ye-r (oovlous VZt7O 67ryhat db/~tVcro9L KatcovZ evre/3coZI 8' eiovpdvwto valottac 5 /6oX\ra7 padcbapa petyav adei8ovr ev v4Lvoig. 107. Metre of vv. 6, 7 of 106. XnXpoi.] ' Sluggish.' Cf. Hor. Od. 1n. 14, 17, visendus ater flumine languido I Cocytus. 108. From another threnos, Plut. Vit. Rorn. c. 28. 108. 1. Xvuir-ovov.] After this word Bockh inserts Leravtie-ovras. 108. 4. Trpac'aovTwv.] Cf. Nem. i. 26. For sentiment cf. Aesch. Eum. 104, ev'eovua ycp opp)v CjA osacr Xau7rp65verat, Cic. Div. I. 30. Pindar attached great importance to dreams (Pausan. ix. 23). These views as to the future state are probably due to H~raklitos or Pythagoras. 108. 5. Reveal the (correct) judgment which will be held in the future state as to things pleasant and painful. 109. Theod6rbtos, Gr. Affect. Curatio, vIIi. p. 599 c; Clemens Alex. Strom. rx. p. 640, 22. Dissen suspects the genuineness of this fragment. Prof. Seymour however shows that the sentiments, if not found elsewhere in Pindar, are classical, by quoting Plato, Phaed. 81 c, i reotavr' fvUy9 japUverai T-e Kcai Xerat els T76 opaorv r T0rov.. 7repl Tr& /Yvo'varTd e c at ro;us Tpovus KVo\tLOVULeV'J... (TrWV 5aV\IXWV AuxaL) at rept ra rotamra tavaytKEovrat rXCavar0at SiKtv rivovucrac TrjS rporepas Tpoq0jS KaKS ov"l'er, and the epigram on those who fell at Potidaea (Corp. Inscr. Att. 442), aliO7p dev ~LvXas u7re6e'Saro, 7c6ra r & XO 'v, and Epicharmos (Plut. Consol. ad Apoll. 15), y& iecv ets yap, revipeua I' avw. 109. 2. yacig.] Locative, cf. Nem. x. 35. 109. 5. Mdxcapa.] This use of

Page  225 FRAGMENTS. 225 * 110. [98.] = B4 133. Ota-t 8e 'IepaeEova 7rovav 7raXatou vrevOeos Seertae, S9 ro'v 7repOev aXtov fet'vwpv evd'r7 reT Adv&,8oo 'vtuX9 wrdc~v, ~c Tav- /3aoutXke9 d`yavoi Ka\c.cOevet Cxpamtvol u7octa 5 vSpe apSv~ovr' eT ES rOv XoPtrrLO XpovoCv '7p(ES' davos 7rpOdS adOpwe7rwv KCaXlevrat. 111. [99.] = B4 134......... EtSBat/L/vowv 8paeTrcTag ovt': EOTC t oX/oq. 112. [100.] = B4 13. Hlf6) ve T peS Kafca 6S' advpaS~ 7reTpaT reo aVT7os re- 113. [101.] B4 136. Aristid. 1. 130: 'ETrepXErat /xot TO' 7oV IItviaov wrpo0-Evac 'Acrrpa Tr Ka& TroTa/tOt Kat Kv/lxara 7roT( TOv T7' aCptal/V 7'V 0?v aVaKaX&E. * 114. [102.] = B4137. OX/,Oo OT69 63coV KcEZ e67 V076O\ X0U e ob78e JE(L iOU ousev & St0o-oTrovo apav. the singular==06v, is overlooked by L. and S. 110. Plato, ]Jieno, p. 81 B. 110. 1. oo-c.] Cf. 01. xII. 29, Pyth. iv. 21, 37. wrowdiv.] Cf. II. Ix. 633. irdvOeos.] Euphemistic for ap/aprtas. 110. 2. &vcarc.] The reference has been thought to be to the exile of a homicide. 110. 3, 4. mss. vUXav....rwv. 111. Stobaeos, Floril. ciI. 6 (Serm. CCXLIX. p. 821, Weckel). F. II. iX\os.] Vulg. o'"Xtoe. Cf. Nem. vIIi. 17. 112. Scholl. 01. i. 127, I. x. 252. 7re3aSc6.] Frag. 116. 8. 114. Clemens Alex. Strom. III. 518. On an Athenian who had been initiated at Eleusis. Bergk suggests Hippokratgs. Keiv eta'.] 1MSS. eKceva Kotva eZs. Bockh, eKebva KOt\V I eIl-v. liov.] Lobeck flP6rov, cf. Isth. III. 23. 15

Page  226 226 PINDARI CARMINA. 115. [103.] = B4 138. Antiatt. in Bekk. An. I. 99, 2: 'HToL OVK apXov, aXX' VroTaarofaevov Iltv3apos ~pivoLs. 116. = B4 139. vEVTL pev XpvcaXaKcarov TrefecK Aarovis' dot3a wptat 7rCLavtiSe' Evrt.... XXovro eKLt.. CoTrefavov c. 80o........ atoevat TO 8e COtIc rav rpet.............. aicoaT' d7ro00tpqvvsVr. 5 ~LEIV axeray ALvov alvXwov "Lvet, ad ' TlCevatov, Ov ev dyafLotc^ Xpoilotp eVov.........r)v 7rpoTov Xa/8ezv, eor'aTOt' 3'tvotWv * a 8' 'laX w/E o/3oX vov'cr [orT] 7reOaer7VTa ~O1evos, viov Oiaypov (re, Xpvuacop' 'Opcea)... XI. E3 AAHAIQN EIAPQN. 117. [104.] = B4140. Ts 8eu ~Eort; Tro ay. 115. Cf. Nem. vi. 5. 116. Schol. Eurip. Rhes. 892. The general sense is that paeans pertain to Apollo and Artemis, some other form of song to some other or others, but threnoi to three muses; Urania, mother of Linos; Terpsichore, mother of Hymenaeos; and Kalliope, mother of Ialemos by Apollo, and of Orpheus by Oeagros. 116. 3. ro &e.] 'And again.' 7rpe?.1 D ss. only give rp. Some equivalent of Molo-at vhlev follows. 116. 6. 'v v ytlotet.] Mss. epMlzoao'. 116. 7. MSS. vJt 7rpiTr Xcldfv. eX., K.T.\. Pindar alludes either to the death of Hymenaeos when singing a nuptial song (Serv. Verg. Aen. iv. 127) or in ipsis nuptiis in lecto geniali. 116. 8. b/juo36XV.] Hermann. MS. O...(. 7redaOvra.]S MS. 7raSa Bevrot. 116. 9. The words in brackets are Bergk's from Schol. It. xv. 256. 117, 118 (to pporoLs). Euseb. Praep. Ev. xIIm. 688 c (13). [Clem. Alex. Strom. v. 726, rIt e6s; o I- r Trav.]

Page  227 FRAGMENTS. 227 118. [105.] = B4 141. e60 To d 7ra'vta reV;Xwv /3poTros fTvet. 9. 119. [106.] = B4 142. cal XYapLt aob;a eZ Se 8 vvaTrv efc feXatva? vvUKfTO a/iuLavTo opoat oqdaos, KceXatveqib (YTe a/co Kare fcaXtvat KcaOapov adLepas o'eXat. 120. [107.] = B 143. KedVOt yap T7 a1voa'o cat dar)paot 7rO0vo ' aTr a poL, /3apv/36av wropO8tov vreeyoevydre 'AepoTrro. 121. [108.] = B4 144. 'EXaatl4povra 7ral TPea9. 122. [109.] = B4 145. ~Oe ' Te 7TrXov rt XaWXov. 123. [112.] = B4 146. TIvp 7rrTOVTro a T~ cepavvov a7yXtcra cea^v /cara etpa 7aTpok 124. [114.] = B 147. 'Ev Xpozvw " ' eyevr' 'ArorXXct ' 1 v 1rXtv 118. Also Didymos Alex. de Trin. III. 1, p. 320. OvreTve.] Didymos, 1. c. boreUeI. 119. Clem. Alex. Strom. v. 708, Euseb. Praep. Ev. xiir. 674 B. Theod6rSt. Gr. Affect. Curatio, v. 89, 27. 120. Plutarch, de Superst. c. 6, adv. Stoicos, c. 31. 121. Schol. Aristoph. Equit. 624. Cf. 01. iv. I and i. 13. 122. Aristid. i. 11 (8). 123. Schol. II. xxiv. 100 (d-rep for arie), Plutarch, Symp. Quaest. i. 2. 4. 124. Clem. Alex. Strom. i. 383. 15-2

Page  228 228 PINDARI CARMINA. 125. [115.] =B4 148. 'OpX1Tar' adyalas acr o epwv, evpvapperp' "A7roXXov. 126. [116.] = B4 149 KaTefcpt0 e v OraTo aotyavraar'os sfLqev. 127. [118.] = B 150. Mavreueo MoiEca, 7rpofaTevocwo ' rywc. 128. [119.] = B4 151. Mowt avre7ce pe. 129. [266.] = B4 152..... MeXtcoro'oTeV/CTv crqp eCa y7XvxkcpTE'pOS o/Jda. 130. [125.] = B4 153. Aev8pewv 8E voOvOv AlovvCo' 7roXvya0'? avOdvot, a7vov e7yfyo0 o7rwpa9. 131. [126.] = B4 154. 'EXa6parv fcvradptcr'cov X\eeiv, eav 8e vojLOzv Kpryras 7repu8alov. 4L0t 8' OXLov tev ryas' Se&orTa, SO0ev aSppvr 7revOewov ovQK \axo^ Ov oi& crTaov. 132. [127.] = B4 155. Ti 8'' pcowv bIXo9 crot re, cap'repo63povra KpovlSa, fiiXo9 8e MolcraL, 125. Athen. i. 22 B. 131. Plutarch. de Exil c. 9. 126. Plut. de El ap. Delph. c. 21. 131. 1. t\Xetv.] ' Be contented 127. Eustath. II. ix. 44. with.' 128. Eustath. II. ix. 40. 131.2. vreptaiovJ] 'Around Mt 129. Cram. An. Ox. i. 285, 19. Ida.' Crete was celebrated for Cy130. Plutarch. de Is. et Osir, prus-groves, cf. Plato, Legg. p. 62.5. c. 35. Perhaps from a skolion. voz'v.] ' Grove,' cf. Frag. 131. 132. Athdn. v. 191 F.

Page  229 FRAGMENTS. 229 EiOvpIULa 7Te LeXcv eE'YV, doovr aliuqL / -. 133. [57.] = B4 156. u0 actLevrf ' a % opoTrvTro, 'ov MaXea'yovos 'Opee Na'o? aKlcoiras ELXflvJO9. 134. [128.] = B4 157. '1 TraXa9 ea/Lepec, vT7rTLa 8a/3decL Xpj/xa Ta tOL aKo/uTretov. 135. [129.] = B4 158. Tasv lepa'o-t eXt'o —cVa rep7rraLt. 136. [132.] =B4 159. 'Avrpo3v Seicalowv poo9 oTTp apta-ros. 137. = B4 160. eavv~Ts-ov 8e Icab [Xo6yot] fiX\ot rpoo8rat. 138. [134.] =B4161......... OI e^V, KcarcoKapa cEooLoto't oSOevraT..... 139. = B4 162. nITvavres 0oao hcLfacafc es ovpavov al7r61v. 140. [137.] = B4 163. 'AXXaXo0o0vovs e7radavro Xoyxas evZ c4'lactv avTo70. 133. Pausan. II. 25, 2. 134. Schol. Aristoph. Nub. 223. Seildnos is addressing the Phrygian youth Olympos. 135. Schol. Pyth. iv. 104. 136. Dionys. Hal. de Orator. Ant. c. 2. 137. Stobaeos, Floril. cxxvi. 2. 138. Schol. Aristoph. Pac. 153. 139. Cramer, An. Ox. I. 201,14. 140. Apollon. Dysk. de Synt. in. 179 (Bekker).

Page  230 230 PINDARI CARMINA. 141. [142.] = B4 164. 4hX6oiaxov 7y47O0 C ITIpE9oC. 'Paollua~oy?ero? dc Hepa-'eo'. 142. [146.] = B 165. '1I0oervpov rTeeK/ap aiwvoo XaXoecrat. 143. [147.] =B4 166. 'AvapoSdz4avra 8' d'rel 4~ipc?9 tev pthav /e'XtaSos ot1vov, earc'vuereo a7ro tev Xevicov yaXa Xepol Tpae7reCv (0eov, avToarosaro eO 4 apyvwpeowv eparcW TrlVOrTE9 cErXd^orTro. 144. [148.] = B4 167..0. e e \Xwpati eXaacra Tc U7Vtre olet0' VTOw XtOr'va KarevP' aoXilasa dpO TroI 7yav. 145. [150.] = B4 168. ALa /3ocv OepLa 8' el advpaxtav a-erc'av vrvpl 8' I! vrrvoov T7e aowiCTa' t cal TOTr' cY apc'v r' evowrdv r' o0'e ow a-revay/ov 8apvv )v 80ovmra tafcptvat 7roXXok ev tealpO Xpovol. 146. [151.] = B4 169. No/-os o rrdvTvo t 3acr-evlX Ovarev T6 KEcal acavdraTov 141. Ath6n. iv. 154 rF. 142. Plutarch. Arnator. c. 15, and de Defect. Oracl. c. 11. The subject is Dryads. 143. Athen. xx. 476 B, 143.1. pnrdv.] Cf. Pyth. i. 10, my note. 144. Schol. Apoll. Rhod. r. 57. 144. 2. Text Bockh. Mss. oi^eraL X. or dxe7r' els x&va. Kaeneus, one of the Lapithae whose son Koronos entertained Herakles when that hero devoured a whole ox, bones and all. To this feat of gluttony the next fragment refers. 145. Ath6naeos, x. 411 B. See above, and Frag. B4 111. Cf. Philostr. Imagg. I. 24. MrVerrall proposes to alter 7roXX'O s v Katpqp Xpevos into 7roXXo iv Kpalp %pXpvos "the foul mass in the skull." Journal of Philology, Vol. xx. p. 122. 146. Plato, Gorgias, p. 484 B,

Page  231 FRAGMENTS. 231 a7ye Kcawv TO Pa3LtorTarov 'vreprdar'a Xetpl TrelcKalpo/axt 5 epyotl'v Hpa/K\co ' FTrpvova 03oav KvK/cXowrcov 7rl 7rpoOtpwv E;pvcruoeo< avatTravL T ica TpaTac, ^ V ' kaoev. avaLMTTaS TE IC& 7arptaTaS?XcEv. 147. [154.] =B4 170. HTIdva O6vev ecarovr. 148. [157.]= B4 171.. KaTa FKEv Ci\a T7Ev' e'7er eh OaXXovrrat y/3a SvCO8eK', avrov &e rpirov. 149. [158.] = B 172. O IHI^Xeo davn'Oov /j,ox'Ool vedTrar' 7rEXa/trav /pLVpiot; 'TrpTov epv 'AXx/^Kjvar or-v v[l Tpciov aJL Trelov, ca,/LerTa g(cTrtjpa '5t'A/advot \XioeV, Kal TCv 'ILtacrovo ev3o:ov 7rXoov ErcTeXEvvra(t'caLt ev M e8tav Cv KSXrov U(I1ocS. 150. [160.] = B4 173. vptov evpval'/JXavv SLet7rov cr'parov. 151. 152. 153. [159. 161. 162.]-B4 174-176. Pausan. vII. 2, 7; I. 2, 1; Plut. vit. Thes. c. 28. Aristides, In. 68, Schol. Nem. ix. 35. Cf. Herod. ii. 38. Some edd. prefix KarT& 0f6rv from Gorgias p. 488 B, Legg. iv. 714 D, ib. II. p. 690 B. 146. 3. Cf. Pyth. ii. 17. 146. d8. avaTras.] Bickh for aciatpetrat. 147. Strabo, iii. 155. 148. Schol. It. x. 252. On the slaughter by Hearakles of Nbleus and his sons. Cf. Frag. B4 135. 149. Schol. Eurip. Andr. 796. Text Bdckh. 150. Strabo, xi. 544. 151-153. Pindar is reported to say that the Amazons founded the temple of Artemis of Ephesos on their expedition against Athens; that Peirithoos and Theseus carried off Antiop6 and that she had a son Demoph6n by Theseus.

Page  232 232 PINDARI CARMINA. 154. 155. 156. 157. 158. [164-168.]=B4 177-179. HIIerpwc evav OGyce potpav plerarpavrelv dvapo0bO6pov, ov8s arya IcaTeppvyq. Tpoxov peXo' rat &S Xetipwvo evro'Xal A'tvyyaa wrap0evov 8' e' daypiav 7yvarOv. 'Ev 8aacritoLavv vrarrp' YrqXeeL vco 8'. 3' ovSev 7rpocravLeTE 0eyfe'ydt~av e7rt. 159. [169.] =B4 178. NoLawv dCcovovre 0oe68oLarov KcE\a8ovr 160. [170.] =B4 179. 'rTpalvo 6' 'A.fvOaovlSav9 rrotxcIXov advrt77a. 161. [172.] = B4 180. M? 7rpos arravrar dvapp)at roav dCpelov \6yov' ECa wre 7r-aror701ara Lrvyas 6o8oo fcevrpOv oe,auXa o Kpariarevwv Xovyos. " 162. [174.] B4 181..... O yap e OOU 7oov t /LOtO/V E ratVOS KiGpvaTat. 163. [175.] B4 182. '1 T7rOrTot, 0' adraarat fpovrl7 eirapcpiov ovic e6btia. 154-158. Priscian. de MIetr. Co- Nem. vIIi. 15, Isth. IIn. 61. mic. p. 248 (Lindemann), quoting 161. Clem. Alex. Strom. i. 345. Hbliodbros. Specimens of Pindar's Cf. Nem. v. 17, 18. treatment of Iambic metre 6. 161. peiov] Mss. dpxaov. 159. Ib. p. 251. Cf. perhaps 162. Schol. Nem. vII. 89. Pyth. IIi. 90, Nem. v. 23. 163. Aristid. in. 547. 160. Schol. Nem. VIL 116. Cf.

Page  233 FRAGMENTS. 233 164. [177.] = B4 183. "OS AoXo7rcov a7yary OpaoYvv O/'4Xov aofevSov5ao'at, i7rroSl8ajov Aavaowv I3CeXEOG 7rp6oqbopov. 165. [179.] =B4 184. tTreptyevezF dtcaiavroXaplarv AZav. 166. [184.] = B4 185. E-t & TEtXEavwO adp1caKlIKVC Ka7FVOS. 167. [185.] =B4 186. AVrTv I/e 7rpCriTtora oCvvocLJT-rrqpa yaiaa Coc3e~at Te/Jl~eovxOV. 168. [186.] = B4 187. "Hpooes al6olav Wi'[yvvvT' d/a',0 Tparre'av OaiLa. 169. [190.] = B4 188. (oey/La Ltuv 7Trdyfcotvov yvwoica HOXVLIvdcaTrrov KoXo(owviov dvrpos. 170. [197.] = B4 189. Tavel/'CarTb PEv zt Urp WrOTtoLov "EXXag vropov Ipov. 171. [198.] = B4 190. 'A lMtUXov a' av;T) yeva...... 172. [199.] = B4 4. KeI' tol[ rLV' avpa T)VJ Oav6ovrv. 164. Strabo, ix.'131. 168. Plut. Quaest. Symp. in. 10, 165. Choeroboskos, i. 106 (Bek- 1. ker, Anecd. In. 1183). 169. Strabo, xiv. 642. 166. Etym. Gud. 321, 54 ornt 86 170. Schol. Aristoph. Vesp. 306. rot XrKWVY WK~eL K. Cramer, An. Par. Var. lect. Travseigavrot. Hermann Iv. 35, 24, crtL e TaXE'v KaKiLe K. (y7Epvpav) rTv Seiitaro. For lpOv cf. Text Bdckh. Aesch. Pers. 741 [P.]. 167. Apoll. de Synt. I. p. 138 171. Schol. Plyth. vIII. 53. (Bekker). 172. Schol. Isth. iv. Inscr.

Page  234 234 PINDARI CARMINA. 173. [201.] = B4 191. Ato\eXv '/3ave~ Acoplav,ceXevOov ifJvcov. 174. [204.] = B4 192. AeXol 06t la-rcot [/ivwvco] auvr7tes 'A7roXXcowvtSa. 175. [205.] = B4 193....... IIevraeTIrpl copra flov7roL7r69, ev a 7rpwcrov ervcva yv crrap/yavoet. dyaraTroi vro 176. [206.] = B4 194. KeKcporrTat %pvocra tcp7rlr [epaow'v dot8asl' ola TreLfoL e,CV 76) 7rotiLCXor coo'lovO avaeVra Xoywoy' o9 ica, 7roXV/c\XeLtiv Trep coolav ejOt @'jpav crL /cciXXov e7rao-7fcraEt Oeoy 5 ical car' advOpcTrwv aryLva. 177. [207.]=B4 195. Evaplaare, Xpvaoxrowv,... iepw7arv... a'yaX,aa,.f.3a... 178. [209.] =B4 196...Atrraprv re Oraf/dv vyeTav aoK6o7reXov. 179. [210.] = B4 197. 'fln aXalr7Tpo ()/3a6t... 173. Schol. Pyth. ii. 127. 174. Schol. Pyth. iv. 4. Heyne Oe/ItcloTwV, MSS. ~OefJt'rTv. 175. Cf. 0. and P. p. xii. 11. 15, 16. 176. Aristid. i. 509. 176. 1. Kpfirt.] Cf. Pyth. vI. 3. 176. 2. Cf. 01. i. 16. 177. Schol. Pyth. iv. 25, Pyth. ii. Inscr. Cf. Isth. i. 1. 178. Schol. Pyth. II. Inscr. 179. Cf. 0. and P. p. viii. 1. 4.

Page  235 FRAGMENTS. 235 * 180. = 198. OiTot 1Le fevov ov8' aSa7/Jova Motaoi ewral8evc-av ICXvTal 181. [211.] = B4 198. MeXtya0e auiqpo'tov V3owp Tt4X7bcrra<? a7ro caXXutcpavov. 182. [213.]= B4 199. 'EvOa /3ovXac yepovrTov Kca veop dvaSpv8 al1xoal, Kca} Xopo} Ka Mocra Ica' 'AyXa"i. Ical XOPOL Kat 10' L ta. aptlrTeVOLctv 183. [214.] = B4 200. OtT UppyeieX\O v dra p Zevplov rcoXcowav... 184. [215.] = B4 201. AlyvrrTlav Mne377Ta, 7rCap Kp?7f]vov OaXc;cOaS, eacXarov NeLXov Icepas, aIy/3daTat i p ryvvap,olSoovTatb... OM rpa'7ot 7vpat~t 'laryov -rat.. 185. [216.] = B4 202....... Aclvcirrwvo Mvcvvaltwv 7rpofa'rat. 186. [217.] = B4 203. "AYvpe9 rtvE' dacKCtLo/Levot EfcvOat veKcpov t7rroTv aTrv7eoyotv X6y7w K7ral-evov v cde' Kcpvcba 'e aCoXto\Fo) ryvva'tv 7dv&potcO v rro6a& se ce)caXa'd. 180. Chrysippos, rrepi atrooarLKWV, c. 2. 181. Strabo, ix. 411, Athdn. II. p. 41 E. 182. Plut. Vit. Lycurg. c. 21, about Sparta. 183. Schol. 01. xi. 17. 184. Strabo, xvii. 802. 185. Schol. Pyth. iv. 206. 186. Zenobios, v. 59, on the proverb'0 ' KVOrs rTOYP 'TroV.

Page  236 236 PINDARI CARMINA. 187. [218.] = B4 204. Ka Xevrappw 4Suvpvail aTreC. 188. [221.] = B4 205. 'ApXa,LEyX7aX dperaT, 6wvaac-' 'AXa6Oeta, nr) r7ralars e/xav a(vOea-tv rpaXel Trorl rev'86e...189.= B4 11. Ov5 *evaov 3pi~). 190. [222.] = B4 206. HIapa AvLt8ov apLta 're4o oty'vev. 191. [223.] = B4 207. Taprapov rrvOpr>v rL4ELe c' acdavoi v^ acvpXkdwrot.. avay7g e. 192. [224.] = B4 208. Maviatc T' caXaXa? r' optvo^/evot PIakavtxeve awv IcXovY. 193. [227.] = B4 209. 'ATeXy oofla9 cap7rov Spe7retv. 194. [229.] = B4 20. Plut. de Cohib. Ira, c. 8, XaXEerr'traTrot 8 ' dyav pbXort.t/Lav ixvy/evoL E v 7rXE roLv (Hartung 7roXteo-o-rv) a'vSps orra'acrt, aXyos f/xtaves, Kara IIlvSapov. Schneidewin, a.vSpes C'Traorav ac. etx. 187. Schol. Pyth. ii. Inscr. 192. Plut. Quaest. Syrmp. vii. 188. Stobaeos, Florileg. xi. 3. 5, de Defect. Orac. c. 14. 189. Eustath. Prooem. 21. 193. Stobaeos, Flor. Lxxx. 4. 190. Plut. Vit. Niciae, c. 1. Of ol fvwtoXoyovorTEs. 191. Plut. Consol. ad Apollt.. 6.

Page  237 FRAGMENTS. 237 195. [230.]=211. Kalcouipovd ' tl Cadvy 7rpacrtlov xcapro'v. 196. [231.] = B4 212. Plut. de Cap. ex Host. Util. c. 10, Kac 7rrara 'arts dvrOporov bepEt AXOVECLKLaV Kal -q^Xo-rv7r'av KUalt 406vov KcEVEOcp Ov(w v. &ratpov (Xylander, &ratpav B, vulg. erapwv) dvspw4;v ws rk'fLf Hil8vapos. 197. [232.] B4 213. llO&rpov Otl/a TreOS lo VrLOV o-KaoXLa r aa'raia drva3aiavec Tr'tXO6vtov ydvos dviSpdov, 8lXa ot v6o0 darpe~cetav civrew. 198. [233.] = B4 214. rXvl/ced o KcapSlav adrd\oLXoa ryqpOTp60ooS avvacopel eXwTrq,, a tdak'XtTa OTarTOjv 7rroXvapofov ryvwjLav fCUv/eppa. 199. = B4 10. 'EX7r'law aavcsvraTL dp/4 fepovral. 200. [152.] = B4 215. "AXXo 8' dXowv v'owLa, ab'6repav ' avetw lcav elcac-rov. 201. [235.] B4 216. $Zoqot 8\e cat TO [UlsEV ayav e"'roc alyc7l av 7rept'awc. 195. Plu. de Sera Num. Vind. fIivapos ee e ras \7r8Xias evLat rwiy c. 19. eIypvyop6rwv ye6irvea (Frag. 274). 197. Plato, de Republ... p. 199. Eustath.Prooem. 21. 365 B, Maxim. Tyr. xvii. Cf. Cic. 200. Cramer, An. Par. II. 154, ad Attic. xIII. 38. 13. 198. Plato, de Republ. I. 331 A. 201. Plut. Consol. ad Apoll. c. Compare Stob. Flor, cxi. p. 12, 28, Schol. Eur. tipp. 263.

Page  238 238 PINDARI CARMINA. 202. [237.] = B 217. rXvtvO Tt cXc'7rro/Levov jeXl/za Kvtrpt8ovo. 203. [239.] = B4 218. 'Avic' dvOp(7rwv cKalarTJaee olxovrat,e'lptlvat a'Ty0O)Ev 6e7, 7fEXa/El 68' dv roXvxpvUoOto rXovTrov ravreVE i'a 'ra oev,re Vv6S rrpog d acrda'v t0 LeV dap?rlwov, ad veo rTre, ro04 6 a' 7rXOVTr0'TEo...... deovrat fpe'va, dLt7reXlvot roto, S afJEvrTE. 204. [240.] =B4 219. Ot 6' 6avet wve7roiOatcv. 205. [241.] = B4 220.....TOWV6 yap OUTre Tb /L6errTTOV oUr Cv IteraaXXac/To...oc'a ady\aa dXwv 7roVTOV TE pi7rat 4Epolutv. 206. [242.] = B4 221. 'AeXXow68ooYv Cev rT' e6vpalvotarv 't77rov rq4a /cal arTeCavor roV) 6' dv 7roXvxppv ovS OaXadaLOL; /LOTra repVrerat 8e cat rts e7r' ol8 a\1 Xov vat 0oa cod9 SacrEiT/Evc............ 207. [243.] = B4 222....Ato3 7raZ9 6 xp6UfO'v 202. Clem. Alex. Paedag. II. 295. 206. Sextus Empir. Hfypoth. 203. Athhnaeos, xi. 782 D. Pyrrh. I. 20 (Bekker). Cf. Hor. Od. 204. Etym. Mag. 178. 10. I. 1. 205. Plut. Qu. Symp. vII. 5, 3. 207. Schol, Pyth. iv. 408, Pro

Page  239 FRAGMENTS. 239 KceLvov ov crIC oV6w KI? aTtre, &iwavara &e fipoTeav fpeva caprtLov KrTO VcOTea v. Isth. In. 2. 208. [244.] = B4 223. Kal fepovrat 7Trw? vTro 8ovXctov rvXav alxaXwCroo t, /cal Xpv-cowv /3eE&ov evTl rpav/~ar'al..... 209. [246.] = B4 224. "'aov o utv Ocev advSpa T7 cflov (Oeqj) v7rorpecaaat...... 210. [247.]= B4 225....'trorTav Ose' dvapli Xapua 7reJry, 7rapoS iEXatvav KcpaSLav ecr7TV'eXtev... 211. [248.] = B4 226. Ort ec60WV /KcaKcoV evpero. 212. [250.] = B4 227....Newv e ' JepL LvaY a rrvot etoi'O'6fOtevaL 86O:av EVpULYOVT' XadLw7reL 8e Xpovw epya eTr' al ep epevT'ra... 213. [252.] = B 228.... TiOe/hepLe v a6vwv vrpoxao't aperactv e alTrvv 3lcaXe (rKorov. klos, on Hes. Opp. et D. 428. Con- 212. Clem. Alex. Strom. iv. 586. trast Isth. iv. 2, 3. 213. Plut. An seni sit ger. resp. 207. 2. Cf. "neither moth nor c. 1. rust doth corrupt." 213. 2, 7rpB6acts.] Cf. Pyth. v. 208. Theod6ros Metoch. 562. 25 ff. 209. Schol. II. xvii. 98. airrwu.] Cf. 01. xi. 42, also Soph. 210. Schol. 01. ii. 40. Oed. Col. 877, 7r6ro/xov elsvayKeav, 211. Aristidc. I. 547. Eur. Ale. 118, topos drTro/rooS.

Page  240 240 PINDARI CARMINA. 214. [253.] = B4 229. NuFccjevot yap av8pen Jypva eq S&evrat or3 ctjxwv 'vavrlov e'XOev. 215. [254.] = B4 230. 'ET7r XeTrT) 8evSpEp $Faivewv. 216. [255.] = B4 231. To6Xpto T~ fc,v 4ajfLevcy icas aovea'r 7lrpOTIC0roO 217. [256.]=B4 232. EXC'e ' TO 7rE7rpCoX1VOV O) TVrp, ol c6ctpcov TE~%09. 218. [257.] =B4 233. ltcrrov 3' aTTrictTro oivev. 219. [258.] = B4 234. 'T' gp aplacrtv 3 7rpro, ev 8' ap6rpw s3oDv' 7rapa vavv 8' Ka7rpw e 3ovXEovra f0v ov cvva EIevpeWr.... 10vei rTcTLtOra %Xp) rdXOv/aov 220. [259.] = B4 235. 'AXtov 8' EpeOLioJLat e 8X\vo3 1 vTrocpatctv 7tv pJv dacvfJLovos Ev TroVrov 7rTXayet aOXv EKcivmlT' epaTrov chExo. 214. Schol. 01. xiii. 92. Cf. Pyth. vIII. 85-87. 215. Liban. Epist. CXLIV. 216. Schol. Nem. vii. 87. 217. Plut. Vit. Marcell. c. 29. 218. Clem. Alex. Paedag. p. 307. 219. Plut. de Virt. Mor. c. 12, de Tranqu. Animn. c. 14. 220. Plut. Quaest. Symp. vII. 5, 2, de Sollert. Anim. c. 36. 220. 1. vtr0Kpao-'.] Adv. 'like.' V. 1. aroKp.

Page  241 FRAGMENTS. 24,1 221. [260.] = B4 236. tXdavopa 8' ovfc g\x7rov /3olav. 222. [261.] = B4 237. "O 7rftaO &e ecetpuat tfpaerdv &8 K cZ~ac Opacrtcv aXw7rec~aov avOos X\oov. 223. [262.] = B4 238. "EvOa cac 7rot/cvae t cTr\XVOV7rat carpwv XEovrTv Te...... 224. [265.] = B4 239. 'Iaet /apvBO0cy/cTav dayeXat Xevo'rov. 225. [269.] = B4 240. MMrji ajyJ pecexa0o. 226. [280.] = B4 241. IlorlcoXXov a're vXov 7rapa vXco. 227. = B4 242. 'A /dev r6oXc AlaKlcS3v. 228. = B4 243....... P.v a ' cLLyevCa Zyvo5 violl cal /cXvro7rwXov llocetaavo9. 229. = B4 245. IIpofqaoaces lX pov ylverata velico'. 221. Schol. Od. x. 240. 222. Arist. in. 509 (378). 223. Schol. Pyth. II. 31. 224. Herodian. 7repl oX-,t. 60, 13. Schema Pindaricum. 225. Schol. 01. xi. 58. Cf. Isth. F. II. iv [v]. 51. 226. Athenaeos, VI. 248 c. 227. Schol. Aristoph. Pax, 251. 228. Hcrodian. 7repti oX7L. 59, 29. 223. Cramer, An. Ox. i. 95, 5. 16

Page  242 242 PINDARI CARMINA. * 230. [286.] = B4 246. MeXtppo6cov ' evreTa 7rXo6Ka/Lot. 231. [123.] = BV 247. Etym. M. 277, 39, Atdvvo-os'...oZ 38 ~rO Tro Aos Kal T7s NTvOP rov opovs WvopAda-Oal, atC ret e' TOvT) ycvvrOq, Js TIv'8apos, Kat dvErpaU.r 232. [124.] = B4 248. Plut. de Adul. et Azic. c. 27, Ev8ta yap ETrayet vacfos o KLVJV Ev wrai~sa Kat t\Xofpoivr )v X'yov cOkpvv dvacrrwra Kat arvviLrTavTa To 7rpoaw7rov, arT7rep aVTVTaTTO/evoV TV r( Avcrlaw tEX XiovrT To' Tr ov vo'andpw v (TXOLYvtov ILEPtlXVWV Karaot lvSapov. 258. [288.] = B4 274. Quintil. x. 1, 109, Non enim pluvias, ut ait Pindarus, aquas colligit, sed vivo gurgite exundat (Cicero). 264. [249.] = B4 279. Liban. Or. I. 432 ed. Reiske, 7rpos yap Tw ra 8Evrepa T(V rrpoTEPpwv 7refVKEvat KpareLv, o Ef7 IIi[Vlaposv, r TOd TETrrlqKOT ra roV TireptvppKOpros eTvai leXrtoW MEEYa`Xrv LT'Xvv E s XTO Tqr0'v Mcrz6t&vaL rotg c/qavXorTepotF 'Xct 265 A. = B4 280. Philo, de Caritate, ii. 404 (MAang.), 7retTa 8' ort 4povrqaarov v7ronrXewos aXoyov yevofjLevo 7ra aXaCv oV're avspa OVrr E 'I't - Ocov,aiXXov *ov'* 8 altiova Kaa. Trv HtIvSapov v7roXaMPavEtL aUTOVy V 7rEp TOVs Opovs TriS advpw7rtpVw 7 (v'(r~w5 Jdt(Vv /SatyEtv. 265 B. = B4 281. Philo, de Providentia, i. p. 120 (Auger.), Pro honore itaque, ut dixit olim Pindarus, silentium laetabundus suscipiam. 230. Lesbonax, de Fig. 184 265 A. Cf. 01. v. 24, Isth. iv. 14. (Valcknaer).

Page  243 FRAGMENTS. 266 see B4 p. 477. Io. Siceliota, Rhet. Gr. vI. p. 395, rVre vreC atE yVKVTrrTOV EVvoUJv, vv abs KcTar llivSapov ol Xacpec rts, TroVTO(s KaL TtiULw/JeEVOS 78eTat. 273. [121.] = B 288. Liban. Epist. xxxIV., o 'v llv Iapos rou qro't C 'Xwv re Xpvraov etvat 4v'XaL, Ta 8e etvaL Movoriv, Kal roVTWo aXXXOTr a'XXotl veeELV. 274. [234.] = B4 289. Stob. Fior. cxI. 12, lltvSapos EUre ra X7rt8as JV tLa eyp7 -yoporTv evv7rvta. EPIGRAMMA. Xatpe & Slss r3'<7a Kcal Tdosa.ou avt/ord o a.?, 'Hcdop', avopwotst ILETlrpov ICXv COXl;o. Proklos, lies. p. 7 (Gaisford). 16-2

Page  244 244 PINDARI CARMINA. LIST OF WORDS AND PHRASES ATTRIBUTED TO PINDAR IN FRAGMENTS NOT GIVEN. aKacKa —7sT%WS. 'AXOpas ' oY-Tlruop. 'AXevdaes —e0araXot. ateuv~ao'8at —&seXOel, 7repaiw'ccaoOat. auevaceir~s-epithet of fpovris. dpdXvq7s, 6-" spider." dpyvpat —epithet of Muses. Cplao'tlovuro. ra6etpisat (-i7ra) iruXa —Pillars of H6rakles. KcaT rovrdpyvuos. \aio-txco, epithet of Home&6(. daa-LfOcn'-epithet of IIocretiwp. r7VTet-ap/fzaTa. ereaicwaKs. eptfcqapayos. eup6vvyos-epithet of Zeds. eXrs —6o wrovouros. KXeo -KXezous. KpaTrfat8itav. tXcr7-evKTraav (epithet of 'Ao). tiapv —Xep. t~LepfLv,5/a rct. fv7to-'rbTpatvos-epithet of arywv. evo6oKcrfev-eulapTrvpp-c.e. 6X\po0p4cuoves-epithet of Kipes. 6peKT70TOV CVOS —opeCoKwV oU6Sg. 7rac6oqcdyov lx ObV-KJTOS. 7reVrJKoyvae(')perTJ-ot-epithet of the ships of the Achaeans. vrpodara-?'rros. pepldqat grcos. 27rorct3es-O looaXoy. TOUTraK. rpLyX\cXtv-epithet of Sicily. bttcKepas-epithet of wrrpa. Xttorac (-reds) - epithet of the Hyperboreans.

Page  245 GREEK INDEX. d3oarl, meaning, N. viii. 9 adppd racraX, F. 1 A. 1 dydOeos, etymol. N. vi. 35 d'yeiwv, fer. I. vii. 20 dcyXala, dcyXao's, of victories in games, 0. ix. 99, xiii. 14, xiv. 6; P. vi. 46, x. 28; N. i. 13, iii. 69, ix. 31, xi. 20; I. ii. 18 aXala, ' fame ' or 'song,' N. i. 13 ayXa6KapTros, N. iii. 56 d3wv, peculiar use of aor. part. 0. vii. 17; N. viii. 38 (? gn6mic) aiAtos=i qXos, 0. i. 5 dehXowr68w '7rwnrcw, N. i. 6 deroT, fastigium, 0. xiii. 21 at for e in Mss. P. iv. 233, eoXe, v. e aiavla, P. i. 83; I. i. 49, iii. 2 ai6ioos, meaning, I. ii. 37 al'ws, 0. vii. 44; N. ix. 33 (aldi for ald, 0. xiii. 115) acWip, fer. 0. i. 6 alOCvcr-, intrans. 0. vii. 95; P. i. 87, iv. 83; 0. xi. 73 atOw, 0. i. 1 airirS, 'sheer' (metaph.), 0. xi. 42; F. 213. 2. (Cf. dr6roruoo, Soph. Oed. R. 877; Eur. Ale. 118) aIra, ' assignment,' ' direction,' ' standard,' 'career,' O. ix. 42; N. iii. 16, vi. 13, 49; I. i. 34; F. 1, 108 alxcd for dKaI in Mss. N. v. 54, x. 60; I. iii. 69 alxu'i, etymol. I. i. 24 aidwv, 'fate,' N. ii. 8; I. iii. 18, vii. 14 - fer. P. iv. 186; N. ix. 44 Cdci&, N. iii. 39; I. iii. 69 dKovw, 'feel,' N. ii. 14 —wraKov1uev, 'be at the mercy of' (Prof. Colvin), 0. iii. 24 aKp60iva, 0. ii. 4 agupow, ' first prize' (?), P. xi. 55; N. i. 11, vi. 24 aKpos, of time, P. xi. 10 cipwrqptove, 0. xiii. 21 aXaOelas 6oos, I. ii. 10 dXXB, resumptive, 0. iv. 6, vi. 22, viii. 9; N. ix. 8, xi. 9 dXd —yadp, O. vi. 53; 1. iii. 34, vi. 16 &Xaos, etymol. I. ii. 28 dUaijaKeros, etymol. P. i. 14 daatro, adj. N. vi. 56 d/savpos, etymol.. iii. 66 wijr'evoucs, N. i. 1 dqi, with ace. 0. xi. 77; P. ii. 15, viii. 69; N. i. 54; I. vi. 9 - with dat. 0. ix. 13; P. ii. 62, v. 111; N. i. 29, ii. 17 (cf. Eur. El. 945, a 8' es yvvaZKas), vi. 14, vii. 80; I. iv. 55 df,<tSf3iX\w, 0. i. 8 a/qo'repa, 'good and bad,' P. i. 88 -cf. Thuk. ii. 11, 10 (Postgate) &v, omitted significantly, 0. ii. 16 (?), iii. 45, ix. 80, x. 21; P. iv. 118, x. 21; I. vii. 35 - om. with io and subj. I. i. 50 - repeated, N. ix. 35 - with future, N. vii. 68; I. v. 59 with fut. inf. 0. i. 109 dva, in composition with noun, 0. vii. 61 dvas3Ac\ouJal, ' begin,' P. i. 4; N. vii. 77, x. 33 - 'put off,' 0. i. 80; N. ix. 28 dcivw, N. vii. 89 dv7jp, ' land-warrior,' 0. vi. 10 avr4%oXoAa, meaning of, N. i. 33 dvrTrvX^,, N. vii. 42 dvTrliooyyos, F. 102. 3 daapxw, N. iv. 46

Page  246 246 GREEK INDEX. aras, 'in every case,' 0. ix. 100; N. v. 16 arelparos for -ac-ros, O. vi. 54 aTr3 7yXc&0a, O. vi. 13; P. iii. 2 7roFrvvsw, deiero, N. vii. 70 aroTrvdw, 'make to breathe forth,' N. i. 47 atpape, N. iii. 64, v. 44 aperav, ' distinction' (?), 0. vii. 89; N. iii. 42, x. 2 adpjyw, etymol. P. ii. 63 &ptiVXos, etymol. 0. ii. 55 adptOdos, 'counting,' N. ii. 23 - 'right number' (of years), F. 104. 2 gppcKTrov, ' stalwart,' I. v. 47 dpXal p/3p\XVTr, with gen. KacT rvvecrtv (?), N. i. 8 -as -avros, fern. I. v. 73 d&rpov, ' sun,' O. i. 6 dreX )s, 'ineffectual,' N. iii. 42 audara, etymol. P. ii. 28 auyat doLat, meaning, N. x. 61 adXeat Of paL, N. i. 19 -avp- in arravpdw, &c. P. iii. 36 avros, 'exact,' of space and time, N.v. 1 auXtco, etymol. 0. iii. 1 'Atpotira, etymol. P. ix. 9 dWTos, metaphor to the superlative, 0. ii. 7, iii. 4, v. 1, ix. 19; P. iv. 131; N. ii. 9, iii. 29, viii. 9;. i. 51, v, 4, vi. 18 p and /J confused in Mss. 0. i. 58, ix. 8; P. iv. 84 (Eur. Bacch. 25, 678) l3aO'cwvov, 0. iii. 35 PaOds, 0. vii. 53; P. i. 66 - O. xii. 12, xiii. 62 aLaotXa=f=ariXeta, N. i. 39 3Xeos, ' pang,' N. i. 48 ptalws, 'unnaturally,' F. 100. 6 pios, bloros, aidv, 'life after death,' O. i. 59 filos, iloros, confused in Mss. I. iii. 23, vii. 15 PXa7TreL, etymol. P. ix. 94 Boworlav uv, O. vi. 90; F. 60 y dropped after t, 0. iii. 4 yap dv, I. ii. 12 ydp, after voc. 0. iv. I ye, N. iv. 4 ye gAdv, 0. xiii. 104; P. i. 17, 50; N. viii. 50; I. iii. 18. ye uAv, 0. xii. 5; P. iv. 50; N. iii. 83, x. 33 ye Trpi, N. iv. 28 —rpiv ye, 0. xiii. 65 y7pas, with v... epos, O. vii. 68 y1yvofat, in aor. 'prove oneself to be,' 0. xiii. 26; P. ii. 72; N. iii. 71; I. vii. 25 yX-, vowel short before, 0. xiii. 100 yXdcies, F. 75 yXeqCapov, etymol. P. i. 8 y\vKepTrepos, fem. F. 129 ypd>o, 'enter name,' N. vi. 7 -yviov, 'body,' N. vii. 73, ix. 24; F. 99. 15 Aarvy, etymol. N. x. 4 e ' accordingly,' I. iii. 90, vi. 23 -after vocative, 0. vi. 103 - =XX&, N. xi. 48 - 'also,' I. i. 58 - 'for,' N. i. 11, ii. 10, x. 35; I. i. 49, iii. 13, 29; F. 99. 9 6ddopKe, 0. i. 94 (v. perfect) iKoaeAt, with dat., 0. xiii. 29; P. iv. 23, xii. 5; I. v. 4 ehXips, P. ii. 51; N. vi. 66; F. 1. 6, 219 6Sepo, 0. viii. 51 5i = 877, N. viii. 51 Ata, in composition, N. v. 3 t&arpvatos, etymol. N. iv. 51 baKxral apecal, P's depreciation of, O. ii. 86, ix. 100, xi. 20; N. iii. 41 S1Sot, Doric imper. 0. vi. 104, vii. 89 &ulpafupos, etymol. F. 57 A. SiKa, ' quarrel,' N. ix. 15 S6IK, etymol. P. i. 50 AbtK?, dist. from OiEls, 0. viii. 21 Atbs 680s, 'milky way,' 0. ii. 70; F. 7.3 Aci's K6ptOos, N. vii. 105 SLeov, d3etovs, understood with prep. and gen., I. ii. 34 apaKecs, P. ii. 20; N. vii. 3 /Caper-, P. i. 49 aSpir., act. for mid. 0. i. 13 e for at in Mss.'N. x. 72, v. at yrKovT'rI, N. iii. 36

Page  247 GR~EEK INDEX. 247 I-yi~, in transition, N. i. 33; L. i. 14, v. 16 fIO4Xw Oe~w, N. x. 84 - 'am wont,' N. xi. 40 - AlXc, (?), N. vii. 90 el', concessive, 0. viii. 54 - wvith subjunctive, P. iv. 266, 274; N. vii. 11, 16, ix. 46; L. iii. 59, iv. 13 et?7, with ace. 0. i. 115; P. ii. 96; N. vii. 25 (jz'); 1.1.64, v. 7 - without pron. P. i. 29,11i. 83; L. v. 7; F. 104. 1 - with dat. N. iv. 9 etcat, ellipse of, with eU'(ou.at, 0. vii. 23 EWEICKE, that, L. vii. 33 CK, introd. author of an action, P. iv. 72; 'by one of,' P. vi. 33 f&a-r, etymol. 0. xiv. 18 K '/I s, N. i. 56 COX, N. iii. 74 fXaopo's, fein. N. v. 20; V. yhuVKsp6'TCPO5 'EXci!Outa, etymnol. N. vii. 1 CXEMi~c,O, etymaol. P. 1. 4 gxev, diff. Senses, 0. i. 88 (Cf. KpaE'kris, 'expectation' merely, N. i. 32, xi. 22 gXro~sua, ' believe,' N. vii. 20; F. 39. 1 9A,3oXos', ' headland,' 0. vii, 19 9Awra, N. iv. 36 I''according to,' P. i. 62, iv. 59; N. x. 28; L. ii. 38 - after verb, signifying 'be delighted' (?), 0. i. 15 (cf. Xalpw go' ep, adverbial (Ev 54), F. 57 B cv:= es, P. ii. 1 1, 8 6, v. 3 6; F. 5 3. 1, 85. 2, 96 ' Iin dependence on,' N. vii. 90, X. 30 ' near,' 0. vi. 16; P. iv. 16, 20, viii. 39, 47; N. x. 8; L. ii. 18 ' Iwith,' N. xi. 9, 17, and so with musical instruments, 0. iv. 19, vii. 12; N. iii. 79 - witb substantive= adverb, 0. Hi. 16, 63, vi. 12, vii. 69, xiv. 15' - with titles of contests, P. xi. 46; I. i. 2 5 eVs = s, 'i4 propos of,' in the sphere of,' 0. vi. 7, xiii. 40, 51; N. i. 34, iii. 32; I. i. 18, 34, 057, iv. 53 is. diprlgosr-, N. xi. 42 cm' 31tc, 0. ii. 16, vi. 12 evo-Xep~, N. i. 619, xi. 39; 1. v. 22 'Es'soariia, etymol. P. iv. 33 6'apKCeis, 'suffice,' N. i. 32 6`Oa 0. 1. 1 eWaKaaoW, meaning, L. iii. 24 Jwntwo, F. 53. 14 (cf. abKov'W) grdkro, N. vi. 52 cxi for else,' 0. ix. 29 eri, of reciprocity, 0. iii. 40; P. iH. 24 un/'3a, etymol. P. iv. 140 7r4u.4oca, 0. ix. 6 ECroiXo~uat, 0. iii. 40; P. ii. 24 gwogat, with ace. N. x. 37 frosj'no, ' lived to see,' or ' was rewarded by the sight of,' F. 65. 6 C 7rwPss.&eo, w~ith gen. 0. xi. 78; P. i. 30 gpnvoes, 0. i. 38; P. v. 72 ipy, 'crowns,' 0. xiii. 38 iPyos', 'coutest,' 0. ix. 85; I. iii. 86 9PqaO3, 0. 1. 6 tp~ognc, wvith accus. P. iv. 52, 134; I. iii. 72 es -ro rap, 0. ii. 85, Add. to vol. 1. (Pindar uses the Horn. adwds', P. ii. 49) canreonOat, 0. viii. 11, ix. 83;' I. v. 17 go-Xaro!, ' in good sense,' 0. i. 113; N. x. 32; 1. hi. 29 C-repoF, euphemistic, P. iii. 34; N. viii. 3 eT's"ru/'sos, etymol. 0. ii. 55 &7uaols, etymol. 0. ii. 55 CivulgCOwaTes, double superlative, 0. ii. 55 eV rcioXsss', with gen. N. i. 32 copa', ' union,' 0. vii. 6, ix. 44; N. v. 31; L. vii. 30 -etyinol. I. vii. 30 cupcip, act. fdr med. 0. vii. 89; P. ii. 64 esivorOcs's, N. v. 4 cipiXOpos, 0. vii. 18 eli-e, etymol. 0. iii. 28 eIuruLO -ln, meaning in P., N. i. 10 eic/pocnis'n, 'good cheer,' P. iv. 129; N. iv. 1; L. iii. 10

Page  248 248 GREEK INDEX. eVXouat, etymol. 0. iii. 1 forB, ao-rw, with part. 0. vi. 8; N. ix. i>pwraro/ac, use of, with gen. and dat. 45, xi. 15; I. i. 68, vi. 27 N. viii. 36 'Io-duos, fer. 0. vii. 81; cf. P. i. 15 fqpe6pog, 0. viii. 68; N. iv. 96, vi. 'Cro, ' an equal share,' N. x. 86 65 t'oos, quantity of, N. vi. 68 fXrw, with aor. part. N. i. 31 ixoepy, N. i. 69, note iXw ce~aov, N. iv. 36 tvy,, lynx, N. iv. 35 dciX\, etymol. 0. xii. 12 Kadapos, causative, 0. i. 26 a/levjs, N. iii. 63, iv. 13 Kal, 'actually,' I. i. 63 Zebs '6cFrTos, N. i. 60 - 'and accordingly,' N. iv. 32, x. 65 7... rot, N. vi.5 - 'and so,' F. 58. 5 V, after verb of will, choice, N. x. - 'even so,' O. vi. 17; N. vii. 7 58 - 'so,' O. vii. 7, xi. 91, xiii. 90; 7)\X3aros, etymol. O. vi. 64 N. ii. 3 -1vL, forms in N. v. 5, 11 - between prep. and case, 0. ii. qv, with ace. pron. N. vii. 25 (see 28, vi. 25, vii. 26; N. vii. 31 el') -- yp, I. iv. 4 Ifrepos, etymol. N. iv. 51 -...al, rare, 0. xiii. 90 -long before vowel, N. ii. 1 aXew, N. iv. 88 Kal-re, 0. iii. 8, xii. 18, xiii. 107; BaXos, N. i. 2 P. i. 42, iv. 149, v. 66, x. 5, xi. 62; -Oaad, O. i. 17 N. iii. 61, iv. 75; I. i. 20, 55 Oa/taccx 6 Kal, N. i. 17 (In O. iii. 8 Kal couples the two Oeta, etymol. I. iv. 1 instruments and the re re couple Xwve, v. iedXw instrumental music and vocal 0dBev, ' establish,' N. i. 5 music) OCcS )( AicK, O. viii. 21 Kairep, with indic. (?), N. iv. 36 8Oetccretov, O. i. 12 Kcapos, 0. xiii. 47 -Oev, in app. to genitive, 0. ii. 46, Kapos, 'moderation,' 0. ix. 38; P. vii. 24 i. 81, ix. 78; N. i. 18 8eos, ' destiny,' O.i. 106 Kcaros, conn. with campus, 0. iii. Oebs (withproper name), fern. N. v.41 24 Oe6o78oros, etymol. P. v. 12 Kaaropelov, P. ii. 69; I. i. 16, note OdafaeOat, etymol. N. v. 10 Kara, 'according to measure of,' O. ctydvcw, with dat. P. iv. 296, viii. ix. 28; N. iii. 16 (Eur. Here. F. 24; N. iv. 35 655) Kar' atTrav, P. iv. 107, x. 26; N. iii. t dropped in Aeolic, P. iii. 52 16 r for F, P. ii. 9, 92 Karap3alyw, N. iii. 25, 42, iv. 38 iSei, 'look with favour on' (cf.. O. KaraKewvra, N. iv. 52 vii. 11), xiv. 14 (cf. P. iii. 85); I. Kacradpwrco, seize and hold,' 0. vi. ii. 18; F. 53. 1 14; N. iii. 35; I. iii. 53 ise? es (i ), F. 53. 1, 100. 9 Kara7reor, 0. i. 55 lepd8ovXos, F. 99 Kardpxetv, F. 57 B LXdaKocJuat, 0. vii. 9 cKarexc, 0. vii. 10; P. i. 96; N. viii. -to- for -o-, 0. vii. 85; P. viii. 66; 24;. iii. 2 I. i. 26 KaxXdca', 0. vii. 2 lov, O. vi. 55 Kc, Kes, v. as br7rtos v6/os, O. i. 101; I. i. 16 - in protasis, P. iv. 264 Yrnrot, 'chariot,' O. i. 41, viii. 51 Kevos, ' such,' 0. vi. 7; I. iii. 61; -rs, ace. plur. P. iii. 112 v. OrTOS

Page  249 GREEK INDEX. 249 1{i~q566ses, F. 30 KXUS, in bad (or colourless) sense, N. viii. 36 (cf. 566ai, Thuk. iii. 11,, ~ 10, Postgate) VKNe7r, etyrol. 0. VI. 36 KXvJIo'g, 0. xiv. 19; P. x. 6; N. vii. 16; L. v. 17, vi. 19; F. 63. 2 KPW&IaXOV, etymol. N. i. 50 KOLP03, etymol. N. iv. 23 KOXXcUe, 0. v. 13 Kopog, 0. i. 56, xiii. 10, note; N. i. 65; L. iii. 2 Kopvq5cl, 0. ii. 14, vii. 4; N. i. 15, 34, x. 32; L. v. 11 (cf. 0. i. 113) Kpat-rew, different senses, N. x. 25 K/JS'U-wv, 'more intelligent,' N. ix. 15 Kpipw, 0. ii. 30 KVPi V3i, N. vii. 51 K6W =llMP, F. 73. 1 Xcif~ov, ' tall,' great, N. viii. 46 Xawy ivw, 0. i. 53 Xcog, etymol. 0. ix. 46 XEAoYXe, N. i. 24 \EUKO'S, ' mad,' P. iv. 109 Xtrcspcsi AO~qvcu, N. iv. 18; 1. ii. 20; F. 54?utrapo's, P. ii. 3 AA, confused with M, v. M XoViytot, P. i. 93, 94; N. vi. 31 XNoL-o, ' discussion,' N. viii. 21 Xva, N. ix. 14 M, confused with'AA, 0. i. 104, xiii. 114 Arzicap, 'deity,' F. 109. 5 pnavm?'ov, N. i. 1, note lscapwrco, etymol. N. vi. 11 pAcxa, used. of games (2), 0. viii. 58 juet~ws, 0. vii. 53 Me~ia, P. xi. 4; F. 6. 1 /hiJJ, V. -ye [SEP -without Si, N. ix. 11 - iXc, 0. ix. 5; N. ii. 20; L. vii. 56 - ciXX ipj5s, I. iv. 46 - ai~ts, I. V. 3 Asiv-S, with repeated word, 0. xiii. 14; P. ix. 123; N. i. 62, vi. 10, ix. 8, x. 27, xi. 3, 6; L. iii. 8, iv. 30, v. 71 ALIV Kal, 0. iii. 21, xiii. 52 - re, 0. iv. 15, v. 10, vi. 4, 89, vii. 12, 73, 88; P. ii. 31, vi. 40, xi. 2; N. Hi. 9, viii. 30; I. i. 14, ii. 38; F. 53. 10 - ~,P. iii. 83 [S&pov, 0. xiii. 20; N. xi. 47 It7), final without O5.pp, cis, 0. ix. 60; P. iv. 155, v. 110, viii. 32 Me,~uS, with ind. 0. i. 7 -omitted, L. i 60 omitted after gxo N. xi. 23; L iii. 72 /A 17TE..tkq6I (Cf. 0o76-..oUSI, P. viii. 75), L. ii. 45 A1dyvvutu, bdo-yw, Pindaric us-e, 0. i. 22, 90; N. i. 18, ii. 22, iv. 21, ix. 31; I. ii. 29, iii. 3, vi. 25 [Sirpca, 0. ix. 84; N. viii. 15; L. iv. 62 - of a warrior, N. x. 90 [LvaacT~rqp, N. i. 16 Medpat, attend at births, 0. i. 26, vi. 41; N. vii. 1 Moplat, N. x. 34 v~lsouca, ' have a range,' N. iii. 82 vi~ugc, meaning, I. ii. 22 P~og, 'of the young,' 0. ii. 43 veoei~ya~ez, 0. iii. 4 veo-ras, meaning, N. ix. 44 sPjop, ' practice (surgical),' N. iii. 55 ~,of Donec future of verbs in ~cw, F. 57 A i~ivsos, ~e-tvos, etymol. N. iv. 23 ~uvvos, etymol. N. iv. 23 6, mase. demonst. P. v. 59; I. vii. 19, 23, 49 6,uiv, suppressed, P. iii. 91; N. viii. 37 (cf. 1. iv. 19), ix. 65 6aspos, etymol. P. i. 98 - N. iii. 11 WSi Kvplac, V. cVP. 66. 30ccv, with verb not sign. motion, 0. i. 8 ol, possessive dat. 0. ix. 15; P. iv. 48 efko~cz', 0. iii. 44 olos, exciam. 0. ix. 89; I. v. 62 OINccs, etymol. N. v. 2

Page  250 250 GREEK INDEX. oa'AXos, between golden eagles at Delphi, P. ii. 4; F. 32 d60b'?, etymol. N. x. 34 -or, lengthened before vowel, P. iii. 6, ix. 114; N. i. 51, 69, vi. 60 -or, long before F, I. v. 42 odorov (for ior'Os), etymol. I. iii. 68 o7raois, subs. N. iii. 8; F. 72 orolre, 0. ii. 32 67rTpa, N. v. 6 dp9ow, 0. iii. 3; N. i. 15; I. i. 46, iii. 56, iv. 48, v. 65 opO e n7r aofvpy-, rodI, I. vi. 12, 13; 0. xiii. 72.os, ace. plur. O. i. 53, ii. 71; N. iii. 24, 29 - fern. N. v. 20; F. 129 oros, exclamatory, 0. ix. 93; N. x. 41 oart, with plur. antec. 0. iii. 11 ov', 0. vii. 48 ovKrTi...ft, N. ix. 47 o're...o u, P. viii. 85 (cf. I. ii. 45) OUros, 'such,' 0. iv. 24, viii. 57; N. ix. 42 o6/eltXi, impersonal, N. ii. 6 6p0OaXs, 'glory,' O. ii. 10; P. v. 17 rayyTy\wala, 0. ii. 87, addenda to vol. 1 irdca, N. vii. 21 wravTroaTros, etymol. I. i. 46; F. 73. 1 Crap&, 'owing to,' 0. ii. 65 - of extension beside with ace. P. iv. 74; N. v. 10; I. vii. 57 - in compounds, 'indirectly,' 'by the way,' N. x. 30 rapacreo/jai, N. x. 30 irapdap71ps, ' beguile,' 0. vii. 66; N. v. 32 7rapeet, impersonal, I. vii. 69 vrapeevLos, not 'virginal' but 'unwedded,' O. vi. 31; P. iii. 34 irdpa-tis, 'detraction,' N. viii. 32 ras, in every case, I. vii. 14 (cf. a7ras) HIaaO-tr, meaning, N. v. 10 reW=&Eer&, P. v. 44, viii. 74; F. 101. 5 rea6oeY, 'penitus,' I. iv. 38 irevTraeXAov, P. viii. 66; I. i. 26 trotnieW,V I. iii. 90 rep7rrto, P. iii. 52 wrepi, 'above all of,' 0. vi. 50 - with dat. 0. xiii. 45; P. v. 54 wrpo5os, N. xi. 40 l]epoevs, etymol. N. x. 4 rTrvOW, O. ii. 23 rX'sovoTros Od'X. d. P. iv. 85; see Camb. Philol. Trans. Vol. I. p. 301 (Mr Ridgeway) rTOCKi\os, &c. applied to music, 0. iii. 8; N. iv. 14 notea, vroilwuos, in good sense, P. i. 59, ii. 17; N. i. 70 vroXX&, N. v. 31, viii. 8 irovew, transitive, P. iv. 151 rorraTT = rpos rcv, F. 99. 5 7roOs vcabs, N. vi. 57 wrpayos, N. iii. 6 rpisL, n'amours,' F. 104. 2 wrparises, etymol. 0. x. 10 rppaoaw, act. for mid. I. iv. 8, v. 11 -' deal,' wreak,' N. iii. 46 - exercise one's functions,' N. i. 26; F. 108 rTpiv, 'olim,' 0. ix. 57 wrplv ye, 0. xiii. 65; N. iv. 28 'rpdovpov, N. i. 19 TrpoKcIJlov, N. iv. 11 7rpo\Xeyopac, N. ii. 18 rpove/etv, I. vii. 17 rportivw, 0. vii. 4 rporpeiva, etymol. N. vii. 86 7rpdS, 'about the time of,' O. i. 67; P. ix. 25 Hp6qaieT, P. v. 25; F. 213. 2 irpvravce, N. xi. 1 7rrTVXl, 'hollows,' N. ii. 21 ros, use of, N. x. 60 pWpdos, I. iii. 56 paeG5, etymol. N. ii. 2 pitcpa, etymol. I. ii. 3 Ptr, P. i. 10 cratvw, 0. iv. 4 0agepov, etymol. P. iv. 1 o&E, F. 57 A crOev, adv. of motion from, N. i. 4 fX\Lov, etymol. I. ii. 15 ZeXXol, etymol. I. ii. 28 oaGvos, not=copia, 0. ix. 51; I. iii. 2; F. 84. 10 xCd/CzTara, N. v. 20, note

Page  251 GREEK INDEX. (Ko7ros, 'warder,' O. i. 54, vi. 59; riya, 'powe P. iii. 27; N. v. 27 51, 260 (e crooia, ' augury,' F. 84. 4 Tiv, etymol. ao(pia, ~oe0 7o-s, eoos6p, 'poetry,' ris, ri yap, 'poetic,' O. i. 9, iii. 44, ix. 28, Les, for plui x. 10, xiv. 6; P. i. 12, 42, iv. 248, omittec 295, ix. 77, x. 22; N. iv. 2, vii. ix. 46; I 23; I. i. 45, iv. 28, vii. 47; F. i. 6 - solemn oqffCotrs, poet, I. iv. 28 - with a( aoq5os, 'noble,' P. ii. 88, v. 11 construct owrepe, for uss. y`etpe, N. i. 13 T, ' wheref a7repXo/at, N. i. 40 Tb 5, ' and -ao- of aor. and fut. of 'pure' rpiTro/at, I. verbs, 0. xi. 10; P. iii. 27 Tv'cs, ctyn a-Tacza, P. i. 62, ii. 90; N. vi. 7; ru6a, 'help F. 1. 5 - 'help,' orecixw, used of voyage, N. v. 3 vi. 25 areiavos, ' wall,' 0. viii. 32 r'xa = Eurvu a iy, I. iii. 1, iv. 35, v. 12 N. vii. 11 oSrvwKos, O. ix. 78; P. i. 2 TVXa, O. xii ope'repos =E iO, I. v. 33 zT, wherefo oxeiv, 'get,' O. ii. 9; P. i. 65, iii. 24; N. x. 24 v for A, N. a<xepi, see iv oxJepC vypOv, ' clas op/a, 'shape,' 0. ix. 35 vawp, 0. i. 1 ZCOTrp, O. v. 17 (cf. I. v. 2) i'/Ue, with 15 T&, neut. plur. rel. tomasc. or fern. v Bolwriav, antecedent (cf. O. i. 16), N. vii. VLrp, ' abov( 55 after ca ra. e, 'and again,' 0. ix. 95, xiii. V7rpaXXos, lS 55; P. viii. 28; N. ix. 42 (?); I. ivrep(piah\o, iii. 11 V7ro, in com] T& (rca re) Kai ra, O. ii. 53 (cf. vii. 'from u 55); P. v. 51, vii. 22; I. iii. 51, P. ix. 61; iv. 52 - 'by me Ira C'e, P. iv. 154, xi. 46 94; I. v.. Tdprapos, fer. P. i. 15 -- ' to the re, explanatory, N. viii. 46 13 - 'or,' I. iii. 28 - with dat re...56, P. iv. 80, xi. 30 (cf. TLYre, of,' N. vii. OVTr) viokptwTv, ' li re.. Kcai, 0. xiv. 4 rhXds, ' shr: reios=SXkt. dhbt, P. iii. 38 7Aoy, not periphrastic, I. iii. 85 p, Aeol. for t note 'deer' ") - aKpo, P. ix. 118; I. iii. 50 Oepw, comp. 4 - prize,' 0. xi. 67; I. i. 27 N. vi. 4 roplua, ' the line from which a throw vac, ' physiqn was made,' N. vii. 71 vi. 22 - not'periphrastic, I. iii. 85 po-cts, 'physii rep7rvavO8's, N. vii. 53 Terpaopla, N. iv. 28 XaXcKOapns, et; 251!r,' 'prerogative,' P. iv. 7sv OeWY -tiaic); I. iv. 6.. vi. 12 0. xiii. 20 r. P. i. 52; I. vii. 1 note d, O. vi. 4; N. vii. 16, i. 41 0, O. ii. 59 ctive (instead of passive;ion), I. vii. 1 ore,' P. v. 37; N. iv. 9 again,' F. 116. 3 iv. 22 nol. P. i. 16,' N. 48; 0. viii. 67 'guidance,' N. iv. 7,,Ia, O. ii. 51; P. iii. 104;, x. 25; I. vii. 67 i. 2 re, P. v. 21; I. vii. 5, 65 iv. 51 tic,' P. i. 9; N. viii. 41 -, iii. 42 dual meaning, 0. viii. O. vi. 90; F. 60,' P. i. 18; N. vii. 65,se, N. vii. 42 [. iii. 33 etymol. P. ii. 42 pos. P. viii. 11, ix. 9.nder,' O. v. 14, vi. 43; N. i. 35 ans of,' O. v. 6; P. v. 14 sound of,' O. iv. 2, vii. t. 'under the influence 17 ike,' adv. F. 220. 1 ill,' F. 102. 3 ), P. iii. 4 (dele "Eng. of, used intransitively, ue,' N. i. 25; I. v. 47, que,' N. vi. 5; I. iii. 67 ymol. I. iii. 81

Page  252 252 GREEK INDEX. X&pu', ' by grace of,' P. ii. 70, iii. 95; N. i. 6 xcipi, 0. i. 30 - favour,' L. i. 6 - song,' 0. xi. 78; P. iv. 275; I. iii. 8, 90, vii. 16; F. 53. 2 X LTE,' givers Of Victory,' 0, ii. 50 aP-" 'delight, blessing,' 0. ii. 19; N. vii. 88 - victory,' 0. vii. 44, xi. 22;P. viii. 64; N.iii. 66 - ' flight,'I etymool. P. ii. 2 (Post. gate refers it to </GHAR, 'prick,' ' tear') Xapuau, 'ictories,' 0. ix. 86 ~Xapo~s, etymol. P. ix. 38 XXwpo's, N. viii. 40; F. 99 Xpao/Aaz, etymol. N. viii. 36 Xpdo Pos, ' lifetime,' 0. i. 1 15; P. i. 46 Xpvcreos, ' glittering,' N. i. 17 ibaq5es, 0. vii. 86; P. iv. 265 WS WCTE (2), N. vi. 3 e% dye, 0. vi. 2; N. ix. 16; L. v. 1 WcrTe, with inf. N. v. 35

Page  253 ENGLISH INDEX. A changed to v, N. iv. 51 absolute, v. genitive accusative after C`7ro~at, N. x. 37 - and infinitive expressing entreaty, command, P. ii. 24; N. ix. 6(?) (or clause in apposition), P. i. 67 is not a clause in point -double, 0. vii. 15 (2nd of gen. agreement), 0. xi. 78; N. iv. 55) of 'extent,' N. iii. 72 - of general agreement with or in apposition to idea of predicate, 0. ii. 4, vii. 15, x. 13; N. iii. 72, xi. 16; I. iii. 7, vii. 4, 63 -of gen. agreement, qualifying predication, N. xi. 24 - of participle, change to from otber oblique cases, 0. 1. 8-10; 1. i. 46, v. 21 - of reference~with P'LKciW -qut.L, N. v. 5, 53 -of reference after pronominal adjective, P. 1. 5' -of time, peculiar, I. iii. 85, v. 46 -plur. in -Es,, P. iii. 112 -plur. in -os, Doric, 0. i. 53, ii. 71; N. iii. 24, 29 -with waph', of extension beside, P. iv. 74; N. v. 10; I. vii. 57 action, synonymous with place of action, N. i. 1 note active participle used as gerundive, N. xi. 42 active for middle, 0. i. 13; P. i. 49, ii. 40, 64; I. iv. 8, vii. 45 adjectival use. of participle, v. participle adjective, accusative, used adverbially, 0. vi. 8, xiii. 17, xiv. 11; N. x. 6; I. iii. 31; F. 104 - adverbial force of, 0. ii. 38 adjective, causative use of, 0. i. 26, vi. 76, xi, 4; P. iv. 81, 216, ix. 11; N. iv. 13, vii. 16, 61, viii. 40; 1. iv. 12, F. 100. 5 - compound, for genitive (with adj.), P. v. 28; N. x. 38 - predicative, I. i. 17, ii. 12 adverbial force of adjective, v. adjective Aeginetan Statuary, N. v. I Acolic, 1 aor. -rco-c-a, P. iii. 27, iv25, X. 33 Aethiopis of Arktinos, N. iii. 61, vii. 21, viii. 30; I. iii. 55 Aias and llektor, N. ii. 14; 1. iii. 55 Alemnanicuina, scemta, v. schemaAic. Altar of Zeus at Olympia, 0. vi. 70 anakoluthon, 0. ii. 56, viii. 54 aorist, gnhmic or frequentative, 0. ii. 99, ix. 83; P. iv. 279, viii. 15; N. iii. 42, v. 10, vi. 26, vii. 12, 72, xi. 14; I. iv. 2; F. 99. 13 -- guhmic in hypothetical construction, N. vii. 12 - gnhmic, participle of, N. i. 62, -vii. 3, ix. 54 - infinitive, ref. to fat. 0. iii. 1; P. i. 3 5, 44 - reduplicated form of, 0. viii. 11; I. v. 53 - optative with W's after Xpicorev, P. iv. 7 -ref. to immediate past, ' idiomatic,' 0. vii. 13, xiv. 16; P. xi. 13; N. i. 18, 19, vii. 76; 1. i. 39, iv. 21, v. 53;- F. 53. 11 Aphaea, v. Artemis ApliroditO Urania, F. 99 Artemis, worship of, P. ii. 7 Artemis Aphaea, F. 66. 2 article, def. with indef. pron. N. i. 64

Page  254 254 254 ~ENGLISH INDEX. article omitted, N. x. 26 assimilation, 0. viii. 38; N. ix. 15 asyndeton, 0. vi. 101; N. iv. 82, vi. 1, vii. 19 Ath6ne Chalinitis, 0. xiii. 69 Boeotian shield, I. i. 1 bronze prizes, 0. vii. 83; N. x. 45 causal, causative middle, v. introduction, P. xxi - causative use of adjective, v. adjective change of case of participle to accusative, v. accusative change of subject, 0. iii. 22; N. x. 13, 90 chiasmus, I. ii. 41 colour, words of, in general sense of brightness, 0. viii. 1, x. 13, xiii. 8; P. iii. 73, x. 40; N. i. 17, v. 7, xi. 28; I. ii. 26, vii. 5; F. 99, 3 cornparatio compendiaria, 0. i. 7 compendious construction, N. ix. 41; L. v. 47 confusion of thing and personification, 0. and P. p. xxxv; N. viii. 18 copulative for disjunctive, 1. iii. 28, v. 15 crowns at Isthmnos, I. ii. 15 - for horses (mules), 0. ii. 50, vi. 26 baedalos i.q. llephaestos (2), N. iv, 59 dative after subst. 0. viii. 56, 83; P. vi. 17; N. ix. 12; 1. ii. 13, iii. 16 dativus commodi, 0. i. 23, vii. 76; P. ix. 89; N. i. 24, 46, 58, ii. 24, iii. 62, vii. 40, xi. 7; I. i. 32, iii. 75, iv. 21, v. 12, vi. 21, vii. 10, 57, 66 - ethicus, P. ix. 65 dative for locative, 0. v. 5; N. x. 35; F. 109. 2 - instrumental, ol t'c65ct, N. i. 18 - of accompanying action, N. x. 75 - of cause, 0. vi. 90, ix. 83; P. v. 58, viii. 44; I. v. 70, vi. 15 dative of closer specification, 0. ii. 14, viii. 83; P. i. 7; I. i. 62 - of purpose, I. vii. 27 - of reference, 1. i. 42 - possessive, 0. ix. 15; P. iv. 124, ix. 82; N. vii. 22, x. 29 -of manner, 0. i. 112, iv. 24; I.iii. 29 dativus termzini, 0. i. 92, iii. 31, vi. 58; P. iv. 296, viii. 22, ix. 120, x. 28, xii. 31 (1); N. i. 50, iv. 15, 35, vii. 7; I. v.41 deliberative future (supposed), N. ix. I b6los, names of, F. 64. 4 belphic knife, N. vii. 42 dependent clause, subject of, object of principal clause, 0. xi. 1 dialectic formn, occasional strong boric, P. iv. 115; F. 99. 5, v. accusative bioskurol, 0. iii. 36; N. x. 53 boric pres. inf. P. iv. 115 boric accusative plur. v. accusative double genitive, v. genitive dreams, F. 108. 4 elision before digamma, P. vii. 5 ellipse of elect, 0. vii. 23 (of. Aesch. SUPPi. 19 P.) - of object, P. ii. 17, iv. 70 - of cOre,6 P. vi. 48, x. 29 - of personal pron. P. i. 29 enthroned statues, N. x. 1, Ad. denda epithet, double, N. iv. 18 exclamation, 0. ix. 89 (otes), 93 (Srauc), xiii. 107; N. x. 41; I. i. 24 (?), v. 62 explanatory infinitive clause, N. ii. 9, 10 extension of predicate, 0. ii. 35, vi. 80, 105, vii. 15, ix. 19, 44, x. 7, xiii. 1, 27; P. i. 51. iv. 23, vi. 37, vii. 12; N. i. 14, iii. 18, vii. 32, 57, xi. 5; I. i. 34; F. 100. 2, 110. 1 Fates attendant on births, 0. i. 26 feminine in -as -ac-res, P. vi. 6; N. ix. 16; 1. v. 73 - in cos, N. v. 20, F. 129

Page  255 ENGLISH INDEX.25 2055 feminine of adj. in -os -ov, N. iii. 2, v. 9, vii. 83 'fly,' etymol. N. v. 21 future act. with middle form, N. ix. 43 - apodosis to imperative, N. iv. 37 - guomic, 0. vii. 3, viii. 53, ix. 1043; P. xii. 29; (cf. Ii. xxii. 317; Theokr. i. 3) - middle in passive,ense, 0. viii. 45' - middle of vb. of sound, I. i. 34 - referring to time of recitation, P. ix. 89, xi. 10; N. ix. 1 gender, peculiar, 0. i. 6; P. i. 15;N. v. 20, 41, ix. 44; I. vii. 20, v. 73; F. 129 general apodosis to particular protasis, P. xi. 41, 44; N. iv. 79, 84; I. i. 41, 45 genitive, absolute of participle without noun, 0. ix. 35; P. iv. 25, viii. 43; I. iii. 5, 49; F. 106. 7 - after adj. 7r6)u~rqkoP Vocrero, N. ini. 25 - after pass. Of VLKriW, N. ix. 2 - descriptive, P. iii. 60, N. x. 46 - double, 0. i. 94; P. ii. 56, ix. 39 - in apposition to forms in -Ov,, 0. ii. 46, vii. 24 - of origin ' in the contest of' 0. ix. 88; 1. iii. 89, iv. 58, vi. 10 - of material, P. iv. 206; 1. i. 20 - of motion from, P. ix. 11 - of motive or reason, 0. iii. 28 - (of -noun) for adjective, 0. ii. 72; P. iv. 2134, vii. 15, xi. 34; N. viii. 3; I. iv. 19, vi. 22, vii. 5 - of theme of speech, N. vii. 50 - of time, 0.- ii. 93 - partitive, 0. viii. 13, xi. 2; I. ii.51 'sacred to —,' N. x. 67 -with alp~ai ~ftq3Xv-rat (? Kar a' ii'r),N. i. 8 -with substantive of compound adj. 0. viii. 33, ix. 63, xi. 25, 78; P. i. 30 - with 'in, 'under,' 0. xi. 30 - with XoXoiobtat, N. vii. 25 gilding in architecture, 0. vi. 1 gnomic future, v. future gnoniic aorist, v. aorist goldsmith's work, N. vii. 78 Graces connected with victory, P. vi. 2; N. v. 53, ix. 54, x. 38 hendecasyllables, Pindarie, F. 93, 94 hendiadys, 0. ii. 13 (?), ix. 43; N. i. 7, iii. 8, i-v. 9 hiatus, 0. vii. 74; N. iii. 34; I. i. 9, 16, 32, vii. 56 historic present, 0. ii. 23; P. iv. 1433, v. 80 (cf. N. iii. 18) Romer, Pindar's mythology different from, 0. i. 43, 57 hypallage, 0. viii. 42, 68, xi. 6; P. iv. 144, 256, v. 82, ix. 8; N. i. 15, 34, iii. 38; 1. vii. 38 iambelegus, F. 11 B. idiomatic aorist, v. aorist imperfect, 0. viii. 47, 49 -for aorist, of YLK&w, Kpartrw, 0. ix. 112; N. v. 5; I. iii. 13 - graphic, 0. xi. 67 - of intended action, N. i. 50 infinitive after 516w~kt, N. x. 26; P. iv. 115 - after pregnant sense of declaring (?), 0. vi. 56, ix. 64 -after verb of motion, N. vi. 47; I. ii. 16, vii. 63; F. 7. 5, 53. 10 - extra structuram (?), 0. i. 42 -for imperative, P. i. 438; N. iii. 29, ix. 43 - Madv. ~ 148; N. vi. 7; 1.iii. 56 of possible resuilt, I. iv. 45, 48 of reference after adj. 0. vii. 25, viii. 19, 24, xiii. 13, 48; P. vi, 53; N. iii. 30, vii. 27, 76, x. 19, 20, 72, xi. 18, 33; I. ii. 37, vi. 44 -of result, 0. i. 9 (?), 42, ii. 34, ix. 80 (?); P. iv. 146 (?), 185, 187, x. 17, 48; N. iii. 31, 32, vi. 7, x. 79; I. iii. 10, 61 - redundant, expletory, 0. ix. 74; P. ix. 65; N. vi. 8 inversion of participle and verb, v. participle

Page  256 256 ENGLISH INDEX. iota suppressed, 0. xiii. 91; N. xi. 40; I. i. 63 Kynaethos, N. ii, 1 late position of subject, v. subject locative, N. x. 28; I. iii. 2, v. dative meiosis, N. x. 6; I. ii. 20 metaphor, mixed, 0. vi. 82, 83; P. x. 53; N. iii. 79, vi. 29 - and simile to express the superlative, v. met. from eagle and &wros, e&X5s (similes), KopvptA; from limits of travel, N. iii. 21; P. x. 28 - Pillars of Herakles, 0. iii. 44; I. iii. 30-Hyperboreans, P. x. 30 -Nile and Phasis, I. ii. 42; from water, gold, the sun (similes), O. i. 1-7; from horse and ship to speed (simile), O. ix. 23, 24; from sand to great number (simile), O. ii. 98, xiii. 46 METAPHORS AND SIMILES (The list does not profess to be exhaustive.) 1. Common life. Metaphor from cooking, 0. i. 55, 83; P. iv, 186 - keys to control, P. viii. 3, 4, ix. 39 - drawing from a store, N. iv. 8 - leading home, P. v. 3 (cf. I. iii. 6) - exile to deprivation, 0. i. 58 - late-born heir to poetic fame (simile), O. xi. 86 - awakening fame, &c. P. ix. 104 - awakening the lyre, N. x. 21 - sleep to obscurity, I. iii. 41, vi. 16 - decoration, aScuaXXw - toilette to arrangement of song, I. i. 33 Metaphor from toilette to bearing trouble, P. iii. 83 - clothing to burial, N. xi. 16 - warm bath to song (simile), N. iv. 4, 5 - spring, arwya, to poem, P. iv. 299 - spring water to song, I. v. 74 - nectar to song, 0. vii. 7 - wine cup to song, 0. vi. 91; N. iii. 78, ix. 50; I. iv. 25, v. 3; 0. vii. 1-8 (simile) - honey to song, I. iv. 53 - honey and milk to poetry, N. iii. 77 - melting honeycomb to the poet melted by passion (simile), F. 100. 8 -sprinkling, 0. xi. 94, 97 (honey); N. i. 13; I. iii. 90, v. 21 - pelting and sprinkling, P. viii. 57 - qvX\XoSoXca to poetry, I. iii. 45 - watering a garden, 0. v. 23 - (tending) flocks to speech, gifts, O. x. 9; N. viii. 6 a tree by water, I. vi. 18 - culling flowers, 0. i. 13 - garden to poetry, 0. ix. 27 - ploughed fields to song, P. vi. 2; N. vi. 33, x. 26 - ploughingthreeor fourtimes to vain repetition, N. vii. 104 - dew, to praise, glory, I. v. 64; N. viii. 40 (simile) -fallow in alternate years to obscurity in alternate generations (simile), N. vi. 9 - fruit to youth, P. ix. 110 - tree to prosperity, P. viii. 92, 94 - lopping tree to oppressing good citizens, P. iv. 263 - luxuriant growth to fame, N. vii. 32; to victory, N. ix. 48 - blossom to youth, P. iv. 158

Page  257 ENGLISH INDEX. 257 Metaphor from bloom to puberty, first manhood, 0. i. 67 - fruit to early manhood, 0. vi. 57, 58 -spring time to prosperity (simile), P. iv. 64 (simile), I. iii. 36 - 07rcwpa, N. v. 8; 1. ii. 5 - blossoming, N. ix. 48 - root to mother city, P. iv. 15, ix. 8 of scion, branch (Ociog), 0. vi, 68 - seed, root, stock to family, 0. ii. 4 6 -~ irvew, P. x. 44; N. iii. 41 Commercial. 0. iii. 7, vi. 12, x. 8, xiii. 36; P. ii. 67; N. vii. 76, ix. 3 PRODUCTIVE ARTS from building to accumulating merit, 1. iv. 44 of building ' the lofty rhyme,' 0. iii. 7; N. i. 8, iii. 4; F. 176 from bulwark to protector, 0. ii. 6 - laying foundations to beginning, 0. i. 8 (?); P. vii. 3, 4; F. 55 - setting up st1l, see ipO0W - st1l to ode, N. iv. 81, viii. 47 - steps to opening of life, P. v. 7 - treasure house to lasting store of poetic praise, P. vi. 5-18 - fagade to opening of ode (simile), 0. vi,. 1-4 - path, road, route to conduct, 0. i. 115, vii. 31, 90; P. ii. 35, x. 12; N. i. 25, ii. 7, vi. 15, ix. 41, x. 6; I. ii. 10, iv. 22 F. II. Metaphor from road to course of song, 0. i. 110, ix. 47; P. iv. 247; Nyuvi. 51 -- to theme of song, N. vi. 47 - - I. v.22 - forging to speech, P. i. 86, 7; F. 100, 4 - whetstone to poetic inspiration, 0. vi. 82: to patron of athletes, or to trainer, I. v. 73 LEAlUuNrD A-UTS. from opening of poem with name of Zeus to first victory at Zeus' Nemea (simile), N. ii. 1-3 physician, P. iv. 270; N. iv. 2 -drugs to remedy, 0. ix. 97 -registers to mind,0.xi. 1-3 -statue ) ( poem (rejection of simile), N. v. 1 MANLY ExERCISxs, S from chariot to song, 0. vi. 22 -24; N. i. 7 - chariot (victor's) to song, 0. ix. 81; P. X. 65; I. Ri. 2, vii. 62 - horse riding to mounting on fame, fortune, &c., I. i. 39 - driving to training, N. vi. 69 - chariot (of muses) to song, I. vii. 62 - yoking,N.i. 7; I.i. 6 - chariot between horses to house' between temples (simile), N. vii. 93 - leaping to intellectual acti-vity, N. v. 20 - starting in foot race, N. viii. 19 - -race-course to life, N. vi. 7 - missile to pang, pain, N. i. 48 17

Page  258 258 ENGLISH INDEX. Metaphor from missiles to song, speech, 0. i. 112, ii. 83, 89, ix. 5, 11, xiii. 93; P. i. 12, 44, vi. 37; N. i. 18, iii. 65, vi. 27, vii. 81; I. ii. 3, iv. 47; N. vi. 29 (simile) - wrestling, 0. viii. 25; P. ii. 61, 82, iv. 273; N. iv. 93 -96, viii. 27; I. iii. 53 - wrestling to swimming and thence to striving against envious foes, N. iv. 36 - ope5pos, N. iii. 96. - chase to ambition, 0. ii. 54 - weaving, twining song, 0. vi. 86; P. iv. 275; N. iv. 44; F. 160 - wreath to song, N. vii. 78; I. iii. 62 LIGHT, FLAME, &C. from ' light' 'eye' to protector, favourite champion, 0. ii. 10, vi. 16; I. ii. 17 - a beacon to protection, &c., N. iv. 12 - eye to protector, P. v. 52 - gloom to envy, N. iii. 41, iv. 40 - light fame to fame, praise, &c., 0O i. 23, 94, ix. 22, xiii. 36; P. v. 42; N. iii. 64, vi. 39, x. 2; I. iii. 61, vi. 23 - light to prosperity, P. viii. 96; N. iv 38 - light, star to wealth (simile), O. ii. 55 - 'waving, glancing,' to a shout along a line, 0. xi. 73 ANIMATE NATURE. from eagle to poet, 0. ii. 88; N. iii. 80, v. 21 - - to superlatively brave man, P. v. 104,105 - crows to bad poets, envious rivals, N. iii. 82; 0. ii. 87 (simile) Metaphor of winged song, P. viii. 34; N. vii. 22; I. i. 66, iii. 27, iv. 63 from winged to inspired, P. v. 107 of flights of poetry, N. vii. 75 from flight to renown, N. vi. 50 - bee to prophetess, P. iv. 60 - cock to competitor in local games (simile), 0. xii. 14 - cow to woman, P. iv. 142 - fox and lion to unchangeable nature (simile), O. x. 20 - - - to cunning and valour (simile), I. iii. 64,65 - altvw to shewing pleasure, 0. iv. 4 - lion's skin to stalwart nature (simile), I. v. 47 WATER. Sea-faring. from bilgewater to disgrace, P. viii. 11, 12 - embarking to beginning an ode, P. ii. 62 - embarking to undertaking, 0. xiii. 49; N. xi. 44 - pilot to guide, ruler, P. i. 86, iv. 274, v. 114, x. 72 - pilots to prudent men, N. vii. 17 (simile) - slave chained to oar, N. xi. 45 - voyage to course of song, time of thought, N. iii. 27; O. vi. 103 - unfurling sails to lavish hospitality, P. i. 91; N. v. 51; I. ii. 39 - varying currents, 0. ii. 33; N. xi. 46; I. vii. 15 - tossing waves to illusions, 0. xii. 6 - waves to events, N. vi. 57 - wave to approach of death, N. vii. 31 nautical dpOwo (?), I. iv. 48 - KaTr6pafLev, N. iv. 23

Page  259 ENGLISH INDEX. 259 Metaphor from shipwreck, I. i. 36 - navigation to superlative excellence, 0. iii. 43; N~. iii. 21; 1. v. 12 Swimnting, Drowning. from swimming to passing through life*, 0.- xiii. 114 - coming to shore to succeeding, N. iv. 38 - swimm~ing to striving against a sea of enemies, N. iv. 37 - water to silence, I. iv. 51; F. 225 - cork that floats above a net to the poet (simile), P. ii. 79 STREAMSs, FLOODS. from streams to poetry, N. vii. 12 - flood to song, 0. xi. 10 - rolling pebbles to censure, 0. Xi. 9 - torrent to calamity, 0. xi. 37 - water quenching fire to song quelling envy, N. i. 24 WEATHIER. from calm to peaceful life, P. v. 10 - cloud to forgetfulness, 0. -vii. 45 - breeze to song, N. vi. 29 - breezes to turns of fortune, 0. vii. 95; P. iv. 292; I. iii. 2 3 - blighting wind to misfortunle, P. v. 112 - storm to mental disturbance, P. ix. 32 *Dr Scott's emendation, which I accept, does away with this figure. Ile acccpts fJAM and reads KOU4~OuTL KKuCTiW for K0I40&WW b'e~crac, and in thie next line acde aWam. for Metaphor from storm-cloud to war, warrior, N. ix. 38, x. 9; I. iii. 35, iv. 49, vi. 27 - air to inspiration, 0. vi. 83 SUsNaR. from I'battle-cry,' to battle, host, P. i. 72; N. iii. 60, ix. 35; L. vi. 10; F. 192 - bridle to anchor, P. iv. 25 of devouring fire, N. ix. 23 from fire and whip to passion, P. iv. 219 - kicking to smoke rising, I. iii. 84 - mirror to poetic commemoration, N. vii. 14 - music, 0. ix. 39 - nails to compulsion, P. iv. '71 - Orifa following Peiads to certain sequence (simile), N. ii. 10 - repetition of Ato'T Ko'pzsoT to repetition in poetry (simlile), N. vii. 105 - sandal to state, 0. vi. 8 (of. Herod. vi. 2, Jebb) - smoke to envy, detraction, &c., N. i. 24 T OKurcJk to messenger, 0. vi. 91 - spell' to bridle, 0. xiii. 85 -stain to disgrace, 0. iv. 17, viii. 68 (? Jebb) -stone to spiteful speech, 0. viii. 55 -voting pebble to evidence, 0. vii. 87; to stedld, P. iv. 265 -a wheel (of fortune), 0. ii. 21 middle in passive sense, cX&oOat, P. i. 10 milky way, Acoic 0656s, 0. ii. 70; F. 73 moral qualities ascribed to beasts, N. i. 63 Muses' song, N. v. 22 music, Greek, 0. vii. 12

Page  260 260 ENGLISH INDEX. myrtle, sacred to the dead, I. iii. 87, vii. 67 Negative, applied emphatically to one word, N. i. 18, viii. 37 neuter ace. adj. after verb of 'looking,' 'seeing,' P. ii. 20; N. iv. 39, vii. 66 - - (predicative) with fern. subs. I. vi. 22 - plur. pronoun referring to adjectives, P. i. 40 - -noun with plur. verb, 0. viii. 12, xi. 85; P. i. 13, iv. 121; I. iv. 12, vii. 47; F. 53. 14 nominative for vocative, P. i. 92; N. iii. 76 object suppressed, 0. ii. 10; P. ii. 17. iv. 70; N. iv. 11, 36, vii. 23 offering without fire, 0. vii. 48 (cf. Aesch. Ag. 70; Genesis iv. 3) olive crowns at the Panath6naea, N. x. 34 Olympia personified, 0. viii. 1 optative with el in protasis, P. viii. 13 - - Kc in relative clause with pres. indic. in apodosis, N. iv. 8 - without an v. di omitted order, connection of consecutive beginnings or ends of two verses, 0. vii. 13, 15, viii. 77, ix. 13, xi. 28, xiii. 1; P. ix. 23, xi. 32; N. iii. 68, iv. 1, vi. 37; I. iii. 70, iv. 9, 19, 43, v. 28, 39, vi. 46, vii. 28, 49 - connection of beginning or ends of two lines though a line intervene (v. I. iii. 36), I. vi. 12; P. iv. 214 - enclitic between 'v and participle, 0. viii. 33 - - preposition and case, N. vii. 42, viii. 18, (?) P. ii. 66 - irregular, 0. i. 17 (?), vii. 53; P. iv. 106 (v. I. ii. 36); N. i. 24, x. 72; I. vii. 70; F. 100. 8, 9 - o0 at end of clause emphatic, O. vii. 48 - preposition between two coupled cases, 0. vii. 12, viii. 47, ix. 17; P. ii. 11, 59, v. 67,_viii. 99; N. vii. 31, ix. 14, 22, x. 38, 53; I. i. 29 order, proper name between article and participle, 0. xiii. 53 - proper name, peculiar position of, I, iv. 49, v. 18 Panathbnaic vases, N. x. 36 participle, active, used as gerundive, N. xi. 42 - adjectival use of, N. iv. 29, vii. 65, x. 18; I.i. 31, iii. 5, 37 - asin Thuk. i. 20, ~ 2 (Shilleto) N. viii. 38; I. v. 14, vi. 40 - coupled with finite verb, 0. i. 13, 14; N. xi. 45; I. i. 14 -case changed to accusative v. accusative - for el with optat. P. x. 62 - genitive absolute without noun v. genitive abs. - of gnomic aorist v. aorist - of gnomic aorist, bpaKcvres, N. vii. 3 - sign. cause, N. iii. 16 - with change of case, 0. i. 10 - with od qPpdcerat, I. i. 68 (cf. particular apodosis to general protasis, P. xi. 54, 55 pentathlon, Introductory essay. N. vii. Introd. (' spear - throwing' should be placed before discushurling) perfect denoting permanent effect or continuance of past action, 0. i. 53, 94; N. iii. 84, viii. 25, ix. 41; I. iii. 3 personal constr. with part. for impers. with acc. and inf. 0. ix. 103; N. vi. 2, ix. 6; I. vii. 12 personal pron. omitted v. efg Phlegra, N. iv. 27; I. v. 33 Pindar's (apparent) Medism, F. 86 Pindaric hendecasyllables, F. 93, 94 Pindaricus versus, F. 11 A place of action synonymous with action, N. i. 1 note pleonasm, N. iii. 34 plural adj. 'it is,' P. i. 34; N. iv. 71, viii. 4

Page  261 ENGLISH INDEX. 261 plural, in allusion to one person, 0. ix. 56; N. i. 58; l. iv. 43; F. 53. 10 - verb with neuter plural v, neuter possessive dative v. dative predicate, extension of, v. extension, prolepsis predicative adjective, emphatic, N. x. 32; I. i. 17, ii. 12 preposition and case after nouns, 0. i. 94, viii. 9; P. vi. 18 present historic v. historic - prophetic, 0.- viii. 42; P. iv. 49 - subjunctive after 6-rap of past time in orat. obliqua, N. i. 68 prolepsis, 0. i. 68, ii. 22, iii. 16, vi. 63, xii. 2; P. i. 51, 65, ii. 26, iv. 194; N. i. 43; I. vi. 29 Pythagoras' doctrine of mean, P. ii. 34 Relative, neuter plural, with definite antecedent, 0.1i. 16 (cf. x. 8); P. ii. 75, iii. 18, vi. 21; N. ix. 9; F. 176 Sacrificers, position of, 0. iii. 19 schema Alernanicum, 0. v. 15; P. x. 10; N. x. 48 - Pindaricum, 0. x. 6; P. x. 71, F. 53. 15-18, 224 seasons, N. v. 6 showers of gold, F. 96. 4 sibilants, consecutive avoided, 0. xii. 10; I. iii. 17, note - in Greek, F. 57 A simile v. metaphor sing. for plur. a'XXos, N. iv. 39 v. 'spring' derived, N. v. 21 subject, late position of, 0. xi. 30, 34, xiii. 17; P. ii. 41, xii. 17; I. v. 30, 35, 40, vii. 16 subject of dependant clause made object of priuc. clause, 0. xiv. 20 substantives compounded of preposition and subst. 0. vii. 61 suppression of eivat, 0. vii. 23; N. v. 9, 10 - - ~~~tkXXov, with verb of wishing, choice, N. x. 58 - - 0(ei) IlV V. 0 UC' - re, -re in explaining dppozv, I. iv. 19 - pron. with e'tq v. ety synizesis, 0. i. S Three libations, I. v. 2 tmesis, 0. i. 17(?), 90, vii. 43, 44, viii. 32, xiii. 59, 60; P. iv. 34, xi. 14; N. iii. 24, 67, vii. 68, ix. 8, 33; x. 71, xi. 30; I. ii. 29, vi. 30, vii. 14, 58; F. 65. 5, 99.8 transition indicated hy J-yWi v. yw transposition in mrss, N. iii. 17 (Triclin. 0eToKcLx( pa-c-w&); I. iii. 82 Triopean deities (Herod. I. 141), Apollo, Poseidbn, Hldd's, DAmefter, Kor~, Nymphs, 0. 1. Introd. Virtues, division of, 0. i. 89; N. iii. 72 vowel, variation of radical, P. i. 45 Wrestling terms, N. iv. 93 Zeta, F. 57 A, note zeugma, 0. i. 88,(?), ix. 6, xiii. 22; P. i. 40 (? Jebb), viii. 20; N. viii. 3, x. 25; I. v. 47

Page  262 INDEX OF QUOTATIONS FROM AND REFERENCES TO CLASSICAL GREEK AUTHORS FOUND IN THIS VOLUME. Aesclylos Ag. 10, 210, 1503; N. viii. 46 - 97; N. xi. 45; I. i. 14 - 104-119; N. ix. 18 - 177; I. i. 40 - 225; N. iii. 12, -xi. 16 - 237; I. v. 2 - 483; I. iii. 69 - 666 (P.); N. vi. 15 - 869; N. xi. 16 - 926 (P.); N. iv. 58 - 942; N. iv. 15 - 1123; 1. iii. 83 - 1154; N. vii. 50 - 1588 (P., I. i. 46 Choeph. 84; N. iii. 25 - 305; N iv 30 - 438; N. viii. 38 - 471 (P.); I.vii. 5 - 547; N. xi. 45 - 630; I. iii. 69 - 685(P.), N. iv. 2 - 948; N. vii. 48 - 961 N. iv. 38 - 965 N. iiin 12 - 989 I. ii. 38 Eum. 104, F. 109 - 107, N. viii. 46 - 108; I. iiin 85 - 684, I vii. 45 - 729; I.v. 2 - 740; N. ix. 18 Pers. 28; N. iii. 40 - 430; 1. iii. 56 - 616; N. ix. 52 - 640; N. ix. 43 - 913; I. i. 46 Aesohylos Pers. 968; N. iv. 36 - 1053; 1. vii. 25 P.V. 18; N. v. 32 - 85; N. iii. 83 - 210; I. iv. 1 - 228; N. xi. 1 - 285; I. iii. 23 - 405; I. iii. 69 - 445; I. iii. 53 - 559; N. v. 27 - 660; N. iii. 46 - 665; N. x. 25 - 786,7 (P.), 941; I. vii. 35 - 837; N. ix. 41 - 865; N. x. 5 Sept. 13; N. iii. 67 - 593; N. x. 11 - 614(P.); I. vit. 45 Suppi. 26 - 46; L. v. 46 - 196, 269 (P); I. v. 58 - 458; N. iii. 67 - 973 (P.); N. viii. 1 - 996; N. v. 8 Alkacos Frag. 50; I. ii. 9 - 61; I.ii. 5 Almflkun Frag. 1; N. iii. 10 Frag. 2 [31]; N. ii. 2 Frag. 50 [60]; N. vii. 87 Anacreontea (Bergk) 22 [20]; I. vii. 10 Apollhnios Rhodios i. 153; N. x. 61 iv. 797; I. vii. 35 Aratos Phaen. 1; N. ii. 2 Archilochos Frag. 53 [45]; I. vii. 14

Page  263 INDEX OF QUOTATIONS. 263 Archilochus Frag. 64 [40]; N. iv. 71 -88 [6]; N. i. 63 -98 [65]; N. ix. 21 Aristophan~s Ach. 571; N. iv, 37 -673; F. 54. 1 -1079; N. iv. 71; L. i. 64, v. 7 - 1233; N. i.16, 11 EFel. 828; N. vii. 104 Eq. 37; N. x. 30 -503; L1i62 -1015 N. vii. 50 Nub. 1025; N. vii. 23 - 1047, N. iv. 37 Lys. 1110 N. iv. 35 Pac. 232; N. xi. 24 - 733, N. vii. 50 -797, L vii. 8 -831;N, vii. 76 Flut. 981, 992, N. i. 56 Ran. 281;N. ix 43 -289 F. 73. 1 - 439; N. vii. 104 - 5o1 554; I vii. Vesp. 588; N. xi. 11 Aristoteibs Nic. Eth. i 3, N. iii. 75 -v. 8 N. iv. 30 Pol. L. 2 N. vii. 42 TO CivrtvEurov0os; N. xi. 42 Dt-mosthen&~, p. 496; N. x. 28 - 560; IL iii. 51 - 564 fiu.; IL iii. 3. Euripid~s Atc. 118; F. 213. 2 - 177; L. iii. 87, vii. 45 - 663; N. xi. 15 Andr. 16, 1260; N. iv. 49 - 650; I ii. 41 - 1085; N. vii. 42 - 1247; N iv.51 Bacch. 100; L v. 46 - 708; N. ii. 77 - 722; L ini 85 - 743 N i.50 - 877-881; N.v.22 - 893 1i.45 - 1206; L iii. 72 Cyjcl. 335; I vi. 40 Euripidbs El. 143; N. x. 67 - 323, 512; L. ii. 87 - 442; L. i. 23 - 939; L. ii.6 - 1080; I. vii. 69 Hec. 933; N. i. 50 Hl~s. 255; N. vii. 6 - 274; N. x.78 - 1039; N. iv. 28 - 1449; L. vi. 12, 13 Heraci. 802, 860; N. iv. 28 - 974; I. iii. 53 llerc. F. 20, 847; L. iii. 75 -62; N. xi. 43 -179; L i. 62 -470; N. iv. 59 -676; L. vii. 6 -677; N. iv. 17 -785; L.v. 72 -871; LILI1 -1238; N. viii. 3 Hipp. 67, 1092; N. x. 38 - 537; I. iii. 80 - 651; N. vi. 3 - 1203; N. i.43 loin. 11-13; N. ix. 41 - 475, 922; N. iii. 56 - 572; N. i. 8 - 600; N. vii. 59 - 639; N. i. 31 - 666; N. x. 25 - 818; N. x. 86 - 1241; N. iv. 28 - 1514; N. vi. 7 Iph. in A. 239; N. x. 1 - 716, 717; I. vii. 44 Iph. in T. 81; L. i 57 - 435; N. iv. 49 - 676; N. vii. 59 - 1009; N. x. 86 - 1161; N. v. 50 - 1350; N. viii. 37 Med. 297; L. i. 41 - 315; N. ix. 2 - 810; I. i. 46 - 1077; N. ix. 47 - 1133; N. i.40 Orest. 263; 1L iii. 72 - 265; N. iv. 37 - 566-570; IL i. 44 - 975; N.ji. 33 - 1654-6; N. vii. 42 Phoen. 571, 573; 1. v. 31

Page  264 264 INDEX OF QUOTATIONS, Euripidds Phoen. 773; L, iii 53 -894; F. 84. 14, 15 -1326; N. vii. 42 -1523; N. iv. 46 Suppl. 526; L. ii. 38 -565; N. viii. 21 -566, 1014; L. i, 62 -574; N. i. 32 -667, 675, 925; N. iv, 783; N. x. 67 Troad. 1148; N. xi. 16 Re'rodotos, i. 9, iii. 142; I. vii. 69 -v. 33; N. i.40 - vi. 16;N.v. 19 H6siodos Se. Fler. 12; N. x. 60 - 13; N. i. 51 -65; N. vi. 2 - 173; N. ix. 23 - 202; N. iv. 14 -235; N. i. 42 - 302; N. iv. 93 Theogon. 126-136, 409 — 443; L. iv. 1 - 453; N. xi. 6 - 535; N. ix. 53 - 862-866; N. vii. 17 - 915; N. vii. 15 - 922; N. vii. 2 FV. and D. 199; N. ix. 36 - 324; L. iii. 6 - 344; N. vii. 87 - 352; N. vii. 17 - 404-406; F. 65. 2 - 409; L v. 67 - 413; N. viii. 27 - 619; N. ii. 10 - 692; L v. 71 - 476; N. x. 61 - 488, 626; IL iv. 49 - 589; N. vii. 61 - 607; N. vi. 10 - 619; N. ii. 10 - 692; 1. v. 71 - 763; N. iii. 84 - 783; L. vii. 44 Iliad, i. 65; N. vii. 26 - i.117; N.x. 58 - i.458; N.iL8 - i. 495; L. V. 18 Iliad, ii. 287 N. v. 3 - ii. 382; 1 vii. I - ii. 768, N. vii. 27 -iin 389 N. vii. 42 - V. 91, I iv. 49 - V.504 N.vi. 3 - V".638 N. iv. 25; L.iv. 37 - vi. 152 N. vi.26 -vii. 335 N. vii. 19 - viii. 86 N. viii. 23 - viii. 18 5, N. iv. 28 - viii. 203, N. v. 37 - viii. 285; 1 i. 39 - ix. 633; F. 110 - x. 238 I. vi. 51 - xi. 269; N. i. 48 - xi. 532; N.H 1i4 - xi. 746, I. vii. 25 - xi. 757; N. ix.41 - xii. 225; N. v,1 -xii. 296; I. iii. 56 -xiii. 271; L. vi. 36 -xiii. 636; N. vii. 53 -xiii. 824; N. viii. 24 -xiv. 57; 1. vi. 36 -xiv. 402; N. ii. 14, viii. 30 -xv. 282; N. vii. 10 -xv. end; N. ii. 14 -xvi. 114, 358; N. ii. 14 -xvi. 140-144; N. iii. 32 -xvii. 227; L. vii. I -xvii. 243; N. x. 9 -xvii. 394, 558; N. vii. 103 -xvii. 404; N. iv. 9 -xvii. 425; N. vi. 3 -- viii. 115; IL v. 14 -x-viii. 393-405; N. iii. 56 -xix. 125; N. i. 53 -xix. 299; N. i. 71 -xix. 387-391; N. iii. 32 - xxi. 126; IL vii. 1 - xxi. 162; N. iii. 44 - xxii. 157; N. viii. 37 - xxii. 308; N. iii. 81 - xxii. 309, 317; N. iv. 4 - xxiii. 264 ff.; L. i. 18 -xxiii. 714; N. iv. 93 -xxiv. 248; N. i. 40 -xxiv. 461; N. iii. 9 -xxiv. 522, 550; I. vii. 7 -xxiv. 615; N. i. 3 -xxiv. 696; N. x.75 Isaeos Or. xi. 39; 1L iii. 53

Page  265 INDEX OF QUOTATIONS. 2651! Kallimachos In Dian. 128; I. vi. 12, 13 Odyssey, ii. 310; I. i. 64, v. 7 - iii. 23; N. vii. 10 -iv. 3;N. i.71 - iv. 581; I. ii. 34 - v. 439; N. iv. 36 -vi. 48; N. v.38 - vii. 107; N. v. 1 - ix. 215; N. i. 63 - x. 247; N. i. 53 -x. 263;N.v.1I -xi. 303; N.x. 55 - xi. 392; N. v. 11 - xii. 266; 1.1i. 62 - xiv. 417; I. i. 41 - xvi. 138; N. v.1I - xvi. 243; I.i. 64, v7 - Mxii 218; N. iv. 91 - xx. 74; N.x. 18 - xxiii. 244; N. ix. 23 - xxiv. 58-64; 1. vii. 57 -xxiv. 416; N. x.75 Pausariias, i. 14; N. vii. 44 L i18. 3;N. xi. 4 H i. 10. 1; N. iii. 22 - Ri. 15. 2; N. ii. 5 - i. 17; N. x. 18 -ii. 29. 2;N. iv. 46 - ii. 29. 7; N. v. 12 - iii. 19. 11; N. iv. 49 - iii. 20; N.x. 55 - iii. 31. 9;N. x.70 - v. 15. 6;I. ii. 2 3 - Vi. 7. 1;N. iv. 21 - vi. 18. 5; N. vi. 18 - ix. 18; I. vi. 31 - ix.8. 3;N. i.60 -ix. 11; N. iv. 24 - ix. 16; F. 12 -ix. 23. 1;N. iv. 20 - Mi. 38. 3; I. i. 56 - x. 22. 5; N. i.53 -x. 24. 5;N. vii. 45 Plato Ion, 534 A; N. iii. 7 7 Lys. 216 c; N. v. 22 Phaedr. 227 B; I. i. 2 - pp. 244, 245; N. xi. 48 Protag. 338 A; N.yv. 51 Rep. 411 B; I. vii. 53 F. 11. Plato Tim. p. 161; I. vii. 8 Plutarch de genio Socratis, p. 575 D; I. i. 2 - (Fr. xxiii. 2); N. i.24 Sappho, ii. 11; N. v. S Shilleto, Thuk. i. 20. 3; N. viii. 38 $imonides, eg czKp01 ciz'Spetag, N. Vi. 24 F rog. 4. 5; I. iv. 56 -5 [12J; N. iii. 82 -39 [54]; I. vii. 14 -52 [26];N. i.46 -85 [60]. 13; N. i. 32 -89 [106];1. vi. 27 -114 [61];1. vi. 34 -147 [203], 153 [211], 154 [212], 155 [213]; N. v. 5 - 149[206]; N.vi.66 -154 [212]; F. IA -118 [227]; N. xi. 16 Solo'n Firag. 4 [13]. 7; 1. iii. 2 - 8; I. iii. 29 - 13 [4]. 65; N. xi. 46 I. ii. 36 Sophokie's Aj. 70; N. xi. 23 -122, 563; N. iv. 36 -130; N. iii. 40 -154; N. vi. 29 -157; N. vAii. 21 -212; N. vii. 89 -245, 1138; I. vii.1I -369; N. vi. 15 - 415; N. vii. 5, viii. 24 -430-432; I. v. 53 - 519; N. vii. 90 - 895; N. i. 55 - 828,899; N. viii. 23 - 1135; N. viii. 20 - 1353; N. ix. 2 Ant. 34; I. vi. 22 - 548; I. ii. 11 - 795; N. viii. 2 - 800; N. v. 41 - 1iS, f'rag. 856; I. iv. 1 - 1241; N. x. 18 - 1311; N. i. 55 El. 351; N. iii. 12 -480; I. i. 46 18

Page  266 266 INDEX OF QUOTATIONS. Sophokl~s El. 626 IL i. 41 - 680; I ii. 16 - 1079; N. viiin 38 Oed. C. 24; N. x. 30 - 288; N. i. 64 - 617; L iv. 28 - 877; F. 213. 2 - 1108; N. vi. 37 - 1219 N. xi. 42 - 1424; N. iv. 61 - 1752; I vii. 46 Oed.1B. 28; N. x. 2 - 107, N. i. 64 - 314; N. vii. 16 - 577, N. i 31 - 579 N x. 86 - 740; N. vi. 5 - 740; N. xi. 45 - 978; N. xi. 43 - 1451; N. ix. 41 Phil. 142; N. iv. 9 - 578; N. iv. 40 - 963; N. x. 29 - 1025; N. vii. 6 - 1425; N. vii. 7 Trach. 159; N. i. 68 6- 38; N. ix. 41 -641; N. viii. 1 5 - 847; N. x. 75 - 887; I. vii. 25 - 1160; N. vi. 1 Erag. 149; N. ix. 50 - 411; I. v. 58 Terpandros, F. 1; N.L. S Theognis, 29. 30; I. i. 41 - 75; N. v. 22 - 173: N. vi. 25, 58 - 237; i. L 64 -- 243; L. i. 68 Theognis, 321; I. iii. 2 - 585; N. xi. 46 - 890;. iii. 51 - 1009 N. i. 32 - 1051; N. iv. 8 - 1231 N. xi. 48 Theo'ktos, i. 20; N. vi. 21 - ii. 17 N. iv. 35 - v: 58; N. iii. 77 - vi. 45; N. v 5 - vii. 40; N. v. 5 - xii. 31; N. i. 11 - xiii. 40; N. iv. 52 - xvii. 1; N.ii.2 - xxiii. 34; N. v. 5 - xxiv. 72; N. iii. 56 - xxiv. 83, 4; N. i. 58 Thuksydid~s, i. 13. 1; N. i. 33 - i. 20, ~3: N. viii. 38; IL iv. 56, v. 14 - i. 21. 1; N. vii. 22 - i. 26; I. ii. 16 - i. 33. 2, iii. 58; N.vii. 59 - i. 71. 5; I. iii. 25 - i. 100; I. vii. 12 - i. 142; N. xi. 42 - ii. 40. 2; 1. iv. 22 - ii. 41; L. iii. 53 - v. 47; N. iii. 70 - v. 49; N. v. 5 - -vi. 34. 4; 40. 1; N, vi. 5 - viii. 86. 8; N. v. 35 Xenophhn Cyrop. vi. 1. 27; N. iv. 28 lie Yein. x. 8; L. i. 41 Memor. i. 2. 16, 47; N. ix. 15 ii. 1. 34; I. iii. 21 ii.3.1; 1.vi.22 iii. 9. 2; I.i. 25 CAMBRIDGE: PRINTED BY C. J. CLAY, M.A. & SON, AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

Page  267 By the same Editor. PINDAR: THE OLYMPIAN AND PYTHIAN ODES. With Notes Explanatory and Critical, Introductions and Introductory Essays. Crown 8vo. 9s. "Mr Fennell deserves the thanks of all classical students for his careful and scholarly edition of the Olympian and Pythian odes. He brings to his task fle necessary enthusiasm for his author, great industry, a sound judgment, and, in particular, copious and minute learning in comparative philology. To his qualifications in this last respect every page bears witness."-A theneaum. "Considered simply as a contribution to the study and criticism of Pindar, Mr Fennell's edition is a work of great merit.. Altogether this edition is a welcome and wholesome sign of the vitality and development of Cambridge scholarship, and we are glad to see that it is to be continued."-Saturday Review. "Fennell (Pindar:...... Cambridge 1879-werthvoll)."-Prof. Fr, Mezger, Pindars Siegeslieder, p. 19.

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