A journal, of the captivity and sufferings of John Foss; several years a prisoner at Algiers: together with some account of the treatment of Christian slaves when sick:-- and observations of the manners and customs of the Algerines. : [Eight lines of verse]
Foss, John, d. 1800., Paine, Robert Treat, 1773-1811., Citizen of Newburyport. Algerine slaves., Algeria. Treaties, etc. United States. 1795 Sept. 5.

CHAPTER III. A short description of the Territory of Algiers—of the City—their manners, customs & Religion,—man|ners and customs of the country people—description of Oran—Commerce—Articles of Commerce—Mode of the Dey's Collecting his Tribute of the Country people—Dress of the Country People—Ceremony of Marriage—singular method of do. in keeping their clothes dry, &c, &c.

ALGIERS is a Country which derives its name from its Metropolis, and ex|tends four hundred and eighty miles in length from east to west, along the northern coast of Africa, (this part of Africa is called Barbary.) Its greatest breadth from North to South, is three hundred and twenty miles.

At the distance of about one hundred miles from the sea coast, it becomes a barren desert, Page  45 almost entirely uninhabited by either man or beast.

Algiers is situated between 32 and 37 degrees of north latitude, corresponding to that of the United States, from Virginia to Carolina, inclu|sive. It is bounded on the north, by the Me|diterranean sea; on the South, by Mount At|las; on the east, by the country of Tunis; and on the West, by Morocco: It is separated from that empire by the river Mulvia.

The principal rivers, which water the terri|tory of Algiers, rise in Mount-Atlas, running by a northerly direction into the Mediterranean sea; they are seven in number. None of them has a long course, or even is navigable; or at least none of them are made use of in naviga|tion. It is however supposed that some of them might be made use of, for this purpose, were the inhabitants of a more intelligent and industrious character: for some of them are of a tolerable depth, and would admit large flat-bottomed boats to pass with the greatest ease, for the purpose of conveying their produce to the sea shore.

Such is the gross ignorance of the natives of this country, in whatever concerns domestic improvements, that there is not a single bridge over any of their rivers. Although nature has formed them in such a commodious situa|tion, that bridges might easily be constructed in many different places. Ferry-boats are en|tirely unknown among them. When they Page  46 are to be crossed, the traveller hath oftentimes to wander several miles in search of a ford.

If a heavy rain happens to fall, he is some|times forced to wait several days, before the river has returned to its natural depth.

This country consists of eighteen provinces, which are commanded by Beys, who are subor|dinate to the Dey. The Beys of the provinces of Mascara, Titeli, and Constanina, are obliged to send and carry their tribute to Algiers once every six months: They are obliged to appear before the Dey with the tribute annually themselves. Six months after their departure from the Dey, they send the tribute by a Galief, he is a Secretary to the Bey or Governor.

The Bey's of other provinces bring their tribute once every two years. They being at such a distance from the city, is the occasion of its not being demanded oftener.

The climate in this country is remarkably delightful. The air is pure and serene. The soil is covered with almost a perpetual verdure. Extreme heat is not common. In winter it is seldom cold enough to freeze. I have been informed, that it has been known to freeze here, at the depth of two or three inches.

I once saw a little frost, during my residence there, but not any ice or snow.

This description applies to the lands on the sea-coast; for as you advance into the country the land becomes more barren. Indeed a con|siderable part of the back country is a savage desert, abounding with Lions, Tigers, Leo|pard's, Page  47 Jackall's, Buffaloe's wild Boar's Porcu|pine's, &c. And it must be acknowledged, that these animals are not the least amiable in|habitants of this country.

There are few towns at present in these states of any consequence, though when successively under the dominion of Carthage, and Rome, they abounded with many populous cities, and to have a residence here was considered as the highest state of luxury.

The produce of their soil formed the ma|gazines which formerly supplied all Italy and a great part of the Roman Empire, with corn, wine and oil. Though the lands are ill culti|vated through the oppression and barbarity of the government, yet they are still fertile: dates, figs, raisins, almonds, apples, pears, cherries, plumbs, citrons, lemons, oranges, pomegranets, with plenty of herbs and roots.

Excellent hemp and flax grow on the plains. In short, the country abounds with all that can add to the pleasure of life.

Algiers produces salt petre; lead and iron have been found here. Neither the Elephant nor Rhinoceros are found in Barbary—but their deserts abound with Lions, Tygers, Leo|pards, Hyaenas and monstrous serpents. Their horses were formerly very valuable, and tho't equal to the Arabian; but they are now de|cayed; yet some very fine 〈◊〉 are imported into England. Dromedaries, 〈◊〉, mules, and Rumrahs, a most serviceable creature, begot by an ass upon a cow, are their 〈◊〉 of burden; Page  48 but from the services of the Camel, they de|rive the greatest advantages. This useful quad|ruped enables the African to perform his long and toilsome journies across that continent.—The Camel is therefore, emphatically called, the Ship of the Desert. He seems to have been created for this very trade, endued with parts and qualities adapted to the office he is em|ployed to discharge.

The driest thistle, and the barest thorn, fur|nish food for this useful animal; and even these, to save time, he eats, while advancing on his journey, without stopping, or occasion|ing a moments delay. As he has to cross immense deserts, where no water is found, and countries not moistened by the dew of heav|en—he is endowed with the power at one watering place, to lay in a store with which he supplies himself for thirty days. To con|tain this enormous quantity of fluid, nature has formed large cisterns within him, from which once filled, he draws at pleasure, the quantity he wants, and pours into his stomach with the same effect as if he then drew from a spring; and with this he travels, patiently and vigorously, all day long, carrying a prodigious load, through countries infected with poison winds, and glowing with parching, and never cooling sands.

Their cows are but small, and barren of milk. Their sheep yield indifferent fleeces, but are very large, as are their goats.

Page  49 Bears, porcupines, foxes, apes, hares, rabbits, ferrits, weasels, moles, cameleons, and all kinds of reptiles are found here.

The Cameleon possesses the qualities of chang|ing its colour, and exists on air.

I have kept one in an earthen jug, six months. Their age seldom exceeds eighteen months.—Their form somewhat resembles a lizard.

Partridges and quails, eagles, hawks, and all kinds of wild fowl, are found on the coast, and the smaller birds, the Capsa Sparrow, is remarkable for its beauty, and the sweetness of its note, which is thought to exceed that of any other bird: but it cannot live out of its own climate. The seas abound with the most delicious fish of every kind.

The city of Algiers lies in lat, 36, 50, North and in long. 2 47, East, over against the Island of Minorca, three hundred and eighty miles westward of Tunis. It stands on a bay of the Mediterranean sea. It is built upon the side of a very high hill, with so great an ascent, that the houses rising gradually one above another from the sea shore, it forms an amphitheatre, The city appears beautiful at a distance when approaching from the sea. A person on first sight of it at a distance would suppose it to be a snow bank. This is occasioned by the hou|ses being white-washed on the out side. The city is of a quadrangular form, and is near three miles in circumference, encompassed with two walls about twenty five feet distant from each other, and in some places an hundred feet Page  50 in heighth. The outward wall is defended by upwards of three hundred brass cannon, and out side that is a deep entrenchment forty feet wide, over which are built bridges at the gates of the city. In the intermediate space between the walls, are magazines for public stores. The mole of the harbour is about five hundred paces in length, extending from the continent to a ledge of rocks, where there are three castles, with large batteries of brass guns. These castles are known by the names of Fen|ella, Cordalaras, and Sardenia. On the form|er is a very excellent light house, from which the castle derives its name Fenelle, signifying (in Arabec,) a light.

This mole was begun and finished in the reign of Hayradin. He commenced its foun|dation in the year 1536, at this time, it is re|ported, he had thirty thousand Christian slaves in his possession. These he obliged to work without intermission for three years, in which the work was finished; and he had now a con|venient harbour for the safety of his ships, ca|pable of containing between thirty and forty large vessels; he also built several strong forts, and erected a number of batteries, on many places that might favour the landing of an e|nemy. Several of the latter were destroyed in the expedition of Charles 5th in the year 1541. All the remaining ones have received great im|provements, since, and some new batteries e|rected as occasion required. He also built the castle 〈◊〉.

Page  51 The city is computed to contain one hun|dred and twenty thousand inhabitants. The fortifications are extensive and strong. There are said to be fifteen thousand houses, which are all built entirely with stone and lime, and are all flat roofed, they are commonly built round an oblong square, with a paved court in the centre. Around this court is a triple range of Galleries, one above another which are supported by pillars. The principal build|ings are the Dey's palace, a hospital for Chris|tian slaves, and several large mosques. The former stands near the centre of the city, is very large but not magnificent.

The hospital for Christian slaves, stands in the principal street of the town. Is somewhat commodious, and tolerably well attended.—This hospital was erected as a deed of charity by the king of Spain, for the benefit of Chris|tian slaves, in the year—, and is still main|tained by the Spanish government.

When a slave is found so sick that he is in|capable of doing any kind of work, they then permit him to go into this hospital, where he is suffered to remain until they suppose he is able to work again; while he remains here he is very well used by the Doctors and Priests.—They generally allow three or four of the for|mer, and eight or ten of the latter to attend it.

The Doctors prescribe the medicine, which is to be given to the patient, and the priest's prepare, and administers it.

Page  52 While a slave is sick in this place, he is no manner of expence to the Regency, he being maintained with victuals, drink, medicine, and attendance by the Spaniards. It is the duty of a particular taskmaster, to visit the hospital e|very morning, in order to take a view of the slaves, and to pass his opinion upon them, or any particular one of them, concerning their, or his, ableness to perform the duty assigned the slaves in general, and if he finds any one whom he thinks (by his countenance, or any other circumstance,) able to perform any kind of work, the forlorn son of wretchedness, is driven out from the hospital, to perform his task, among the rest of his fellow sufferers, and the Doctors are not even asked whether they think he is able or not. And often times they are driven out in this-manner, to work, and are obliged to return to the hospital again, within a short time after their departure and often expire in a few hours after their return. Cruelties of this nature are very common in this horrible place, and the untimely death of a Christian, is nothing more thought of, by the inhabitants, than the death of one of their do|mestic animals.

A particular instance of this nature happen|ed on the 30th January, 1796. The unhappy sufferer being an American, I have thought it worthy remark.

When Scipio Jackson, (a blackman belong|ing to New-York,) had been for some time ve|ry low with the cholic, so that his life had been Page  53 despaired of for several days by the Doctors; he was now recovering, to all appearance, ve|ry fast; and was so far recovered as to be able to walk the room but the day before his un|timely death. He had just risen from his bed, on the said morning, when the taskmaster, who was known by the name of Salamoone, en|tered the hospital, who on perceiving him walk, pronounced him able to work, and or|dered him to the marine, to perform his daily labour. He told the taskmaster, he was not a|ble to walk to the marine, and much less capa|ble of performing his destined labour if he was there; at which the merciless villain, gave him several severe strokes with his stick saying "if you are not able, I will make you able," and with that drove him to the marine. The Doctors used their utmost endeavours to dis|suade him from it; and begged that he might be allowed to remain a few days longer; all their persuasions, and reasoning were to no purpose, the wretch would not hearken to any thing they said, but drove the poor man before him, to work. He accordingly with great difficulty arrived at the marine, where he did his work in the best manner his feeble condi|tion would allow, for about half an hour, and being exhausted he fell down upon the ground insensible. Upon this he was again sent to the hospital, where he expired at two o'clock in the afternoon, and was in his grave before sun|set.

Page  54 This alone is sufficient to ascertain the depth of the wretchedness of Christians, whom fortune has unhappily thrown into the hands of those detestable piratical barbarians. In former days, the Christian captives when dead, were not allowed to be interred, but were car|ried out about half a Mile to the eastward of the city, and precipitated down the banks into the sea. This manner of disposing of the dead bodies of Christians, was practised by the Al|gerines untill about the beginning of the seven|teenth century. At this time, a Roman Ca|tholic priest, who was making a tour through Barbary, happened to be in Algiers, and the Plague raging very severe in the city, of course a great number of slaves died, and were cast into the sea, this dreadful spectacle, moved the heart of the humane Priest who possessing an independant fortune, purchased at an exorbi|tant price,* about one acre of land for a burial place for christians.

The day he paid the money for this piece of ground, the plague broke out in his groin, which put a period to his existence in seven|teen hours, consequently he was the first who was interred on this piece of land, and perhaps the first Christian that had been buried in the territory of Algiers since it was inhabited by Mahometans, as they formerly cast all of this denomination into the sea, who paid the last debt of nature near the sea-shore. Those who died in the country, were suffered to remain above ground.

Page  55 The author flatters himself that a description of this piece of land will not be unaccepta|ble to his readers, he therefore presents a short and authentic account of it to their perusal.—It lies about half a mile westward of the city, where is a piece of low land or meadow, this is dyked in with a mound to prevent the sea from washing in, and destroying the produce of the land. The burial ground is between this mound and the sea, consequently, in a hea|vy gale of wind, the violence of the waves washes the dead bodies out of their graves, in|to the ocean, as the place is nothing more than a sandy beach, and the corps are seldom buried more than one foot under the sand.

According to the records of the nation, up|wards of 98,000 Christians have already been buried here, and scarcely any marks of a burial ground is to be discovered, more than the great quantities of human bones which are to be seen laying upon the beach. They keep four slaves whom age has rendered incapable of any other employment, to bury their deceas|ed companions, as it is contrary to the religion of Mahomet, for one of that denomination, to touch the dead body of a christian.

With respect to the burial of their own dead, the Mahometans discover a degree of delicacy of which Christians have no conception. No|thing is more common, in our Church yards, and surely nothing is more completely shock|ing, than to see graves broken up, a second time before the person has returned to its original Page  56 dust; and the remains of the dead are tossed about with very little ceremony. This wretch|ed violation of decency arises from the orthor|dox desire of being buried in holy ground; a practice which has no doubt been encouraged by the parties concerned, for the purpose of ex|acting high prices for the land.

Nothing would appear more ridiculous, a|mong the professors of the Mahometan Religi|on, than to see their graves opened, at any dis|tance of time, or upon any pretence whatever. They would regard this as an act of the most barbarous sacrilege. Hence the burial ground of Algiers, or any large city of this profession, are very extensive, it is reported that some of the burial places, in the neighborhood of large cities, are nine, or ten miles in extent.

By this we may see that some useful lesson is to be learned, from almost every nation in the world.

The Mosques are fine buildings, tho' they make no great appearance at a distance. They are 65 in number, ten of which are very large, which are called, Marabout Masques, by reason of ha|ving a Marabout or hermit buried in them.—These they account holy places, and an asylum for all kinds of vices.

A Turk having committed any crime what|ever, is pardoned if he can get into one of them before he is taken into custody. Their religion teaches them to pardon a Mahometan, if he flees to those Marabout or Saints, who Page  57 are buried in those mosques, for protection, let his offence be ever so capital.

Christian slaves are also pardoned, having committed small offences, if they can get into one of them before he is taken, he will have an additional chain upon his leg and a block at its end.

A Jew having been apprehended inside the door of one of them, would be immediately burned or crucified. So the poor Israelites have no protection for their crimes, and must sub|mit to the absolute word of a despotic prince.

When a Mahometan, who has committed a crime, has taken the Marabout, it is imme|diately reported to the Muftie, and he reports it to the Dey, who sends a string of beads by the Muftie to the keeper of the Mosque, and the criminal then comes out. Though he might come out before if he pleases, but should he leave the Mosque, before the Muftie comes with the beads, he would be liable to the same punishment he was before he had taken the Marabout. The presence of the Muftie and the beads denote his pardon. The Muftie then returns with the beads, to the Dey, and they are laid up until some other similar occasion. At the gates of the Dey's palace, there is a chain which is fastened at the top of the gates and at night the lower end is fastened down with a pad lock. Any slave who has commit|ted an offence, and can get hold of this chain before he is taken, it serves the same purpose as the Marabout Mosque. If a slave has been Page  58 cheated by any Turk, Cologie, Moor, Arab, Renegado, or Jew, and he takes hold of this chain, and says he wants justice, one of the principal officers of the Dey's corps of guards goes to him and asks the particulars of his be|ing wronged, and who the person is that has wronged him, and justice is immediately done him. But should he give a wrong account, and it be proved that he has not told the truth, he is immediately bastinadoed. If it is a Jew who is complained of, and he is found guilty, he must make the slave reparation and is bas|tinadoed.

This city contains a great number of hot bathes, which are large, and handsomely paved with marble; people of every denomination whatever are allowed to go into them and bathe, on paying double the sum which is paid by a Turk. If a stranger happens to go in, they generally extort eight or ten fold.

The men spend a great part of their time in bathing, smoking, and drinking coffee.

Their religion obliges them to bathe four times a day, but many of them do it much of|tener, for their own pleasure. There are also several bathes for the use of women, who are not allowed to bathe only in the afternoon.—Those among them who are able have these conveniences in their own houses, that their women may not go out.

Few white women walk the streets, except prostitutes, and those far advanced in years, and when these do they are obliged to be veiled. Page  59 The principal street extends from the east gate of the city, to the west, is somewhat wide and magnificent. The rest are all very narrow in|commodious and dirty, which renders it very difficult for passengers.

There are several tolerable edifices without the walls of the city, which add to the beauty of the environs.

Among these are a variety of Turkish se|pulchres, and monuments. Six of these mon|uments stand in a circular figure; they were erected to the memory of six Deys, who were in the course of one day, successively elected and murdered.

Algiers had formerly no other water than rain. A Moor, who had been driven out of Spain, constructed two aqueducts; by which it was soon supplied with abundance of excel|lent water from the adjacent mountains. They have since constructed several others on the same plan as the two former. The country round this city is exceeding fertile; gardens, groves, and country seats are very numerous.

The Algerines are unacquainted with the art of pruning, and grafting trees..

At Meireija, which is about twelve miles from this city, are three hot bathes, which are natural curiosities. The principal one is 12 feet square and three feet eight inches deep. The water is quite hot, and when it has filled the largest bason, it runs through in|to a smaller one, where the sews bathe, as they are not permitted to use the same bath with Page  60 the Mahometans. These hot fountains are conjectured to proceed from the great quanti|ties of sulphre, nitre, and other inflamable substances in the bowels of the earth.

The people of the city of Algiers, in general speak a compound of Arabec, Moresco, and the remains of the ancient Phenecian langua|ges: but in the country they speak the proper Arabec tongue. The inhabitants of all denom|inations in the city for the most part, under|stand the Lingua Franca. This is a kind of a dialect, which without being the proper lan|guage of any country whatever, has a kind of universal currency all over the Mediterrane|an, as the channel of information for people who cannot understand each other through a|ny medium but this,

The public business of the nation, and the records are transacted in the Turkish tongue. The men by their laws and religion, are allow|ed to have four wives (if they are able to pur|chase them) but they generally content them|selves with two or three.

The husband never sees his wise before marriage, but accepts her upon the description of her father. If she has no father, the nearest male relative performs this office. By this we may suppose he has generally a very partial account.

When the match is agreed upon, and the man has paid the father for the daughter (for in this country every man is obliged to buy his wife from her parents,) the bridegroom Page  61 sends a present of fruit and sweet meats, and entertains her relations with a feast, and musi|cal entertainments.

Eight days previous to the marriage, the bride is dressed in her richest apparel, and at|tended by four women; no one being allowed to speak to her except her parents, and her four female attendants. At the expiration of which time, the bridegroom is (for the first time) conducted into the presence of his wife, by the four women above mentioned, who are all veiled.

These women after having seen a certificate from her parents, or nearest surviving relative, lead the man by his hands, to where the bride is sitting; when he is before her, she rises from her seat, and kisses his hands and feet.—This is a token of obedience & honor to her hus|band. He then retires to his own house; and the bride is set on horseback and led to his dwelling. They are then pronounced husband and wife, by the four women, of whom I have been speaking. After she is safe delivered to her husband, the females, who were invited to the nuptial feast, assemble themselves, and walk through the streets, & at the several cor|ners they pronounce the bands, to the public, by shouting out all together, as loud as they can, and with such strong shrill voices that they my be heard two miles.

In the city of Algiers, the men wear large turbans, having their heads closely shaved, and Page  62 for the most part wear their beard—some only wear their whiskers.

Their longest jackets, which have sleeves, they wear next their shirt, and then a vest o|ver that, always taking care to have the short|est garment outside. Their shirts are made with neither collar nor wristbands, their bree|ches something like a woman's petticoat reach|ing down to their knees. Stockings are en|tirely unknown among them; they always go with their legs bare. Their shoes have square toes with no heels.

People of any denomination whatever, (ex|cept the Jews) are allowed to dress in this ha|bit. No person is allowed to dress in green; this colour they hold sacred it being a favorite colour of Mahomet. A sherief, who they say is descended from Mahomet, is known by a green turban. The Jews are obliged to dress entirely in black, and wear shoes without any quarters.

People of condition, sometimes wear bus|kins. They never move their turban, but pull off their slippers, when they attend religious duties, or the person of their sovereign.

They are very fond of striped or fancied silk. The chief furniture of their houses consists of Carpets and matrasses, on which they sit and lie. They are prohibited Gold and Silver ves|sels. Several families generally live in one house; I have known thirty Jew families to live under one roof.

Page  63 The women dress, with a sort of cap upon their heads, of either Gold, Silver, Brass, Pew|ter, or Tin, according as their fortune will af|ford; and wear short jackets, and long trows|ers. After they are married, they are obliged to have white trowsers, but before they wear a sort of calico; they are obliged to wear a veil when they go out of their houses, though ve|ry few are allowed to go out at all.

They mark their forehead, chin, and nose, with india ink, and stripe the backs of their hands, and fingers with black, and colour their finger nails red.

The present inhabitants of the territory of Algiers are composed of many different nati|ons. The Turks, are the first people among them, and have all the government and pow|er in their own hands, and no man can hold a|ny post of great distinction among them ex|cept he is a real Turk.

The Cologlies, are next the Turks in power. These are persons born of a Moorish mother, the Father being a Turk. The Arabs, who trace their descent from the disciples of Ma|homet, who formerly subdued Algiers.—Moors or Morescoes, who were driven out of Spain about the end of the sixteenth century. Renegadoes, Levantines, Jews, and Christian slaves, with a crowd formed of the posterity of all these different people, make the rest of the population.

The Cologlies, Moors, and Arabs, are the most numerous inhabitants of the city and Page  64 towns. They compose the great body of the inhabitants. The latter of these are thieves & murderers by profession. Travellers who are led to their country, through motives of curi|osity or devotion, are struck with terror on approaching the Deserts.

These robbers traverse the country in consi|derable troops, on horse back: They assault & plunder the Caravans.

So late as the year 1750, a body of 50,000 Arabians attacked a caravan of Merchants, coming from Mecca, killed 60,000 persons, & plundered it of every thing valuable, tho' es|corted by a Turkish army.

But it may reasonably be supposed, that a|mid such a variety of different races, immense numbers cannot be said to belong to any parti|cular tribe or nation whatever.

As to the nature of the inhabitants, they are mostly of a lazy idle disposition, and cursed with all the vices of mankind; mistrustful to the last degree, false, jealous, and the very pic|ture of ignorance! They stile themselves, Musselmon, or true believers; yet there is no confidence to be put in their word, upon any occasion whatever, except when they promise to do you an injury, in which promise they seldom fail, and on which you may safely rely. They are often famed by Spanish historians for men of gallantry, but I could never think they are inclined that way, but believe them nearly to equal the Spaniards in cowardice. They are but indifferent soldiers, the greatest part of Page  65 their skill consists in the management of a horse, and it must be confessed, they manage these animals with a great deal of dexterity. They abominate the very name of and culti|vate the most inveterate hatred against Chris|tians, and are continually like ravenous wolves seeking means to destroy them.

Mahomet has taught them in his alcoran, (or koran, for the two names appear to be sy|nonymous) that all of his faith who are slain fighting against the Christians, immediately enter into Paradise in triumph: he even tells them their horses, if they die in battle, are translated into heaven; for they hope to have the pleasure of riding there as well as on earth.

They believe the women have no souls, and are only formed for propagation; they are therefore not allowed to enter their mosques, because they esteem them incapable of being received into heaven: Yet the women say their prayers secretly at home.

The men have usually a string of beads in their hands, like the Roman Catholics; and for every bead they have a short prayer, which, as they repeat, they let drop through their fin|gers. Their prayers consist only in the diffe|rent attributes of God, as, "God is good,—God is great—God is infinite—God is merci|ful, &c."—The commanders of those wretch|es only differ from their subjects, in a larger propensity of their ill qualities, with the addi|tion of a degree of cruelty and avarice.

Page  66 All foreigners are allowed the free use of their religion; but the established religion in Barbary is Mahometanism. Many of the sub|jects of Morocco follow the tenets of the Ha|med, a modern sectary, and an enemy to the ancient doctrines of the Califs. All of them have much respect for Idiots—whose protection in some cases, screens offenders from punish|ment, for notorious crimes.

In the main, however, the Moors of Barbary, as the inhabitants of these states are now pro|miscuously called, (because the Saracens first entered Europe from Mauritania, the country of the Moors) have adopted the very worst parts of the Mahometan Religion, and seem to have retained as much of it as countenances all their vices. The men commit the most unna|tural crimes with impunity.

Every one is amazed to find these people so submissive and patient under so excessive and cruel a tyranny: But they should understand, (bating their want of power) that they are taught to believe, if they fall by the hand of their king, whom they call Xerif, or Sherief, (which signifies Mahomet's successor) they im|mediately go up to heaven; and those who would not willingly be sent to Heaven before their time, must be very particular how they conduct themselves.

But still we may derive some useful lessons from these Barbarians. The Algerines and o|ther Mahometans would regard it as the vilest act of prodigality, to see the least morsel of Page  67 food wasted; they would expect to be visited with famine, should they suffer such wasteful|ness, as is practised in many families in this country. Soon after my arrival at Algiers, as I was returning from my labor at night, and passing by a shop, a Turk, who was sitting up|on the shop window ordered me to stop, and pointing to the ground, told me to take up a small crumb of bread, which lay upon the pavement, accordingly I took it up and ate it; which the Turk perceiving, he gave me a cake weighing nearly half a pound, and told me, if I had not ate the small crumb, he should not have given me the loaf. This was the greatest deed of charity, I ever knew from a Mahome|tan, during my residence in this wretched place.

Algiers retains the title of a kingdom; it is however a military republic, though it cer|tainly can reflect no lustre on that species of government, The national ordinances run in these words: "We, the great, and small members of the mighty and invincible militia of Algiers." The Dey is elected by the soldiery. He seldom se|cures his office without tumult & blood-shed; and he often falls by the dagger of an assassin. This sovereign, may, with peculiar propriety, adopt the expression of one of the heroes of Ossian:

Where battle's rag'd, lo! I was born,
'T was there I drew my breath!
And blood must mark my lonely steps
Down to the gates of death.

Page  68 The manner in which his authority is ex|ercised, corresponds with that by which it was obtained. The Dey has a corps of guards; a very necessary, though perhaps a fruitless precaution; as any private soldier who has the courage to assassinate him, stands an equal chance of becoming his successor. An experi|ment of this description has been made, since the beginning of the present century, when six private soldiers entered into a conspiracy to murder the Dey of one of the Barbary states. They entered his palace, and gave him a mor|tal wound, by thrusting a scymetre into his side, in the midst of a croud of people. He fell down and expired, exclaiming; "Has no|body the courage to kill a villain?" One of the conspirators, instantly ascended the vacant throne, and brandishing his naked scymitre, declared that he would do justice to all! while his five associates, were endeavouring to en|force the title of their new sovereign, and none present seemed to give themselves any concern about what had happened. He had not remained above ten minutes in this situa|tion, when an old soldier unobserved took aim with a musket or blunderbuss, and shot him dead. Upon this, the five others were imme|diately dispatched by the people present. Such scenes as these do not unfrequently occur in tyrannic countries; and ought to teach both rulers and ruled in this happy country justly to appreciate the blessings of liberty and good government. The very spot now inhabited Page  69 by these merciless Barbarians, whose very breath seems to dry up every thing noble, great or good, was once the seat of Liberty and scientific improvements. But cities, towns, all, all are gone, & hardly left a wreck behind to point the traveller where they stood.

Here mighty Carthage once her thunders hurl'd
'Gainst Rome, then mistress of th' eastern world.
Here dwelt her Chiefs—in history renown'd,
Here Hannibal with laurels once was crown'd—
Here science flourish'd—here the arts were known.
Here wisdom reign'd, and here her empire shone!
'Till savage Turks o'erspread the wide domain,
And savage ignorance darkened ev'ry plain,
Spread far and wide like Etna's liquid flame,
And scarce have left posterity their name.

The Day is an absolute monarch: the next: man to him in dignity and power, is the Haz|nagi. The Aga is next to the Haznagi, and the Hodge de Cabellos, is next to him—The next is the Petti Mell—The Aga de Bastione, is the fifth man in office. This is the high Sheriff, he enjoys his post but two moons, and then retires with a pension. The other officers of importance are, a Secretary of State, twen|ty four Chiah Bassas, or Colonels subordinate to the Aga, about two hundred senior Raises, or Captains, and about four hundred Zuta Raises, or Lieutenants.

Page  70 The Muftie, the Cadi, and the grand Mara|bout, are known by the largeness of their tur|bans. The former is the high Priest. The second is the Supreme Judge in ecclesiastical causes. The latter is the chief of an order of Saints or Hermits. These hermits, are peo|ple, who wander from one part of the coun|try to another, and live upon alms, after the manner of the wandering Jews, (or shoe mak|er,) of Jerusalem. They were formerly looked upon with disdain and treated with derision. But since the prophesy of Yusef (who was one of these Hermits) concerning the destruction of the Spaniards (which was the expedition of Charles the 5th, in the year 1541,) they have been accounted Saints. Such is the gross ig|norance and superstition of these people, that when one of these Hermits happens to pass by any person who is halt, or blind, they will en|deavour to touch his garment with their fin|gers; then rub their fingers upon the part af|fected, thinking the Hermit has power to make them whole.

The inhabitants of Algiers live very meanly and abstemious, although their country plen|tifully produces the conveniences and luxuries of life, and all kinds of provisions are very cheap. I have purchased a quarter of Beef here weighing 70 lb. for three Arbia booche's; but the common price is about five. A do|zen of eggs are commonly sold for a mazoone & a half, and all other provisions are as cheap in proportion. But to give the reader a more Page  71 explicit idea of the value of these coins, I have presented them with the following table, of all the coins current in Algiers.

Gold Coin. Dols.Cts.
A Sultani, or Sequin, 180
Mahaboob, 135
Nooz Sultani,  90
Nooz Mahaboob,  68
Arba Sultani,  45

Silver Coin.
Riele Booche, 60
Nooz Booche, 30
Arbia Booche, 15
Timinee Booche, 7
Mazoone, 2

They have but one copper coin, this they call drahame segaria, 1160 of which make a dol|lar.

The chief of their diet is bread, oil, olives, vinegar and Sallad. They very seldom eat a|ny meat. When they do, one pound is suffi|cient for six or eight people, and this they think extravagant. They profess not to drink any spirituous liquors, and if any one is seen intoxicated, he is no more accounted a true Ma|hometan. Many of them will however drink to excess, when they are out of sight of any others of their religion. Many instances of this kind I have seen; particularly one Mustafa, an Alge|rine, would often go into the Bagnio, and pur|chase wine from the slaves, at double price, Page  72 which they had bought for their own use, and sit down and drink among them. One even|ing as I went in after returning from my labor, I saw Mustafa drinking wine, and eating pork sausages. I asked him if he knew what he was eating, he answered in great rage, uz coot sanza|fida unta main schelim, una main arfshi, which in English is, "Hold your tongue you unbeliev|er, if you do not tell me, I shall not know."

They bury their dead in the following man|ner. The corps is washed in water, then sew|ed up in a winding sheet, put upon a bear, and carried to the grave, where they are buri|ed in a sitting posture. No females are allow|ed to follow any corps whatever. Any Maho|metan who dies with the plague, is carried to the grave as fast as the bearers can run. All the followers sing while they are going. They imagine all Mahometans who die with this disorder are called by the Supreme Being, and are happy to all eternity. But people of any other religion, who die with it, they suppose are damned. At each end of the grave they place a small earthen pot, containing about half a pint, which the keep filled with water, presuming that their friends, if not happy, will be relieved or comforted with their drink.—They also plant pease and beans on the graves of their friends, and lay fragrant bushes on them, for the comfort and support of their de|parted relatives. The old women also every friday morning repair to the mansions of the dead, to carry such provisions as bread, beans, Page  73 peas, and plumbs. These they expect their friends if unhappy, will receive; if they are happy, they are willing the cats should partake the repast. These animals croud the grave yards in hundreds.

The present Dey of Algiers, is between sixty and seventy years of age—is a thick well built man, with his white beard covering his breast. He is of a light complexion. Does not appear to be much decayed by the weight of years, which have rolled over his head. He is of a very malicious disposition; and, often (when he is in a rage) commands deeds of inhumani|ty to be committed, of which it is said he re|pents afterwards.

His family consists of himself, wife, and one daughter. His wife and daughter have a se|parate palace, at a little distance from that of the Deys; and have a great number of female Christian slaves to serve them. The Dey vi|sits them every Thursday evening, abides with his wife the night, and returns to his own pa|lace on Friday morning.

The Dey, has also a number of male Christi|an captives, to wait upon him. One cooks his victuals, another sets his table, waits upon him while eating—makes his bed—and sees that all things in his apartment are kept clean. The others do any kind of work that is neces|sary. He keeps no Seraglio, as is generally re|ported; he has but one wife, and sleeps with her, but once a week.

Page  74 When the Dey eats, he has a table about 4 inches high, on which is set several different dishes, with neither plates, knives or forks, they eat only with spoons, their victuals being cut small before it is set upon the table; and they can touch their victuals only with their right hand. They sit always on the floor, (which has a mat or carpet upon it) as chairs are entirely unknown among them. The common people only differ from the Dey, by having no table whatever; their dishes being set upon the floor.

The Turks are a well built robust people, their complexion not unlike Americans, tho' somewhat larger in statue, but their dress, and long beards, make them appear more like mon|sters than human beings. The Cologlies are somewhat less in stature than the Turks, and are of a more tawney complexion. The Moors or Morescoes, are generally a tall thin, spare set of people, not much inclining to fat, and of a very dark complexion, much like the Indians in north America. The Arabs, or Arabians, are of a much darker complexion than the Moors, being darker than the Mulat|toes. They are much less in stature than the Moors, being the smallest people I ever saw; very few arrive at the height of five feet, and are generally near of a size. These people com|pose the greater part of the Pisaras, or porters in the city. As they are not allowed to trade in any mercantile line, nor even to learn any mechanic art, they are obliged to be drudges Page  75 to their superiors, to gain the hard earned morsel on which they subsist.

The Algerines maintain about six thousand five hundred foot, consisting of Turks, Colo|glies, or the sons of Soldiers: About one thou|sand of them do garrison duty, and part of them are employed in fomenting differences a|mong the neighboring Arab princes. Besides these, the Dey can bring two thousand Moor|ish horse, into the field. Those troops are un|der excellent discipline.

Of their learning, or learned men, little can be said.

The Turks profess the greatest contempt for Learning. Greece which was the native coun|try of genius, arts and sciences, produces at present, beside Turks, numerous bands of Christian Bishops, priests and Monks, who, in general, are as ignorant as the Turks them|selves. The education of a Turk seldom ex|tends further than to the reading the Turkish language, and the Koran, and writing a com|mon letter. Some of them understand astro|nomy, so far as to calculate the time of an e|clipse; but these are comparatively few, and regarded as extraordinary persons. Of litera|ture in modern Turkey, a curious specimen was printed in the year 1769, at Vienna. The Book, which is a French translation, is enti|tled, "A treatise upon Tactics, or an artifici|al method for the discipline of troops; a work printed and published at Constantinople, by Ibrahim Effendi, officer Mutte ferrika of the Ot|toman Page  76 Porte. The original appeared in 1730, and was intended as an experiment for the es|tablishment of a Turkish press. The Turks are said, upon a superficial comparison, to have preferred the use of manuscripts, and the de|sign for want of encouragement was laid aside. The preface of Ibrahim begins thus: "In the name of the most Climent and merciful God, praises, thanks and benedictions be to the so|vereign master of the empires and kingdoms of the heavens and earth; to the master of Glory and omnipotance, God most high and most holy, who is the principal and the source of all order and symmetry in the universe, whose supreme will rules the affairs of the sons of Adam, and whose decrees, direct all the ac|tions of men." In this book the writer cen|sures his countrymen, for their negligence as to the acquisition of modern discipline. To the curious, an extract from this work may not be altogether unentertaining:—"In for|mer ages," says the writer, "when the Chris|tians made less use of cannon, muskets, and granadoes, and when the principal arms of war, were sabres, the Mussulmen, superior to all nations, in the management of these wea|pons, made a progress so rapid, that the chris|tians scattered upon the face of the earth, as|tonished at their victories and daring no more to oppose themselves to the irresistable force, remained during some time in the greatest consternation. In the end, invoking heaven and earth, to find some remedy to their dis|tresses Page  77 & exploring every resource without know|ing on what side to turn themselves, they made a last effort to invent an expedition pro|per to repair their losses. At first they were unanimously desirous to perfect the use of can|non, of muskets, and other arms. Afterwards, seeing, that the assistance of these was still too weak to support the impetuous attacks of the musselmen, and in particular those of the Ot|toman armies, they made new attempts, and laboured, all in concert, to oppose themselves to this fatal destiny, and to find some means of resistance. At last, after many consultati|ons and conferrences, the unanimous result of their deliberations was, that after having given a better form to their artillery, and their Ar|senals, it would be necessary to find some means of subjecting their unfortunate troops, by certain rules, to a constant and firm disci|pline, so that the soldiers restrained in a per|fect order, finding no opportunity of flying, and of deserting their ranks, nor time enough to think of danger and to terrify themselves with the thoughts of instant death, might per|sist, in spite of their inclination, in their ranks, seeing themselves indispensably forced to it.—Afterwards they thought that it was necessary to give more consistency to their lines, ranged in order of battle, and to invent new discipline, to render them more firm, immovable, and ca|pable of supporting the thundering shock 〈◊〉 the musselmen, and resisting their 〈…〉, which for some time, being 〈…〉Page  78 object of their attention, they have, at last, by their indefatigable application, arrived so far as to reduce the rules and principles of tactics to a particular art, and to treat them method|ically in books composed upon the military science."

The greatest part of their commerce, is with the Sweeds, Danes, Dutch, French, Spaniards, Raguseans and English. The commodities they trade in, are Wheat, Barley, Oil, Olives, Figs, Raisins, Wax, Honey, Silks, Almonds, Dates, Wool, Leather of different colors, which is commonly called, Morocco Leather, Horses, Mules, &c. Their Manufactures are chiefly Silks, and Woolen Carpets. In return, the Europeans furnish them with timber, artil|lery, gun-powder, and whatever they want ei|ther in their public or private capacity. No nations are fond of trading with these sons of plunder, owing to their capricious despotism, and the villainy of their Individuals.

Having given a short account of the man|ners and customs of the people in the city; I now proceed to give a short sketch, of those in the country.

The people in the country, have no houses, but live in tents, and remove from one place to another, as they want pasture for their herds and flocks, or as any other accidental circumstance may happen to make it necessary.

The excellence of the climate renders this simple way of living tolerable, though the tents of these people are mean, their utensils of Page  79 little value, and their lodging filthy. The fa|mily and their domestic animals lie promiscu|ously in the tents together, except the dogs, which are left on the out-side as guards. They raise considerable numbers of bees and silk|worms. They subsist chiefly on fruit, rice and bread. Wine and Sprituous liquors, are al|most entirely unknown among them. The Dey demands from them a tribute, which is procured by the Beys and carried to Algiers. The manner of gathering this tribute is as fol|lows: The Dey informs the Bey what sum must be paid, for the ensuing year, in the province which he commands or governs. The Bey then goes at the head of a large body of caval|ry to collect it. And many of them on hear|ing of his approach retire to inaccessible places in the mountains, until the troops are with|drawn, in order to evade the payment. If a|ny of those who do not abscond, should make the least equivocation he takes from them whatever he please. Should they make any re|sistance, or even intimate that they are dissa|tisfied with his proceedings, he cuts off their heads and sends them in triumph to the Dey. And after it has been carried twice from the Deys palace, to the gate Babazoone, and exposed to public view, they then bury it. Those Beys seldom are in office more than two or three years, for by this time they have enrich|ed themselves to such a degree (by plundering and robbing) that the Dey or Divan invents some crime against them, for which they are Page  80 soon executed, and all their property is brought to the city and deposited in the treasury.

Should any of those who retire to the mountains, to evade the payment of the tribute be apprehended, they are put to the most ig|nominious death, and all their property is ta|ken for the benefit of the public.

The dress of the men, is only a coarse wool|en cloth wrapped round the shoulders, which falls down as far as their ancles, with a cap of the same cloth, and a twisted woolled turban over that. The women pay some more atten|tion to ornament themselves with dress. They are dressed with a long woollen cloth, not un|like that of the men's, with a great number of pewter, and brass broaches fixed upon it, a|bout the shoulders, arms, and breast. They adorn their heads, with several of these broach|es fixed in their hair, and a braided woollen string passed several times round their heads, which is filled with several different kinds of flowers. The huram, or apartment of the Turkish women is not only impenetrable, but must not be regarded on the outside with any degree of attention. To approach them when abroad will give offence; and in the town, if they cannot be avoided, it is the custom to turn to the wall and stand still, without look|ing toward them while they pass. The Turk|ish women claim an exemption from their con|finement on one day only in the week, when they visit their relations, and are seen going in companies to the bathes, or setting in the bury|ing Page  81 grounds on the graves of their friends their children, husband, or parents. They are then enwrapped and beclothed in such a manner, that it is impossible to discern whe|ther they are young or old, handsome or ugly. Their heads, as low as the eye-brows are cov|ered with white linnen, and also their faces be|neath; the prominency of the nose and mouth giving them nearly the visage of mummies.—They draw a veil of black gauze over their eyes the moment a man or boy comes in view.—They wear short loose boots of leather, red or yellow, with a large sheet over their common garments, and appear very bulky. They use various arts to heighten their beauty—such as decorating their hair with small bits of silver gilded, resembling a violin in shape, and wo|ven in at regular distances. Their method of colouring the lashes of the eye is somewhat cu|rious. They throw incense of gum of Lauda|num on some coals of fire, intercept the smoak which ascends in a plate, and collect the soot. They close one of their eyes, take the two lash|es between the finger, and thumb of the left hand, pulling them forward, and then thrust|ing in at the external corner a bodkin, which has been immersed in the soot, and extracting it again, the particles before adhering to it re|main within, & is presently ranged round the organ, serving as a soil to its lustre, besides contributing, as they say to its health, and in|creasing its apparent magnitude.

Page  82 The children are suffered to go naked till 8 or 9 years of age. The Sheck, or chief of a tribe, is known by a linnen garment instead of a woollen, and a linnen turban, he also wears a pair of shoes, made of dressed leather.

The common sort of people seldom wear a|ny shoes at all, and when they do, they are made of undressed leather, with hair on the outside. These people are commonly called Arabs; their customs, language and religion bear a strict affinity with those of Arabia.—When a young man would marry, he drives a number of cattle to the tent where the parents of his mistress reside. The bride is then set on horse back, and led to the tent of her lover, a|midst the shouts and huzzas of a multitude of young people, who have been invited to the nuptial feast. When she arrives at the tent where the young man resides, a mixture of milk, and honey is given her to drink, and a song is sung suitable to the occasion. She then alights and receives a stick from her husband, which she thrusts into the ground, and hold|ing her right hand upon its end, she repeats some words to the following effect:

"As this stick is fastened in the ground,
So to my husband, I am bound,
As nought but violence can it remove,
So nought but death can force me from his love."

She then drives his flock to water, and back again, to shew her willingness to perform any Page  83 duty that he may assign her. These previous cere|monies being settled, all the company set down by the tent, and the evening concludes with the greatest jollity. They feast upon Dates, Almonds, Raisins, Olives, and Oil, and drink Sherbot, which is water, having run through Raisins, somewhat like making lye of ashes.—Subsequent to the marriage, the wife is veiled and never stirs from the tent of her parents, for the space of a whole moon, and no one can see her, except her parents, during this time. These are the ceremonies, which I have been informed by the Algerines are customary in celebrating a marriage, among those savage tribes of Barbary, but I never had an opportu|nity of viewing one of them.

The economy of these people, to keep their clothes dry in a storm, is worthy the attention of the reader, I have therefore presented the following anecdote to their perusal. One day as I was at work about two miles from the ci|ty, there arose a very heavy shower of rain, and for my part I would willingly have got under some tree, or something else, if I had been allowed so to do to shelter myself from the tempest. But just before the rain began, I observed five of the natives at a small distance driving some mules, loaded with coals, toward the city, who, on perceiving the rain was ap|proaching, very calmly stopped their beasts, and began to undress themselves. This excit|ed my curiosity to know what they were go|ing about. And as I was digging with a hoe, Page  84 having my back toward them, I immediately turned myself about and kept at my work with my face the other way, in order to observe their proceedings, without neglecting my la|bor, which if I did, I was sure would bring the bloody scourge of the unrelenting task-master upon my back. I therefore kept steady about my work, and looking at them as often as I dared, observed they stripped themselves with a great deal of precipitation; then making their cloathes up in a bundle they took each one a rock about the bigness of a water pail, and laying the bundle upon the rock, they covered▪ it with their bodies having their hands and feet upon the ground; all their care was to keep their cloathes secure from the wet, while their naked bodies were exposed to the fury of the weather. When it had done raining they took their cloathes in their hands, and drove on their mules a few steps, till they came to some bushes, then taking up some dry leaves that lay under them, and had been kept from the wet by the shelter which the bushes afforded, they wiped each other nearly dry, then dressed themselves and went on. If a person was seen to do so in this country, he would be counted a fool or a madman; however I must confess I thought them something in the right; for af|ter the storm is over, be it ever so violent, they have dry cloathes on their backs to pur|sue their journey with. This being the first time I ever saw this singular method used, if exci|ted some astonishment, but it being so often prac|ticed, Page  85 it soon became natural. The people in the city, will commonly pull off their shoes, when the streets are muddy and walk bare|footed, to preserve their shoes from being da|maged. I am informed that those who tra|vel on horse back or on other beasts, have a bag, covered with an oil-cloth, in which they thrust their cloathes in stormy weather, and ride stark naked. Allowing this to be custom|ary among the soldiers, as it probably is, I fancy, if an army of them should be met in a storm, in this country, it would create a ter|rible fright, and perhaps do as much executi|on to an ignorant body, as their offensive arms, and oblige them to seek for safety in their heels.

These wretches have their heads close shav|ed, all except one small lock on the top, which they never cut off; they being taught by the Alcoran, that Mahomet is to draw them up to their imaginary Paradise by that small look of hair. They never shave their faces at all, but suffer their beards and mustachoes to grow long, in the length and largeness of which, they take a particular pride; and he that has a very large beard, they allow to be a wise man. They are as strict, as to their religion, as the people are in the towns and cities, they rise carry and late to prayers; but only like children, do it because they are ordered so to do by the Mufti, who is the high priest of their religion: And to him in ecclesiastical matters Page  86 they pay the most implicit obedience and re|signation.

"The beaten path of ignorance they tread."

In a former page I promised my readers, a further description of Oran, which I shall now endeavour to perform.

Oran is situated about eighty leagues west of Algiers; is a mile and an half in circum|ference. It lies partly on a plain and partly on the ascent of a hill, and is well fortified. As the Spanish coasts and Merchant ships, had suffered much from the corsairs of this port, Ferdinand, King of Spain, determined to at|tempt its reduction. Accordingly he trans|ported into Africa, an army under the com|mand of his prime minister, Cardinal Ximense.—The wonted good fortune of this officer did not, at this juncture desert him. He had maintained a correspondence with some of the people of Oran; & when the Moors sallied out to attack the Spaniards, their perfidious coun|trymen shut the gates against them. Ximense killed four thousand of the barbarians, and set at liberty sixteen thousand Christian slaves.—The Algerines, during near two hundred years made frequent but unsuccessful attempts to re|cover it. In 1708, they retook it. In June, 1732, a Spanish army was landed not far from Oran. The Turkish troops and the inhabi|tants were seized with a panic, and abandoned their fortifications without any resistance. The Moors not long after attacked it with great fu|ry, but were finally repulsed, with much Page  87 slaughter. The Spaniards continued in quiet possession of it until the year 1791, when the Algerines went with a strong force against it, under the command of Alli Bey of Mascara. After a siege of several days, they withdrew their troops, having received much damage.—In 1792, the Dey of Algiers, and the King of Spain having agreed upon terms, very ad|ventageous to the former, Oran was given up to the Algerines, and is still in their possession. During the sixty years, the Spaniards had this place in their possession; their soldiers kept continually deserting. The Algerines used the greatest economy to prevent those at Oran, from knowing how the deserters fared. By this means they were daily adding to their number of slaves, as the soldiers supposed they would be at liberty, if they deserted to their e|nemy. But contrary to every law of humani|ty, assoon as they were in the hands of the Al|gerines, they were made slaves, and deprived of the little liberty they enjoyed while under the Banner, of his Catholic Majesty.

In this situation, were about five hundred of them, when I left Algiers. The King of Spain it cannot be reasonably expected, will pay a sum of money to ransom people who deserted from his service, and by that means involved themselves in this predicament, therefore they have no hopes of relief till death. There is a story that the Dey, in one of his letters to the King of Spain, desired to know if he intended to redeem those slaves from Oran. To which Page  88 the King replied, that, if the Dey would salt them in barrels, he would purchase them at the price of salted beef.