Further examinations of those Michigan inland lakes in which plantings of Great Lakes shiners (Notropis atherinoides) have been made. (Fisheries research report: 323A)
Cooper, G. P.

Page  1 INSTITUTE FOR FISHERIES RESEARCH UNIVERSITY MUSEUMS UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN ANN ARBOR. MICHIGAN Report 323A November 18, 1935 FURTHER EXAMINATIONS OF THOSE MICHIGAN INLAND LAKES IN THICH PLANTINGS OF GREAT LAKE SHINERS (Notropis atherinoides) HAVE BEEN MADE During the period of July 24 to 30, 1935, the writer examined nine of the eleven lakes in which the Michigan Department of Conservation planted Great Lakes Shiners during January, 1934. The object of this examination was to gain further evidence relative to the establishment of this species in these lakes. The name and location of each lake examined, the date and time of the examinations, and the amount of time spent and the approximate area of shore shallows covered by the examinations, are given in Table I (the examinations were made with 30-foot and 100-foot seines). During these examinations (July 24 to 30, 1935), Great Lakes Shiners were seined from two of the nine lakes, namely: 3 specimens from Higgins Lake (July 28, 11 A.M.-l P.M.); and 7 specimens from Houghton Lake (July 28, 3:15-5:15 P.M.). Detailed data on thdeGreat Lakes Shiners are given in Table II. The two adult shiners taken from Higgins Lake represent specimens of the original plant (planted as young, January, 1934). The 2nd-summer specimen from Higgins Lake and all specimens from Houghton Lake were young of 1934 (Table II). During the period of October 18 to 24, 1935, the writer, assisted by Edwin L. Cooper, again examined nine of the eleven lakes. Data pertaining to these examinations are given in Table III.

Page  2 -2 - Table I Point of Date Hours Area of lake shallows Lake County examination 1935 Time cf day spent covered by seinseining ing Gull Kalamazoo S.E. shore 7/24 2:30-4 P.M. 1 1/2 800' x 200' " S.W. shore n 4:30-6:30 P.M. 2 900' x 200' " " N.W. shore " 6:30-7:15 P.M. 3/4 300' x 50' " Barry N.E. shore " 7:15-8 P.M. 3/4 800' x 200' Blanche Newaygo S.E. shore 7/25 10-11:15 A.M. 1 1/4 600' x 30' Hess n S. shore " 11:15-12 A.M. 3/4 300' x 100' " " N.W. shore " 12:15-2 P.M. 1 3/4 900' x 200' Croton Dam " S. shore of " 2:30-5 P.M. 2 1/2 1500' x 200' north pond Freemont " N. shore 7/26 11 A.M.-1 P.M. 2 600' x 50' Cadillac Wexford S. shore 7/27 3-5 P.M. 2 2000' x 250' "" N.W. shore 7/27 5:15-6:15 P.M. 1 800' x 100' *Higgins Crawford Extreme N. 7/28 11 A.M.-1 P.M. 2 1200' x 300' " Roscommon tt S. n 1-3 P.M. 2 500' x 200' " Crawford N. n 10:30-11:30 P.M. 1 600' x 200' *Houghton Roscommon N.E. shore n 3:15-5:15 P.M. 2 1200' x 100' at Bachus Cr. mouth " t" W. shore " 5:45-7:30 P.M. 1 3/4 900' x 200' "ft " W. shore " 7:45-8:15 P.M. 1/2 300' x 100' Hubbard Alcona W. shore of 7/30 7:30-10:45 A.Mo 3 1/4 1500' x 200' N.16. bay * Great Lakes Shiners were obtained. Table II. Standard and total lengths, sex, maturity and age, of the Great Lakes Shiners collected from Higgins X Houghton lakes. - - -- - -- -- -- -I- -- -- -,,,,,,,, S.L. in mm. T*L* inn stage or0 Sex maturity Age: summer or lif 4 Lake ___~~~~ l/2___ ~. _ _ Higgins 52 " 72 2 1/2 3 1/2 3 3/4 female imma t ure male adult: testes large "t~ n 2nd 3rd it 76 __.._., -.-- -_ - - -- - -1- --------- Houghton it "it it "it it 58 62 59 62 62 63 63 2 3/4 3 2 7/8 3 3 3 1/8 3 1/8 "It n female it Ti immature it tt 1t n t1 2nd n i~ it nt -- - - -- ---- -- -- -- --- ---- -- -- - -- -- - --- Determined by scale examimti~~ions.r

Page  3 -3 - Table III Point of examination Date 1935 Lake County Time of day GullI "t~ "it Blanche Hess *Freimont * n Crystal Crystal Blue Cadillac Houghton Higgins Houghton Kal armaw o "ft "it Newaygo "it ~t it Oceana "it Newaygo Wexford "It Roscommon Crawford Ros common N.W. shore N.E. shore E. shore E. shore . sto0r e S.E. shore N. shore S.W. shore S.W. shore N. shore N.W. shore On 3 sides "vW. shore N. shore N. shore W. shore at canal 10/18 10/20 10/20 "t "it 10/21 10/22 it 2:30-3:30 P.M. 3:45-4;30 P.M. 4:45-5:30 P.M. 5:45-6:30 P.M. 6:45-8 P.M. 9:30-11 A.M. 11:15-12 A.M. 12:15-2;30 P.M. 3:30-5P.M. 5:15-6:30 P.M. 8:30- 11 A.M. 1:60-3 P.M. 4:30-6 P.M, 10:30-11:45 A.M. 12 -1:30 P.M. 1:30-2:30 P.M. 4-5:30 P.M. 6:30-8 P.M. 8:45-11 P.M. 9-10 A.M. Hours spent seining 1 3/4 3/4 3/4 1 1/4 1 1/2 3/4 2 1/4 1 1/2 1 1/4 2 1/2 1 1/2 1 1/2 1 1/4 1 1/2 M..m Area of lake shallows coverdd.by seining 300' x 100' 600' x 100' 600' x 50' 300' x 50' 900' " 75' 1200' x 200' 900' x 75' 900' x 100' 600' x 200' 600' x 250' 1800' x 30-300' 600' x 50' 600' x 150' 900' x 200' 300' x 100' & lower 300 yds. of canal 600' x 150',1200' x 150' 900' x 300' 600' x 800' 600' x 200'+ lower 100 yds. of Cr. tI nt S.W. shore S. shore n S.W. shore N. shore i N.E. shore at 10/23 Bachus Cr. N.E. shore S.W. shore S.E. shore at " Denton Cr. N.W. shore at 1V/24 Big Creek W. shore of lake " S. shore of lake " 1 1 2 1 1/2 1/2 1/4 1 Higgins ft 11 A.M.-12:30 P.M 1:30-3:30 P.M. 4-5:30 P.M. 9:45-11 A.M. 11:30 A.M.-12:30 1: 30-3P.M.. 1 1/2 600' x 200' 2 900' x 200' 1 1/2 300' x 50' + lower 100 yds. of Cr. 1 1/4 900' x 100' + lower 100' of Cr. 1 750' x 200' ni *Higgins L. outlet nt 1 1/2 100 yds. &f stream. * Great Lakes Shiners obtained. During the examinations of October 18 to 24, 1935, Great Lakes Shiners were taken from Freemont Lake and from the outlet of Higgins Lake. Of the 184 shiners taken from Fremont Lake, 183 were found at the mouth of a small stream entering the lake on the north shore, and one shiher was taken at the mouth of a second small stream entering on this north shore. Most, if not all, of these shiners from Freemont Lake had lived through two summer, i.e. they represent young of 1934-this fact has been determined by:

Page  4 -4 - 1. An examination of the scales of a majority of these shiners. 2. A comparison of the average total length of the Freemont Lake shiners (2 1/4" to 3", average approximately 2 3/4") with the lengths of two-year-old shiners taken from Lake Michigan. 3. A comparison of the scales of these Freemont Lake Shiners (collected October 20, 1935) with the scales of Great Lake Shiners taken from Freemont Lake (April 5, 1935), which were 1 1/4" to 2" in total length and obviously young of 1934. Forty-three Great Lakes Shiners were obtained from Higgins Lake outlet on October 24, 1935-of this number, 42 were young of 1935 (1 3/8" to 2 1/8" in total length) and one shiner was a very large adult female (one of the original plant; planted as a twoyear-old; it was a four-year-old when taken from Higgins Lake outlet; and its ovaries contained developing eggs indicating that it probably would have spawned in 1936, thus living at least five years, and probably spawning during at least three years.) A summar of the results obtained during the four examinations made thus far on those eleven inland lakes in which plantings of shiners were made during January, 1934. Thus far the writer has examined the majority of these eleven lakes four times (a list of these lakes and the planting records are given in Institute Report 264). A the rec.ver records of summary ofAGreat Lakes Shiners during these four check-ups are given as follows in Table IV. Table IV Date of No. of Great Lake County examination Lakes Shiners Age of shiners obtained Blanche Newaygo 4/5/35 1 *Young of 1934 Freemont " 4/5/35 32 *Young of 1934 " 10/20/35 184 *Young of 1934 (probably all) Houghton Roscommon 7/28/3d 7 *Young of 1934 Higgins " 11/18/34 1 Young of 1934 (fish had deep gash on back-was possibly introduced by a bait fisherman) "" Crawford 7/28/35 1 *Young of 1934 " " 7/28/35 2 Young of 1938 (part of original plant). Higgins L. Roscommon 10/24/35 42 *Young of 1935 outlet "if " "1 Young of 1939. (part of original plant). * These fish represent in most, if not all, instances a natural reproduction in the lake.

Page  5 -5 -The evidence thus far obtained, indicating a natural reproduction of the Great Lakes Shiner in these inland lakes, is the recovery, from four of the eleven lakes, of young shiners. The recovery, during the initial examination of these lakes (Nov. 16 to 21, 19340, of a single young shiner having a deep hook-gash or injury on the back was believed to be of little significance. However, these subsequent recoveries of young shiners present an entirely different picture. It seems to be a logical conclusion that there has been some natural reproduction of the Great Lakes Shiner in some of these inland lakes in which they were planted. Incidental introduction by bait fishermen would hardly account for the numbers which were obtained from these lakes. The extent of this reproduction, the ability of this species to maintain itself in these lakes, and the effect, if any, beneficial or otherwise, which these plantings will have on the production of game fish, are problems which should warrant future study. A period of several years will probably be required to satisfactorily determine whether or not Great Lakes Shiners will become sufficiently abundant in these lakes (in which they have been planted) to be an important forage minnow. If they do become abundant in some of these lakes, studies should be made of food of the game fishes to determine the role of this shiner in the game fish diet. There is also the danger, in introducing a foreign species, that some disease or parasite may also be introduced which would result in damage of greater importance than the value of the planting. It is therefore not recommended that plantings of this minnow be made in a wholesale manner throughout the state, until we know better the effects of these experimental plantings. Records of further plantings of Great Lakes Shiners made by the Department For the sake of completeness of this report and of the Institute files, records of plantings of Great LakesShiners made by the Department during 1935 are included, see Table V.

Page  6 Table V I - - -- -- -- ru lll~-~~~lrr*~mrcrmh r~nt-r~ *P~ ~I~~~IC-S i-LI)~LCI ~~)~~)II*1 -- -- Date 1935 No. of shiners planted Planted by Lake County Township _ __ 1/10 Alvin Moore Unit I24 1/11 /i 1/12 1/14 1/15 1/16 1/18 1/19 1/21 J/10 June R. Johnston Lake Cadillac Lake Mitchell Bar Lake Bear Lake Lakes Eleanor & Dickson Pleasant Lake Lake Missaukee Fife Lake Green & Duck L. Long Lake Grass Lake 9Wexford Clam Lake "w Cherry Grove & Selma Manistee Manistee, s. "n Bear Lake & Pleasanton " Dickson Wexford Selma Missaukee Lake Gd. Traverse Fife Lake "t Green Lake Wexford Harring Mis saukee Norwich 500,000* 500,000* 500,s00* 500,000* 500,000* 500,000* 500,000* 500,000* 500,000* 500,000*? (one load) * These shiners were obtained from the Channell at Manistee between Lake Michigan and East lake, Conservation Office Ray Walters and men from the F.E.R.A. assisted in securing these fish from the Channell and to help load them. Shiners for Long Lake, Wexford County were held in ponds at Hatchery until roads opened in spring to allow trucks to get into it. INSTITUTE FOR FISHERIES RESEARCH Gerald P. Cooper