Archaeological atlas of Michigan [by] Wilbert B. Hinsdale...
Hinsdale, W. B. (Wilbert B.), 1851-1944., McCartney, Eugene Stock, 1883-, Stevens, Edward J.

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Page  [unnumbered] UNIVERSITY MUSEUMS, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL ATLAS OF MICHIGAN WILBERT B. HINSDALE I MICHIGAN HANDBOOK SERIES, NO. 4?Mniberoitp of j$icfigan 1ublicationo The price of this volume is $6.00. Orders for it and requests for a list of other publications of the University of Michigan Press should be addressed to The Librarian, General Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan., ill *, * ANN ARBOR UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN PRESS 1931.; ^^*^*^i^'--- -.;,^:..^;.,.^^.[.T1 * *

Page  [unnumbered] ':..., 'i.o, '** f *t, / ' COPYRIGHT 1931! BY THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Editr, Eugene S. MCCartne Set up 'and printed, 1931 *.....: *... PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BY THE ANN ARBOR PRESS, ANN ARBOR, MICH.

Page  [unnumbered] C-"^.^ -: d34s CONTENTS I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X INTRODUCTION...................................... 1 METHODS AND SOURCES...................... 1 T R A IL S........:.... '..:....................... 2 WATERWAYS AND PORTAGES......................... 5 MOUNDS AND OTHER EARTHWORKS................... 7 VILLAGES AND CAMP SITES..... " '...... 7 BURYING GROUNDS...............1 GARDEN BEDS........................................ 11 M INING............................... 11 CULTURAL FEATURES NOT INCLUDED ON THE MAPS. 12 NOTES UPON THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURES QF " THE COUNTIES.................................... 14 EXPLANATION-'OF CARTOGRAPHIC SYMBOLS:......:.:.40.. .. -'...... " -S " v, ~ ~ ~ ~ r,., -.,-~' 1 FIGURES IN THE TEXT 0.1* ^-c2 1. L 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Important trails to and from Michigan................... Henry Shawnosga, an Ottawa.Indian " Qld Indian cornfield, Alcona County.,,....., Trephined skull from Alpena County,..,.... Old Indian, trail, Barry County.......,.... Diagram of earthworks on an island,. in Lac Vieux Dese.. Diagram of earthworks on an island in Lac Vieux Desert. *... * -. *.,........... 1 3 '3.14......... ',.16.......20.......1 6......... 2 0 Mass of float copper from Houghton County...... ":[ " ,,.. '.4,, y, Outlines of garden beds.....,......... Group of mounds below Grand Rapids............... Diagram showing mining methods in Keweenaw County..... Diagram showing position of copper mass at McCargoe's Cove, Isle Royale............................................ Copper mass shown in Figure 11......................... Diagram of inclosure, Lenawee County............... Diagram of ancient earthworks in Macomb County....... An inclosure in Missaukee County.............21.23.24 Implements and pipe from mound in Montmorency County. Fragment of pottery from Newaygo County............ Ancient mining shaft, Ontonagon County............... Hill-top inclosure in Sherman Township, St. Joseph County. Diagram of a peculiar circular inclosure, St. Joseph County. "Great Springwells Mound," Wayne County.................... 31........ 31........ 33........ 35........ 35....... 37

Page  [unnumbered] LIST OF MAPS COUNTIES OF MICHIGAN................................... INDIAN VILLAGES OF MICHIGAN OF WHICH THE NAMES AND LOCATIONS ARE KNOWN............................... PRINCIPAL INDIAN PORTAGES............................ GROUPS OF COUNTIES BERRIEN, CASS, ST. JOSEPH, VAN BUREN, KALAMAZOO, ALLEGAN........................................... BRANCH, HILLSDALE, CALHOUN, JACKSON, BARRY, EATON LENAWEE, MONROE, WASHTENAW, WAYNE, LIVINGSTON, OAKLAND, MACOMB............................... OTTAWA, KENT, MUSKEGON, OCEANA, NEWAYGO........ IONIA, CLINTON, MONTCALM, GRATIOT, MECOSTA, ISABELLA, MIDLAND................................ SHIAWASSEE, GENESEE, SAGINAW, TUSCOLA, BAY.......... LAPEER, ST. CLAIR, SANILAC, HURON................... MASON, LAKE, OSCEOLA, MANISTEE, WEXFORD, MISSAUKEE, BENZIE, GRAND TRAVERSE, KALKASKA................ CLARE, GLADWIN, ARENAC, ROSCOMMON, OGEMAW, IOSCO,. 4. 5. 6. 7 8. 9.10.11 CRAWFORD, OSCODA, ALCONA............. LEELANAU, ANTRIM, CHARLEVOIX, EMMET....... OTSEGO, MONTMORENCY, ALPENA, CHEBOYGAN, PRESQUE ISLE............................. GOGEBIC, ONTONAGON.............. IRON, BARAGA, HOUGHTON, KEWEENAW........ ISLE ROYALE (part of Keweenaw County)........... MENOMINEE, DICKINSON, MARQUETTE.......... DELTA, SCHOOLCRAFT, ALGER................... MACKINAC, CHIPPEWA, LUCE................................. 1 2 13..........1 4 15.......... 1 6.. 17........... 1 8........... 1 9........... 2 0

Page  [unnumbered] INDEX OF COUNTIES ALCONA.... ALGER...... ALLEGAN... ALPENA.... ANTRIM.... ARENAC.... BARAGA.... BARRY..... BAY........ BENZIE..... BERRIEN.... BRANCH.... CALHOUN.. CASS........ CHARLEVOIX CHEBOYGAN CHIPPEWA.. CLARE..... CLINTON... CRAWFORD. DELTA...... DICKINSON EATON.... EMMET..... GENESEE... GLADWIN.. GOGEBIC.... GRAND TRAV MAP........ 12 GRATIOT................. 19 HILLSDALE................ 4 HOUGHTON............. 14 HURON................... 13 INGHAM................... 12 IO N IA..................... 16 IO SC O................... 5 IR O N...................... 9 ISABELLA.................. 11 ISLE ROYALE*............... 4 JACKSON................. 5 KALAMAZOO.............. 5 KALKASKA................. 4 K EN T..................... 13 KEWEENAW................ 14 LA K E...................... 20 LAPEER...................12 LEELANAU................. 8 LENAW EE.................. 12 LIVINGSTON............... 19 LU C E...................... 18 MACKINAC.............. 5 MACOMB................ 13 MANISTEE................ 9 MARQUETTE.............. 12 M A SO N.................... 15 MECOSTA......... tERSE... 11 MENOMINEE...... MAP MAP... 8 MIDLAND............ 8... 5 MISSAUKEE.......... 11...16 MONROE............ 6. 10 MONTCALM.......... 8... 5 MONTMORENCY..... 14... 8 MUSKEGON......... 7... 12 NEWAYGO........... 7.. 16 OAKLAND............ 6... 8 OCEANA............. 7... 17 OGEMAW............ 12 S.. 5 ONTONAGON........15... 4 OSCEOLA.............11... 11 OSCODA............ 12.. 7 OTSEGO............ 14... 16 OTTAWA............ 7... 11 PRESQUE ISLE........ 14. 10 ROSCOMMON........12 S..13 SAGINAW............ 9.. 6 SANILAC.............. 10... 6 SCHOOLCRAFT....... 19...20 SHIAWASSEE......... 9...20 ST. CLAIR........... 10. 6 ST. JOSEPH.......... 4. 11 TUSCOLA............ 9.. 18 VANBUREN.......... 4... 11 WASHTENAW........ 6.. 8 W AYNE.............. 6.. 18 WEXFORD........... 11I,'Part of Keweenaw Co.

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Page  1 INTRODUCTION T HE object of this publication is to present such archaeological features of Michigan as can be delineated cartographically, so far as the compilers have been able to secure exact knowledge of locations. Every county has been visited by some member of the staff of the University of Michigan Museums, especially for the purpose of making field surveys, but the maps are not entirely based upon results of such reconnaissances. A partial list of sources of information is given in Chapter I. Lumbermen did much miscellaneous digging and spoiled many a burial mound and earth inclosure while they were deforesting the lands. It is unusual to find an old site that has not been disturbed from curiosity or for the commercialization of relics. The plow, which is the greatest tool of destruction of earthworks, is, upon the other hand, the implement that brings to light old lodge, camp, and villages sites. No efforts for the conservation of antiquities have been made by the state until within the past three years. In the paragraphs that follow this introduction and in the notes upon the different counties, some details appertaining to local archaeological situations are given. Maps, to be of value, must be accurate, but the probability of errors of omission and commission has to be taken into account. The existence of sites in a region may be well authenticated, but, owing to uncertainties of exact situations, some of them have not been charted. Unless the locations could be determined within a section of land, they have, as a rule, not been included. Geographical vagueness has been a fault of informants whose records and reports are otherwise precise. There is also the liability of taking as ""good authority" statements that are misleading, if not fictitious. Many-reports, oral, written, and printed, are so obviously erroneous that they have been ignored. Oc casionally the word "vague" occurs upon the maps, and a few sections of trails are traced with broken lines to signify a little doubt as to the actual route. It must not be presumed that this is an effort to produce a treatise upon the archaeology of Michigan. Only such descriptive matter is submitted as will make clear the information presented upon the maps. It is impossible to mention by name all the people who, through their kindness or interest in the surveys, have rendered gratuitous service in the assembling of data. A number of collaborators are mentioned in the parts of this volume which specifically relate to the counties. The first suggestion that the Atlas be prepared came from President Alexander G. Ruthven, who has, upon various occasions, given valuable advice. The drawings for the maps have been prepared by Mr. Edward J. Stevens, C.E., and to him as collaborator most grateful acknowledgment is made. Special mention must be made of Dr. E. C. Case, Director of the Museum of Paleontology, of the University Museums, who kindly reviewed the manuscript. Dr. Carl E. Guthe and other members of the Museum staff have been consulted when their several departments were able to render assistance. Dr. Carl L. Hubbs, Curator of Fishes, of the University Museums, and Mr. M. J. DeBoer, of the Division of Fishes, State Department of Conservation, gave of their time and knowledge in locating some of the lakes and streams of the state. Courteous assistance has been rendered by the librarians of the University, the Burton Historical Library, the William L. Clements Library, the Michigan State Library, and the Library of Congress, as well as by W. L. Jenks, Esq., who has a rare collection of early maps, and Dr. L. C. Karpinski, expert in early maps. I. METHODS AND SOURCES N THE Introduction some general comments have been made upon the methods employed in gathering data upon which the maps and notes are based. The references consulted are too numerous to be cited in detail. The trail lines upon the maps are mostly drawn from the field notes and plats, now on file in the State Library in the Capitol at Lansing, of the government surveyors who first divided into townships the territory which became the state of Michigan. These records comprise over twenty thousand pages in addition to the plats of the twelve hundred and sixty-two townships. Every page of the reports and charts has been examined for data that might be incorporated in this Atlas. There are extant many early maps of the territory, and later of the state, some of which are very rare, that have been consulted. A few of these are the various issues of John Farmer, 0. Risdon, Mitchell, D. Houghton, Young, Woodward, Carey, and Lea, and, more recently, the United States Bureau of American Ethnology and M. Quaife. The makers of the maps, when they did not copy from each other, used the notes of the official surveyors to which reference has been made. The Great Lakes territory had been charted by many early French map-makers and later, prior to the establishment of the United States Government, by Englishmen. There are also maps by Samuel Charles Mazzuchelli, published in Italian. The collection of maps in the General Library of the University of Michigan, the William L. Clements Library, the State Library at the Capitol, the Burton Historical Library, the Library of Congress, and many charts and documents in the libraries of Mr. W. L. Jenks of Port Huron, and other individuals have been laid under contribution. For bibliography of maps and other publications relating to the resources, development, and history of Michigan from the earliest time to 19 17, reference is made to Streeter's bibliography. In view of the fact that the bibliographies of Floyd B. Streeter and H. I. Smith, cited below, are very complete, only the more important references are deemed necessary. Hundreds of photographs taken in the field and an ever accumulating collection of citation cards on the subject of mounds and other earthworks, village and burial sites, mines and trails were assembled by the Museum in anticipation of this effort. MORE IMPORTANT PUBLICATIONS CONSULTED GENERAL REPORTS, BIBLIOGRAPHIES, AND SERIALS American State Papers. Documents, Legislative and Executive of the Congress of the United States. Class II. Indian Affairs, 1789-1827. Gales and Seaton, Washington. 1832-1861. Annual Archaeological Report. Being part of Appendix to the Report of the Minister of Education of Ontario. L. K. Cameron, Toronto, Canada. 1903. Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Government Printing Office, Washington. 1881-1928. Annual Reports of the Smithsonian Institution. Government Printing Office, Washington. 1850-. -1

Page  2 METHODS AND SOURCES BLACKBIRD, ANDREW J. Complete History of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan and Grammar of Their Language. Babcock and Darling, Harbor Springs, Michigan. 1897. Bulletins of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Government Printing Office, Washington. 1887-. CHASE, LEVI B. Early Indian Trails through Tantiusque. Leaflets of the Quinabaug Historical Society, Volume I, No. 6. Sturbridge, Dudley, and Charlton, Southbridge, Massachusetts. No date. Collections and Researches made by the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society. W. S. George and Co.; Wynkoop Hallenbeck Crawford Co., Lansing [Michigan]. 1877-1912. Documents relative to Colonial History of the State of New York. Volumes I-XIV. Weed, Parsons and Co., Albany [New York]. 1856 -1883. Field Notes on file in the State Land Office of the United States Government Surveyors. Lansing [Michigan]. HUBBARD, BELA. General Observations upon the Geology and Topography of the District South of Lake Superior, subdivided in 1845 under the direction of Douglass Houghton, Deputy Surveyor. Executive Documents of the United States Senate, first session of the Twenty-first Congress. Volume III, No. 1, pages 833-912. Printed by William M. Belt, Washington. 1850. JACKSON, CHARLES T. Report of the Geological and Mineralogical Survey of the United States Mineral Lands in Michigan under Act of March 1, 1847. Executive Documents of the United States Senate, first session of the Twenty-first Congress. Volume III, No. 1, pages 371-587. Printed by William M. Belt, Washington. 1850. Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents: Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France, 1610-1791; the original French, Latin, and Italian texts, with English translations and notes; illustrated by portraits, maps, and facsimiles; edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites. Seventy-three volumes. The Burrows Brothers Co., Cleveland [Ohio]. 1896-1901. KARPINSKI, L. C. Bibliography of the Printed Maps of Michigan. Publications of the Michigan Historical Commission. 1931. Michigan History Magazine. Published quarterly by the Michigan Historical Commission. Lansing [Michigan]. 1917-. O'CALLAGHAN, E. B. The Documentary History of the State of New York; arranged under the direction of C. Morgan, Secretary of State. Four volumes. Weed, Parsons, and Co.; C. Van Benthuysen, Albany [New York]. 1849-51. PHILLIPS, P. L. A List of Maps of America in the Library of Congress: preceded by a list of works relating to cartography. Government Printing Office, Washington. 1901. Report of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology in connection with Harvard University. Volume I, 1868-76. Cambridge [Massachusetts]. 1876. Reports of the United States National Museum under the direction of the Smithsonian Institution. Government Printing Office, Washington. 1881-. SCHOOLCRAFT, HENRY R. Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the History, Condition, and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Parts I-IV. Lippincott, Grambo and Co. Parts V-VI. J. B. Lippincott and Co., Philadelphia. 1851-60. SMITH, HARLAN I. Memoranda towards a Bibliography of the Archaeology of Michigan. Publication 10, Biological Series 3. Michigan Geological and Biological Survey, Lansing [Michigan]. 1912. STREETER, FLOYD BENJAMIN. Michigan Bibliography. A partial catalogue of books, maps, manuscripts, and miscellaneous materials relating to the resources, development, and history of Michigan from earliest times to July 1, 1917; together with citation of libraries in which the materials may be consulted, and a complete analytical index by subject and author. Two volumes. Michigan Historical Commission, Lansing [Michigan]. 1921. Transactions and Collections of the American Antiquarian Society. Volume II. Printed for the Society at the University Press, Cambridge [Massachusetts]. 1836. Wisconsin Archeologist. The Wisconsin Archeology Society, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 1901-. SELECTED LIST OF OTHER REFERENCES BLAIR, EMMA HELEN. The Indian Tribes of the Upper Mississippi Valley and Regions of the Great Lakes as described by Nicolas Perrot, French commandant in the Northwest; Bacqueville de la Potherie, French royal commissioner to Canada; Morrell Marston, American army officer; and Thomas Forsyth, United States agent at Fort Armstrong. Translated, edited, annotated, and with bibliography and index. The Arthur H. Clark Co., Cleveland [Ohio]. 1911. BLOIS, JOHN T. Gazetteer of the State of Michigan, in Three Parts, Containing a General View of the State, etc. Sidney L. Rood and Co., Detroit; Robinson, Pratt and Co., New York. 1838. BUSHNELL, D. I. JR. Native Village Sites East of the Mississippi. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 69. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 1919. BUTTERFIELD, C. W. History of the Discovery of the Northwest by John Nicolet, in 1634, with a Sketch of his Life. Robert Clarke and Co., Cincinnati [Ohio]. 1881. CHARLEVOIX, PIERRE F. X. DE. Journal of a Voyage to North America. Undertaken by Command of the French King. Containing a geographical description and natural history of that country, particularly Canada. Together with an account of the customs, characters, religions, manners, and traditions of the original Inhabitants. In a series of letters to the Duchess of Lesdiguieres. Volumes I-II. Dublin. 1766. COLDEN, CADWALLADER. History of the Five Nations. Map. Printed for Lockyer Davis, London. 1755. Fisher's National Magazine and Industrial Record. Volume II. New York. 1846. FOSTER, J. W., AND WHITNEY, J. D. Report of Geology and Topography of a Portion of the Lake Superior Land District in the State of Michigan. In two parts. Printed for the House of Representatives, Washington. 1850. FULLER, GEORGE N. Economic and Social Beginnings of Michigan. Wynkoop Hallenbeck Crawford Co., State Printers, Lansing, Michigan. 1916. HENNEPIN, FATHER LOUIs. A description of Louisiana. Translated from the edition of 1683, and compared with the Nouvelle Decouverte, the La Salle documents, and other contemporaneous papers. Edited by John Gilmary Shea. J. G. Shea, New York. 1880. HINSDALE, W. B. Primitive Man in Michigan. Published by the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 1925. HUBBARD, BELA. Memorials of a Half-Century. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York and London. 1887. HULBERT, ARCHER BUTLER. Historic Highways of America. Indian Thoroughfares. The Arthur H. Clark Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 1902. Indians of North America, The. Selected and edited by Edna Kenton from "The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents: Travels and,explorations of the Jesuit missionaries in New France, 1610-1791." Edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites. Two volumes. Harcourt, Brace, and Co., New York. 1927. KOHL, J. G. Kitchi-Gami. Wanderings round Lake Superior. Chapman and Hall, London. 1860. LAHONTAN, LOUIS ARMAND DE LOi D'ARGE. New Voyages to North America by the Baron de Lahontan; reprinted from the English edition of 1703, with facsimiles of original title pages, maps, and illustrations, and the addition of introduction, notes, and index by Reuben Gold Thwaites. A. C. McClurg and Co., Chicago. 1905. (London, 1703. Second edition, London, 1735.) MCKENNEY, THOMAS L. Sketches of a Tour of the Lakes, of the Character and Customs of the Chippewa Indians, and of Incidents connected with the Treaty of Fond du Lac. Also a vocabulary of the Algic, or Chippewa language, formed in part, and as far as it goes, upon the basis of one furnished by A. Gallatin. F. Lucas, Jr., Baltimore. 1827. MAZZUCHELLI, SAMUEL CHARLES. Memoirs, Historical and Edifying, of a Missionary Apostolic, of the Order of Saint Dominic, among various Indian Tribes and among the Catholics and Protestants in the United States of America, with an Introduction by the Most Reverend John Ireland. Map. Translator's preface by Sister Mary Benedicta Kennedy. Press of W. F. Hall Printing Co., Chicago. 1915. MILLS, WILLIAM C. Archaeological Atlas of Ohio. Maps, trails. Published by the Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, Columbus [Ohio]. 1914. MORGAN, LEWIS H. League of the Ho-de-no-sau-nee or Iroquois. A new edition, with additional matter. Map. Edited and annotated by Herbert M. Lloyd. Dodd, Mead, and Co., New York. 1904. MORSE, REVEREND JEDIDIAH. Report to the Secretary of War of the United States on Indian Affairs, comprising the Narrative of a Tour Performed in the Summer of 1820. Printed S. Converse. New Haven [Connecticut]. 1822. NEILL, EDWARD D. Macalester College Contributions, Department of History, Literature, and Political Science. Numbers 1-12. Pioneer Press Publishing Co., Saint Paul [Minnesota]. 1890. PARKER, ARTHUR C. The Archaeological History of New York. Part 2. New York State Museum Bulletin, Albany, New York. 1920. -2----

Page  3 TRAILS PARKMAN, FRANCIS. The Conspiracy of Pontiac and the Indian War after the Conquest of Canada. Little, Brown, and Co., Boston. 1893. PARKMAN, FRANCIS. The Jesuits in North America in the Seventeenth Century. Little, Brown, and Co., Boston. 1888. PITEZEL, JOHN H. Lights and Shades of Missionary Life containing Travels, Sketches, Incidents, and Missionary Efforts during Nine Years Spent in the Region of Lake Superior. Walden and Stowe, Cincinnati [Ohio]. 1883. QUAIFE, MILO M. Chicago's Highways Old and New, from Indian Trail to Motor Road. Map. D. F. Keller and Co., Chicago. 1923. Report and Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Volumes I-XVI. Published by the Society. Madison [Wisconsin]. 1855-1902. SCHOOLCRAFT, HENRY R. Oneota, or Characteristics of the Red Race of America. From original notes and manuscripts. Wiley and Putnam, New York and London. 1845. SCHOOLCRAFT, HENRY R. Personal Memoirs of a Residence of Thirty Years with the Indian Tribes of the American Frontiers: with brief notices of passing events, facts, and opinions, A.D. 1812-1842, Lippincott, Grambo and Co., Philadelphia. 1851. SHEA, JOHN GILMARY. Discovery and Explorations of the Mississippi Valley: with the original narratives of Marquette, Allouez, Membre, Hennepin, and Anastase Douay. Redfield, New York. 1852. (Second edition, Albany, 1903.) SHEA, JOHN GILMARY. History of the Catholic Missions among the Indian Tribes of the United States, 1529-1854. P. J. Kennedy, New York. 1855. (Reprinted, New York, 1870.) SHETRONE, HENRY CLYDE. The Mound-Builders. D. Appleton and Co. New York and London. 1930. SMITH, HARLAN I. Summary of the Archaeology of Saginaw Valley, Michigan. Part I, American Anthropologist, April-June, 1901; Part II, July-September, 1901. THOMAS, CYRUS. Catalogue of Prehistoric Works East of the Rocky Mountains. Government Printing Office, Washington. 1891. WHITTLESEY, CHARLES. Ancient Mining on the Shores of Lake Superior. Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Volume XIII, 1863, article 4. WILSON, SIR DANIEL. The Lost Atlantis and other Ethnographic Studies. Macmillan and Co., New York. 1892. WILSON, EDWARD FRANCIS. The Ojebway Language: a manual for missionaries and others employed among the Ojebway Indians: Part I. The grammar. Part II. Dialogue and exercises. Part III, Dictionary. Printed by Rowsell and Hutchison, for the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge, London, Toronto [Canada]. 1874. II. TRAILS RAILS hundreds of miles in length extended across the country, and shorter ones connected places or haunts which.the Indians habitually visited (see Figure 1). These footpaths had been located with great sagacity and were usually the most feasible lines for tramping from place to place. They were the first steps in internal improvements. The white people immediately discovered that the best routes for penetrating and subduing the interior were the Indian trails. Many of our most improved highways are along the traces the natives had pursued for centuries. The first trade and commerce in Michigan by white men was with the Indians. The traders' stores, usually called trading posts, had no other object than to create among the tribes desires for European goods and to barter with the native hunters for furs. These posts were almost always situated at the meeting or crossing of main trails, generally upon some important water course. Owing to the interest the old trails have for the student of the material development of the state, great pains have been taken to locate them accurately. Only in a few cases are any trails about which there is uncertainty, traced upon the maps. Numbers of those that are traced do not connect. They have both "Cblind"beginnings and ends, owing to the fact that the field notes and other records of the government surveyors do not enable the cartographer to draw his lines in a more definite manner. Trails from Michigan to tidewater.-The entire country was crossed by paths. An understanding of Indian trails in Michigan depends upon some comprehension of the larger communication complexes. The Michigan trails, artificially divided in our minds by our system of political divisions, are but a part of the larger network. We may look briefly at some of these long arteries of trade and travel before going into detail as regards our local situation. Great Trail.-A most important line of travel into Michigan, now paralleled by highways of commerce, was the Great Trail, probably so designated because of its special importance' in Indian and pioneer affairs. Its eastern branches came from the country around Boston, Delaware, and Chesapeake bays. It connected with the Sauk or Chicago Trail by means of two or three branches as it bent around the west end of Lake Erie. This was a continuous path between tidewater, the Great Lakes, and the middle parts of the Mississippi. Over it, in pre FIG. 1. Important trails to and from Michigan historic and historic times, traveled men, savage and civilized, upon missions of vital importance to their domestic and political affairs. For uncounted years moccasin-footed Indians, then In -

Page  4 -TRAILS dians upon ponies, soldiers mounted and on foot, pioneers with oxteams and travelers in stage coaches, all upon some mission or other-war, adventure, trade, chase, exploration, home-seekingpassed over this trail. From the East the trail came to the junction of the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers, which form the Ohio where Fort Duquesne, Fort Pitt, and afterward Pittsburgh, were built. From this point the trail extended to the Ohio border, entering the state very near the southeast corner of Columbiana County, struck almost due west to the south border of Stark County, and forded the Tuscarawas at the site of old Fort Laurens. Thence it went westerly to Mohican John's Town, in Ashland County. A few miles west of there it bent northwesterly, passing Sandusky Bay to Perrysburg, at the Maumee Rapids. One branch extended west from this ford of the Maumee River, deflected northwest, and entered Michigan at the southwest corner of Seneca Township, Lenawee County, where Morenci is now situated. This branch trail continued northwest to the village of Allen, Hillsdale County, where it joined the main Chicago Trail. One track of the Great Trail bent north through where Port Lawrence, now Toledo, stood. A branch forked off at Monroe and followed the River Raisin to the Macon Reservation in central Monroe County, and from there went up the Saline River to the salt springs in Washtenaw County, where it connected with the Chicago Trail. Several other well-trodden paths practically paralleled these branches from the Great Trail to the Chicago Trail. The main Great Trail continued north from Monroe through Flat Rock and Brownstown to the crossing at Detroit. From there on to the Straits of Mackinac it was called the Saginaw and Mackinaw Trail. The old maps do not agree as to the exact course the Great Trail took in the vicinity of Toledo. No doubt the Black Swamp, which at different seasons extended along the lower reaches of the Maumee for many miles, made detours necessary at times of high water. Shore Trail.--The Shore Trail, as it is known historically, followed the southern shore of Lake Erie, going east from the vanious Michigan trails that converged at Toledo. It paralleled the Great Trail to Sandusky Bay, where the two met and parted. The Shore Trail then led on to Erie, Pennsylvania, and to Buffalo and Niagara, New York. In western New York the same kind of branching of the main trail that existed at its western end made connections with various points in the Jroquoian territory. The direct Iroquois Trail followed the Mohawk River to the Hudson. There were trails leading east from the Hudson River to Massachusetts Bay. The Shore Trail led through bloody country; the unfortunate Erie or Cat Tribe, who were virtually exterminated by the Five Nations, their own near relatives, once occupied parts of this country. The highway through Cleveland and other cities of the Lake Erie shore closely follows the old Shore Trail. Mohawk Trail.-The Mohawk Trail was an extension of the Shore Trail, connecting the Middle West with the Hudson and points east. Not only were there trails to New England, but there was, for instance, a branch of the Mohawk Trail in west-central New York that led to the old Iroquois town, Tioga, in northern Pennsylvania, where the Chemung joins the Susquehanna. It was a gateway toward the Chesapeake and Virginia. Scioto Trail.-One of the great warpaths of Indian history virtually led to and from Michigan. The Scioto Trail branched from the Great Trail and the Shore Trail, at their junction at Sandusky Bay, and ascended the Sandusky River upon the west side, to the divide and portage between that stream and the headwaters of the Scioto River. It went down the Scioto to its confluence with the Ohio. It crossed the Ohio and joined the famous cWarriors' Path" across Kentucky to Cumberland Gap. Beyond the Gap, by collaterals, it reached the Gulf of Mexico and the southern Atlantic coast, at different points. An important trail led into Florida. Over these Indian lines, from Lakes to Gulf, went Michigan copper, and back from the south came shells and other materials for ornaments and implements to gratify the tastes of the north. Potomac Trail.-The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, east of Parkersburg, West Virginia, follows the old Indian Trail and, before reaching Grafton, tunnels the mountains in two places exactly under the crests where the trail crosses. It was a marvel of engineering skill to locate this railroad through and over so rough a country, and when it was completed, it was only a resurvey by men of the tripod of the route the Indian and the buffalo had threaded for hundreds of years. Montreal Trail.-According to maps of John H. Eddy, 1816, and Thomas Hutchins, 1778, a road, which undoubtedly had been a very old trail coming from Montreal and following the Chicago Trail from Detroit, branched off at Fort St. Joseph and led south to the Tippecanoe River in Indiana and to Prophet's Town and Quiatanon upon the Wabash. From the latter village there was water communication by way of the Wabash, Ohio, and Mississippi to New Orleans; the total distance is given by Eddy as 1871 miles. Mahoning Trail.-Besides the Great Trail there was another one leading west from the head of the Ohio River. This was the Mahoning Trail. It followed the north bend of the Mahoning River in eastern Ohio, and then went directly west to join the Great Trail near Sandusky Bay. It was the most direct route from Detroit to the forks of the Ohio River. Saulk or Chicago Trail.-There was a trail connecting Detroit with the Sauk town at the confluence of the Rock River with the Mississippi in Illinois. The old road from Detroit to Chicago follows this route to a point near La Porte, Indiana. It deviated around the head of Lake Michigan and led on through Chicago to the wild rice fields of Green Bay, the lakes of Wisconsin, and far away to the copper mines of Lake Superior. Article 6 of the Treaty of Chicago, August 29, 1821, says::;The United States shall have the privilege of making and using a road through the Indian country, from Detroit and Fort Wayne, respectively, to Chicago." As a matter of fact, what has been referred to as the Sauk or Chicago Trail was only a small section and, finally, a branch of a two-thousand-mile thoroughfare. In the paragraph on the Montreal Trail we have mentioned a branch which crossed the Detroit River and went through Canada to Niagara Falls and Montreal. That part of this long path that extended through Michigan is now known as Trunk Line U. S. 112. Besides the long trails already mentioned, there were interstate trails that have developed into trunk-line highways. As a central point in tracing a few of the Indian paths that have become permanent roads leading to and from the Great Lakes, I have taken Detroit, although there is no reason for thinking that it was of any more importance to tribesmen, in prehistoric times, than some other places in Michigan. Saginaw Trail.-The Saginaw Trail extended northwest to the Saginaw River, which it crossed and then followed the east side of the Tittabawassee. At the mouth of the Tobacco River, near Edenville, upon the boundary between Midland and Gladwin counties, the trail divided. From this ford one branch led to Houghton Lake, in Roscommon County. It curved along the east shore of the lake and then turned west around Higgins Lake. At the northwest corner of Higgins Lake the trail again divided. One path led to Grand Traverse Bay, the other to L'Arbre Croche and Mackinaw. From the ford at Edenville the east fork of the Saginaw Trail went up the Tittabawassee through the center of Gladwin County and then led on in a quite direct line to Cheboygan, where it turned abruptly west and met the western branch at the Straits of Mackinac. The Dixie Highway, coming from the south and passing through Toledo, Detroit, Pontiac, and Flint, follows the Saginaw Trail. --4--

Page  5 WATERWAYS AND PORTAG E S Grand River Trail.-The road to Grand Rapids that leaves Detroit as Grand River Avenue follows the course that Indians took for centuries before pioneers pushed into the wilderness of Oakland, Livingston, Ingham, lonia, and Kent counties. Territorial and Potawatomi Trails.-Two paths crossed the Chicago or Sauk Trail at Ypsilanti and passed through Ann Arbor. One followed the Huron River from its mouth; the other came in over the higher land to the south. Beyond Ann Arbor the so-called Territorial Trail went through the centers of Jackson and Calhoun counties and branched. A branch went to Kalamazoo and finally united with the Chicago Trail in southeastern Berrien County. The northern branch of the Territorial Trail again bifurcated for the mouth of the St. Joseph River at St. Joseph and for the mouth of the Kalamazoo at Saugatuck. Trail from southwest Michigan to Saginaw and the north.-A trail about which there is uncertainty as to its exact course for a part of the way led from the southwestern part of the state to the Saginaw River. One is able to speak more securely of its precise course north of Saginaw. One branch leading through the central part of the Lower Peninsula has already been described. The other followed the Huron shore to Alpena. At Alpena it followed for a few miles the Thunder Bay River, passed Long Lake, Alpena County, and again struck the Huron shore about the center of Presque Isle County. From there it went on to the mouth of the Cheboygan, where the city of that name stands, and then to the Straits. Trail southwest from Mackinaw.-There was a trail from Mackinaw around the Traverse bays, at the foot of Lake Michigan. This trail ran through the southern half of Manistee County and rather close to the shore through Mason and Oceana counties. About a mile south of the boundary between Oceana and Muskegon counties, the path probably deflected inland to strike the shore again at the mouths of the Black and St. Joseph Rivers, at the present towns of South Haven and St. Joseph, respectively.. II. WATERWAY Below St. Joseph this trail touched the Indian villages along the shore, or near it, and joined the Sauk Trail in Indiana, with which it connected for Chicago and "points" to the west, southwest, and northwest. Other trails.-Minor trails ramified in all directions in the state, connecting with the trans-state trails at many points. Mr. H. Brevoort, Deputy U.S. Surveyor, records, October, 1839: "Trail leads from mouth of Manistee River to Town 3 0 N. R. 3 W." The terminus of this trail was in Bagley Township, Otsego County, the west side,of Otsego Lake. The distance was 8 5 miles. There were trails and portages from Ontonagon and Menominee rivers connecting with the streams that flow through Wissonsin into the Mississippi. There is every reason to believe that much commerce passed that way from the Lake Superior mines to the far south. Two almost parallel and direct Indian paths connected St. Ignace and Sault Ste. Marie, which was less than half the distance between these important points by the water route. Along the courses of many streams and through swamps there were sometimes two followed the banks; the other, during high water, went through the adjoining uplands. An illustration of this was the trail coming up the Huron River from its mouth at Lake Erie to Portage Lake, on the border between Washtenaw and Livingston counties. This trail is designated the Potawatomi Trail. The river path kept quite close to the waters edge. The other was sometimes a mile or more back from the stream upon the solid ground through the woods. These old traces are followed today for the greater part of their courses by modern roads. Some of them are commonly referred to as "back roads"; others are excellently paved. In the notes upon many of the counties special mention is made of minor trails.1 Examination of the various maps will add greatly to the fuller understanding of the lines of Indian travel and transportation by both water and overland routes. S AND PORTAGES (See Map 3) D URING the seasons of the year when the streams and lakes were not obstructed by ice, snow, and flood, there was probably more long-distance travel by waterway than by land trail. The streams brought the hunters and travelers into immediate contact with a large proportion of their food supplies. Consequently, a great many of the ancient villages and camps were in the vicinity of lakes and navigable streams., It was easier and generally more rapid to travel by canoe than on foot, especially when the family and household belongings were to be moved. The bark canoes and dugouts were narrow and ligrht and could skim over very shallow water. Creeks and brooks that are now very insignificant enabled the boatmen to ascend for miles in high water to places that we should deem altogether inaccessible by boat. It must be borne in mind that the water-table of the southern part of the state, at least, has been lowered four or five feet by clearing the land and by the numerous ditches that have been dug for draining the low and swampy places. Portages were numerous and some of them were very important to the movements of the population. The name tPortage," given to many of the lakes as well as to several streams, indicates the fact that they were in the line of water travel upon which there were carrying places or portages. When the "head of navigation" was reached on one stream, it was not much of a burden for the dusky travelers to carry their light canoes and their scant luggage upon their shoulders overland for a few miles to another branch of a river flowing the other way from the one ascended, but leading in the general direction of the course pursued. Maumee-Wabash-Little St. Joseph route.-In order to give more completeness to the account of the Indian transportation routes of this territory, a small part of northwestern Ohio and northern Indiana is included. In ascending the Maumee from the head of Lake Erie to the St. Mary's near Fort Wayne the portage of seven miles to the Wabash is reached. The Maumee is designated upon an early map, made in 1763 by J. Gibson, as the "River of the Carrying Place." In historic and prehistoric times this was an important line of travel; The French used it in going to and from their posts in Indiana. Pontiac's allies and Tecumseh's warriors from the southwest came over these streams. For unnumbered years before that it was the main Indian route between the lower lakes and the Ohio River and mid-Mississippi regions. Canoes could enter southern Michigan by taking the Little St. Joseph at the Fort Wayne junction. In Hillsdale County portages of only a few miles enabled canoes to slip into the St. Joseph of Lake Michigan or into the headwaters of the Kalamazoo and of the Raisin. Lake Michigan to the Mississippi.-There were two waterways from the head of Lake Michigan to the Mississippi by way of the Illinois River. One was the Chicago-Des Plaines route, which lies outside Michigan; the other was the St. Joseph-Kankakee route. The latter way was to go up the St. Joseph to near where South Bend, Indiana, now stands. From this point to boatable water in the Kankakee the distance is four or five miles. In historic times La Salle, Charlevoix, and probably Father Marquette -5 -

Page  6 WATERWAYS AND PORTAGES crossed at this portage. The paths across the land from one landing to the other varied a little according to the conditions of the water. This was a line of travel-of great importance in early historic times as well as when the Indians alone dominated the country. Huron-Grand route.-The Huron River transpeninsula waterway was very important to both Indians and pioneers. From the Huron the Portage lakes are entered by a good-sized stream not more than forty rods long; this is the outlet of Big Portage Lake which is upon the line between Washtenaw and Livingston counties. Boats ascended Portage River from Little Portage Lake to the vicinity of Stockbridge in southeastern Ingham County. From this point the carry-over was but three miles to the Orchard, or what was formerly called Otter Creek, the north branch of the Grand. Mr. N. F. Wing, of Grass Lake, states that forty years ago he actually paddled across the divide between Portage River and Otter Creek, through the lowlands and swamps, without having to get out of his canoe. During high water the Indians certainly could have done the same thing; the only obstructions from Lake Erie to Lake Michigan would have been rapids and fallen timber. The following is summarized from Samuel R. Brown, in the Western Gazetteer, 1917 (pp. 75-76): There are upwards of twenty portages near the Michigan frontier, only two of which have heretofore been used by whites. An important one of these is between the St. Mary's branch of the Maumee, at Fort Wayne, Indiana, and the Little River branch of the Wabash; it is nine miles long. By this route the French, while in possession of Canada, passed to their forts upon the Wabash and on to the Ohio. Boats not infrequently passed from Lake Michigan into the Illinois, and in some instances it was not necessary to have their lading taken out. In the winter of 1792-93 during high water two boats (pirogues) detached from Detroit passed without interruption from the Huron River, which enters Lake Erie, into the Grand River, which falls into Lake Michigan. The Grand, which is the largest drainage system of the state, afforded communication by its tributaries in many directions. One could go directly to its mouth at Grand Haven. At Ada, in Kent County, he could divert to the Thornapple and reach the center of Eaton County. By a short portage near the present site of Charlotte, Battle Creek is entered. This stream crosses western Calhoun County where the city of Battle Creek now stands. Its confluence with the Kalamazoo opened up water routes east and west. By leaving the main Huron-Grand channel at Big Portage Lake, in Livingston County, and going up Pinkney Creek as far as conditions of canoeing would permit, one was but a few miles from Cedar Lake, in Marion Township, Livingston County, the head of Cedar River. Cedar River unites with the Grand at Lansing, in Ingham County. The Maple and Lookingglass rivers, branches of the Grand, will be traced, in connection with Saginaw River tributaries, as important channels of communication. Raisin-Kalamazoo-St. Joseph-Grand routes.-The Raisin has several branches. The Indians came to the salt springs of Washtenaw County, where the present village of Saline stands, by the Saline River, which enters the Raisin at the old Macon Reservation in Monroe County. At Clark's Lake, southeastern Jackson County, which drains into the Raisin, the land obstruction extended not more than three or four miles to the south branch of the Grand. In going directly up the Raisin into eastern Hillsdale County, portages less in length than the width of a township led to the Kalamazoo, which enters Lake Michigan at Saugatuck, Allegan County; to the St. Joseph entering the same lake at St. Joseph, Berrien County; or to the Little St. Joseph, connecting at Fort Wayne, Indiana, with the Wabash and the Maumee. It is only four miles across to the headwaters of the Kankakee, a branch of the Illinois which empties into the Mississippi, from the southernmost portion of the great bend of the St. Joseph. In the old days this little neck of land was a famous portage for the Indians of the south and west on their journeys to the northern wilderness. Once over the divide, by turning to the right they could follow up the St. Joseph to the fine hunting grounds of Michigan. Grand-Saginaw route.-Canoes could ascend the Grand to Lyons, Ionia County, take the Maple and within the breadth of half a township approach the Shiawassee, in the center of the county of the same name. They could descend to Saginaw Bay, going the entire length of the Saginaw River, which is really only a continuation of the Shiawassee. The Lookingglass, which enters the Grand at Lowell, Ionia County, practically parallels the Maple to southern Shiawassee County and to Conway Township in northwestern Livingston. Saginaw-Tittabawassee-Chippewa-Mis/zegon route. - Suppose one were at the mouth of the Saginaw below Bay City and wished to reach Lake Michigan at the mouth of the Muskegon. He could have done so by boat, a hundred years ago, with only five or six miles of land obstruction in eastern Mecosta County. Directions: Ascend the Saginaw to the Tittabawassee, go up the stream to Midland, divert to the Chippewa River, on to Chippewa Lake in Chippewa Township, Mecosta County. Portage three miles to Pogie Lake in the same township. The outlet of that lake is a branch of the Little Muskegon. In order to arrive at the place where Ludington now stands, by going down the Little Muskegon to its junction with the main stream, one turned up and ascended as far as the middle of the western side of Mecosta County. Two or three miles' portage to the west would bring one to the Pere Marquette River, at the mouth of which is Ludington. Again, less than ten miles separates the head of the Chippewa from the Muskegon, main branch, in Osceola County. To gain access to northeastern Montcalm, northwestern Gratiot and southwestern Isabella counties, one could go up the Pine from the Tittabawassee. The Cass River passes through what was a thickly populated Indian district lying east of Saginaw. Down the stream, according to archaeological evidence, the Indians brought hundreds of chert nodules from which they made arrow points, knives, and other edged tools. The Flint River nearly parallels the Cass into the "Thumb" and was used extensively in Indian commerce. Au Sable-Manistee-Mus/zegon routes.-The Au Sable River could be ascended to the boundary between Crawford and Otscgo counties. A carry-over of six miles brought the boatman to the swift Manistee, which flows into Lake Michigan. To reach Muskegon Lake and Lake Michigan, into which it discharges, it was necessary to follow the south branch of the Au Sable, in Crawford County, to near Higgins and Houghton lakes, in Roscommon County. Houghton Lake, the largest inland lake of Michigan, drains into the main stream of the Muskegon. Cheboygan to Traverse Bay.-For craft of much larger proportions than the Indian canoe the water course is clear from the mouth of the Cheboygan River through Mullett Lake, Indian River, Burt Lake, Crooked River, and Crooked Lake, to within two or three miles of Little Traverse Bay. Menomininee-Sturgeon river route between Green and Keweenaw bays.-Foster and Whitney describe in detail the route which they took in the fall of 1848 in coming from L'Anse to Green Bay. They remark that other streams they traversed, besides those of this route, had been Indian canoe-ways long years before voyagers came. Kewveenaw Peninsula cut-off.-By the Portage Lake inlet from the head of Keweenaw Bay, a boat of almost any size could go to within three miles of Lake Superior. A light canoe made this passage with but a mile of portage, thereby saving eighty miles of travel that would be required by going around the point. The ship canal has now eliminated the obstruction and large steamers cross the peninsula. Manistique to Whitefish Bay.-According to Schoolcraft (Thirty Years, p. 226), there was a water-land route from Manistique, Schoolcraft County, up the Manistique River, to a portage of less than a mile, in Township 46 N., R. 12 W., Luce County, to -6 -

Page  7 MOUNDS, VILLAGES, CAMP SITES the Tahquamenon, down that river to a trail in Section 2 5, T. 47 N., R. 8 W., to Whitefish Bay, Chippewa County, Section 10, T. 47 N., R. 6. W. This route across the Upper Peninsula was about ninety miles shorter than that by the St. Mary's River. Au Train and Whitefish river route from Lake Superior to Lake Michigan.-The following description is taken from a report of the Secretary of War for 1820:"La Train River, twenty-five yards wide, is nine miles beyond Grand Island. The Indians ascended this river in their canoes six miles, into a lake which is the nearest boatable water of Lake Superior, to the waters of Lake Michigan. The distance here between the two lakes is fifty miles. The Indians travel it with ease in one day. This is the channel of intercourse which is kept up between the Indians of Lake Superior and those of Michigan." The Wisconsin, which empties into the Mississippi, the Menominee with its branches emptying into Lake Michigan, the Ontonagon, the Sturgeon, and some others flowing into Lake Superior were navigable by bateaux for considerable distances from their sources. With his light bark canoe the Indian could with ease overcome hindrances to freight-carrying boats, and by shouldering his canoe and baggage make a portage around rapids and other obstructions and set out on the waters beyond. By such means streams were followed to their sources, divides crossed, and voyages continued. There were other minor circuits that facilitated travel by the Indians. One of some importance was the Clinton-Huron, which passed through Macomb, Oakland, Livingston, Washtenaw and Wayne counties and the northern part of Monroe. IV. MOUNDS AND OTHER EARTH4WORKS \T THE time the archaeological sites were entered upon the maps, it was known that, there existed in the state of Michigan more than 1068 mounds and 113 other earth constructions made by Indians. Of course, a much smaller number are standing now and not five per cent of those remaining have escaped mutilation. Cellars under buildings in Detroit, Grand Rapids, Port Huron, and other cities occupy the sites where once stood the larger mounds of the state. All we know of the extensive inclosures that had been built in unusual designs in Macomb County is gathered from the literature. The same thing is true of the Allegan County works and many others. There are not even any published accounts about many of the old structures. The information comes entirely from hearsay sources. As already intimated, nothing is known of some mound groups and isolated mounds except what has been gleaned from old records, published and unpublished charts and letters, and from extensive correspondence with people many of whom have only their memories to depend upon. Interviews have been held with persons who were able to give important information, either from what they had observed themselves or remembered from what they had heard. The greatest care has been exercised in scrutinizing statements and verifying evidence as given. Locations where works are said to have stood have been visited to determihe whether the situation and natural environment lend plausibility to the reports. The maps indicate that the valleys of the Saginaw, the Grand, the Clinton, Muskegon, Pere Marquette, and the St. Joseph rivers were the centers of greatest mound construction. The largest mounds, it would appear, were located upon the middle reaches of the Grand River, and in Wayne County in the vicinity of Detroit. All of the Michigan mounds were probably for burial purposes. The interments were at various depths; sometimes below, sometimes at, and sometimes above the ground level. Examination of some of the mounds has disclosed skeletons at all three V. VILLAGES / levels. There is no reason for believing that any of the Michjgan mounds were built for the purposes of "twatch towers" or lookouts, although it is said that Pontiac used the Springwells Mound, by the Detroit River, for making observations up and down the stream, but the mound was old in Pontiac's time. Reports indicate that numbers of skeletons were found at different depths from near the top to below the natural level of the ground of the Springwells Mound. Probably those near the summit were intrusive burials that were made after the mound had been abandoned by the original builders. In the lower strata of the interments trephined skulls were found and pottery resembling the Ohio "'Hopewell Culture." See notes upon Kent and Wayne counties. According to data at hand, there were in the state numerous earthworks which were not burial mounds and which were often of such appearance as to be called Ctforts." These works fall into three classes: first, those with curvilinear, circular, or elliptical outlines; second, those with straight-line embankments and angular corners; third, irregular embankments which involve no attempt to inclose space. Some of those with straight sides and right angles have one side open, which faces a stream or swamp. The mounds of Michigan were nearly all low, dome-shaped piles of gravel and sand usually with circular bases, whereas in some other sections, notably Ohio, many were elliptical, Burials are reported from small hillocks of various outlines, supposed by many to have been built by Indians, but careful investigation has shown the hills to be natural glacial formations that had been used as cemeteries. In the notes on the different counties comments will be found upon particular local situations. Further exploration and surveys will bring to light many sites which are not yet known or which have been missed in the investigations preliminary to the preparation of this Atlas. kND CAMP SITES (See Map 2) 0 DISTINCTION is made upon the maps between sites of villages and camps. Any site that was regularly visited was a village while occupied. Not all villages were permanent because necessity required their abandonment at intervals. Periodical removals were often made en masse for the hunting grounds, sugar making, corn planting, fishing, or some other seasonal occurrence. There is evidence to show that many villages along the immediate sandy shore of Lake Michigan were left unoccupied for the winter. The lodges were removed a few miles inland to the shelter afforded by the timber and again reestablished among the dunes in the spring. Sometimes the encroachment of enemies who could not be successfully resisted necessitated the vacating of a dwelling site, but there was a strong tendency to swing around to the old haunts again when the danger was gone. A band of --7--

Page  8 VILLAGES AND CAMP SITES Indians might go upon the "path" and find it advantageous to remove their families into newly acquired territory. Predatory enterprises had a tendency to widen or change the range of local cultures, and this accounts, in part, for the finding of different culture elements upon the same site. Camp and village sites are located by various methods. Some, in fact the greatest number, have been identified, as have the workshops, by such litter as was left upon the ground by the dwellers and workmen. An accumulation of rubbish, such as broken pottery and implements, fireplaces and firestones, cache and refuse pits, and occasionally a hut-ring, within the space of a few acres, are rather conclusive evidences that a number of Indians cwelt there for a considerable time. Indian villages are mentioned by old chroniclers in books of history, narratives, and in Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents. Others are noted upon maps of early cartographers. A few were checked by the government surveyors in their field notes. There are a small number of villages in the state still occupied by Indians. The field surveys conducted by the University Museums have located many old sites, but were it not for the assistance which people interested in the matter and possessing special knowledge have been able to give, these maps would be very much less complete in many respects. The fact remains, however, that after all sources of information have been utilized, only seven hundred and forty-eight of the busy centers of aboriginal life can be made out with accuracy at this late date. The American Indians in their primitive state seldom and probably never lived as isolated families for a very long time. Customs and social habits necessitated their living in close proximity to one another, thus forming small villages varying in number from a few to a hundred or more lodges. A village of a thousand individuals could not maintain itself for a very long period, owing to the fact that the available food or fuel supply would not have been sufficient. It has been estimated by Sir Arthur Keith in the New York Times Magazine of February 8, 19 3 1, that: "'A tribe of fifty souls, if it depends for a livelihood on the natural produce of soil and water, needs a fertile territory, measuring 100 square miles for its subsistence." The restriction that nature thus imposed upon their numbers was altered with the arrival of the whites, who had better means of obtaining provisions. Oftentimes after that the Indians and whites became economically interdependent. Of course, many of the camp sites found today were occupied after the advent of the whites, and this can usually be discerned by the presence of pieces of iron, brass, rolled copper, glass beads, and other articles ob tained from the newcomers or showing their influence. When articles of this character are found associated with some which are distinctly of the type used by the Indians before white trade influence, the indication would be that the site was an ancient one which continued to be occupied in historic time. Villages may then be classified as (a) those occupied before the advent of white men and not influenced culturally thereby; (b) those established in historic times; and (c) those continuously occupied from the former into the latter period. "Settlement" is the term used by English writers in the sense in which we use the word "village" or "camp site." It would be an excellent designation for a village that was occupied during a long period. It was a widely disseminated custom among the Indians to construct palisades around their camps and villages, especially when the territory was agitated by warlike tribes. Slight archaeological evidence has as yet come to light that palisades were used in Michigan before historic times. Father Dablon, in 1670, describing the situation at Mackinac, probably in what is now Emmet County, states there were thirty villages intrenched in a fort a league and a half in circumference. See Kenton, Indians of North America, p. 226. Tribal habits changed rapidly after the introduction of firearms and horses. The equilibrium was disturbed. Populations that had been comparatively sedentary became restive and more mobile. The proximity of village and burying ground sites to each other has been accepted as an indication of the number of Indians who lived in the various sections. Where the sites are numerous the population was also numerous; where the sites are scarce or wanting, there were probably fewer people. By this rule the state might be districted, as in the United States census reports, with reference to rural population density. The sparseness of population in some of the counties may be partially explained by the topography and other environmental conditions. In those parts the soil is very sandy or rocky, as in the Upper Peninsula, and non-productive of food for men and animals. Where there were heavy forests of pine and hemlock, other kinds of vegetation were scarce. The rivers were too swift and the lakes too pebbly to permit much of a growth of wild rice, an important food for Indians, and the fish were limited in kinds and size-a condition strongly in contrast, for instance, with that of the Saginaw and Grand River valleys. Questions may be raised about the spellings of Indian placenames. Many names are variously spelled in the literature, and upon old as well as recent maps. This arises from dialectical variations and misconceptions of the sounds of the Indian words as spoken. There is no "standard" spelling to be followed. What are generally accepted as "'good authorities" do not by any means always agree. For example, the Handbook of American Indians states that Matchebenashshewish (p. 819) was a Potawatomi, whereas in the American State Papers, Vol. IV, Indian Affairs, Washington, 18 3 2 (p. 5 6 5 ), the Treaty of Greenville records Mashipinachiwish as a Chippewa chief. So far as possible, the spellings and meanings of the Bureau of American Ethnology publications have been given preference, but the Bureau is not always consistent, and the same thing is true of government treaties and other public documents. Great deference has been shown the spellings and interpretations given by the Rev. Fr. William Gagnieur, S. J., probably the best authority in Michigan upon the Chippewa and Ottawa languages. Reference should be made to the Michigan History Magazine, Vol. 2, "Indian Place Names in the Upper Peninsula and Their Interpretation," pp. 526-5 5 5, and to Vol. 3, "Some Place Names in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and Elsewhere," pp. 4 12 -4 19. Besides these two papers, Father Gagnieur also assisted in this compilation by correspondence, for which acknowledgment is made. Many villages were named for chiefs and in consequence were known by different names at different times. Occasionally a chief changed his village and the name sometimes followed him to his new location. The names of many of the Indian villages of the state have been preserved. Most of them are given in the following list, with occasional comments as to meanings, variant spellings, and locations. LIST OF VILLAGES WHOSE NAMES HAVE BEEN PRESERVED Tribal classification is designated by (C) for Chippewa; (0) for Ottawa; (P) for Potawatomi; (H) for Huron; (S) for Sauk; (W) for Wyandot; (?) for doubtful. The Handbook of American Indians, Bulletin 30, Bureau of American Ethnology, which is frequently referred to in the list, is designated by HB. G. stands for Rev. Fr. William Gagnieur, S. J. An asterisk (*) designates villages that are upon Map 2. Those not so designated cannot be definitely located. *Aince's (?), "shell." Mackinac County. *Anamiewatigong (0), "at the tree of prayer," HB.; "place of the Christian wood," G. Commonly called Cross Village. Emmet County. *Angwassag (C), "snags floating in the water," HB. Saginaw County. Antokokonebe (C), "hunter of porcupines." Location not determined. Said to have been on Grindstone River (now called Rifle River), 170 miles from Detroit. Morse, Report on Indian Affairs, p. 140. Appendix. Arbetohwacheewan (?), "foamy current." Variant-Ambitawadjiwan. Midland County. *Arbre Croche (0), "crooked tree." Frequently L'Arbre Croche. Emmet County. -8--

Page  9 VILLAGES AND CAMP SITES Astoquet's (?), "shining cloud." Variant-Wassitokwat. Kent County. *Aumichoanaw's (?). St. Clair County. Bamoseya or Bemosse (C), "he walks." Saginaw County. *Bawatig (C), "the rapids." Variants-Bawitig, Bawiting, Bagotig,. Bagoting, Bawiting, Bawicting, Boweting. Chippewa County. *Bawbee's (P). Variant-Bawbeese. Hillsdale County. Blackbird (C). "Commonly called by the whites Miscobenense; best rendition is Miskwabinessi, Miscobinessi, 'large red bird'," G. Saginaw County. *Black Elk's (C). Saginaw County. Boshaw's (0). Kent County. Brownstown (W). Wayne County. *Chebaswating (C). "Kitchibawiting, 'at the big rapids'," G.; Cheboewating, according to B. 0. Williams. Shiawassee County. *Cheboigan (0). Same word as Cheboyganing;,also Shaboiganing, which means "waterway between two inland lakes," G. Spelled Cheboygan in Detroit Treaty, HB. Cheboygan County. *Cheboyganing (C). Saginaw County. *Chesaning (C). "big rock place," F. Dustin. Rightly Kitchiassining, "big stone place," G. Saginaw County. *Chigamoskin (?). Variants-Chigamaskin, Shegunasking; "may be for Kitchigamoshkin, 'much filled up'," G. Shiawassee County. *Chinaigow's (C). Kitchinegaw, "big sand," G. See Minnisains. Round Island, Mackinac County. *Chingossamos (?). Probably Kitchiningassamon, "large sail," G. Cheboygan County. Chucksewyabish (P), "cold water." Branch County. *Cobmoosa (0). Cobmusa; Cawbamosay, treaty; Kabimoose, "the walker," G. Kent County. *Cocoose's (C) and (0). Clinton County. *Coggamoccasin's (P), "porcupine- shoe." Variants-Kagamokassin, G.; Macousin's, HB.; Mocasin. Berrien County. *Copeniconing (?), "a portage." Variants-Copneconie, Copeniccorning, Copenieconning, B. 0. Williams. Genessee County. *Cross Village or La Croix (0). See Anamiewatigong. Emmet County. Good Heart (0). Emmet County.. *Indiantown (?). Bethany Lutheran Mission. Gratiot County. Ishamanetwe's (?). See Bureau of American Ethnology, Eighteenth Report. Saginaw County. *Kahbayshaywayning (C), "gathering or camping place." VariantGabeshiwining, G. Saginaw County. *Kapekon (P). Branch County. *Katakitekon (?), "place of the deserted gardens." Variants-Kettekittigan, Katakittakon, Getekitigan. Gogebic County. *Kechewaundaugumink (C), "big (salt) lick," HB. Probably Ketchiwandangening, G. Shiawassee County. *Kewagooshcum (0), "clouds pushed back to place they come from by other clouds." Variants-Kewincooscum, Kewegoshcum, Kiwegoshkam. Kent County. *Kishkawbawwe (C), "a steep clay bank broken by water." VariantsKishkawbawee, Kishkawbaw, Kishkowbawee, HB. Saginaw County. *Kishkawko's (C), "crow." Variants--Kishkawkaw, Lewis Cass; Kishkawko, F. Dustin; Kishkako, G. Bay County. Kitchiadena (P), "big village of the valley," Pokagon; Kitchiodena, G. Van Buren County. *Konteka's (C)), "he pushes." Ontonagon County. *Kosa's (0). Leelanau County. *Machonce's (0), "small bear." Variants-Maconce, Makonce, Makons. -St. Clair County. *Macon (P), "bear." Variant-Makwa. Monroe County. *Macousin's (P). Berrien County. See Coggamoccasin. *Maera (W), "walk-in-the-water." Monroe County. *Maguagua (W). Variant-Monguagon. Wayne County. *Maketoquet's (C), "black cloud." Mekatekwat or Makatekwat, G. Clinton County. Mangachqua (P). Mangashka, "rough sea," G. Southwestern Michigan. Mangamoos's (S?), "long-eared moose." Variant-Mangamoosh. Saginaw County. Maobbinnakizhick's (0), "hazy cloud," Dwight Goss; Miapinegijik, "continuous sky, or day, or heavens," or Wabanigijik, "eastern sky," or "dawn in the sky," G. Kent County. *Matchepenashewish (C), "bad bird." Variants-Matchebenashshewish, treaty; Nashipinashiwish, Matsheepeenachewish, Matchibineshiwij, G. HB. is evidently wrong in designating as P. Kalamazoo County. *Menitegow (C). Meanings disputed; "where the woods touch the river"; "on an island in the river." Variants-Nemitequa; Minitigong. G. Saginaw County. *Menoquet's (C), "good or nice cloud." Menokwat, G. Saginaw County. *Meshimmeneconing (C), "place where apples are plentiful." Variants-Missheminokon, Mishshimmeneconning, Mishiminikaning, G.; Meshimnekahning, Rev. M. Hickey. (1849-50) Ionia County. *Meteaw's or Metea's (P). Two locations, village removed from one to the other. Lenawee County. *Michilimackinac (0) and (C). Meanings variously given: "place of the big wounded person," HB.; "place of great dance tree," Schoolcraft; "island of great or giant fairies," W. W. Johnson; "great turtle," G. Sixty-six other spellings have been used. Mackinac County. *Mickkesawbe's (P), "wampum man." Variants-Mickesawbe, Miksawbe, G. Branch County. *Middle Village (0). Emmet County. See notes on Emmet County. *Minnisains (C), "small island." Also called Chinaigow's. Round Island, Mackinac County. *Mishiniwaka's (P). Berrien County. *Motereon's(W). Variants-Monteron; Montreon's. Lenawee County. Mowbray (C). Saginaw County. *Muckatasha's (0), "black skin." Variants-Makcootiooski, Muckitaoska, Mockcotozka, Makatewaje. Kent County. *Muscutawaing (C), "uncultivated plain." Mashkoteweng, G. Genesee County. *Nabobish (C), "bad soup." Bay County. Nadowaweguning (C), "place of the Iroquois bones." Nadowewiganing, G. Chippewa County. Nagonabe (C). Probably refers to "a bird 'dolling up' its feathers," G. Lower Michigan. *Nanommadowba's (0). Spelled and defined by G. as Nanamadabi, "repeatedly sitting down." Ottawa County. *Naomikong (C). Chippewa County. Nemitequa's (C), "where the woods touch the river"; "towards the woods from the river," G. Saginaw County. Neome (C). Saginaw County. See Reaum's. *Nindebekatunmig (0), "place of skulls." Variant-Nindebekatunning. Spellings and meaning questioned by G. Mason County. *Nogee's (?), Blois' spelling is Nongees. Kent County. *Nonoquahezick (0), "noonday." Variants-Noquahbezick, Quakezik. G. says correct spelling is Nawakwegijik. Known to pioneers as Noonday's Village. Kent County. *Nottawaseepe (P), "black snake (adder?) river." Variants-Nottawa sape, Nadowesipi or sibi, Natawassippi, Natowasepe, treaty. St. Joseph County. Old Indian Village (?). There was a village west of Marshall by this name. Calhoun County,. Ommunise or Omanisse (C) or (0), "he cuts fire-wood." On Carp River, indefinite. *Onamontape's (0), Old Rock's Village, "he sits down." VariantsOnamontapay's, Onamatapi, G. Ottawa County. *Ossawinamakee (C), "yellow thunder (bird)." Osawanimiki, G. Schoolcraft County. *Otusson's (C). Saginaw County. Parc aux vaches (?) (French), "cow pasture," G. Very near Indiana line. Berrien County. *Peonigowink (C), "place where there is plenty of flint." VariantsPeonigoing, Piwanikokaning. Saginaw County. Pindatongoing (?), "the place where the spirit of sound of echo lives in the sands." Pindatangang, "clean sand," G.; Pinatangang, "falling sand." Shiawassee County. *Pokagon's (P), "rib." Variant-Pocagon. Berrien County. *Pontiac's (0). He also had a village on Isle Peche, Lake St. Clair, Ontario. Lanman says Pontiac had a summer village on the Canadian side of the lake. *Ponto's (C). Saginaw County. -9 - ~ ~ ~ ~

Page  10 BURYING GROUNDS *Prairie Ronde (P), "round prairie." Cass County. Prairie Village. Mitchell's map. Kent County. Quanicassee (C). Tuscola County. Reaum's (C). Usual name given to Neome, more properly Nibegom. Father Baraga gives meaning: "I wait for game in the night on the water in a canoe." Saginaw County. *Rogue's (?). Kent County. *Sagenish's (?). Probably the name of a chief. Sagenash or Shaganash, "English." Known also as Englishman's Village. Ottawa County. *Sagimaw's (P), "knows his medicine." Variant-Sagima. Kalamazoo County. *Sagonakato's (C). Variant-Saganakwato, probable meaning "a cloud whose top exceeds the others in height," G. Alpena County. *Saguina, first occupied by S, later by 0 and C. "Mouth of a river," HB. Commonly accepted meaning "the place of the Sauk." Saginaw County. *Seginsiwin's (P). "Probably Segisiwin is correct form, meaning 'fear'," G. Variant-Seginsavin's. Oakland County. Segwun (?). Known as Chesbro's Village. Sigwan, "spring" (season), G. Kent County. *Shabboo's (?). Alger County. Shako (?). Saginaw County. *Shashekanowbegoking (C). "Probably for Shashikwanabikaniug, reduplicative of Shikwanabikaning, 'place of the grind-stone'," G. Alpena County. *Shawboaway's (?). "Correctly, Shabwewe," G. Mackinac County. Sheshigemasking (C). Shishigamemijking, "place of the soft maples," G. Shiawassee County. *Shimmenecon (?), probably for kitchi minikan, "large seed." Monroe County. *Shingquacaseking's (?). Variants-Shingquakcase, probably from Shingwakenseking, "place of the small pines," G. Isabella County. *Shitumoron's (?). Ionia County. *Shobasson's (C). Leelanau County. *Tahquamenon (C). Variants-Takwamenon, G.; Tahquamenaw, Walling's Atlas of Michigan, 1873; Takwamenaw, Longfellow, in Hiawatha. Chippewa County. *Tekanquasha (P), "short-haired." Present village of Tekonsha. Calhoun County. *Teuchsaygrondie (H). Wayne County. Tewawbawning (C), "the place of the hickories." Variants-Tewawbawking, Mitikwabaking, G. Saginaw County. *Tonquish's (P). Variants-Tonguish, Treaty of St. Joseph; Tonquish, Treaty of Detroit. Oakland County. *Topenebee's (P), "sitting bear." Variants-Topenibe, Mississinewa Treaty; Topennebee, Tippecanoe Treaty; Topinibe, St. Mary's Treaty; Topnibe, Chicago Treaty. All found in HB. Berrien County. Tsheetsweechkewa's (C), "great friend," G. Ontonagon County. *Wabwahnaseepe (?), "lookingglass river; reflection in the river" (?). Variants-Wabwohnahseepe, Wabwabinasibi, G. Clinton County. *Waganakisi (0). Ottawa name for Middle Village. Fr. Aubert, O.F.M. Emmet County. *Waishkee's (C). Variants-Waiski, Waiska, Weshki, Weshky. Chippewa County. *Wakazoo (0). Allegan County. *Walkinthewater (W). See Maera. Wayne County. *Wapisiwisibiwininiwak (C), "men of the swan river." Wabisiwisibiwininiwak, G. St. Clair Couny. *Waubojeeg's (C), "white fisher." Variants-Wahboogeeg; Wabodjik, G. Baraga County. *Weesaw's (P). Variant-Wesaw. Berrien County. *Wequagamaw (0). Variants-Sequagmaw; Waiekwagama, "end of the inland lake," G. Antrim County. *Wyandot Villages (W). There is a group of two or three villages known by this name on the Huron River. Wayne County. VI. BURYING GROUNDS T HE finding of an Indian cemetery is almost always accidental. Burial places, aside from mounds, are discovered by those who work the ground. Farmers, road builders, gravel pit operators, ditchers, cellar diggers, and excavators of all kinds are the usual discoverers and destroyers of what would, under careful observation, be important material for archaeological study. The Indians had a custom of interring their dead in contiguous graves. A cemetery was simply a place where the villagers had been removed under ground. Villages and burial sites are, as would be expected, often found in proximity When the archaeologist locates one, he seeks for the other. His chances for making a discovery depend upon the way in which the burials were made. The Indians of Michigan practiced several methods of interment. Whether all were employed by the same tribal organization, or were used by different tribes which occupied the location at various times, archaeologists have not in every case decided. Careful examinations of some burying grounds have disclosed that bodies were systematically oriented. This may have been a trait of particular tribes. There was interment without any kind of permanent marker to designate the graves. Some interments were made in small tumuli called grave-mounds, or conspicuous mounds were built, evidently designed as lasting monuments to the persons buried under or within them. In some of the Indian cemeteries which are still being used, or which have been used recently, grave houses of wood or bark are to be seen. The custom of building structures of bark and logs, and in later times of boards, was quite general among many of the Michigan Indians. If one were to visit some of the burying grounds, such as those near L'Anse, those upon Garden Island in Lake Michigan, or those on Sugar Island in St. Mary's River, he would see small houses still standing over the graves and observe a striking similarity between a village of the living and one of the dead. These wooden monumental structures were not, of course, very lasting. Some of them were renewed and others were replaced by grave-posts, although the grave-post was also used as an original marker. It is evident, from careful examinations, that permanent mounds were sometimes built so as to enclose the temporary log and bark grave houses. Two hundred and sixty-five burial sites have been located in the state. -10---,,~~ ~ -

Page  11 VII. GARDEN BEDS A CONSPICUOUS feature of Michigan's antiquities was the garden bed construction. The beds were among the most novel and mysterious features of our northern archaeology. They were symmetrical, low earth ridges, about eighteen inches in height, laid out with precision and showing an artistic sense in design. Some were wheel-shaped, with spokes running out to a circular ridge from a circle within, but most of them were in well-planned, rectangular patterns which are illustrated in the notes on Kalamazoo County (p. 23). They have been given their distinctive name because they resembled beds in a formal garden. They were of altogether dif ferent designs from the "beds" and cornfields found elsewhere. Except for two or three that were reported to have once existed in Indiana, "garden beds" were peculiar to Michigan. They have all been destroyed, and the only knowledge there is of them is what is gathered from Schoolcraft's description, the writings of Bela Hubbard, and a few others who saw them in their original form. Their locations were mostly in the southern and western part of the state. No records have been found of any north of Saginaw Bay. There were more than thirty of them in the state. See the notes on Kalamazoo County. VIII. MINING T HE UNIQUE contribution that Michigan makes to archaeology lies primarily in beds of material for a metallurgic industry. The natives developed considerable skill as miners and quarrymen (see Figures 10-12). One will have to look elsewhere for extensive operations by Indians in quarrying flint and other kinds of stone for making implements, but he will not find in any other part of the country as numerous traces of mining as upon the shores and islands of Lake Superior. In this region, mostly in Keweenaw, Houghton, and Ontonagon counties, copper appears disseminated principally in fine.grains or scales, or in veins, (1) in dark-colored igneous rocks called melaphyre amygdaloids, (2) in reddish quartz-porphyry, and (3) in conglomerates and in sandstones. The Indian miner had no means or knowledge of reclaiming metal by processes of smelting. What he sought for manipulation into spears, knives, celts, wedges, beads and other implements and ornaments was the metallic copper that appeared in veins, rock seams and nuggets which he could work into shape by beating with stone hammers. Nuggets were on or near the ground surface. Hundreds of these loose masses, commonly called "float copper," were transported by glacial action toward the south. Many of them have been found in Ohio. The farther one follows the drift from the place of original deposit the scarcer the pieces of "float" become, but they were very common at the center of origin. Masses of copper imbedded in the rocks must be distinguished from discrete pieces found in the drift. They were of the same irregular shape as the cavities in which they had been deposited. From seams, sometimes called "veins," thin sheets of the metal hundreds of square inches in surface were obtained. Such plates were shaped very easily into arrows, spears, knives, and ornaments. In no other district in America did nature leave so abundant a quantity of metal that was particularly amenable to the crude workmanship of her primitive mechanics. The question has been raised as to the age of the mines. One might with equal cogency ask the same question about flint quarrying at Flint Ridge in Ohio. Indians quarried at the Ridge since what was, from the standpoint of an American archaeologist, remote times and continued to frequent the quarries until they obtained something from the white man to take the place of flint. Some of the mining places in the copper country evidently were worked hundreds of years ago; others are scenes of more recent operations. After the metal was first detected by a tribe whose identity is unknown, mining was almost continuous, probably into historic times, although it must have been seasonal because the severity of the winters would prevent surface or "open pit" operations during part of the year. The wide extent of lands worked over, the thousands of pits, the labor expended, the quantity of refuse that was removed, and the character of the implements used, when considered relatively to the small numbers of the working population, certify that the copper industry extended over at least several centuries. Something of a safe conjecture may be made as to the methods employed by the miners in securing the metal which they esteemed so highly. They evidently depended mostly upon heavy stone mauls or crushers with which they broke away the rock in which thin veins of copper were embedded. A few wedges and gads of copper found in the pits indicate that they were used somewhat as a white quarryman would use similar tools made of iron. Probably wooden wedges and levers were also employed. Fire has a tendency to cause crumbling and disintegration of igneous and other kinds of rock. If water is dashed upon red hot stone it cracks and becomes more amenable to manipulation. The Indians may have known and employed this method in breaking away the matrix from the copper veins. Such efforts were, of course, confined to outcrops near the surface. None of the pits which are referred to as mines were of very great depth, probably not deeper than the height of a man. In the notes upon the three counties to which reference has been made there will be found illustrations of crevices from which copper was lifted, but the crevices were natural, not the "shafts" of the miners. As stated, detached nuggets were numerous and no particular skill was required in securing them. A question might arise as to how the copper was transformed into desirable shapes. Being quite malleable, it yields to "cold" manipulation by hammering. There does not seem to be any conclusive evidence that heat was used to soften the metal, but it is possible, if not probable, that it was sometimes shaped at a kind of forge, but without bellows; most of the specimens in collections do not clearly indicate the use of heat. One thing is certain, the Indians of the district did no smelting or casting, although it is said that the ancient Mexicans had discovered the art of making alloys. The idea prevails with many persons that copper was tempered and made "as hard as steel." Metallurgists state that copper cannot be tempered. Consequently the stories about copper blades "as sharp as steel" can refer only to very dull steel knives with which the comparisons were made. Early explorers declare that before they reached Lake Superior they saw pieces of copper in possession of Indians who seemed to hold them in reverential regard and were secretive about revealing where they came from, but as soon as the voyagers came into the Keweenaw country the source was no longer a mystery. It is problematical whether securing metal from the seams and crevices of rocks was a specialty of a cult or guild of local miners whose tribes held territorial dominion over the locations, or whether Indians from remote settlements came to the ranges to work out their own supply. It is supposed that the Minnesota catlinite quarries were free for all who cared to come for the pipe -11 -

Page  12 CULTURAL FEATURES NOT INCLUDED ON MAPS stone. Such may have been the case with regard to the copper district. However that may be, copper from the Michigan deposits was transported along the trails of trade to every state east of the Mississippi River and even farther to the west and southwest. Mines that would yield metal sufficient to satisfy the white operator must be distinguished from the thin outcrops that were sought by the Indians. Silver was occasionally found in association with copper, but only a very few trinkets made from it have been reported. Two nuggets of native silver, weighing thirteen pounds, were found in 18 73 by W. L. Coflfinberry, in the base of a mound in Court Street, Grand Rapids. The silver crucifixes, ttmoons," bangles, armand leg-bands, etc., distributed by white missionaries and traders, must not be confused with anything the Indian had made from the natural raw material, any more than brass and copper kettles, and iron hatchets, obtained through trade from the whites, should be mistaken for native handicraft. There was a substance, described by J. C. Kohl as a Ctgray stone," from which pipes were made, reported to have been quarried near the shores of the lake in the vicinity of Keweenaw Bay. Chert nodules, flint-like in texture, were the source from which great numbers of arrow-heads, spear points, knives, and similar implements were chipped. Most of them were gathered from or near the surface of the ground, within a wide zone encircling Saginaw Bay. Evidences of actual quarrying of any kind of stone by Michigan Indians, aside from that incidental to the copper workings, are very rare. The interiors of the nodules were of various shades of gray. They frequently contained fossils, and, when split and flaked into form, generally showed concentric concretionary structure. Implements made of the native cherts are easily distinguished from - those of purer kinds of flint. Nearly all of the true flints, whites, blacks, reds, mottles, etc., were brought from outside the state. See the chapter upon "Trails" and the notes upon Keewenaw, Houghton, and Ontanogan counties. Ix. CULTURAL FEATURES NOT INCLUDED ON A. IPS M ENTION must be made of some cultural features omitted from the maps owing to the difficulty of charting them without confusion. Cornfields-The Indians cultivated corn very extensively where soil conditions were favorable. Agriculture tended to stabilize communities. In the corn districts, villages were more permanent than where hunting and fishing were the principal means of subsistence. Corn was one of the great contributions the New World made to civilization. Not only did the Indians contribute this valuable staple to the food-consuming world, but the white farmers, who plowed their fields, adopted their methods of cultivating it. Hills were built up about the growing plants which, if not disturbed, continued to stand for years afterward as tiny mounds upon the planting grounds. A very few old Indian cornfields are still to be seen in timber clearings. Reference is made to notes upon Alcona County. Caches.-Numbers of artifacts that had been stored or hidden in a compact space for future use are occasionally unearthed by accident. American archaeologists call such deposits C"caches." They are called Cthoards-" by the English. The word ""cache" is confusing because sometimes it is used in reference to the place of storage instead of the things stored. These finds frequently consist of unfinished implements or "blanks" and are almost invariably of a selected quality of flint brought from a distance to be trimmed into desired form when needed. Numbers of caches have been reported from various parts of the state, but none of more than a few hundred pieces, whereas in other states thousands of such disks have been taken from a single excavation. Ossuaries.-If a number of human bones are found buried in a common grave, frequently with parts of skeletons - missing, the deposit is called an ossuary. Such collections or heaps of bones are sometimes exposed in the exploration of a mound. In some of the stratified mounds different kinds of burials come to light. One layer will show that the bodies were placed or posturized with great care, and another stratum will contain bones that were put in haphazardly. No attempt is made to designate ossuaries separately upon the maps. if numbers of them are found close together without heaps of earth, they are marked burying grounds. If they are in mounds, they are considered as parts of the mound burials. Wor/zsloops.--A workshop, as the word is used here, is a place where Indians chipped flint and made other implements. Shops are readily recognized by the quantities of spalls and broken and unfinished tools and weapons that are scattered about within a small space. These ttfactories" are more common near the place where the raw materials were obtained, especially within the area of chert distribution. The shop where the ancient arrow-maker worked, or at least where he did the finishing, was near some village to which the crude stone or roughed-out pieces were conveyed by canoe or overland. The routes of transportation and lines of trade are considered in the chapter upon "Waterways and Portages" and "Trails." Sugar camps.-The government surveyors frequently made notes of the Indian sugar camps, but these camps, or boiling places, and the maple trees disappeared as the forests were removed. We know enough about Indian life, however, to affirm that sugar was made in considerable quantities when the conditions were f avorable, and that it involved a quite industrial complex in its manufacture. Stepping-stones.-Where trails came to and crossed streams, there were frequently to be noted in early times large stones a short distance apart so arranged as to facilitate the crossing. Not many, if any, of these fording places of the Indians can be located now by the stones, because they have been disturbed; however, many substantial bridges have been built where the trails that have become highways crossed the creeks and streams by ford or ferry. Numerous villages and cities, like Jackson, Saginaw, and Grand Rapids, have developed from trading-posts that were located at these advantageous points. Pits.-Holes dug in the ground are the commonest type of earthwork found in Michigan. The holes are quite the opposite from mounds built upon the surface. They are often referred to as "CIndian pits" and occur singly and in groups numbering over a hundred. Sometimes the groups appear to have been arranged according to a plan, but usually they were dug regardless of any preconceived pattern. The depth varied from two or three to six or seven feet. At the top they are usually round and from four to eight feet in diameter. Some of them are so close together that their rims overlap, forming a kind of figure eight surface outline. Upon examination, ashes and charcoal were found in many; others were partially filled with stones which show marks of fire, suggesting that they may have been used in cooking and baking foods. But some other explanations will have to be given for the uses of the pits beside those just mentioned. The Indians and early hunters had the habit of secreting their stores in caches. Flence the term ttcache pits" explains the use of many of these earth holes. They are so numerous that the locations of those that are known are not indicated upon the maps. Further references are made to them in the comments upon some of the counties. Particular reference is made to Missaukee County. -- 12--

Page  13 CULTURAL FEATURES NOT INCLUDED ON MAPS Battlefields.-It is impossible to locate, except very rarely, scenes of battles that occurred in prehistoric times. The usual comment by people who happen to discover a burying place of a number of skeletons is that a battle was fought there; as if the Indians did not die and were not buried except as a result of a fight. A number of battles were fought in various parts of the state in which reds and whites contested, but those sites are recorded in books of narrative and history. Occasionally a human bone is dug up in which an arrow is embedded, or which shows clearly the crushing effects of a bludgeon or missile. If a number of such specimens were found in a single location, one might note a "battlefield," -but no such finds have been reported in Michigan. Bullets, fragments of firearms, and sheath knives can still be found in various places in association with bones of Indians and whites, but they are within the historic period. Dance circles.-The villagers were much given to dancing, not so much for amusement as for ceremony, often of religious purport. Dancing was a form of worship, if the Indians can be said to have been worshipers. Near or in every village there was a space usually circular in outline trodden down by the jumping and dancing that took place at feasts, preparations for hunting, war parties, and other expeditions, and at other times when the spirits and energies of the neighborhood needed to be aroused. Some of these old dancing places can still be identified and two or three of them are noted upon the maps. Rock carvings and drawings.-Very few rock carvings and drawings have been reported. There are some crude carvings of men, animals, birds, tracks, etc., upon rock outcroppings on the north bank of Cass River, in Greenleaf Township, Sanilac County. It is doubted whether they are of genuine Indian work. If not, whoever made them was undoubtedly familiar with carvings in Ontario, Canada, which he endeavored to imitate. At the entrance of a cave at Burnt Bluff, near Fayette, on Big Bay de Noc, Delta County, there are some red paintings on limestone that appear to be genuine Indian types if not of genuine Indian execution. FIG. 2. Henry Shawnosga, an Ottawa Indian of Missaukee County. Modeled by Carleton W. Angell in 1928 - 13 --

Page  14 X. NOTES UPON THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTIES HE ARCHAEOLOGICAL details of the different counties are given in a series of seventeen maps numbered from 4 to 20, with several counties upon each map. Descriptive paragraphs calling attention to special features of each county with summaries of ttSites Identified" are presented in this chapter. It must be borne in mind that no maps or sketches of this character can be complete. They represent only the data that have been assembled before a certain time. In those districts where the lands have not been plowed ancient village sites and workshops remain to be exposed. Some fresh material will always be turning up. There is enough yet to be found out about the antiquities of the state to stimulate the field worker of the future. Where the ground is not covered with vegetation obstructing the view, the airplane may become a useful finder. In fact, under favorable conditions, a $rial surveying and mapping have been done by archaeologists with gratifying results. It may be noted that a few sites mentioned in the text are not found upon the maps. The explanation is that the facts became available after the maps were drawn, but before the notes were written. Townships are numbered upon the maps. The names corresponding to the numbers are given in the notes upon the various counties. ALCONA COUNTY (Map 12) Careful researches among many of the inclosures of the state have been made by Dr. E. F. Greenman. He reports as follows upon the earthwork at Glennie: "Horseshoe-shaped, greatest diameters NE. and SW. 327 feet; E. and W. 506 feet; main gap in wall, on east side, 165 feet. Wall and ditch average 29 feet in width. Wall is about 2 feet above surface of interior and the ditch about 2 V2 feet deep. There are seven gaps in the wall, or gates, besides the main 165-foot gap." Situation:"AboutV2 mile west of the south branch of Pine River, Mikado Township, Section 1 9. It is on the edge of a bluff which goes down 3 0 feet on the north and on the east 100 or 200 feet to Pine River." come under the plow. Old lumbermen, still resident in the locality, attest they had seen just as extensive and exactly similar fields elsewhere in this and adjoining counties. There are numerous groups of pit-holes not far from the cornfield; some of them are arranged in rows with the pits in one row alternating with those upon either side. The long trail from Saginaw Bay to Cheboygan and Mackinaw passed near the Huron shore. There must have been numerous villages in the county, but no records of their situations have been secured. There were mounds, as indicated by the map, at the north and south ends of Hubbard Lake and a mound group a mile south of the mouth of Misery Creek. SITES IDENTIFIED Burying ground----------1 Mounds---------------22 Inclosure open on one side- 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. TOWNSHIPS Caledonia 7. Custin Alcona 8. Harrisville Mitchell 9. Curtis Hawes 10. Mikado Haynes 11. Greenbush Milleu ALGER COUNTY (Map 19) Rev. Father William Gagnieur, S. J., writes in the Michigan History Magazine, April, 19 18, about the famous Pictured Rocks which stand upon the Superior shore between Grand Portal Point and Au Sable Point: "The Indians have legends of various kinds and held that spot in awe." The "altar" in La Chapelle was used by them for ceremonial purposes. The Indians called the rocks Gaiashkabikong, which signifies "Gull Rock," a quite appropriate name. Grand Island was the home of many Indians, and upon it, at the south end there is a village site; across the bay there is a similar site. The small lakes and streams of the interior attracted hunters and trappers who went to them as transients when the season was propitious for their pursuits. For mention of trails and water routes from Munising and Au Train see notes upon Delta County and chapters upon ttTrails" and "Waterways and Portages. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages------2 TOWNSHIPS 1. Grand Island 5. Burt 2. Onota 6. Rock River 3. Au Train 7. Limestone 4. Munising 8. Mathias ALLEGAN COUNTY (Map 4) Archaeologically, this county is one of the most interesting in the state. A lucid description of its antiquities may be found in Michigan History and Pioneer Collections, Vol. 3 ( 18 78 ), p. 293, written by Mr. H. D. Post. Most of the mounds and inclosures were situated in the townships of Fillmore, Heath, and Manlius, along the banks of Rabbit River. Several of the constructions were compound; that is, there were some mounds inside circles and others were arranged in studied groupings...- '9W t 2 --v',4, ",,. 0', l nfitA,, I . j . $.h, .-I. FIG. 3. Old Indian cornfield, Alcona County The largest undisturbed old Indian planting ground in the state deserves mention. It is in Haynes Township, on the line between Sections 22 and 27 (see Figure 3). It comprises over twenty-five acres of undisturbed corn hills. No doubt this most interesting specimen of primitive agricultural industry will soon -14--

Page  15 ALCONA-BARAGA The territory was crossed by numerous trails. Fuller, in his Economic Beginnings of Michigan, speaks of important trails meeting and crossing where the city of Allegan now stands, but his citations do not justify placing the trails upon the map, because their courses through the county are vaguely described. Even the field notes of the government surveyors in 1831 and 1837 fail to mention all the trail crossings. Attention has been called (p. 6) to the Kalamazoo River, which passes through the county diagonally from southeast to northwest, as a waterway of great importance in Indian travel. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages -------------11 Burying grounds -----4 Mounds-----------14 Circular inclosures _ 7 TOWNSHIPS 1 1 1 1. Laketown 13. Ganges 2. Fillmore 14. Clyde 3. Overisel 15. Valley 4. Salem 16. Allegan 5. Dorr 17. Watson 6. Leighton 18. Martin 7. Saugatuck 19. Casco 8. Manlius 20. Lee 9. Heath 21. Cheshire [0. Monterey 22. Trowbridge 1i. Hopkins 23. Otsego 12. Wayland 24. Gun Plains usual archaeological interest. There are a few mutilated mounds still standing upon the west side of Devil Lake. According to the report of Mr. Gillman just cited, a trephined skull (Figure 4) was taken from one of the mounds at Devil River by the Rev. Dr. Pilcher. The hole in the vertex is very symmetrical and was bored while the person was still living. So far as known, this is the farthest north that any trephined skull has been found. The Thunder Bay Islands have considerable mythology connected with them. Three villages have been definitely located in the county: one upon what was formerly Flat Rock Point, now called North Point; one at the mouth of Devil River; and one at Alpena. There were, of course, many other sites, but the facts at hand do not warrant putting them upon the map. The Museum staff has made a quite thorough survey of this interesting county with the foregoing items to record. An unusual number of copper implements has been collected upon the village site in the northwest part of the city of Alpena by Mr. Gerald Haltiner. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ---------3 Burying grounds- 2 Mounds --------14 TOWNSHIPS 1. Wellington 5. Green 2. Long Rapids 6. Wilson 3. Maple Ridge 7. Ossineke 4. Alpena 8. Sanborn ANTRIM COUNTY (Map 13) Sites are numerous in the lake district of the southwestern part of the county. There was a circular inclosure at Elk Rapids and one upon each side of Torch Lake. Several mound, village, and burial sites have been located, but none very far from bodies of water. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages -----------7 Burying grounds ----- 3 Mounds -----------14 Circular inclosures __ 3 TOWNSHIPS ALPENA COUNTY (Map 14) Cyrus Thomas, Catalogue of Prehistoric Works East of the Rocky Mountains (1891), quotes Mr. Gerard Fowke as saying: "There were long, flat, circular mounds on almost every section along the east side of Devil's Lake and along Thunder Bay River for 10 miles from its mouth." Mr. Henry Gillman, Smithsonian 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Banks Central Lake Echo Jordan Warner Torch Lake Forest Home Kearney 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Chestonia Star Elk Rapids Milton Helena Custer Mancelona ARENAC COUNTY (Map 12) Along or in the vicinity of the Bay shore there were a few settlements. It is not impossible that the fort-builders, who were very active in Ogemaw County, also had sites upon the Rifle River toward its mouth, but no evidences of them have been found. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ----------- 5 Burying grounds -- 7 Mounds -----------2 TOWNSHIPS 1. Moffitt 7. Deep River 2. Clayton 8. Arenac 3. Mason 9. Au Gres 4. Turner 10. Sims 5. Whitney 11. Lincoln 6. Adams 12. Standish BARAGA COUNTY (Map 16) The indentations made by two deep bays give Baraga County an unusual length of shore line. The inlets and coves sheltered the fishermen from the turbulence of the waves and storms that FIG. 4. Trephined skull from Devil River mound, Alpena County Report (1875), also reports explorations of mounds below the mouth of Devil River. It is possible at this time to locate correctly but very few of these sites. Along the Huron shore, from two miles below Ossineke to Alpena and from there up the Thunder Bay River to Long Rapids, there are unmistakable proofs of a numerous population of Indian fisher folk who built mounds some of which were of un -15 -

Page  16 ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTIES often disturbed Lake Superior, and their waters, when not frozen, afforded abundance of food. Missions would not have been located upon Keweenaw Bay at an early day if there had not been Indians for them to serve. Almost directly across the bay from the Catholic mission, north of Baraga, a Methodist mission was established north of L'Anse. Each of these posts is at this time surrounded by numerous Indian families. The Marquette trail came to the head of Keweenaw Bay by way of Lake Michigamme. An important trail route toward the Wisconsin country went to and beyond Lac Vieux Desert upon the state line in the southeast corner of Gogebic County. The Marquette trail branched at the west end of Lake Michigamme; the branch turning north terminated at Skanee, where an Indian village must have stood at one time. The trail that led from the head of Keweenaw Bay to the mouth of Misery River, Ontonagon County, was really a continuation of the Marquette trail. As the map indicates, several short trails led back from the bay. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ---------- 5 Burying groundI 1 BAY COUNTY (Map 9) Within the limits of Bay City and Essexville, which immediately join it, eight mound sites, two village sites, and three buryings have been located. A glance at the map will instantly show numerous village sites upon or near the Kawkawlin River. It is worth noting that Mr. Bela Hubbard, writing in 1886, observed that at the mouth of the Kawkawlin River, upon a swelling knoll overlooking the bay, in the midst of a tract of country from which all timber had been burned, was a spot which seemed to have been dedicated to the "evil Manitou." "Here an altar was erected of two large stones several feet high, with a flat top and broad base. About were smaller stones which were covered with propitiatory offerings: bits of tobacco, pieces of tin and flints." Sites are numerous along the trail which followed the Saginaw Bay Shore. Mr. W. L. Schmidt of Pinconning has surveyed the county quite thoroughly for the Museum. Dr. F. M. Vreeland, of De Pauw University, has also been over the counties contiguous to the bay, as a Museum field representative. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages -----------21 Burying grounds - - 8 Mounds ----------11 1. 2. 3. TOWNSHIPS Baraga 4. Covington Arvon 5. Spur L'Anse BARRY COUNTY (Map 5) The topography of Barry County leads one to infer that it was much more thickly inhabited than the map indicates. The many -----------------lakes and the Thornapple River Valley are parts of an environment which was inSlviting. The old village in Section 28, I*<'A - ) / Thornapple Townl^ - ( S h ship, was the crossing, point of a number of S. O trails. See Figure 5. Mr. Charles A. Weissert of Kalama/. o, ~ ' zoo states that oldlIn'..... /' Kt.f.. - dian cornfields were .:zstill visible along the SLThornapple when the land was first "taken " -oi Couty.!up. He also refers ht-,ito a trail that led from lag the villages in Hasox, tings Township upon or near Thornapple. T4;- ' Kk! 'y ~~/)4/$( Lake, onehof which S",was called Indian nLanding, to MeshimM dmeneconing's village FIG. 5. Old Indian trail parts of which may on the Grand River, still be traced upon the west side of D a n b y Township, Thornapple Lake Ionia County. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages-----------9 Burying grounds-__ 9 Mounds-----------4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Gibson Mt. For Pincomn Garfieli Fraser Beaver Kawkai TOWNSHIPS 8. 'est 9. ning 10. d 11. 12. 13. wlin 14. Williams Monitor Bangor Hampton Frankenlust Portsmouth Merritt BENZIE COUNTY (Map 11) There are legends and mythical lore connected with Crystal Lake and Betsey River, but not many facts for the archaeological cartographer. The topography of the county suggests that a survey would have been rewarded by more of a tangible nature than has been discovered or reported. An Indian burying ground and mound were located near Honor. A mound stood near the center of Inland Township and a village upon the north side of the west end of Crystal Lake. SITES IDENTIFIED Village ------------ 1 Burying ground --- 1 Mounds -----------2 TOWNSHIPS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Lake Platte Almira Crystal Lake Benzonia Homestead 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Inland Gilmore Blaine Joyfield Weldon Colf ax 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. TOWNSHIPS Thornapple 9. Irving 10. Carlton 11. Woodland 12. Yankee Springs 13. Rutland 14. Hastings 15. Castleton 16. Orangeville Hope Baltimore Maple Grove Prairieville Barry Johnstown Assyria BERRIEN COUNTY (Map 4) Living conditions upon the St. Joseph River were excellent in Indian times, as well as now. The centers of greatest activity in Berrien County appear to have been along the river in Buchanan and Niles townships. According to the evidence so far obtained, no counties in the state, except Saginaw and Newaygo, had so many villages. Village sites have been found in such close proximity that the letter N, denoting "indefinite number," is used in connection with a group upon Galien River, just north of New Troy, Weesaw Township. There was another village group three miles north of the New Troy settlements, in Lake Township. Villages in close proximity indicate that people of different tribes, or sub -16 -

Page  17 BARRY-CHARLEVOIX tribes, constructed them, as was the custom, and that the neighbors were friendly and cooperative. In Coloma Township, vicinity of Paw Paw Lake, several mounds and villages were located. Paw Paw River Valley was congenial to Indian life. Acknowledgment is made of the valuable assistance rendered by Mr. George R. Fox of Three Oaks in the surveys of Berrien and adjoining counties, and of Isle Royale in Keweenaw County. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ---------40 Burying grounds '_12 Mounds---------20 Garden bed------- 1 Dance circle ------ 1 TOWNSHIPS tribution of the archaeological features, so far as known, with sufficient clearness to make comment unnecessary. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages -------------------11 Burying grounds ----------- 2 Mounds -------------------19 Circular embankments -----4 Rectilinear embankment__ 1 Dance circle --------------- 1 TOWNSHIPS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Bedford Pennfield Convis Lee Clarence Battle Creek Emmet Marshall Marengo Sheridan 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Le Roy Newton Fredonia Eckford Albion Athens Burlington Tekonsha Clarendon Homer 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Hagar Coloma Watervliet St. Joseph Benton Bainbridge Lincoln Royalton Sodus Pipestone Lake 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Oronoko Berrien Chickaming Weesaw Buchanan Niles New Buffalo Three Oaks Galien Bertrand....BRANCH COUNTY (Map 5) As indicated under the classification of sites given below, there were at least four kinds of earthwork constructions in Branch County. If accurate records had been preserved of all the archaeological remains that were standing at the beginning of white occupation, the number listed would be more than doubled. This comment is justified by the many references that could not be used in preparing the map, on account of their vagueness as to exact locations. The archaeology of all the counties should be studied in relation to their adjacent territory, without regard to political boundaries. The entire valley of the St. Joseph River is a natural unit for a survey of southwestern Michigan. It is one of the most interesting parts of the state. For the influence of lakes and rivers upon Indian life, reference should be made particularly to the notes upon Oakland and Saginaw counties. CASS COUNTY (Map 4) Sections 29, 30, 31, 32, Pokagon Township, in which tract Summerville is situated, is the part of Cass County that first attracts attention. A group of nine mounds, some of which are still conspicuous, lay upon the east side of Summerville Village, and a mile and a quarter northeast there were two more. Between these two locations stood a circular inclosure, and a few rods south of the Summerville group was a rectangular earthwork open upon one side. In Ontwa Township, between Adamville and Colvert's Lake, a group of seven mounds once stood. It will be noted that several villages and mounds were situated in the northeast part of the county towards the southeastern quarter of Van Buren County, in which territory mounds and village sites were also numerous. Of course, there were many more dwelling sites and cemeteries than the map indicates, but a careful reconnaissance failed to determine their actual situations. From the fact that a number of trails passed by and divided at Shave Head Lake, the conclusion is justifiable that Calvin and Porter townships were well populated. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ----------------- 3 Burying grounds-------- 1 Mounds -----------------22 Circular inclosure -------1 Rectangular inclosure _. 1 Garden bed -----------1 Grateful acknowledgment is made to Dr. E. Coldwater for assistance in making the survey. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ---------- 11 Burying grounds --------4 Mounds -------------13. Garden beds ---------- 2,...... Circular inclosures ----- 5 S,, Rectangular inclosures -- 1 F. Gamble of 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. TOWNSHIPS Silver Creek 9. Wayne 10. Volinia 11. Marcellus 12. Pokagon 13. La Grange 14. Penn 15. Newberg Howard Jefferson Calvin Porter Milton Ontwa Mason 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. TOWNSHIPS Sherwood 9. Union 10. Girard 11. Butler r 12. Mattison 13. Batavia 14. Coldwater 15. Quincy 16. Bronson Bethel Ovid Algansee Noble Gilead Kinderhook California CHARLEVOIX COUNTY (Map 13) To the archaeologist, the Beaver Islands have been the most interesting part of the county. Mr. Henry Gillman, Smithsonian Report, 1873, removed from the mounds upon the point on the north side of St. James Bay some of the most interesting specimens found in the state. There were villages at both ends of the largest island, Beaver Island proper, and at intermediate points. Upon some of the other islands of the group are still to be seen the remains of Indian construction. These islands were stoppingplaces for voyagers crossing the large lake, and served as a kind of refuge from the mainland in times of disquiet. CALHOUN COUNTY (Map 5) In the townships of Battle Creek, Fredonia, Athens, Burlington, and Tekonsha there were groups of mounds the exact number of which cannot be determined. The map indicates the dis -17 -

Page  18 ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTIES Vague reports have been made of numerous sites which, no doubt, existed upon the shores of Pine Lake, but they cannot be definitely determined. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages -----------8 Burying grounds - - 2 Mounds ---------- 7 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. TOWNSHIPS Charlevoix 9. Chandler Hayes 10. South Arm Bay 11. Wilson Norwood 12. Boyne Valley Marion 13. Hudson Eveline 14. Peaine (Beaver Evangeline Islands) Melrose 15. St. James CHEBOYGAN COUNTY (Map 14) At the mouth of the Cheboygan River stood an ancient mound and a village. Farther up the river, below the outlet of Mullett Lake, there was a village, to the southwest of which, at a distance of five miles, was a mound. Two villages were located upon the west side of Burt Lake and one upon the south side of Douglas Lake. One of the villages upon Burt Lake is still occupied by a small number of Indians. A group of five mounds stood by Silver Lake, in Maple Grove Township, but these are designated on the map by the word "vague" because of the uncertainty of their locations. Since this paragraph was written, the Rev. Fr. Aubert, O.F.M., of the Catholic Indian Missions of Petoskey, has sent the following data in regard to Indian cemeteries: "Two in Cheboygan Co., or I should say three (one near the present church, one near the old church, and one hidden in the woods and known only to Indians and to me)." As is mentioned in the chapter upon "Trails," two trails centered at the mouth of the Cheboygan River; one followed the Huron shore for the most of the way and the other extended through the center of the state to the Tittabawassee River. The two trails united and went on as a single path to the ferry across the Straits of Mackinac, and, from the landing upon the north side, other trails led to different parts of the Upper Peninsula, finally terminating at strategic points upon the shores of Lake Superior. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ----------- 5 Burying grounds -- 3 Mounds ---------- 6 TOWNSHIPS toric times a large number of Chippewa, frequently referred to as "Saulteurs," claimed the exclusive fishing rights at the Sault. If all the prehistoric sites that must have bordered the water from Detour Passage to Point Iroquois could be identified, there would be almost a continuous line of them, some upon the mainland and others upon islands. A trail followed the water line upon the Michigan side from the outlet of St. Mary's River to beyond Whitefish Point. Trails came directly to the rapids from the crossing at the Straits of Mackinac. There was a mound upon Sugar Island, and two other mound sites have been identified upon the river below Sault Ste. Marie. A large mound upon a bay on the northwest side of Drummond Island had t"many skeletons with their feet pointing towards the center." From this site flint spears, copper hatchets, pipes, etc., were taken, but the presence of brass buttons from France and of pipes of iron among the finds proves either that the mound is recent or that it had intrusive burials. It may be observed that mound-building was not characteristic of the culture of the Indians of the Upper Peninsula. The country about "The Soo," like that of Mackinac and Green Bay, was a sort of melting-pot for the numerous Indian folk who met there, sometimes to fight, sometimes to "make up," sometimes simply to attend to their own tribal affairs. Everyone is familiar with the history of the region after the missionaries, adventurers, traders, soldiers, voyagers, coureurs de bois, politicians, travelers, nondescripts, and roustabouts mixed in for better or for worse with Indian affairs. Acknowledgment is made to Miss Florence E. McClinchey, State Normal School, Mount Pleasant, and to Dr. Karl Christofferson of Sault Ste. Marie, for information, and also to Judge Charles H. Chapman of Sault Ste. Marie, for assistance upon the map of the county. See notes upon Mackinac and Menominee counties. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ----------12 Burying grounds 3 Mounds ----------- 4 TOWNSHIPS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Whitefish Bay Mills Sault Ste. Marie Hulbert Chippewa Superior Kinross Dafter 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Bruce Trout Lake Rudyard Pickford Raber Detour Drummond Island Sugar Island 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Mackinac Hebron Beau Grand Munro Inverness Benton Burt Mullett Aloha Grant 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Tuscarora Koehler Waverly Menton Ellis Walker Forest Wilmot Nunda Maple Grove CLARE COUNTY (Map 12) The surveys of this county have resulted in little more than the location of a group of mounds on the south border of Greenwood Township upon the west side of Lily Lake, and another group in the northeast corner of Hayes Township upon the east side of Arnold Lake. The number of mounds in these groups could not be determined. Hence they are marked "vague" upon the map. There was an Indian village a short distance north of Clare in the southeast part of Grant Township. SITES IDENTIFIED Village ----------1 Mounds -------- 5 CHIPPEWA COUNTY (Map 20) The straits, which are fifty-five miles long, are commonly referred to as St. Mary's River. They were probably more frequently navigated than any other part of the Great Lakes system above the St. Lawrence. For nearly the year around they afforded an inexhaustible food supply. Indians came to the rapids of the river from long distances, and numerous tribes fished there together, but not without more or less disputing and fighting. In early his 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. TOWNSHIPS Winterfield 9. Summerfield 10. Frost 11. Franklin 12. Redding 13. Greenwood 14. Hayes 15. Hamilton 16. Fremont Lincoln Hatton Arthur Garfield Surrey Grant Sheridan -18 -

Page  19 CHEBOYGAN-EMMET CLINTON COUNTY (Map 8) That part of Clinton County through which flows the Maple River and its tributary creeks contained a greater number of mounds than any other equal area in the state, except Newaygo County. In Essex Township, Sections 15 and 16, there was a single group of forty. The total number for the township was at least forty-five. The southern part of Du Plain and the northern part of Ovid townships, along the Maple, had five mound clusters, but the numbers in some of them are not given in the early records. Upon Section 11, Greenbush Township, stood another large group. Though it is impossible to make a full counting of all the mounds in the county, many of which were rich in artifacts and skeletons, sixty are certain. Villages were much more numerous than the map indicates. In that part of the county through which the Lookingglass and Grand rivers flow, no mounds have been positively identified, but village sites connected with trails are numerous along the banks. Some of these sites are extensive and are strewn with firestones for many rods. No pottery fragments have been reported from some of them, whereas upon others sherds could have been gathered in quantities. See notes on Ottawa, Kent, Ionia, and Newaygo counties. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages --------- 5 Mounds ---------60 A few village sites have been identified at various points along the Big Bay, in Cornell Township, and upon Big Summer Island. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages --------- 4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. TOWNSHIPS Maple Ridge 8. Baldwin 9. Masonville 10. Nahma 11. Garden 12. Cornell 13. Escanaba 14. Brampton Ensign Wells Bay de Noc Bark River Ford River Fairbanks DICKINSON COUNTY (Map 18) Like the other interior counties of the Upper Peninsula, Dickinson has very little of archaeological interest. It was good hunting, trapping, and fishing ground, but apparently there was not much to stabilize a primitive population. The few notes about Indian trails and paths made by the government surveyors in 1849 do not warrant charting them for very long distances. A trail passed through Iron Mountain from Little Falls to Twin Falls, which cut off a bend in the river. A village site and burying ground have been located near the north end of the trail. SITES IDENTIFIED Village ------------ 1 Burying ground _ 1 TOWNSHIPS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. TOWNSHIPS Lebanon 9. Essex 10. Greenbush 11. Du Plain 12. Dallas 13. Bengal 14. Bingham 15. Ovid 16. Westphalia Riley Olive Victor Eagle Watertown DeWitt Bath 1. Sagola 2. Felch 3. West Branch 4. Breitung 5. Norway 6. Breen 7. Waucedah CRAWFORD COUNTY (Map 12) Three or four reports have been made of sites in this county, but the nearest approach to certainty, after a few days of travel, was the "vague" information about a mound upon the north branch of the Au Sable River, Lovells Township. See notes upon Oscoda County. SITE IDENTIFIED Mound ---------- 1 EATON COUNTY (Map 5) Groups of mounds were to be found in Bellevue and Walton townships, but there were no others in the county, so far as reports, records, and surveys indicate. The site of what is now the city of Charlotte, was extensive Indian cornfields. The two railroads that cross at Charlotte follow old Indian paths, as stated by the engineers who surveyed them. See chapter upon "Trails." Three villages were situated within or near the present limits of Grand Ledge and there was one in the northeast corner of Kalamo Township. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ----------8 Burying grounds -- 3 Mounds ----------- 5 TOWNSHIPS 1. Frederic 4. Grayling 2. Maple Forest 5. Beaver Creek 3. Lovells 6. South Branch TOWNSHIPS 1. Sunfield 2. Roxand 3. Oneida 4. Delta 5. Vermontville 6. Chester 7. Benton 8. Windsor 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Kalamo Carmel Eaton Eaton Rapids Bellevue Walton Brookfield Hamlin DELTA COUNTY (Map 19) For general description of the Green Bay region reference should be made to notes upon Menominee County. As the situation, topography, and water frontage suggest, there were, without doubt, many more sites in Delta than the map indicates. The entire Upper Peninsula is almost devoid of earthworks, but there were permanent and temporary villages and trails. From the head of Little Bay de Noc a direct trail crossed the peninsula to Munising Bay, Lake Superior, Alger County. A trail led from near the head of Big Bay de Noc to Indian Lake near Manistique in Schoolcraft County. Whitefish and Sturgeon rivers afforded easy access by canoe to the hinterland. If the reader will refer to the chapter upon "Waterways and Portages," he will find the Whitefish route across the peninsula more fully described. EMMET COUNTY (Map 13) From the earliest historic times to the present, Emmet County has been exceedingly interesting to the student of local archaeology. Old Fort Mackinac was very near the border between Emmet and Cheboygan counties. The Lake Michigan shore from the Fort to Little Traverse Bay had a village every few miles, although the exact situation of some of them cannot be determined. "The eagle's eye cannot discover where stood the wigwam and the peaceful council fire." Before L'Arbre Croche, or the L'Arbre Croche - 19 -

Page  20 ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTIES district, was depopulated by smallpox, according to the story of Mackawdebenessy, or "Blackbird," a continuous village some fifteen or sixteen miles long extended from what is now Cross Village to Seven Mile Point. "The trees were entirely cut away from this long village," a veritable Alba Longa. This may have been the place referred to by Father Dablon, who said in the Relation of 1670-72, describing the mission of Outaouaces: "Some of them still living declare that they constituted thirty villages, and that they had entrenched themselves in a fort a league and a half in circumference." Leach says that the Mascoutens had villages at Seven Mile Point and Harbor Springs. Much of the subsistence for this unusual population was derived from the lake, which afforded abundance of fish during the season, and corn was so extensively cultivated that the garrisons in later times at Fort Mackinac depended upon the Ottawas from L'Arbre Croche for this commodity. Cross Village and Good Heart are still occupied by numerous Ottawa families. Old villages were probably deserted for the winter, after the corn was harvested and cached, for the hunting grounds upon the inland streams and the sugar making of early spring. There was a trail upon the bluff following the lake shore. See notes on Mecosta County. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ---------- 9 Burying grounds -- 5 Mounds -----------2 termines population. The rural white population of the county is today only sixteen per square mile. At Edenville, Midland County, at the coming together of the Tobacco and Tittabawassee rivers, the main trail through the central part of the state branched. One branch passed through Tobacco, Buckeye, Sage, and Sherman townships, and went on to the Grand Traverse region. The other trail passed through Billings, Hay, Secord, and Clement townships and led to Cheboygan. This latter trail, as the broken lines upon the map indicate, cannot be traced as accurately as the Grand Traverse path. TOWNSHIPS 1. Sherman 9. 2. Butman 10. 3. Clement 11. 4. Bourrett 12. 5. Sage 13. 6. Gladwin 14. 7. Secord 15. 8. Sheridan Grout Buckeye Hay Beaverton Tobacco Billings Bentley 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. To Wawatam Bliss Carp Lake Cross Village Readmond Center McKinley Friendship WNSHIP 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. s Pleasant View Maple River West Traverse Little Traverse Little Field Resort Bear Creek Springvale GENESEE COUNTY (Map 9) Like the other counties of the Saginaw valley, Genesee was well adapted to Indian life. The Flint River and the adjacent lands were favorite rendezvous. There was a group of eight mounds upon the river bank in the southern part of the corporation limits of the city of Flint. Another group of twenty was situated upon the west bank of the Flint, a mile above Flushing. The trail from Detroit to Saginaw cut the county diagonally from southeast to northwest, and a branch trail led from the Flint Reservation west to Shiawassee Town. Montrose Township contained a number of mounds and two villages; it was the southern limit of a region thickly dotted with sites extending into Taymouth Township, Saginaw County. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages -----------7 Burying grounds -_ 2 Mounds ----------48 GOGEBIC COUNTY (Map 15) Unusual and varied earth constructions stood at one time upon an island in Lac Vieux Desert, through which passes the boundary line between Michigan and Wisconsin. Figure 6, which is taken from Schoolcraft, enables one to visualize... the situation better 7/^ ^'/ than words can de-:. scribe i t. Mounds,, /%:-l.., embankments, in- t! ODWELL *6 closures, "deep exca-,,,", "...t. vations," and a large 'SF VI LAGE village at one time oc- j. "s--(%IS8O 1 NO cupied the island. It.. | q1,m. 't pM has been mentioned in i - the notes upon Me- <f MOUN N,, nominee County that:-., O3 135 Its. t h e mound-building. z. '.O..NDt ^ culture of Wisconson i> encroached slI i g h t I y upon what is now,DEEP EXGAVAT!ONS M i c h i g a n territory. The situation at Lac Vieux Desert is another illustration of this. A village stood at the mouth of Mon- FIG. 6. Diagram of earthworks on an island attrea Ri anda- in Lac Vieux Desert, Schoolcraft, Indian treal River and an- Tribes of the United States, 1847, Part II other at Little Girl's Point. A mound is situated at the mouth of Trout Creek, east side of Lake Gogebic. The surveyors' notes occasionally mention crossing old trails, but they are too fragmentary to justify attempts at retracings. A trail connected Lake Gogebic with the headwaters of the Wisconsin River. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages------- 3 Mounds --------4 Inclosure ------- 1 Embankment 2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. TOWNSHIPS Montrose 10. Flint Vienna 11. Burton Thetford 12. Davison Forest 13. Gaines Flushing 14. Mundy Mt. Morris 15. Grand Blanc Genesee 16. Atlas Richfield 17. Argentine Clayton 18. Fenton TOWNSHIPS 1. Ironwood 5. Marenisco 2. Wakefield 6. Watersmeet 3. Erwin 7. Carlson 4. Bessemer GLADWIN COUNTY (Map 12) Gladwin County does not seem to have been conducive to permanent Indian occupancy; at least nothing has been reported to, or discovered by, the Museum staff to warrant mapping any sites. It must always be kept in mind that the means of subsistence de GRAND TRAVERSE COUNTY (Map 11) Within or very near the present limits of Traverse City there were seven isolated mounds, a group of three upon Boardman Lake, a group the number of which is undetermined, a village, and -20 -

Page  21 GENESEE-HOUGHTON an Indian burying ground. There were as many, if not more, sites near the lakes in Blair and Green Lake townships. The point of land between Elk and Round lakes was well dotted by mounds and other burial places and villages. The point of the peninsula near Old Mission was occupied by a village, a burying ground, and a group of mounds. A trail from Saginaw and Detroit terminated at Elk Lake; one from Cadillac terminated at the head of the bay. Other trails led south, but their terminals cannot be ascertained. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ----------- 8 Burying grounds -_ 6 Mounds ---------- 55 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. TOWNSHIPS Peninsula 8. Acme 9. Long Lake 10. Garfield 11. East Bay 12. Whitewater 13. Green Lake Blair Union Grant Mayfield Paradise Fife Lake HOUGHTON COUNTY (Map 16) Houghton, Keweenaw, and Ontonagon counties should be considered together. Many of the notes upon Keweenaw County need not be repeated here, although they are equally applicable. Numerous pits were found along the north shore of Portage Lake. Another group was near Pike River southwest of Chassell. According to -the report of Charles Whittlesey, connected with the United States Geological Survey, Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, April, 1862, referring to Portage Lake Region, "signs of ancient excavations occur near the lake level and, what is remarkable, are not in the rock but in the sand and boulder drift." His map and charts indicate that the "ancient mine pits" bore "with the mineral range, across the mineral range and in the drift gravel," and were on the southern parts of Sections 25, 26, 27, T. 55 N., R. 34 W., which lands are occupied now by part of the city of Hancock. "The veins of this part of the range have a direction different from those described on Point Keweenaw." From the pit-holes the Indians collected pieces of water-rolled or drift copper and from the rock fissures they obtained it in a form more convenient for manipulation into flat objects like spears, arrows and knife blades. The writer has inspected much of the copper district, seeking especially traces of Indian mining, and has been struck at many points with the marks of early white prospectors trailing the Indians who had preceded them perhaps hundreds of years before. At numerous places outcrops presented unquestionable evidence of the work of Indian copper collectors. The edge of the rock showed that it had been battered and that usually a little seam of copper had been teased into view. Around these places were lying many stones which had been used as mauls in battering away the stony matrices. Many of the mauls were grooved and all showed severe use. Near by were drill holes and signs of blasting by white operators. Undoubtedly the prospectors sought the places where the Indians had worked, thinking it worth while to make a random test blast. At the portage where the ship canal has been dug, a large number of Indian implements, many of them made of copper, GRATIOT COUNTY (Map 8) The maps do not show many Indian sites, owing, no doubt, to the lack of careful observation or the failure to record them by those who came into the country when they could still be seen. Upon the Pine River, two villages are marked; there is one upon the Maple at the south boundary. Six mounds stood in a cluster in the northeast part of Sumner Township. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages -----------3 Burying grounds 2 Mounds -----------8 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. TOWNSHIPS Seville 9. New Haven Pine River 10. Newark Bethany 11. North Star Wheeler 12. Hamilton Sumner 13. North Shade Arcada 14. Fulton Emerson 15. Washington Lafayette 16. Elba HILLSDALE COUNTY (Map 5) It has been reported that mounds were still discernible at an early date in every township of the county. But, unfortunately, there are no data to indicate the situations of many of them. From accounts and the proof at hand, Hillsdale County must have had a permanent Indian population of several hundred. More for historical than archaeological reasons, Squawfield, upon the southern border of Pittsford Township, deserves special mention. In 18 3 9, the time when the Indians were removed by the government from that part of the state, it was the headquarters of Bawbeese, the noted Potawatomi chief. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages -----------8 Burying grounds 2 Mounds --------- -19 Dance circle ------- 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. TOWNSHIPS Litchfield 10. Scipio 11. Moscow 12. Somerset 13. Allen 14. Fayette 15. Hillsdale 16. Adams 17. Wheatland 18. Reading Cambria Jefferson Pittsford Camden Woodbridge Ransom Amboy Wright FIG. 7. Mass of float copper, with outline suggestive of a human profile. Width 32 inches, length 42 inches, weight 483 pounds were unearthed. The inference must not be made that all the copper used by the Indians was extracted from the rocks. Nearly fifty pounds of copper nuggets were picked up during a half-day's -21---

Page  22 ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTIES walk. Two or three miles west of Franklin Mine a farmer turned out with his plow, in two summers, over a ton of float copper. One mass collected by this gentleman weighs four hundred and eighty-four pounds; and upon one side its contour resembles the profile of a human face (Figure 7); it is now among the exhibits of the Museum of Mineralogy of the University. There is a tradition, which is probably more fiction than fact, that a bloody battle was fought between Iroquois and Chippewa at Battle Island near the Portage entry about the year 1730. See notes upon Keweenaw and Ontonagon counties. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ----------------------- 2 Mines, pits (copper).--very numerous with the Grand River, near Michigan State College campus. Several Indian sites and cornfields are known to have been situated along this line. Two clusters of mounds are designated upon the map of this county, one in Leslie township, the other in Aurelius. Acknowledgment is made to Mr. E. C. Calkins, Department of Public Utilities, Lansing, for assistance in tracing the trails of this and adjoining counties. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ------------7 Burying grounds -----4 Mounds ----------- 4 Circular inclosure __ 1 TOWNSHIPS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. TOWNSHIPS Calumet 8. Hancock 9. Osceola 10. Schoolcraft 11. Quincy 12. Franklin 13. Stanton 14. Adams Torch Lake Chassell Elm River Portage Laird Duncan 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Lansing Meridian Williamston Locke Delhi Alaiedon Wheatfield Le Roy 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Aurelius Vevay Ingham White Oak Onondaga Leslie Bunker Hill Stockbridge HURON COUNTY (Map 10) Huron County has a straight-line boundary upon the south side, which is about forty-five miles long. Upon the shore line of eighty-five miles were numerous villages and camps, as is attested by the debris left by the dwellers. There is a village site every few miles along the shore of Saginaw Bay. A few small islands in the bay also have remains of villages and mounds. The remnants of mounds that have been mutilated by relic hunters are visible within a mile east of Port Austin and upon New River, near its mouth. A mound group was situated in the southeastern part of Sheridan Township, near the southern boundary of the county, but the section upon which it stood could not be ascertained. Mr. Harlan I. Smith, of Victoria Memorial Museum, Ottawa, Canada, who made a survey of the tThumb" district, reported in 1901 that a number of small mounds stood upon Katechay Island, Fair Haven Township. There is an old record of a circular inclosure where the courthouse at Bad Axe stands. Traces of workshops and camps,Are still to be found along the Lake Huron shore. A trail followed the shore from Oak Point, and a "ferry line" crossed the bay for Point Lookout with a stopping-place at Charity Island. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages -------------13 Burying grounds ----- 7 Mounds ------------- 7 Circular inclosure _. 1 TOWNSHIPS IONIA COUNTY (Map 8) The banks and valleys of the Grand, Maple, Lookingglass, and Flat rivers afforded subsistence and occupation for a numerous Indian population. At least five villages were located in Danby Township; one lay just across the north line in Portland. A group of several mounds was situated on the Lookingglass, a mile east of the village of Portland. There were three mounds in close proximity to each other upon the edge of the village of Muir. In Section 34, Lyons Township, three mounds stood close together. A half mile west of Muir is Arthurberg Hill. A line of embankments around the north and east sides of the hill inclosed several acres; the curved, steep banks of the Maple formed a barrier on the other sides. The walls of earth were originally double for a part, if not all, of the way. This eminence, overlooking the low ground across and to the south of the river for a mile or more, was a quite formidable defense. As mentioned in the notes upon St. Joseph County, "hill-top forts" were not common in Michigan. SITES IDENTIFIED. Villages -----------12 Burying grounds 4 Mounds -----------11 Earthwork --------1 TOWNSHIPS 1. Port Austin 15. Winsor 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Caseville Lake Hume Dwight Huron Gore McKinley Chandler Meade Lincoln Bloomfield Rubicon Fair Haven 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. Oliver Colf ax Verona Sigel Sand Beach Sebewaing Brookfield Grant Sheridan Bingham Paris Sherman 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Otisco Orleans Ronald North Plains Keene Easton lonia Lyons 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Boston Berlin Orange Portland Campbell Odessa Sebewa Danby INGHAM COUNTY (Map 5) The old Indian trail from the Detroit River to the mouth of the Grand crossed the northern part of Ingham County and followed the Cedar River the greater part of the way to its confluence IOSCO COUNTY (Map 12) The Lake Huron shore trail had a collateral that branched off at the mouth of the Au Sable River. On the map it abruptly terminates at Smith's Creek in southwestern Alcona County. No doubt it went much farther into the forests of the middle reaches of the Au Sable. Villages were situated at Tawas Point and upon the Au Sable, one of which was at the river's mouth. There was a mound at the -22--

Page  23 H URON-KALAMAZOO tip of Tawas Point, and two or three burying places have been located in the county. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ---------- 4 Burying grounds 2 Mound ----------- 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. TOWNSHIPS Plainfield 7. Tawas Oscoda 8. Baldwin Wilber 9. Burleigh Au Sable 10. Sherman Reno 11. Alabaster Grant JACKSON COUNTY (Map 5) A methodical survey does not indicate the existence of many earthworks. Village sites were numerous, and every township except Hanover and Pulaski was crossed by a trail. A complete record, which at this date is impossible, would presumably add many interesting features to the map. Acknowledgment is made to Mr. W. C. Fargo, of Jackson, and Mr. N. F. Wing, of Grass Lake, for valuable assistance in tracing the trails and locating sites in the county. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages -----------23 Burying grounds -- 4 Mounds -----------3 IRON COUNTY (Map 16) There is not much of archaeological interest to report from this large county, although the topography indicates it must have had seasonal attractions for fishers, hunters, and trappers. A trail from L'Anse, Baraga County, came south to the lake region of Iron County, past Chicagon Lake, and crossed Brule River into Wisconsin. A mile west of Swan Lake this trail was met by one coming south from the Indian village on Lake Michigamme, in Marquette County. There were a good many branches from these main trails. Parts of some of the old trails can still be seen and traced for considerable distances. Acknowledgment is made of valuable services rendered by Mr. H. F. Larson, county engineer, Crystal Falls, who assisted in preparing the map, in locating several sites, and in tracing the trails. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages -----------4 Burying grounds 4 TOWNSHIPS 1. Stambaugh 5. Crystal Falls 2. Iron River 6. Mansfield 3. Bates 7. Mastodon 4. Hematite ISABELLA COUNTY (Map 8) According to the records so far obtained, there were three mounds in a group upon the west border of Coldwater Township; in Vernon, two mounds; in Sherman, a village; in Denver, a village; in Union, a village and a burying ground; in Lincoln, a group of mounds the number of which is undetermined, and also a group of three, a group of two, and two isolated mounds, two villages, and two burying grounds. A trail ran from Shingquacaseking, two miles below Mount Pleasant, on the north side of the Chippewa River, to the junction of the Chippewa and the Tittabawassee rivers in Midland County. A trail which cannot be accurately located for its entire course passed diagonally across the county from Coe through Shepherd and Mt. Pleasant and left the county about six miles east of the northwest corner. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages -----------5 Burying grounds 3 Mounds --------- 13 1 TOWNSHIPS 1. Springport 11. ( 2. Tompkins 12. S 3. Rives 13. S 4. Henrietta 14. bs 5. Waterloo 15. F 6. Parma 16. F 7. Sandstone 17. I 8. Blackman 18. ( 9. Leoni 19. s 0. Grass Lake 4oncord;pring Arbor 5ummit STapoleon Dulaski lanover 4iberty rolumbia,orvell KALAMAZOO COUNTY (Map 4) A conspicuous and unique feature of Michigan's antiquities is the "garden bed" construction. The beds were symmetrical, low earth ridges, as described in the chapter upon "Garden Beds." One which was situated in the city of Kalamazoo, where the Park Club House now stands, was wheel-shaped, with "spokes" run Fr..Oulneso nin adn bed~oos O 0 0= Do i DU Lin Ni U U rzzz QOOO EzE36 _ __j L:-. n LEDFnn FIG. 8. Outlines of ancient garden beds 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. TOWNSHIPS Coldwater 9. Gilmore, 10. Vernon 11. Wise 12. Sherman 13. Nottawa 14. Isabella 15. Denver 16. Broomfield Deerfield Union Chippewa Rolland Fremont Lincoln Coe ning out from an inner to an outer circular ridge. Others were " gridiron"-shaped, in regular straight-line designs with numerous ridges paralleling each other at a distance apart of about three feet. One or two of them were of quite complicated pattern, but very regular and formal (see Figure 8). More of these beds existed in Kalamazoo County than in all the rest of the state, although the largest, covering one hundred and twenty acres, was near Three Rivers, in St. Joseph County. -^

Page  24 ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTIES Prairie Ronde Township had several, whole or incompleted, rectilinear inclosures situated within a mile or two of one another. In Climax Township there was an elliptical inclosure with a major axis of three hundred and thirty feet and a minor axis of two hundred and ten feet. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages --.-------- 9 Burying grounds 7 Mounds--------22 Inclosures ---------6 Garden beds ----.--17 One particular mound, about twelve miles from the mouth of Grand River, in Ottawa County, appears, from the description, to have been of the nature of a shell heap or kitchen midden. It was entirely removed years ago to make way for a sawmill dock. From the description of the mound construction, and from examinations of the pottery, pipes, and other artifacts, collected by Mr. Coflinberry and now in the Kent Scientific Museum of Grand Rapids, it seems clear that this aboriginal art is to be identified with the Hopewell Culture of Ohio, which extended to the Muskegon River, in Newago County. A number TOWNSHIPS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Alamo Cooper Richland Ross Oshtemo Kalamazoo Comstock Charleston 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Texas Portage Pavilion Climax Prairie Ronde Schoolcraft Brady Wakeshma KALKASKA COUNTY (Map 11) A group of five mounds was situated upon the west side of Wilson Township, near a small lake. Six miles south of this site and just west of South Boardman there was another group. The Saginaw trail and the trail from the mouth of Manistee River to Otsego Lake crossed in Boardman Township. A part of the latter trail can at this time be easily followed as a path from Squaw Lake in Blue Lake Township, for a distance of six miles, to the northeast corner of the county. Several sites exist near Round and Elk lakes. A village was once situated at the fording place across the Little Manistee River where it is joined by Portage Creek. See notes upon Oscoda County. SITES IDENTIFIED Mounds --- 7 TOWNSHIPS FIG. 9. Group of mounds below Grand Rapids 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Clearwater Rapid River Cold Springs Blue Lake Wilson Kalkaska Excelsior 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Part of Clearwater Boardman Orange Oliver Springfield Garfield of mounds stood within the present limits of the city of Grand Rapids. Beneath the base of a mound in Court Street, Mr. Coffinberry found two nuggets of native silver weighing thirteen pounds and a mass of copper fourteen pounds in weight. This metal was sold to the curator of Peabody Museum, Salem, Massachusetts, for $200......... Near the junction of the Flat with the Grand River, at Lowell, there were some villages and burial sites. The trail, which is followed by Grand River Avenue out of Detroit, reached the Grand River at Saranac, Ionia County, and went down the stream through Grand Rapids to its mouth at Grand Haven, Ottawa County. Centering at the rapids, a network of trails came from almost every direction. A trail from the rapids passed the lakes near Fremont, Newaygo County, and terminated at the mouth of the Pentwater River, northwestern corner of Oceana County. A trail from the crossing at the rapids went to the Muskegon River, which it crossed in the northwestern part of Eggleston Township, Muskegon County. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ------------12 Burying grounds ----- 4 Mounds -------------41 Circular inclosure --- 1 TOWNSHIPS KENT COUNTY (Map 7) Mr. W. L. Coflinberry, a civil engineer and a research archaeologist, reporting in 1874 upon the Grand River Valley, speaks of eight groups of mounds numbering forty-six in all. He says: "The mounds examined vary from two feet to fifteen and onehalf feet in height, and from ten feet to one hundred and two feet in diameter." Among the specimens found in the mounds were human remains, pottery, drinking vessels, and stone, bone, and copper implements. Where human remains were wanting, nothing was found, and in no case were skeletons exhumed without revealing something of interest; often all the objects mentioned were found associated. The pottery reported by Mr. Coffinberry was of different models. At least two distinct types were found. This marked difference in the pottery may indicate various agencies in the making or the coming together of two different shades of culture. Nothing of recent deposit was found in what is known as the Norton group, which is a typical group of seventeen mounds about three miles below the city of Grand Rapids. See Figure 9. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Tyrone Solon Nelson Spencer Sparta Algoma Courtland Oakfield Alpine Plainfield Cannon Grattan 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. Walker Grand Rapids Ada Vergennes Wyoming Paris Cascade Lowell Byron Gaines Caledonia Bowne 24 -

Page  25 KAL KAS KA-K EWE NAW KEWEENAW COUNTY (Map 16) The name of Keweenaw County, taken from that of the peninsula upon which it is located, is shortened from a much longer name descriptive of the short trail from the head of Portage Lake to Lake Superior, where, "to keep from going around, we make a short-cut on foot across a point." The Indians dragged their canoes and duffle across this cut-off. The Government has converted it into a ship canal. When the county was organized, this name-giving tract was "set off" to Houghton County. A trail led from the village at Keweenaw Point through the center of Houghton County and probably terminated at Gogebic Lake, in Ontonagon County. A short trail connected Copper Harbor with Eagle Harbor. Keweenaw County is of unusual interest to the archaeologist because of its situation within the Copper Range from which the Indians derived the metal they very highly valued. A brief dissertation upon Indian copper mining is given in Chapter VIII. For a distance of twenty miles, between Copper Harbor and Eagle Harbor, upon the north half of the peninsula, innumerable pitholes, mere depressions in the soil or rock, sometimes not exceeding a foot in depth, were observed by early geologists. Upon investigation these proved to be places where the Indians had been digging for copper, and gave the clue which led white men to do the same. The "cX" marks upon the map indicate districts in which the mining pits were found. The pits were so close together, sometimes for the extent of a mile or more, that if each one were designated the marks would overlap. The Indianminers had lodges at many places, but only a few, where permanent villages stood, can be identified at this time. one-half feet below the surface. The drawing (Figure 12) was made from a photograph of the specimen as it lay upon a truck in front of the Detroit City Hall, to which place it had been shipped about 18878 by the Minong Mining Co. It weighed 5,72 0 pounds. The Company hoped that some scientific society, perhaps the FIG. 11. Diagram showing position of copper mass at McCargoe Cove, Isle Royale. A, mass of copper; B, inclosing rock; C, layer of excavated drift twelve feet thick; D, line showing surface of the ancient pit before re-excavation. See Figure 12. From "Ancient Copper Mines of Isle Royale," by Professor N. H. Winchell, Popular Science Monthly, Vol. XIX, April, 1881 Smithsonian Institution, would wish to preserve it as a mineralogical specimen and also because of its discovery by Indian miners, who had raised it upon logs and chipped fragments from it. About the mass were found a great number of stone hammers, FIG. 10. Old Indian mining operations in artificial cavern at location of Waterbury Mine, Keweenaw County. A, crystalline or greenstone trap; B, amygdaloid trap; C, talus of the bluff and drift; a, ancient rock excavation; b, rubbish thrown out of a; c c, jointed chloritic bed; d, conglomerate bed; e e, inclined shaft; 2, Little Montreal River. From Whittlesey's report, Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, 1863 The subsistence for Indians of this region, transient or permanent, was abundantly supplied by the waters, supplemented by a few native vegetable products and game. As a part of Keweenaw County, Isle Royale (see Map 17) deserves special mention. There has probably been more theorizing about the "ancient copper mines of Isle Royale" than about the rich copper-bearing parts of the mainland. In quantity, the output of the island was small as compared with that of the mainland ranges, but, on account of its unique situation and detachment, it has attracted archaeological adventurers. Large masses of copper, which had previously been exposed by Indians and which "showed marks of long-continued pounding," were discovered under debris, rubbish, and humus by prospectors at McCargoe Cove in 18 74 (see Figure 11 ). c"About them in the pits were a great many small thin chips of metallic copper of irregular shape." Mr. John T. Reader, of Houghton, gives the following pertinent information about one of these masses, which was sixteen and FIG. 12. Copper mass weighing about 5,720 pounds (marked A in Figure 11), after it had been lifted sixteen feet and placed upon a truck by Minong Mining Company, McCargoe Cove, Isle Royale, Keweenaw County. It is pictured just as rediscovered by white miners and shows ancient stone hammer marks wooden bowls, birch buckets, and several copper spears and arrows. This remarkable specimen was finally melted into ingots and sold for sixteen cents a pound! Two other masses, one of 4,17 5 pounds, and the other of 3,317 pounds, showed the same marks of hammering and pecking. Near the same place the drifts of the aborigines had missed by two feet a copper mass weighing six tons. -25 - UP

Page  26 ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTIES During the season of 1929 the University Museums employed a representative archaeologist, Mr. Fred Dustin, who spent several months in a survey in association with members of the state Isle Royale survey. While upon the ground Mr. Dustin charted the island. The map is based upon his chartings and reports. Besides examining the old copper mines, Mr. Dustin located eight village sites. He was able to trace a trail the entire length of the island about midway between the two shores. Mr. Henry Gillman, Smithsonian Report, 1873, describes numerous old mining pits upon Triangle Island that he examined in 1872. See notes upon Houghton and Ontonagon counties. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ---------------13 Mound ----------------- 1 Mines, copper_-very numerous TOWNSHIPS trail appears to terminate at Lapeer, but, no doubt, it passed to the northwest and joined the fragment of the trail that cuts Marathon Township from southeast to northwest. Although the government surveyors' notes do not warrant completing it for its entire length, the fragments noted upon the map are presumably parts of a continuous path going to the Cass River, which it crossed at Tuscola, in Tuscola County. From this ford it continued to the northwest, crossed the Saginaw River where Bay City now stands, and connected with the trail following the west shore of Saginaw Bay. According to a rather vague report, there was a group of mounds near the south line of Imlay Township somewhere upon Belle River. From the verified locations of villages and burying grounds, the inference is justified that Lapeer County had a considerable quota of Indians. The topographical situation also lends strength to this statement. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ----------15 Burying grounds -- 6 Mounds ----------15 1. 2. 3. Houghton Eagle Harbor Grant 4. Sherman 5. Allouez Isle Royale 6. Part of Eagle Harbor Township 7. Part of Houghton Township 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. TOWNSHIPS Rich 10. Burlington 11. Marathon 12. Deerfield 13. North Branch 14. Burnside 15. Oregon 16. Mayfield 17. Arcadia 18. Goodland Elba Lapeer Attica Imlay Hadley Metamora Dryden Almont LAKE COUNTY (Map 11) A careful survey has been made and some excavation done in Lake Township by members of the Museum staff. This township had evidently been occupied by a considerable number of Indians in time long gone by. One group of six mounds, one of three, one of two, an isolated mound, and four village sites were located in the vicinity of the group of lakes situated in the township. Some of the mounds still remain. In Section 36, SE. ~ of SE. V4, Eden Township, there were at least two mounds: two more were in SE. ~, Section 29, and a village site was in SE. ~, Section 2 5, Pinora Township. More careful scrutiny and inquiry in the Little Manistee River valley will probably reveal several more sites. See notes on Newaygo County. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages --- 7 Mounds -19 TOWNSHIPS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Elk Eden Dover Sauble Peacock Newkirk Ellsworth Sweetwater 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Webber Cherry Valley Pinora Lake Pleasant Plains Yates Chase LEELANAU COUNTY (Map 13) A trail extended along the west shore of Grand Traverse Bay; another trail ran from the point of the peninsula to the old village at Leland and probably around Glen Lake to Crystal Lake and the mouth of Betsey River, in Benzie County. A survey of both sides of Lake Leelanau, for a distance of twenty-five miles, shows that every prominent point commanding a view of the open water, if not swampy or otherwise unapproachable for canoes, was the site of an Indian camp or village. Traces of a trail along the south shore of the western lobe of Glen Lake were distinctly discernible seventy-five years ago. There was a village upon this trail a few rods west of the south end of the bridge which now spans the narrows. Large quantities of pottery were found upon a half-acre at this point, which, sad to relate, have been scattered. A similar find was made across the lake about sixty rods northeast of the north end of the bridge. Sleeping Bear Point, upon which is an immense sand dune, has many traditions, mostly legendary. It has been a fertile field for relic hunters. No doubt it was an inviting lookout for Indians. The exposure of human bones by shifting winds indicates that bodies were buried in the sands of the dune. Tradition has it that the "Bear" was the scene of a terrific battle "in the long ago." Other points of archaeological interest are indicated upon the map. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ---------- 5 Burying grounds _ 3 TOWNSHIPS LAPEER COUNTY (Map 10) A number of intelligent persons have affirmed that Flint River had evidences "all along" of Indian works. They were probably as correct as they were indefinite. A reconnaissance led to the locating of two mounds in Marathon Township, where a trail crossed the river; a village site is located upon the same trail at the south end of Hemingway Lake. A trail from the villages at the mouth of the Clinton River at Anchor Bay, Lake St. Clair, through Macomb County, across the northeastern part of Oakland County, entered Lapeer County almost directly south of the city of Lapeer. Upon the map this 1. Leelanau 2. Leland 3. Sutton's Bay 4. Glen Arbor 5. Cleveland 6. Centerville 7. Bingham 8. Empire 9. Kasson 10. Solon 11. Elmwood -26-- 0 s

Page  27 LAKE-MACOMB LENAWEE COUNTY (Map 6) The outstanding feature of the county was an earthwork quite unusual in its outline for Michigan, but common in Ohio. In the north part of the city of Tecumseh, near the bank of the River Raisin, at what was once known as Brownsville, there was a circle joined by a passageway to a square (see Figure 13 ). Accurate descriptions of this construction have been left by early observers. A hundred years ago there were still standing the remains of cedar posts so arranged as to indicate that the embankments were palisaded. In the center of the circle a number of pits, five or six feet deep, contained charcoal and firewood. Near by another circular inclosure was situated and also a "dance circle" a little farther to the _____ _...__...- ~northeast. FIG. 13. Diagram showing outline of inclos- Two groups of mounds have been ures, with circle and identified as having stood in the northsquare connected. Te- o M T bt cumseh eastern part of Medina Township, but the exact number in the groups cannot be determined. Another mound group, number indefinite, was situated in the center of Raisin Township. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ---------------15 Burying grounds -------- 6 Mounds -----------------14 Circle and square joined-- 1 Dance circle ------------1 LUCE COUNTY (Map 20) After considerable search for records pertaining to Luce County, there is but one item to record, a village at the mouth of Two Hearted River, upon the Superior shore. SITES IDENTIFIED Village ------------ 1 Burying ground__ 1 TOWNSHIPS 1. McMillan 2. Columbus 3. Lakefield 4. Pentland TOWNSHIPS 1. Woodstock 12. Hudson 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Cambridge Franklin Clinton Tecumseh Macon Rollin Rome Adrian Raisin Ridgeway 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. Dover Madison Palmyra Blissfield Deerfield Medina Seneca Fairfield Ogden Riga MACKINAC COUNTY (Map 20) The Straits of Mackinac, with their islands and points of mainland, have peculiar interest, owing to the prehistoric and historic lore connected with them. Point La Barbe and Point St. Ignace were embarking places for those who wished to go farther south, and disembarking places, after crossing the Straits, for those coming from the south. The Straits were an interruption of four and one-half miles in the trails that came from as far as the Gulf of Mexico and the mid-Atlantic shores and continued to points upon Lake Superior or around the head of Lake Michigan into the Wisconsin country. In 1670 Father Marquette established a mission at the Huron Village upon the Island of Mackinac, but soon removed to the village at Point Ignace upon the mainland. There were two villages and a burying ground upon Mackinac Island; a very large village, named for Chief Chinaiquau, and a burying ground situated upon Round Island. The magnificent fish that could be easily caught made Round Island a particularly attractive camping place. A similar situation was Martin's Island. A mound stood at Point La Barbe. There must have been an almost continuous cemetery surrounding the Point, since parts of skeletons are frequently unearthed by builders of cottages in the neighboring resorts. Shawboaway's village was on Les Cheneaux Channel, near Cedarville, opposite Marquette Island. A burying ground was near by. A village site has been identified at the south end of Lake Millecoquins and a burying ground at Naubinway, both in Garfield Township. Rabbit's Rock, called by the Indians Wabos Nematabit, which means "sitting rabbit," was a legendary spot. It was supposed to be inhabited by a great manitou, to whom the natives made offerings of tobacco as they paddled by it. It is an immense rock jutting into the lake, four or five miles above St. Ignace. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages -----------7 Burying grounds __ 5 Mound -----------1 LIVINGSTON COUNTY (Map 6) The Grand River Trail, from the crossing at Detroit to the mouth of the Grand River, one of the main lines of Indian travel, later converted into a "main thoroughfare" as the country was "built up," passed diagonally through the county. In the city of Detroit this road is known as Grand River Avenue, and for the rest of the way as the Grand River Road. In Handy Township there were three Indian villages close together; when occupied each probably belonged to a different tribe. Upon the Shiawassee River, in the center of Howell Township, the remnants of a group of mounds can still be observed. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages -----------17 Burying grounds -- 3 Mounds -----------3 Dance circle------- 1 TOWNSHIPS 1. Portage 7. Brevort 2. Newton 8. St. Ignace 3. Garfield 9. Marquette 4. Hudson 10. Clark 5. Hendricks 11. Bois Blanc 6. Moran 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. TOWNSHIPS Conway 9. Cohoctah 10. Deerfield 11. Tyrone 12. Handy 13. Howell 14. Oceola 15. Hartland 16. losco Marion Genoa Brighton Unadilla Putnam Hamburg Green Oak MACOMB COUNTY (Map 6) Bruce and Armada townships contained some of the most peculiar earthworks in the state. The graphic illustration (Figure -27 -

Page  28 ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTIES 14), taken from Mr. Bela Hubbard's Memorials of a Half-Century, shows an inclosure upon Section 3, Bruce Township, of nearly three acres, with three gateways, a mound upon the inside of each one, and a pool. In the immediate vicinity, upon both sides of the north branch of Clinton River, there were nineteen mounds in close proximity to each other, making in all twenty-two mounds, besides the "fort," upon one square mile. ~~____~_________~ ~Mr. Bela Hubbard also refers to mounds S built of stones, "nice"4 or,. ly piled up to a height / Kf of four feet," standZ J{0 0 ing alone. Skeletons;5) tha a ml400 Fe f o th | ACRC were found u n d e r l some which were more S4 than a mile from the / earthworks. The di/15 FECT ABOVC R/VCR ^// '. i *. I,,_rection and situation, k/!' -.. however, are so inw,. - E ]definite that they are 1 &-7 -, not charted. It is im-,, t%.,n;;.4 portant to call attenN'.,\i,,.- tion to stone-pile,:, 4,11,,ht,to mounds because they A ^^^were not reported $4' @1fo from elsewhere in the state....I. '1iV,,' -As the map indi"-; cates, there were other "4 inclosures, circular, and rectangular, _______________________ within four miles to FIG. 14. Diagram of ancient earthworks, the south and east of Macomb County. From Bela Hubbard, this site. According Memorials of a Half-Century to reports, the circular inclosure near the mouth of the Clinton contained three acres. There were two groups of mounds upon or very near the south line of the county, and mounds stood upon the west side of Bear Lake. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ----------- 6 Burying grounds _ 5 Mounds ----------11 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. TOWNSHIPS Arcadia 8. Pleasanton 9. Springdale 10. Cleon 11. Onekama 12. Bear Lake 13. Maple Grove 14. Marilla Manistee Brown Dickson Filer Stronach Norman MARQUETTE COUNTY (Map 18) Within an area extending from the mouth of Chocolay River to Presque Isle Point, a distance of eight miles mostly within the limits of what is now the city of Marquette, there were six Indian villages and two burying grounds. Another village was located in Powell Township, at the mouth of Cliff River, near the end of a forty-mile trail from the village at the mouth of Chocolay River. If records of observations had been kept in early times, and if they were available, many other sites could be placed on the map. A trail led west from the village where Marquette now stands, along the north side of Lake Michigamme to L'Anse, at the head of Keweenaw Bay. This trail divided near Negaunee; the two paths ran parallel to unite again at Lake Michigamme. There was a canoe passage from Lake Michigamme down the river of the same name to the Menominee. A greater part of the information upon which this report and the map are based has been obtained from correspondence, in 1893, between the Hon. Peter White of Marquette and the Hon. L. D. Watkins of Manchester. Professor L. A. Chase of Marquette has also rendered valuable assistance. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ---------- 7 Burying grounds _ 2 TOWNSHIPS 1. Powell 11. Richmond 2. Michigamme 12. Sands 3. Champion 13. Chocolay 4. Ishpeming 14. West Branch 5. Marquette 15. Skandia 6. Negaunee 16. Forsyth 7. Republic 17. Turin 8. Humboldt 18. Wells 9. Ely 19. Ewing SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ----------------- 8 Burying grounds ---------4 Mounds ---------------26 Circular inclosures -------8 Rectangular inclosure _ 1 TOWNSHIPS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Bruce Armada Richmond Washington Ray Lenox Shelby Macomb 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Chesterfield Sterling Clinton Harrison Warren Erin Lake 10. Tilden v MANISTEE COUNTY (Map 11) Four villages, two burial sites, and a mound are known to have been situated near the mouths of the Manistee and Little Manistee rivers, some of them within the present limits of the city of Manistee. As the map shows, there were other sites in different parts of the county. The trail from the mouth of the Manistee River to Otsego Lake is referred to in the comments upon Otsego County. There was a trail from the mouth of the Manistee to the outlet of Portage Lake. According to the most reliable data, the Mackinaw and St. Joseph trail, which is designated by broken lines, passed around the head of Portage Lake. MASON COUNTY (Map 11) The Big Sable, the Little Sable, and the Pere Marquette rivers, which cross Mason County from east to west and discharge into Lake Michigan, were canoe routes to and from numerous sites along their banks. The map locates thirteen villages and nine mounds upon or near the Pere Marquette and the Lake that bears the same name, the latter being merely a widening of the river at its outlet. Several sites are marked upon the borders of Lower Hamlin Lake, which is also an estuary-like part of Big Sable. There must have been trails paralleling the water courses for use when storm, flood, and ice made canoeing impossible. The dunes along the Lake Michigan shore had an influence upon the Indians who frequented them during the warmer weather and abandoned them for winter quarters farther back in the country and up the rivers to be away from lake tempests and drifting snow and sand. -28 -

Page  29 MANISTEE-MIDLAND The paragraph upon "Trail southwest from Mackinaw," in the second chapter of this compilation, describes the probable north and south paths of travel along the Michigan shore. Bass Lake was surrounded by Indian camps. There were also small mounds and burying grounds near by. Mr. C. E. Kistler, of Ludington, states that, "when he was young," there was a circular inclosure over one hundred and fifty feet across, with banks six feet high, situated in Section 20, Riverton Township. See notes upon Emmet and Mecosta counties. Acknowledgment is made of valuable assistance rendered and information given by Judge C. B. Jaeger and Mr. C. E. Kistler of Ludington. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages -------------22 Burying grounds -- '-- 4 Mounds -------------15 Circular inclosure _ 1 TOWNSHIPS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Grant Free Soil Meade Hamlin Victory Sherman Sheridan Pere Marquette 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Amber Custer Branch Summit Riverton Eden Logan There were two routes from Mackinaw to Green Bay. One followed the shore line; the other, a water route and probably a trail most frequently traveled, was by the way of Beaver Islands. In this connection reference is made to notes upon Charlevoix County. The explanation of the continuous residence of Indians in a locality is to be sought in the economic conditions determined by gratuities of nature. Where she was bounteous, there the Indians could thrive; where she was parsimonious, there the population was proportionately sparse. The nearer one approached Green Bay, the more plentiful was the wild rice, a most important food staple, especially when the population was entirely dependent upon the local resources. From the outlet of Lake Superior to beyond the Straits of Mackinac, fishing was a rewarding occupation. Toward Green Bay wild rice and fish conduced to an increasingly numerous population, but there were more Indians living across the border in Wisconsin than upon the Michigan side of the line. The name of one of the tribes, Menominee, from which the country and river take their name, signifies "Wild Rice People." In considering the food supply of this and similar regions, mention should be made of the flocks of innumerable wild fowl that were themselves attracted in the autumn by the rice. Not only did the flesh of ducks, geese, swans, and other water birds afford palatable meals for hungry Indians, but during the spring, when the birds were breeding, the eggs were gathered and consumed in large numbers. Large fish, sturgeon particularly, were very abundant in the bay and larger streams. Quarreling was common much of the time among the tribesmen over the rice and fishing grounds. Upon the Michigan side of the Menominee River, for a distance of eighty miles, fourteen village sites and ten burying grounds are located upon the map. Mr. A. W. Wolf states that there were Indian settlements along the Cedar River. A group of six mounds stood four miles above the mouth of the Menominee, and another group of eight lay forty miles beyond. A trail skirted the bay and Michigan shore. There was a cutoff trail across the river bend in Lake Township. The Menominee afforded canoe travel for a long distance, but portages had to be made around the numerous rapids. A trail followed the bank of the river also, but the exact line cannot be definitely marked, and consequently it is indicated by broken lines. It has been noted elsewhere that mound-building was not a feature of the Upper Peninsula Indian culture. Wisconsin is known to be one of the greatest mound states of the country. It is estimated that there were ten thousand mounds in that state. According to the showing made for Menominee County in this Atlas, it is evident that the Wisconsin trait of mound building laps over slightly into Michigan. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages -----------16 Burying grounds --11 Mounds -----------14 MECOSTA COUNTY (Map 8) Mecosta County must have been good winter hunting grounds. In the notes upon Mason County it is stated that the Indians left the Lake Michigan shore, which was rather bleak in winter, for the interior. Blackbird says that his people abandoned their village in the fall for their favorite winter quarters among the hardwood trees, somewhere above Big Rapids on the Muskegon River. There they hunted and trapped and made maple sugar in the early spring, after which they returned to L'Arbre Croche for the rest of the year to plant and cultivate their corn. The only village sites in the county that have been definitely located were at Pretty Lake, in Martiny Township. Six mounds stood south of Barryton, in Fork Township, and a group lay beside the Muskegon in the northwestern part of Grant Township. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages --- 3 Mounds ----9 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. TOWNSHIPS Green 9. Mecosta Grant 10. Austin Chippewa 11. Morton Fork 12. Wheatland Big Rapids 13. Aetna Colfax 14. Deerfield Martiny 15. Hinton Sheridan 16. Millbrook 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. TOWNSHIPS Meyer 8. Spaulding 9. Harris 10. Faithorn 11. Nadeau 12. Gourley 13. Holmes 14. Daggett Cedarville Lake Stephenson Mellen Menominee Ingallston MENOMINEE COUNTY (Map 18) It is unfortunate that the Menominee River district cannot be presented as a territorial unit, but the limitations of this undertaking confine the work to the Michigan side of the stream. It is archaeologically, ethnologically, and from the standpoint of local history, one of the most engaging parts of the country. A few notes will have to suffice, much as the urge is to treat it more extensively. The north end of Lake Michigan afforded the Indian, and in later years the missionary, explorer, and trader who trailed after him, the easiest way of going from the Straits of Mackinac to Green Bay, two important regions in aboriginal history. MIDLAND COUNTY (Map 8) The villages that were aligned along the Tittabawassee River, from its juncture with other streams to form the Saginaw, in Saginaw County, extended into Midland. There were six villages within eight miles of the present city of Midland, one of them upon Pine River. -29 -

Page  30 ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTIES From the number of artifacts that have been reported, one might expect that more sites would have been found than are charted, but one village and a single group of three mounds are all the sites that can be given upon the Tittabawassee and the trail that followed its banks above Midland into Gladwin County. The trail along the Chippewa is referred to in notes upon Isabella County. In Mills Township there is a group of mounds marked ftvague," which signifies uncertainty as to exact situation and number. A mound stood upon each side of the Chippewa near the center of Homer Township. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ----------- 8 Burying grounds _ 2 Mounds --9--------9 Upon an eminence eighty rods from one of the inclosures, there are hundreds of earth pits varying in depth from three to six feet. Their width ranges from four to eight feet. The pits are half full of accumulated humus and leaves. Numbers of them were cleared out and carefully examined, but no clue was found as to their probable use. No equally extensive field of pits has been located in the state. See notes upon Ogemaw County. Three mounds of considerable size were situated upon the west side of Lake Missaukee. Acknowledgment is here made of the valuable assistance rendered by Mr. C. Beuthien, county engineer of Lake City, for surveys and sketches. SITES IDENTIFIED Mounds --------_----16 Circular inclosures - - - 6 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. TOWNSHIPS Warren 9. Greendale Edenville 10. Lee Hope 11. Homer Mills 12. Midland Geneva 13. Jasper Jerome 14. Porter Lincoln 15. Mount Haley Larkin 16. Ingersoll TOWNSHIPS 1. Bloomfield 9. 2. Pioneer 10. 3. Norwich 11. 4. Caldwell 12. 5. Forest 13. 6.' West Branch 14. 7. Enterprise 15. 8. Lake Reeder Aetna Butterfield Richland Riverside Claim Union Holland.:.. - I MISSAUKEE - COUNTY I... 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A very important trail passed diagonally through the county leading from the Maumee country toward Detroit and on to the distant northern points. By a glance at the map one will note the locations of nine villages and five burying grounds, five of them contiguous to the River Raisin. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ----------- 9 Burying grounds 6 TOWNSHIPS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Milan London Exeter Ash Lake Dundee Raisinville Frenchtown 9. 10. 11 12. 13. 14. 15. Summerfield Ida La Salle Whiteford Bedford Erie Monroe MONTCALM COUNTY (Map 8) Upon or near the banks of Tamarack Lake, Cato Township, there were a group of seven mounds, a group of uncertain number, and one isolated mound. Two other mounds were situated in Section 6, Belvidere Township, at the northeast corner of Townline Lake. The east side of Clifford Lake, Section 3 0, Douglass Township, was the site of six mounds. South of and near Duck Lake, Crystal Township, in a tract of an acre or more, covered with small tumuli, many human skeletons and artifacts were collected years ago. Reports have come to hand that "lots of stuff" existed around Greenville, but nothing can be verified except a burying ground in the northeast corner of the town. The rolling country covered with forests along the Flat River must have been inviting to the aborigines, but there are no data to prove their continued presence in that region. There were two -30 -

Page  31 MISSAUKEE.-NEWAYGO mounds, a village, and a burying ground at Whitefish Lake, Pierson Township. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages --------- 3 Burying grounds 3 Mounds ---------21 ship, near the Muskegon River, there were three mounds. Upon the White River, or very near it, in Montague Township, there were four mounds and a burying ground. A village stood upon Crockery Creek, a group of mounds at Half Moon Lake in Casnovia Township, and a village at Duck Lake in Cedar Creek Township. Reports of other sites have been received, but a survey of the field and review of records do not justify giving them places upon the map. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. TOWNSHIPS Reynolds 11. Winfield 1-2 Cato 13. Belvidere 14. Home 15. Richland 16. Pierson 17. Maple Valley 18. Pine 19. Douglass 20. Day Ferris Montcalm Sidney Evergreen Crystal Eureka Fair Plain Bushnell Bloomer SSITES IDENTIFIED Villages 2-------- Burying ground 1 Mounds -----------10 TOWNSHiIPS 1. White River 10. Mum skegon MONTMORENCY COUNTY (Map 14) In the southwestern corner of the county, Albert Township, a group of eight mounds may still be seen upon the north bank of beautiful West Twin Lake. At the east and west ends of the lake there had been small groups. One village site has been located upon the west side of East Twin Lake. The group of eight mounds upon the north bank of the West Twin Lake was excavated by members of the Museum staff in 1927. Twenty-eight skeletons of men, women, and children, and one of a dog were exhumed. The burials had been made at different levels from four feet below the ground surface to within eighteen inches of the top. Many artifacts were found in association with the burials. The cut (Figure 16) illustrates some of these. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Montague Whitehall Blue Lake Holton Fruitland Dalton Cedar Creek Laketon 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Eggleston Moorland Casnovia Norton Fruitport Sullivan Ravenna SC) r C V NEWAYGO COUNTY.(Map 7) The parts of the valleys of the Muskegon, White; and Pere Marquette rivers that lie in Newaygo County are, archaeologically speaking, a continuation of the Grand River cultures. Except Saginaw, more village sites have been located in Newaygo than in any other county. It had more mounds than any other county; the remains of ninety-three have been located. In Troy Township there were twenty-five mound sites; in Beaver, fifteen; in Brooks, twenty-four; in Dayton, six. Fremont Lake was surrounded by a ring of camp sites. The mounds were generally in groups and many of them, especially those near the Muskegon, were ten or twelve feet high and fifty feet across the bases. At least two culture types have been recognized in the Newaygo pottery and pipes: the Hopewell, and what is called the "tcommon" Algonquian (see Figure 17). Which culture was antecedent to the other has not been determined, owing to the present mutilated d condition of the mounds. What became of the large amount of archaeological material that was taken from these works forty or more years ago, even hear-, county is known to have been the head- FIG. 17. Fragment of pottery, with designs quarters of old-time suggestive of Hopewell (Ohio) influCcfaers who d nence; found in association with plat"fakers" who mixed form pipe, Brooks Township, Newaygo the real with their County The size and number of the mounds upon the Muskegon River in Brooks Township indicate a fixed population, whereas the small tumuli of the northwestern parts of the county might have been left by transient hunters and fur-gatherers. The forests of the county abounded in a great variety of game animals and water fowl. Corn was cultivated. The Muskegon, at least as far as Croton, afforded a good supply of large fish. See notes upon Ottawa, Kent, Saginaw, Clinton, and Lake counties. FIG. 16. Implements and pipe from a mound at the West Twin Lake north side of Acknowledgment is made to Mr. Herman Lunden, of Gaylord, for many privileges accorded. SITES IDENTIFIED Village -- 1 Mounds -- - 8 TOWNSHIIPS 1. Montmorency 2. Vienna 3. Briley 4. Hillman 5. Albert 6. Avery 7. Loud 8. Rust MUSKEGON COUNTY., (Map 7) Although the part of the Muskegon Valley that lies in Newaygo County was well populated, this cannot be said of Muskegon County, according to the data at hand. Indian "'improvements" seem to break off at about the county line. In Eggleston Town

Page  32 ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTIES Acknowledgment is made of the valuable assistance of Mr. Harry L. Spooner, of Detroit, in detailing the features of the region. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages -----------56 Burying grounds -O10 Mounds --------- 93 TOWNSHIPS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Troy Lilley Home Barton Beaver Merrill Monroe Norwich Denver Lincoln Wilcox Goodwell 13. Dayton 14. Sherman.15. Everett 16. Big Prairie 17. Sheridan 18. Garfield 19. Brooks 20. Croton 21. Bridgeton 22. Ashland 23. Grant 24. Ensley OCEANA COUNTY (Map 7) The neighborhoods of Indians that centered in the northwestern part of Newaygo County lapped over into Lake County, and the townships of Colfax, Elbridge, Leavitt, and Newfield of Oceana. Within a radius of twelve miles, taking the corner where Oceana, Mason, Lake and Newaygo join as a centre, there were no fewer than fifty mounds and twenty villages. About one third of these were in Oceana County. The rest were clustered about the headwaters of Pere Marquette River, Newaygo County, and about the lakes in Lake Township, Lake County. In the northwestern corner of the county, in the vicinity of Pentwater, sites of different kinds were found. There is still standing a small group of mounds on the south side of Stony Lake, Claybanks Township. As the map indicates, other mounds were situated in Golden and Grant townships. In Elbridge Township, or vicinity, where there still live a number of Ottawa families, a few Indian burying grounds have been established in quite recent years by various church organizations. The shore trail from Mackinaw to St. Joseph can be definitely marked in Oceana County; whereas in some of the other counties through which it passed, it is designated only conjecturally, owing to the lack of positive information. Attention is called to a circular earthwork in Leavitt Township. This kind of construction is unusual in that part of the state; the only other one charted near it is in Riverton Township, Mason County. See notes upon Newaygo, Mason, Kent, and Lake counties. Acknowledgment is made to Mr. R. E. Southwick for identification of various sites and other information. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages -------------13 Burying grounds -----9 Mounds -------------27 Circular inclosure --- 1 OAKLAND COUNTY (Map 6) Within a radius of ten miles of the geographic center of Oakland County no less than fifty lakes occur. Fuller (Economic and Social Beginnings of Michigan, p. 189) says that there were as many as four hundred in the entire county. The situation was ideal for Indian life. A path led to every lake, and evidences of habitation, if their situations before the coming of the white men were charted, would be marked upon every shore, although at this late day only fifteen villages and camp sites can be correctly determined. Early writers state that Indian cornfields and sugar camps existed in many parts of the county. Crudely cultivated agricultural products and maple sugar contributed to good living consisting otherwise of fish, game, native berries, fruits, and a few edible wild vegetables. Canoe-making was probably a "leading industry." From the Detroit River the Saginaw trail passed through the county diagonally from southeast to northwest. A branch of the Saginaw trail went to Shiawassee. The Grand River trail cut the southwestern corner. A trail came up the Clinton River and bent north to the ""Thumb." Mounds were not numerous, although there was a group in Groveland Township, near the center, and another in the eastern half of Orion Township. The exact number in either group is not a matter of record. Mr. J. H. Perry, of Pontiac, located an embankment and a ditch fifteen rods long, on the line between Sections 28 and 29, Addison Township. The purpose for which it was built is not apparent. A number of notes upon the archaeology of the district have been collected, but, because of their vagueness as to locality, they have not been of use in preparing the map. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ---------15 Burying grounds 8 Mounds ----------- 5 TOWNSHIPS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. TOWNSHIPS Pentwater 9. Weare 10. Crystal 11. Colfax 12. Golden 13. Hart 14. Elbridge 15. Leavitt 16. Benona Shelby Ferry Newfield Claybanks Grant Otto Greenwood OGEMAW COUNTY (Map 12) The so-called "prehistoric forts," in Churchill Township, upon the Rifle River, are a few of the most interesting antiquities of Michigan that have not yet been destroyed. One of these inclosures contains about two acres. The one upon the west side of the river, two miles below Selkirk, has four hundred feet of embankment, three or four feet high, forming three sides of a square. The east frontage has no wall. It is an open space of two hundred and six feet facing a miry swamp lying between it and the river. There are the remnants of a crescent embankment upon the line between Sections 33 and 34, West Branch Township, a distance of fifty rods from a small branch of Mansfield Creek. All these works are in imminent danger of destruction. They should be, as perhaps they may be, preserved as a part of the state park system. In Klacking Township there were two groups of mounds and a slush bed where pottery was made, and an isolated mound upon the west side of Churchill Township. The presence of such extensive earthworks testifies to a considerable prehistoric population. No village sites, however, have been located. Certainly villages existed inside or near some, if not all, the inclosures. Most of the lands in this part of the state are wild or are clearings left after the hemlocks and pines were removed by lumbermen. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Holly Groveland Brandon Oxford Addison Rose Springfield Independence Orion Oakland Highland White Lake Waterford 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. Pontiac Avon Milford Commerce West Bloomfield Bloomfield Troy Lyon Novi Farmington Southfield Royal Oak -32---

Page  33 OAKLAND-OSCODA An illustration of an inclosure may be found ments upon Missaukee County. in the com SITES IDENTIFIED Mounds ------------------6 Curvilinear inclosures ------- 4 Partial rectangular inclosure-- 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Foster Rose Gooda Klacki Cumm Hill Ogema TOWNSHIP: 8. 9. r 10. ng 11. ing 12. 13. lw 14. S West Branch Churchill Logan Edwards Horton Mills Richland A trail led from the mouth of the Ontonagon River to the mines near where the town of Rockland stands, and passed on to the old village upon the west bay of Lac Vieux Desert, Gogebic County, the head of Wisconsin River. This must have been a very important line of travel between Lake Superior and the Mississippi River. The trail from Keweenaw Point to Lake Gogebic has been mentioned in the notes upon Keweenaw County. It passed the copper mines at Rockland, where it crossed the Ontonagon Trail. Certainly there were more or less permanent villages where and when the mines were worked, but the only certified village sites in the county were at the outlet of Iron and Ontonagon rivers. The location of a burying ground at the mouth of the Misery River indicates that a village must have been near by. A mound south of Rockland is unusual in its location. ONTONAGON COUNTY (Map 15) There could be but few comments to make about the archaeology of Ontonagon County if it were not for the unquestionable evidences in certain portions, of Indian mining. What has been remarked in the chapter upon "Mining," and more specifically about the mines of Keweenaw and Houghton counties, applies fully to the region of the Ontonagon River and need not be repeated. The securing of copper was not confined to surface mining or to the finding of detached pieces. Some of it was obtained by digging into veins or lodes of various degrees of inclination from horizontal to vertical. In Keweenaw County the Indians had driven a horizontal tunnel for thirty or forty feet into one ledge. In Ontonagon County they sank a vertical shaft to the depth of twenty-five feet or more. The rock in some of the veins was softer and had been loosened by weathering. This enabled the primitive miners, with their crude tools, to remove tons of debris from the metal for which they labored so industriously. In Figure 18 it will be observed that the Indians discovered at the bottom SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ---------- 2 Burying ground --- 1 Mound ----------1-- Mine pits numerous TOWNSHIPS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Carp Lake Ontonagon Rockland Greenland Bohemia Bergland 7. Matchwood 8. Stannard 9. McMillan 10. Haight 11. Interior OSCEOLA COUNTY (Map 11) Mounds have been located at the southwest end of Rose Lake, in Rose Lake Township, and a small group in Sylvan Township near the Muskegon River. One circular inclosure formerly stood south of the mound group just mentioned. SITES IDENTIFIED Mounds ------------- 4 Circular inclosure --- 1 TOWNSHIPS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Burdell Sherman Highland Marion Le Roy Rose Lake Hartwick Middle Branch 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Lincoln Cedar Osceola Sylvan Richmond Hersey Evart Orient FIG. 18. Ancient mining shaft, Ontonagon County. B B, mineral vein; A A, wall rock of compact trap; a a, original rock left to support walls; b, soil removed from vein; c c, masses of copper imbedded in vein; m, mass of copper sustained by timbers. From Whittlesey's report, Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, 1863 of the shaft copper masses too heavy for them to remove with their primitive mechanical devices. Besides this interesting prehistoric mine, there were many of the same kinds of mining pits that existed in the other parts of the copper region. OSCODA COUNTY (Map 12) If the Indian population in Oscoda County was as small as archaeological records are scarce, it was a no-man's land. A mound was situated upon the west side of T Lake in the northeastern part of Greenwood Township. Since numerous and interesting mounds and other sites existed in the southwestern part of Montmorency County, there must have been something similar south of the Twin Lakes, but several days of field observation in those districts yielded only negative results. The sparseness of Indian population in the inland counties of the northeastern part of the Lower Peninsula may be explained in part by the topography and other environmental conditions. The soil is very sandy and non-productive of food elements for both man and animals. Though there were heavy forests of pine -33 -

Page  34 ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTIES and hemlock, other kinds of vegetation were scarce. The rivers were too swift and lakes too pebbly for much growth of wild rice, and the fish were limited in kinds and size; this was a very different condition from the one existing in the Saginaw and Grand River valleys. SITE IDENTIFIED Mound ---------- 1 1. 2. 3. TOWNSHIPS Greenwood 4. Comins Elmer 5. Big Creek Clinton 6. Mentor OTSEGO COUNTY (Map 14) The numerous lakes of the county were probably all frequented by Indians, but a careful field survey of several days was practically negative except in the vicinity of Otsego Lake. There were three mounds upon the west side of the lake, near the end, and four at different points upon the east side south of the middle. A trail led from two miles south of the north end of Otsego Lake, west side, to the mouth of Manistee River, a distance of eightyfive miles. Acknowledgment is made of assistance rendered by Mr. Louis F. Smith of Trout Lake, who located some of the mounds upon Otsego Lake and traced important trails for the map of Chippewa County. SITES IDENTIFIED Mounds --------- 7 Village ---------- 1 PRESQUE ISLE COUNTY (Map 14) A mound of unusual proportions was situated at the mouth of Ocqueoc River. Two extensive burying grounds have been explored in the vicinity, and a village site has been identified. There were a village and a burying ground in North Allis Township, upon the south shore of Black Lake, and a burying ground at the southeast end of Grand Lake, Presque Isle Township. It is impossible to locate exactly within the county the line of the old trail that followed the Huron shore from Saginaw Bay to Cheboygan and Mackinaw, but the broken line upon the map traces it very nearly. The shore from the Wawaughwaughquece River, now called the Ocqueoc, to Swan River, a distance of twenty miles, was held ersacred ground" by the Indians of long ago. A "spirit rock" is situated by the water's edge, six miles up the shore from Rogers City. It is a huge conglomerate boulder, twenty feet long, six feet high and eight feet thick, and quite regularly rectangular. When the Indians came to the rock, as they traversed the shore, they stopped, sacrificed dogs, and made other offerings. In August, 1926, when it was visited by the writer, small piles of tobacco were observed upon the rock. Some beautiful legends are told about this "sacred" place. Another venerated spot was at the mouth of Swan River. Mr. M. G. Thomas of Onaway mentions that in the early times there was an "old Indian orchard" upon the east end of Black Lake, where a village is marked upon the map. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ----------- 2 Burying grounds -- 4 Mound -----------1 TOWNSHIPS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. TOWNSHIPS Corwith 6. Bagley Eimira 7. Otsego Lake Livingston 8. Chester Dover 9. Charlton Hayes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Bearinger Rogers North Allis Ocqueoc Moltke Allis Case 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Bismarck Belknap Metz Pulawski Posen Krakow Presque Isle OTTAWA COUNTY (Map 7) Except for a burying ground in the southwestern corner of the county, at Holland, the archaeological remains so far located are along or near the Grand River and its tributaries. There were a group of three mounds on the north side of the Grand River opposite Grand Haven, and a village, a mound and a burying ground at Battle Point six miles up the stream from its mouth, and a group of three mounds and a village at the mouth of Crockery Creek. Three mound sites have been identified in Tallmadge Township, a village upon the river at the edge of the county, and two villages upon Crockery Lake in Chester Township. See notes upon Kent, Ionia, and Clinton counties. For description of trail and waterway from the mouth of Grand River to the Detroit River and Lake Erie, see notes upon "Waterways and Portages" and "Trails." SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ----------- 5 Burying grounds -- 3 Mounds ----------- 9 TOWNSHIPS ROSCOMMON COUNTY (Map 12) Houghton Lake, the largest inland lake of the state, the head of Muskegon River, appears to have been as inviting for Indians as it is now for resorters. Within the distance of a mile from the curve in the western shore line no less than twelve small burial mounds were found. A group of mounds stood just west of Prudenville. Along the south beach of the lake there were at least two villages and a burying ground so extensive that the people living near by claim that a "'big battle" was fought there. A group of four mounds was situated upon the north shore at the mouth of Bacus Creek or the "Cut." S The Saginaw trail from the south passed the eastern borders of Houghton and Higgins lakes, and deflected sharply around the north end of the latter lake to the west. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ---------- 3 Burying grounds 1 Mounds -----------19 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Chester Spring Lake Crockery Polkton Wright Grand Haven Robinson Allandale Tallmadge 10. 11. 12. 13. 14: 15. 16. 17. Olive Blendon Georgetown Park Holland Zeeland Jamestown Port Sheldon TOWNSHIPS 1. Lyon 6. Richfield 2. Gerrish 7. Denton 3. Lake 8. Backus 4. Markey 9. Roscommon 5. Higgins 10. Nester --34 -

Page  35 OTSEGO-ST. JOSEPH SAGINAW COUNTY (Map 9) Saginaw County was the most densely populated part of Michigan when the Indians held undisputed sway. The reason is not far to seek. The Tittabawassee, the Shiawassee, and the Cass rivers with their tributaries, including Swan Creek and the Bad and Flint rivers, which unite to form the Saginaw, flow through a district which they copiously enrich. The streams themselves furnished all kinds of aquatic life, such as wild rice, fish, bivalves, amphibians, and turtles. The banks of the streams and the forests abounded in nearly all the game and fur-bearing animals native to the state; and maple sugar and wild berries formed a part of the natural resources. The earliest writers upon the features of the valley mention hundreds of acres of corn cultivated by the Indians. At this late date it is possible to locate one hundred and nine Indian villages and thirty-two mound sites. Trails seems to have centered at about where the city of Saginaw is situated, and they led in all directions: to the "Thumb," to Detroit, to Grand River Valley, northward to the shores of both great lakes, and to Mackinaw. Canoe traffic was possible in almost every direction. The county has been more thoroughly surveyed than any other, thanks to the careful studies of Mr. Harlan I. Smith and Mr. W. K. McCormick. More recently Mr. Fred Dustin of Saginaw has gone over the entire field making resurveys and reviewing the works of everyone who has left any accounts on record. It may be deserving of note that the parts of the state at large which supported the greatest number of Indians also had, according to the United States census reports, 1920, the densest white rural population. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages -----------109 Bury grounds ----- -15 Mounds ----------- 32 Garden bed ------- 1 Circular inclosure I__ 1 TOWNSHIPS have been near by. One record states: "Numerous mounds stood along the streams and lake shore," but at exactly what points is a question. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages -----------7 Burying grounds --10 Mounds ----------24 TOWNSHIPS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Lynn Brockway Greenwood Grant Burtchville Mussey Emmett Kenockee Clyde Fort Gratiot Berlin 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. Riley Wales Kimball Port Huron Columbus St. Clair Casco China Ira Cottrellville Clay ST. JOSEPH COUNTY (Map 4) The map shows fifty-five definitely located sites of various types. The elliptical inclosure on the west side of Section 31, Sherman Township, near Middle, Dry, and Klinger lakes was a "hilltop fortification" (see Figure 19). The hill point upon which it 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Tittabawassee Kochville Zilwaukee Jonesfield Richland Thomastown Saginaw Buena Vista Blumfield Lakefield Fremont Swan Creek James 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. Spaulding Bridgeport Frankenmuth Marion Brant St. Charles Albee Taymouth Birch Run Chapin Brady' Chesaning Maple Grove ST. CLAIR COUNTY (Map 10) Mr. Henry Gillman, Smithsonian Report, 1873, gives an account of extensive investigations which he made upon Black River and the shore of Lake Huron above Fort Gratiot. Some of the most interesting archaeological finds in the state were taken from these groups of mounds. The various features are so clearly indicated upon the map that particular elucidation is unnecessary, although their importance must not be underestimated. A trail led along the banks of the St. Clair River, up the lake shore, and around the semicircular boundary of Huron County to the mouth of the Saginaw River, and from there to Mackinaw. Trails also followed Belle River and the Black River into the interior, although the records do not indicate their exact locations "except in a general way." There were more villages than are indicated, but because of vagueness of information they are omitted from the map. There was a burying ground upon Harsen's Island and a village must FIG. 19. Hill-top inclosure in Sherman Township stands slopes very abruptly to a lake upon two sides, thus rendering the approaches from those directions difficult. There is a trench upon the inside of the wall. Both trench and wall can still be readily traced / through the woods. S u c h works, usually referred to as / hill-top fortifications, are unusual in the state, but are common farther south in Ohio and Indiana. See notes upon lonia County. In Leonidas Township there was a peculiar circular inclosure with one embankment inside the other (Figure 20). Each had four FIG. 20. Diagram of a peculiar circugateways, but those of the lar inclosure inner opened midway between those of the outer circle. The diameter of the outside ring was 80 feet; that of the inner, 60 feet. There appears to have been no grouping of mounds in this section, although isolated mounds were numerous. The county is -35 -

Page  36 ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTIES in one of the belts that supported a "dense population." See notes upon Ionia, Saginaw, and Kalamazoo counties. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ----------18 Mounds -----------16 Burying grounds -- 4 Inclosures --------- 5 Garden beds ------- 2 SCHOOLCRAFT COUNTY (Map 19) The notes upon Menominee and Delta counties should be consulted in connection with the approach along the Lake Michigan shore to Green Bay. Indian Lake, near Manistique, has considerable Indian lore connected with it. A very interesting mission chapel and a cemetery were situated at the Indian village, Ossawinamakee, upon the shore of the lake. North of Indian Lake there is a "big spring" about three to five hundred feet across and sixty feet deep. Legends attributes mystic powers to this clear, beautiful pool. SITES IDENTIFIED Village ---------- 1 SBurying ground --- 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. TOWNSHIPS Flowerfield 9. Constantine Park 10. Florence Mendon 11. Sherman Leonidas 12. Burr Oak Fabius 13. Mottville Lockport 14. White Pigeon Nottawa 15. Sturgis Colon 16. Fawn River TOWNSHIPS 1. Hiawatha (Pt.) 6. 2. Seney 7. 3. Hiawatha (Pt.) 8. 4. Hiawatha (Pt.) 9. 5. Manistique 10. Doyle Germfask Inwood Thompson Mueller SANILAC COUNTY (Map 10) Mr. Harlan I. Smith, who contributed largely to the archaeological literature of the Saginaw Valley, as well as of other parts of the state, mentions numerous sites in Sanilac and other counties that cannot now be located, thirty-five years later, with sufficient definiteness to warrant charting them. For instance, Beaver Meadow Mound, Cass River mounds, and Hay Creek mounds no doubt existed, but even by using the word "vague" the cartographer cannot include some of them in his drawings. Perhaps the only specimens of rock carvings attributed to the Indians, now to be seen in the state, are in Greenleaf Township, Section 11, along the north branch of Cass River. Here are outlines of men, animals, birds, and "problematical creatures" deeply carved upon the wide exposure of bed-rock. Unfortunately, the depravity of recent individuals has led them to leave to future generations names, dates, and disgraceful figures chiseled among the original carvings. At the mouth of Big Gulley Creek, in the extreme southeast corner of Delaware Township, there was a circular inclosure, and in Speaker Township, immediately south of the village of Peck, a "garden bed." Mr. Smith and Gerard Fowke mention other garden beds in the county. The query is whether the designs of these beds would have identified them with the garden beds so numerous in the southwestern part of the state, or whether they were common cornfields like the one mentioned under Alcona County. In Section 36, Watertown Township, a unique construction consisted of "a square inclosure with interior mound." There was a rectangular inclosure with an opening to the north, and a mound in front of the opening, in the southwest corner of Worth Township, on the west side of Black River. One of the long trails from the head of Lake Erie and beyond followed the Huron shore to the northern limits of the Lower Peninsula. The sites in Sanilac County were numerous and various. They are indicated as adequately as possible upon the map. See Kalamazoo County for comments upon tgarden beds." SITES IDENTIFIED Village -----------1 Burying grounds -------3 Mounds --------------22 Garden bed -----------1 Circular inclosure ------- Rectangular inclosures 2 SHIAWASSEE COUNTY (Map 9) The general remarks that have been made concerning adjacent counties will apply to Shiawassee, and what is given here will apply to them in a general way. Bela Hubbard, describing a trip he took down the Shiawassee River in 1837, when the natives felt little of the fatal spell which falls upon them with the very beginnings of white settlements, gives the following memorandum: "Many of the Indian clearings stretched for several continuous miles, and many acres bordering the river were covered with luxuriant maize-the chief cultivated food of the natives." He refers also to caches for hiding provisions. At the time of this observation Hubbard was somewhere in Shiawassee County, below Byron and above Corunna. A network of trails indicates the amount of travel that passed through the Shiawassee valley. Mr. Cyrus Thomas records an effigy mound in Section 19, Caledonia Township. It is the only mound reported in the state that was built in the shape of some living object. This type of earth construction is very common in Wisconsin and Ohio. In the vicinity of Old Shiawassee Town there were two "garden beds" and two villages. Within the present limits of the city of Owosso were a village, a garden bed, an isolated mound, and one mound group. The interesting features of the county, so far as determined, are indicated upon the map. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ------------5 Mounds -----------24 Garden beds --------3 Circular inclosure 1-- Effigy ------------- 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Fairfield Rush New Haven Hazelton Middlebury Owosso 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. TOWNSHIPS Caledonia Venice Sciota Bennington Shiawassee Vernon 13. 14. 15. 16. Woodhull Perry Antrim Burns 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Greenleaf Austin Minden Delaware Evergreen Argyle Wheatland Marion Forester 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. TOWNSHIPS Lamotte Moore Custer Bridgehampton Marlette Elmer Watertown Washington Sanilac 19. 20. 21. 21. 23. 24. 25. 26. Flynn Elk Buell Lexington Maple Valley Speaker Fremont Worth TUSCOLA COUNTY (Map 9) If one could have followed the Cass River from its headwaters to the Saginaw before the Indians were disturbed by white intruders, he would have observed that the inhabitants were becoming more numerous and their habitations more frequent as he descended. There were a circular inclosure and a mound upon Saginaw Bay, at the mouth of the Wiscoggin. Mr. Harlan I. Smith speaks of earthworks upon Squaw and Quanicassee creeks, but since those -36 -

Page  37 SAN I LAC-WAYNE streams are several miles long, the items are too vague to justify charting. The county contains village, mound, and burying ground sites, distributed in several townships, as the map indicates. It is regrettable that the data upon the archaeology of this part of the state were not sufficiently exact to render it possible to delineate more fully the situations described. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages --------- 9 Burying grounds ---- 6 Mounds -----------17 Circular inclosure --- 1 TOWNSHIPS A mile northeast of this site a low mound sixty feet in diameter yielded several skeletons of adults and children, pottery, firestones, and many kinds of implements. By the Saline River, near the village of Saline, there were salt springs and evidences of salt-making. A pot that held eight gallons, a very remarkable size, is reported to have been found at these "works." In the early pioneer times there could be seen a row of stepping-stones across the Huron River eighty rods below the outlet of Portage Lake, about on the line between Dexter and Webster townships, a mile south of the county boundary. The stones were so placed that one could cross the river dry-shod except during very high water. The location of Washtenaw sites, so far as determined, can readily be perceived on the map. Important trails traversed the county. At one time the Wyandots had a village at Ypsilanti. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ----------- 8 Burying grounds 2 Mounds ------------5 TOWNSHIPS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Wisner Akron Columbia Elmwood Elkland Gilford Fair Grove Almer Ellington Novesta Denmark 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Indianfield Wells Kingston Tuscola Vassar Fremont Dayton Koylton Arbela Millington Watertown 12. Juniata VAN BUREN COUNTY (Map 4) The lakes of Lawrence and Paw Paw townships were attractive to the Indians, probably on account of the fishing and excellent hunting grounds. Not less than fourteen mound sites have been located in Paw Paw Township. Many of the mounds were arranged in groups. There was also a group of seven mounds in the southeast corner of Decatur Township, Section 36, upon the east side of Swift's Lake. Just south of this group in the SE. 4 of the SE. y of the section, an ancient village stood, and across the lake to the west an old ossuary has been identified. Mr. Dana P. Smith, of Paw Paw, has given valuable assistance in tracing trails and locating sites in the southwestern counties of the state. Acknowledgment is also made to Mr. W. L. Marshall, Science Department, South Lake High School, St. Clair Shores, for field surveys of several townships. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages -----------14 Burying grounds 4 Mounds -----------37 Garden beds------- 3 TOWNSHIPS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Lyndon Dexter Webster Northfield Salem Sylvan Lima Scio Ann Arbor Superior 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Sharon Freedom Lodi Pittsfield Ypsilanti Manchester Bridgewater Saline York Augusta WAYNE COUNTY (Map 6) Upon the Detroit River, within the present limits of Detroit, there was a cluster of not less than four Indian villages. Four other villages were situated below the mouth of River Rouge, upon or near the Detroit River shore. Several settlements lay across the river upon the Canadian side. Most of these sites upon both sides were occupied in historic times by Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Wyandots. A group of Wyandot villages was located upon a reservation of 4,996 acres in the eastern part of Huron Township. The Potawatomi Trail, which followed the Huron River from its mouth through Wayne and Washtenaw counties and on to the northwest, passed the reservation. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. South Haven Geneva Columbia Bloomingdale Pine Grove Covert Bangor Arlington Waverly 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Almena Hartford Lawrence Paw Paw Antwerp Keeler Hamilton Decatur Porter WASHTENAW COUNTY (Map 6) In the southwest quarter of Section 23, Ann Arbor Township, three mounds upon a high bank overlooked the Huron River. From one of these there were exhumed the entire skeleton of an adult male, two pieces of pottery of the Algonquian type, and numerous artifacts, some of which were of copper. The capacity of each pot was six quarts. One contained hundreds of shells which conchologists identified as coming from the Gulf of Mexico. The other vessel had in it the skeleton of a beaver. -, '-... ~i^^ , .---^' --v,^T,,",,',w. FIG. 21. The "Great Springwells Mound" which mouth of River Rouge stood at Del Rey, Judge Alpheus Felch located one of the villages of the diplomatic Wyandot chief, Walk-in-the-Water, "near the bank of the Detroit River a short distance below the present village of Trenton." Monguagon village was at about the southern limits of the -37 -

Page  38 ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTIES city of Wyandotte. Brownstown was also the site of an important village, at which point a treaty was negotiated in 1808 for a road from the falls of the Maumee to the west line of the Connecticut Western Reserve in Ohio. In the vicinity of the mouth of River Rouge there were no less than eight mounds and two inclosures. The remnants of some of the mounds can still be seen within and near the grounds of Fort Wayne. One of these mounds was referred to as the "Great Springwells Mound" (see Figure 21 ). It was forty feet in height and five hundred feet in diameter. These dimensions will classify it among the conspicuous conical mounds of the country. It has been entirely removed. Portions of it were taken away "by wagon load and boat load" for street and other fills, until it is impossible to find the exact spot upon which it stood. Its contents, if they had been assembled and preserved in one collection, would have been rare acquisitions to the archaeology and ethnology of the state. One of the circular inclosures had a walled approach to the river. Trails led from Detroit to and around the head of Lake Michigan into Wisconsin, to the Mississippi, and to remote parts of the Lower Peninsula, Mackinaw, the Grand River country, the mouth of the St. Joseph, and intermediate points. See notes on Livingston County. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages -------------10 Mounds ------------- 9 Circular inclosures -- 2 Hanover Township; in the next township east, Greenwood, stood another circular inclosure. Circles have been located in other parts of the county, as the map indicates. An indefinite number of mounds, but more than ten, were near the shores of Cadillac Lake. A trail led from Cadillac Lake to the west, and another one to the east arm of Grand Traverse Bay. The trail from the mouth of Manistee River to Otsego Lake passed through the northwestern part of the county. Mr. Manktelow has made a study of the pits, or what he calls "cooking holes," that were very numerous in the vicinity of Mitchell Lake. Upon examination the pits were found to contain fragments of pottery, charcoal, roasted clam shells, and charred acorns. He also refers to an ancient workshop where he found flint spalls and "arrow points all of the triangular type." Mr. C. W. Manktelow of Cadillac and Dr. C. S. Purdy of Buckley, have assisted in the surveys of Wexford and adjoining counties. SITES IDENTIFIED Villages ------------- 2 Burying ground -----1 Mounds ----------- 27 Circular inclosures __ 7 N TOWNSHIPS 1. Wexford 9. 2. Hanover 10. 3. Greenwood 11. 4. Liberty 12. 5. Springville 13. 6. Antioch 14. 7. Colfax 15. 8. Cedar Creek 16. Slagle Boon Selma Harring South Branch Henderson Cherry Grove Clam Lake 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. TOWNSHIPS Northville 9. Romulus Plymouth 10. Taylor Livonia 11. Ecorse Redford 12. Sumpter Canton 13. Huron Nankin 14. Brownstown Dearborn 15. Monguagon Van Buren WEXFORD COUNTY (Map 11) Wexford should be studied in connection with Missaukee County, which borders it upon the east. The seven circular inclosures of Wexford connect it with the same culture trait as that of Missaukee and Ogemaw. Four inclosures in close proximity to each other were situated in the township of Boon. There were a group of thirteen mounds, two villages, and a circular inclosure in SUMMARY Of 1179 archaeological features indicated upon the various maps 1068 are mounds; 82, inclosures and embankments; 31, garden beds. The sites of 748 villages and 265 burying grounds have been indicated. It is inevitable that more sites will be discovered. This work will have served its purpose if it leads to greater interest and activity in searching for traces of Indian occupation of the state of Michigan. It is the authors urgent request that all persons who have additional data or who may make other discoveries worthy of note will not fail to transmit records of them to the Universiy Museums. Such reports will be filed and will constitute a continuing supplement to this Atlas. -38 -


Page  [unnumbered] EXPLANATION OF CARTOGRAPHIC SYMBOLS The numbers upon the maps indicate townships, which are listed in Chapter X, "Notes Upon the Archaeological Features of the Counties." The word "vague" beside a symbol indicates that the location was not determined nearer than a section of land. 0 Mound Irregular earthwork 4 Figures indicate exact number of S mounds in a group Village eN Letter N indicates that the number of Burying ground mounds in group is undetermined B cO Circular inclosure 4 Garden bed 0- Incomplete circular inclosure Trail Trail, location not accurately deterRectangular inclosure "'""' mined 1 Incomplete rectangular inclosure X Ancient excavation for copper I

Page  [unnumbered] MAP 1 ISLE ROYALE IT LA nKTl.kIM A tk.I i. OR. Ct\tmb~ A NI A rt^ A,KE 3UPERI VWV. GOGE,,IC. ___.-.5 \ K-I_ / I5ARAGA \ - \ 6G IS ARQUETTE LUCEA SALG 20 CIPPEWA m~1 MA--L. IR ON-, S / RCOOLA - 1 MA ----^*...^. SICKIN50N \/// ^ ~ ^ J 1 PRE 5Q Lo _ II. I CIYMARLEVOIX I|,,.i /. IANTRIM OT6EGO MONTMOE GRANDENZIE G KALKASKA C1AW KP050 / \ (i TX~~11AVERSE )^ 2 2'v /MANi15TEE WEXFORD MI1SAUKEO iSi MON 2 OEMAW / ^ //^ / /^ ARE S0 AIA50W LAKE OxtEOu. CLARE GLAWIN _i 1 I, li in 1l^ 2V L.,.,,~ ^ L)_4 /2 i r"',.,.- BAY4. Iti A II /- l. M.. < 1 ' N It: I L -l *' bC L------,^ rr,,sE "~."o~" ALCONA 105C0 12 y OCEANA MECOSTA ISABELLA MIDLAND MONTCALM S\I-- KENT OIONIA CLINTON 5IIA. SEE 8 AL-GNC T-A LIVI /,.ALLEGAN BA YPE)ATO INGhAM )' s I. ~ <. to GENE3EE LAPEER )r^.,o --i. 4T T OAKLXND MACOH.G5TON:3/^ ^v\/< 0 *1 -~I ~0 2z 0 u! ILAC "CLAIR 10o tU 1C7 IN D / AN BUREN.41 KALAMHZOO 4/ ~ 'HOUN; 5 JAC.KSONN 5 WWASHTENA ^ -G W WAYNE iNtROF ^. A. -^ I" I -L IL 8 & - A Ar m CAS5 -4 mmmmýý oft -- -*r 5T055EP?4. J BRANCrl 5 HI LL5DALE inr LENAEE S \ ^~ Il 3M a--aa LAKL. ERIE ANA OHIO COUNTIES OF MICHIGAN (The numbers refer to the archaeological maps.) ~7>

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Page  [unnumbered] 430 ISLE -OYALE 1000 A KO E a KATA K IT EK N (LAC VI E UX DESIR--T) o 0MID FOX JDS.0oAN MAP2I )TEN ID. I1PMN WBOAWATh RMMN i?, --I5UCLAR I D. MIKONG WA'MDISbLAN5 LIE O L~ t\HOICHILIMACKINAC IAR BRECROflE tA' P.o!$1~o ..--..4,MANITOU IS Cs ( 31QB5S 4r4 G ~jl'r.' ' (j \05W% IAIst NINEBEATL1,4 MI qC~tN. TOAENcE0.4 N MC.01. -_ 'OK~ N5_2_ &.{-- %\ F ----X S T,_. _ I"...-S-,AG A-ATOS TORG -I.5IiA5I1EYANOWBEGOKING )N S EQUAGAW!AW m-, i IAU sAbLE, *%I I " L " ... j... j _ .--I-,,1 \ ',B~s!,I J.. I. I,,,.'---2!"r- E, MOSEY *NA~0B55i HIGGQU I$KNSkQBOGNN ---- - j l-AKI, M-I~GO -AtO UN AHTON MCNOQ ROU'.... -- - " I2 '... co.. S. ArA 1ZT. INBE If -o,l ot,-.-f M l C K K E W BE A 1A IE,,,.....z, ""5'z - SIill- '- MOROE~N5 55 M HG OS I N' LA 'F ___ "KEWAG I-CUM 5_ --_KiIN 3N00AA~iE5I~I I WnNNO ~ -.&s9!Ac- 2 ' U NTGU AlIWS~I~ I '. ~~---- ~~F-~h~~bh 3CM1, SAO1I4AWInl'TE OWNQUM A.1 ADOVLL1G "MICI~2Am V A AW [NE~EE pomGVIK w JJKA A KHA fl5K N IMOTE RON e.A ELI R/ INDIAN VILLAGES OF MICHIGAN OF WHICH THE NAMES AN ID LOCATIONS ARE KNOWN It,1:./,~',

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Page  [unnumbered] MAP 3 LAK 5UPERIOR CA N A D A eats C? 4 9 / I4 C4, c N% A tpý 0 Ca 09 z 0 (3 z: (r) afo -a LAKE m EIE...L 0 tam a a I I.I IJ FI 1 1 -, A, J St:---- - P-....... t M N DI - ~ 0 IWOP I.f 1....... I J I PRINCIPAL IND IAN PORTAGES (Portages are designated by the letter P in circle.) - _Y

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Page  [unnumbered] MAP 4 WWll~ E 5 o0 t 3 4- 5 0 S d _ I I 1 I / IN MILE5 DC (K z:I 04~. -h 0 *1 c lu. 2_Na o-- -. _1 A470BU NIP EWWSLAA Em KENT 7 E,A GmEEN L-i J 0 rAA HA P _c, F,..M L-N ET HUTCMINNDU 1 dO EAST SA1JGATJJCK I V ETgo -v L J *cyH; -1L&La ONET.UL. IT 7 0 MUDe5T L.AyjT 0 )uNTES laECU DL..L-'L NEW RIA)CH ED L9 MODLOOMIGDfLE K a DHIPR L'K$.. NRHLMUMA5Z \. LM* L. SPRING R. @ 0 VAG1 - - - - -H------- _I - - "--... Q U S PRATOLS ftIN@ SS. EVEILEDUN V ILL, E L.Li EA~t ITNE CLLOO. NG LEF;NJrL.sW ONiLAL jo GANGES '.b L." I NERAT - 4-4 17- - EAGLLL.15 L50HOOLTE CR5 L JIU j D L LAk1AGNL BELKNAP' ~6"t,- N CL I M A X Ii Q - 7U! * LL 17 1 1 3)_--- BANURK__N'S ~ a ~ RL - IsH OOLEPAF1jQ7<,11rJN GENT VILLE17 *N COPXL t VEVA LiBEVE PIN _IQAHLL. l tLK NLTTA AAW MADD____BAG. /$\ FLORENC0 FLWRIL Gis(0) L. E/L. BA K RAl. Ad d~~* C~N ANTINE P K H OPSNGA M INDUANON WA 0 LAC OIr~CA-0 SKY hAj4 _____ L EEP/G ONQ;@7 CUP, s I 1Toy_ 0AAR LK fGARV1HERS IjNDI NASLMDMHE V I L L E " 2 * 0 TU CfR At (S: 5 N.I__A 1) HIOMIAN PR,. II'TOM HARBOR I 5C )ALE 1 - B5 iNBRIPC PINK5 CONONERS -Sll. -\ i kc I I" i MUO*L. Ll,,/ -- / -,--AI,E: 4z /"PJEF!RIENrCO H: E555fS 0L __-_ L5/Zs S 4 \EbRGLEN-.N. I SC;0? R 19LOWNG MOO L R 17 W. 1= ýELN ' -. % DFIMA NEW aOY OAY N L. 21 \18; j3 t~E3EiIO R.? A:R.OWA 1w NR.I5W I BERRIEN, CASS, ST. JOSEPH, VAN BUREN, KALAMAZOO, ALLEGAN COUNTIES ()1..

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Page  [unnumbered] MAPU5 KE N T cO0. 1I IO0N I A c0. L/N-" R. 10 W. RaSw.?.8W. R.7 W.. R6 w. R.5W,.4.R LO K 0 0 M UN 1 L -tv M U L L IKE"-Z -N - 'L.". AIDOLL. L ke H" HARY10 15MARL L / L1 NN R I le.40 i --y---, --t--M3 FT.E; 0 0 " <! U l-,2_ MAcPL F- Sy LLOVE DAoL - 0 T)0, IN N CO, I E W. R. E.2 W W. vv a" - _9w ENw. 5._. -G 141 FIN ILAN5GNGS L.,.. IL E:...1 -' 0 T3i NA14 -A -. 1, 1__. DOUGLAS"'IT-j AT EI LP I DA 5VI LE:"T( C" WAN/N."AU;F-I U5EDEN IS L,d LOW aE L, K C REN0; INTL L VAG ULF.. BEA! Y N DI L~. GUES~ L *. L <-I I SIMAIHUK SN , TN 1,~0 RAN- G"RA.NO 16 30 TiH, sc LWAMPLE. A, 1 3, 5: ~J fROM J~ lHOXlI E T LAKE,ADPAMR M, MALLOR .EA LLORY Z 15 RATV.4.__..u 5..KEY_-k INGHAM COUNTIES [ *,, m-o,

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Page  [unnumbered] GE N EEE CO FC.7 E R.,,5 1iAWA53EE CO. 0 R35E. R.4-E 1 E. R.G E. D CN 7"0, DE' 7 0N I.. LC 1 L.WIW IND IAN A PtI(AG PASH L 5?t-L N. v]~_PHY^^ L-^ _ o C, - E-& - L PL. LO G I.VAGUE EULIER L < ( (DDcj?- \1L '-=. 0A-.-6- A P ETONI IAMVIi, 1LLF LI Le MAP 6! LA PEEFR CO 5T. CLAIR CO + It R.-9-E. R. 10 E. R.I. R. 12 E.F R. L5 E. R. 1"4"E AN WOLF L SL L- AKEOEOR E.: $ O'cRD L. flL^ ^ ^^^ M 13 P PL.LOA _WOO LEONAR 0 li? ^UNER.L MILLERSN-G@ UPPER KY-iN I P13L 3TONYL >FR AII 4N tSE % ) L 5rTEYM)ORELy tr SC/ i AR A 8 C '"t1Y L D I9 I T, o ro r -. RON ~. S.* OM T L- ' " -O "" 1 Y -15T C G R Ig L. C j ) l^^ZF^I-e^^^moo" 00p.DT^I^MJ HU L, \c. r. 0 R A L.._. M I L Lo CROOK-L MILLt tEL \ DXh CATAUCNHH E-:L 5 * CHELS A. 1.... iMFu C E N SCC& 55? M -.I(/1$.5.--, ^ ^ ^ ^ "' 3 \ > - ^ l-,/ \^ ^ ^. ^ PETER L Di A <EIAS/ AADfU / ~ i'5^ ^T ~^ '' ^^ "^ "^ ^ BR DG-"- T I T.MAAC F5-NDL.... I L SA IN L,..P-,-- N.51 C cp, NT |F....... il u m. _. _. - -.,I - -, - B E A R --.,+ -,All. ~?I, ELM ITH f L- rS - /// Po ~k -" ] ko -..FEg "ECO R1LE tBLLv,.lE 1 9 111 ^ w ~ Y, H I,L -V ILLE W 10 1 CA R OMULUS,d. --.--- Y R, I __ I / I 0 1 [,, v' ^ S I^R 5T ) I'..iN M!LE:5 ' ~ 5ý,5TOY PT NOORO CAP SLENAWEE, MONROE, WASHTEN LENAwEE, MONROE, WAsHTENAw, WAYNE, LIVIN(;SToN, OAKLAND, MACOMB COUNTIES -N

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Page  [unnumbered] MAP 7 Nm A fl,) I r(, I 'A. \^ = r-- /-Ik I IN AN A-,/ Li LLE I R.l~w ___ R. 17 W. R16W R 15W B R 14 W,R 3 //ly~~lT^R^^^ # E,^ LA^ ^ lt<~t I' CRYSTAL VATION?HOOLCL. SC T /////r ~ ~ ~ ~ F E '- ______ rEVATION ALACK L. -^ s^ A t? 0 GIL EPc-T dg@ i 51,"AR '"^$ ^^, 'P LITTLE SABLE P LAE ' ^ /____ 'CR'YSTALL / " % _\ 8*^ g ""-. fl j A,,_TOYL ^ ___ L 1ýDI-A DNN. -1- Q-s po 'r^r;"W INVI L:7 1- ELRI GE7 Ft/Ki ~SRN 57PAsWNBIA L., EE 5GaOA ME R 05M005Ai ^^ ^ SOR ER &9MPY {ELLS, 1 \\\ <5S_^ U/ 0 \L^< ^^f^^^N LITTLE 5ALE P CRYSTAL LN / STOI CL AA Nt> MC. LAREN ~4 IMN NE ER SAL?e [ 5~ R,1: '1 WRio B NO NA FR L. L NOL. cs:< I " _.7F-. E. * rMIA L MUBLEDARC9MQEL. TWIN Ll:E5 K 5 E R Co.cI DVIo; W L TK G N C ARRL. H* A 0 H " .-n N5 ^>V\\\^^^^^^^y^^^-^OR^lN ^SLOCUM |\ BIG BCROCKLAK \~*,^^ ^, "_T ^ ^ d - ^ ~~ ~ i^ ^ Y^~ ~. _, m^^^1!--._. _^ ^^__"~ ^l T4- W,,CK - o, H" E: L.,_-L o--._ _ _. ,N;I- AKE OU1 LARL 2 O klý Q. ^^A. R.IZW RIIW. \HAWK MS,v~ 4. T S2 ^ IG K ( PARKS P JK MARLL." 06 k HIUN6ERFORD L. SL. T 7 >8^ HUN <ERFORD 15 jlr-Aii OOOVILLE << rMUD T 121 41 qftxji -- BI PRA?^ i F- T N ROOE. D BAE L. L. Gt PILBERT AUE GILuERT L. j 2 R P r-r4 4 KENrTCITY\ 0 &. CG i L L.- CEý DAR 5PM LNDIAI4L T ---llN-i^ M ViA Lr. 0^ cx\\\\V\ V SUL VAN ~ \RANNA HARRIS BI^U LILAKE HAR.O,5- 17" FRUITPOVT~ 2 1 i Q PRIMITKEEV 2 L " E I -I--. EERRYSBU 44P 7T-^T CiM P^ DENN1SON Q ROEND I N ~'~-\ TM ~ ~ LRjNSACAo A% 08INSO 4A5T 1 G 7E I ALLENDALE -'-.AGNI.W Rt K R, r \ ARolNE Y',<i 17 0r L I OV ECNE N. BLENoN__ __ PI GEON LAK 10 OLIVECEN -EftB N PORT5HELDON1a M.I3LEN 5 11 W tV~rARLEM CRI5P BORCOLOL Oj I I 4- 5VENTURA 6 E u A'. r I I 1 1 I I A IN M1LE$ UTPi:' VR IESLANDI [I MESToWN NEW ROINI GEN15 l1* Y OTTAWA BEAC AAS HOL N DREN MACATAW LAND N, 155V v i^/ OCNIORD SI I_, KeTTE: 51 VE ~ 47/4 PICKEREL L.I ^ - ^, H s~ ^ ^ '.A lJ,,, s^ 4. I -NETL. PINE LAI FIELD f G -5t'I ^IAND RAPiDS ^4, 1B -4:|-14_- I RON EN ER LA k. CACA NON ANDVLLE I)A -------- - ^. _\. \ UTLERVILLE. ^- ^ J^ _ LAS \ --- --.-..yT-53---.--. PERC LT PT C ^ROSSSTA C ONT NO FKAP1I S)W R, 9 WY, LAKE: CRANBERRY ~ y*^>-i \c* \^. PftMASTON)i -.^ ~jC4'lLINCOLN 1- 10 UDGS PINE L NLO N ' -,p ' T ~ AFJ3TOM0 STONE R DAViS -L_ SBROWERa R -L. ER L '^7^^/ \ j HOR ESHOE SAND150OTTOM T L-. 9,t, MASTON SCRAM L-" %IWABASIS L. R NLONEL | <^1- ~~~ m '^7^1AKE5.MUSK.-LPINE 15NDO JICKL GRATTAN'ENTERREE L~SN14 D8N.CROOKED BYRNE KELLEY L-- NAGEL L. LS R,RMUDL, v L L rNNoCOBNI5sAfl 0 9 T 7 N T 6 N i) m^ "'^ "2LOW E R L-l W CRDYCO z 0 A L L E G A N CO. D EA OTTAWA, KENT, MUSKEGON, OCEANA, NEWAYGO COUNTIES i., C-:

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Page  [unnumbered] &tIVr~A1 EMNA C C00. ZT mIFORE' WNIT6 -N. 16 4 _ x_ N. T. j- T* l l v ll TA. 15~(1 ARR LWTO I j N. HTTCVLE~ 1BYAI MAP 9 t1 H U RON of NI0 LE A &iMORE-GG W COQSL OLUMBIA C 00L0O I A9 //__ k_ 1===,=-, cb C;s,7P- L L N c I N CK 0-F-9 rMEFKR71L MERRI is G 40 0 0* mý d GEPOR RID T RE5ERVATI ON 1 11167 10 AS F RA"'W'01CEN M UTH BEFA NELSONYx N. El c GALLO %N tY ke'_ k F FA-1 cly WER 4.1 -4 c 4 EM1,ANT M0 T-P > low 5F 0-11 AG 200 N/ 22 qo I I BUR I T ct: is BI RC RUN VIL E,,) it A7 c HE=ZANI EN I LA 0 N CLI OAK t 5 Mow 5 7 -c PIN P-0- I E:S E AVATION 05 1 1 "11bj13-JW7 - x1m Now on mom= 0.0 t 5RE tTý, EEK 4 OLN ST HAVEN EA5TON LOTHROP VAN HENDEF?30 eo T A <5 N. u5Wl /VE:VL RLAND )/AJUDD5 N 5 % rn 4ý IV 50 T. '"m v co 7 5uR*r 110 KIRBY LENNON 10 A7 te E ORUN N 0 ERNON RTZ C R E I K RIVER H[Av/ &SCE' 0 ENN GT TOWN UFFI ELD Q0 'VAGWU Er---: cnn_' L, 0 i4 dA R mQNJwEPE A TO CCA 0418 197HE H > ft <;C LAR KS, GLARES ll tINGThN LLE 2 OPRU2E5F0475RG I. r S % L. L 1 viN0P11LE3L WEW J E Co. IN G HA M 00. L IV1IN GSTON 0 0. SHIAWASSEE, GENESEE, SAGINAW, TUSOALAYCUT [ES

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Page  [unnumbered] POINTE AUX 5.RQUE z M-z N CAh1,1N Pr. CH ARITY ID.,, 16 t) o" "----"--- J/HU r? D N C' 7 LITo rLE CNARITY ID........amp= 1 -.........T...."Tur 18OAK P OI 00 o o0t. Nr NR4 P1/4,3 RUSH LU A CASEV'L0 S5AND POIN'T.;r OL () T z._ED'nN 17 NORT RLN 0.1L 1 WJ. RTHIORILN<;0 O R.IE 'Y.I{D:< \~ ~ * LDB OR - I D. N 7 I G K TNNV t 6 N U ONCOC T. A AGtP 0m M~~w~ iNYR WADSWOR H l, 2.3 RE3CUE ATW .III ir _,is ____ *N.NDID IDL7Y -cs--- HOLBROOK A 13AD N IIc N YCR.DWO 3 P. AGU BIGCR OEC RVI. E R)4 R. S)EC.R.ER E LF T NI BE V1 24 7OW tR BFAGCH (ROC K HERE WA ANMANITOU.) Ric MONDVILLE \ \ ETE iJ4?O T54 A ELERA5NDUSKCRSNLL VT 75 riIU A C WA T E R TO WN,LA ILY IR 00 ~~L\ HEMINGWAY _C_ T 0 2 25NI 3 0 (0 5_ _..BAR Vii0 AOU AEXINMON AMA'IDO MAP 10 J t \;ALLEYCENTI M EMLV)N COLUBI- LL. IVV N ME LiKELALEAR NORWAYOL KWA% N.,R N IOIGT L PLEAp _,II. 0 iii L ii ~ý I N (C) N] ~, _ ___LOG L ILAY-T--CPA -.-VISVOCA. VL A -N-,__ S C RSjE.p-E. R..IOTI. R.CAE.. ISE. R.14EC LL- C OAK LAN D CO. MACONIB CO. T' " % A 0, to N-0.)1,LA CT ATKINS ATIo fo OrHURON TO RN RE IMAL 15 LAPEER, ST. CLAIR, SANILAC, HURON COUNTIES I/ REEMAN I IK. BUTLINS " ' I -! S T. CLAI R I' s Dlf GRTD CHINA L 4ARINE CITY ANjLN LGONAG (2; ~ ~, Op j\) <'C \~

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Page  [unnumbered] 7T HE volumes of the University of Michigan Publications are published by authority of the Board'of Regents under- the direction of the Executive Board of t he Graduate School. The contributors are chiefly, 'but not exclusively, members of the faculties or graduates of the University. The expense is borne in part by gifts, in part by appropriations of the board of Regents. Volumes may be obtained by ordering, from the Librarian, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. A list of volumes already published or in preparation may be had upon. application.

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