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Influenza Encyclopedia

Page  1 ï~~III. SERIES OF EXPERIMENTS AT BOSTON, FEBRUARY AND MARCH, 1919. By Lieut. Commander M. J. RoSENAU, Lieut. W. J. KEEGAN, and Lieut. DE WAYN RICHEY, United States Navy; and Surg. JOSEPH GOLDBERGER, Surg. G. W. McCor Passed Asst. Surg. J. P. LEAKE, and Passed Asst. Surg. G. C. LAKE, United Sta Public Health Service. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. These experiments were conducted at the United States Quarantin Station, Gallups Island, Boston, Mass., upon volunteers from th United States Naval Detention Training Camp, Deer Island, Mass. by medical officers detailed for the purpose from the United State Public Health Service and United States Navy. They can be re garded as a continuation of the previous series of experiments at th same place under the auspices of the same services and with the sam objects, to ascertain the cause and mode of spread of influenza Cooperation and assistance, without which these experiments coul not have gone forward, were received from Surg. Gen. W. C. Braisted United States Navy; Surg. Gen. Rupert Blue, United States Publi Health Service; Rear Admiral E. R. Stitt, and Commander J. R11 Phelps, Medical Corps, United States Navy; Asst. Surg. Gens. J. W Schereschewsky and R. H. Creel, United States Public Health Serv ice; Capt. John M. Edgar, Commander F. M. Furlong, Lieut. Comi mander L. W. McGuire, Lieut. W. R. Redden, Lieut. A. L. Grant Lieut. J. W. Parsons, and Lieut. T. J. Kennedy, Medical Corps United States Navy; Lieut. J. W. Flannery and Chaplain J. M. J, Quinn, of the Deer Island Training Station, United States Navy Surg. W. M. Bryan, Act. Asst. Surgs. F. X. Crawford and E. Mi Looney, United States Public Health Service; Dr. Harry Linenthal Prof. Reid Hunt, and Prof. Worth Hale, of the Harvard MediceR. School; and the donors and recipients of the experimental materia The volunteers particularly deserve credit; their names are giveni Table I. Time.-The experiments began with the advent of the volunteers to the island- on February 4-6, 1919, and were concluded March 10, 1919. Place.-Gallups Island is a small island of about 16 acres, lyin 6 miles down Boston Harbor. It is one-fourth mile from the nearest land adj acent, Fort Standish, on Lovells Island. Its topography is I Submitted for publication LJly, 1919. (54) Shiilly; the hygienic conditions are very good and its buildings, about 30 in number, including quarters, barracks, mess halls, galleys and 'hospitals, are equipped with modern heating, lighting and sanitation facilities. Climatic conditions.-Gallups Island shared in the unusually mild winter of the Atlantic seaboard. During the time the experinents were in progress the maximum temperature was 500 F., and the minimum 18Â~ F., with a mean temperature of from 380 to 430 F. As a rule the days were clear, and plenty of sunshine prevailed. There was always a brisk breeze which sometimes became accelerated to a gale of about 40 miles per hour. Occasionally it rained and less frequently snow fell. No one, at any time, experienced any inconvenience, much less hardship, from the weather during the sojourn on this station. Volunteers.-The entire contingent consisted of 49 men, 30 of whom arrived on February 4, 1919, and 19 on February 6, 1919. Of these, 6 did not come under experimentation, leaving 43 on whom 82 inoculations were made. These are accounted for as follows: 1 man received 3 inoculations, 37 received 2, and 5 received 1. s The men were from 19 to 36 years of age. Two were nineteen; 30 were from 20 to 25; 9 were from 26 to 30; and 2 were 33 and 36, respectively. Physically, the men were in very good condition. Eleven showed rather large tonsils, with some congestion of the pharynx. The weights ranged from 125 to 182 pounds. The mean weight on admision was 157 pounds, and on discharge 157.6 pounds. Sixteen men gained from 1 to 12 pounds, 15 lost from 1 to 12 pounds, and the weight of 12 remained stationary. The leucocyte counts varied from 5,600 to 11,200. Care was taken to obtain all blood counts at approximately 1 hour before mealtime. At Deer Island, from which place the volunteers came, cases of ifluenza since January 1, 1919, are recorded as follows: ss anuary 2...--------------------- January.....--------------------- January 6....................... January 11-....................... anuary 18.....-------------------- January 20........................ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 January 24....................... January 25.-..................... January 27....................... January 29....--------------------- January 30....................... January 31........................ February 3......................... February 4......-------------------- 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 A careful history was taken of each man prior to the beginning of actual experimentation. Stress was laid upon data pertinent to previous health, and, more especially, upon their activities and ailments during the recent pandemic of influenza. It was found that

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