A sermon, preached in the First Parish in West-Springfield, December 14, MDCCLXXXVI, being the day appointed by authority for a publick thanksgiving.
Lathrop, Joseph, 1731-1820.
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ISAIAH 1.19, 20.


WHAT was spoken by the prophets to the an|cient people of God, is written for our use, that we, through the warnings of scripture, might be moved with fear; and, through the comforts of scripture, might have hope.

OUR relation to God, as a people redeemed by his hand and preserved by his care, as a people en|joying his oracles and professing obedience to his laws, is so similar to theirs, that we may justly ap|ply to ourselves what was here spoken to them. I shall therefore consider my text in accommodati|on to our own case: and shall observe,

I. That the land, in which we are placed, is a good land: and,

Page  6II. That our enjoyment of the good of the land de|pends on our obedience to God.

I. It may as truly be said of us, as of ancient Israel, that God has given us a good land.

WE lately thought it worth defending by our arms: it is still worth securing by our virtue.

IT is an extensive land. Few empires on the globe are so large, as the territory claimed by these states. It will admit a vast increase of numbers; and probably distant generations will not find them|selves straitened for room.

IT is a pleasant and fruitful land. As it lies in the midst of the temperate regions, no part of it is afflicted with intolerable heat, or rendered uninha|bitable by eternal frosts and snows. With proper culture it yields us, not only the necessaries, but the delicacies of life, in such plenty and variety, that we need to be but little indebted to foreign trade.

GREATER industry may be necessary here, than in some other climes: but this is no unfavourable cir|cumstance; for industry contributes to health, vir|tue, freedom and security.

WITH regard to commerce, nature has given us e|very advantage that can be wished. We have an extensive coast, convenient harbours, navigable bays and rivers, materials of all kinds for shipping, a rich and inexhaustible fishery, and a variety of exporta|ble produce, which may be exchanged for the riches of other climes. Late experience shews, that, we are in greater danger from the excess, than from the want of commerce. Moderate trade contributes to polish and enrich a people; but when it is carried beyond its proper limits, it produces contrary ef|fects, dissipation, poverty and vice.

Page  7THIS is a healthful land. Those direful pestilen|ces, which have ravaged other countries, are un|known here. A considerable proportion of the peo|ple live to old age; fewer die in infancy than in most European nations: Our natural increase is suppo|sed to double our numbers as often as once in twen|ty five years.

IT is a land of liberty, and has been so, with little interruption, from the days of our fathers.

THE royal charters first granted to the American colonies, particularly to those of New-England, were of the most liberal kind, and fully agreeable to their views and wishes. No attempts hitherto made, to subvert our liberties, has been successful. They will probably be preserved, until the people themselves, sunk in vice and corruption, destroy them with their own hands. How near we are to this fatal period, Heaven knows!

THE freedom of these colonies was first invaded by James II, who, with a design to establish an ab|solute monarchy, seized their charters, together with those of the corporations in England. But by the revolution which took place on the accession of the prince of Orange to the throne, the freedom both of Britain and America was restored and established.

THE late encroachments of the British court on our charter-rights awakened a just and general con|cern. Though we were but an infant people, and our enemies were an ancient, rich and powerful na|tion, we ventured to resist their claims; and, by a series of wonderful interpositions, our resistance de|feated their designs and terminated in the establish|ment of our independence.

WE are now under a government of our own fram|ing Page  8 and chusing. There is perhaps scarcely another instance of the kind on earth. It is a privilege, which few nations ever enjoy, and which the same nation probably can never enjoy more than once.

MANY of the governments, now subsisting in the world, were established by the conquering arms of a powerful invader; some were introduced by the usurpation of princes; others have been fixed in consequence of a civil war, in which one party pre|vailing has by arms given law to the rest. Govern|ments, which owe their existence to such a birth, must, you know, in their very nature, be tyrannies. The British constitution was settled in a more liber|al manner, by an explicit compact between the king, the hereditary nobles and the representatives of the people; and it is undoubtedly more favour|able to liberty, than most other forms of government in Europe. But the constitution of these states, and particularly of this, was framed and ratified in a manner still more liberal. It is not, in any sense whatever, a compact between the rulers and the people; but it is a solemn, explicit agreement of the people among themselves. It was constructed by a convention of wise men, whom the people de|puted solely for that purpose, and who, at that time, could have no share, and no appearance of a future share in the government they were framing. It was then remitted to the people at large, and competent time allowed for their deliberate examination and discussion; and it was finally adopted and confirm|ed in consequence of their general approbation. So happily was it adjusted to the views of the people, at a time when the spirit of liberty was at the height, that not a single article was found in the whole, but Page  9 what met the approbation of more than two thirds of the inhabitants assembled in the several towns to give their voices upon it. It is therefore, in the most absolute sense, THE CONSTISTUTION OF THE PEOPLE; and, in this view, it is more sacred than any form of government in Europe. Being framed by the people, it never ought to be changed, or al|tered without their general consent fairly asked, and freely given. There may undoubtedly be defects in it: nothing human is perfect: but still it is our own; not imposed, but chosen. And whatever imperfec|tions attend it, yet it is acknowledged, by all, to be formed on the highest principles, of liberty. The administration of it is committed to men appointed by, and from among ourselves; to men who are fre|quently to return to private life; to men who are subject to the same laws and burthens, which they impose on their fellow citizens. The people have it in their power always to influence the measures of government by petition and instructions, and often to change their rulers by new elections. Nations, whose government is absolute, may be under the sad ne|cessity of submitting to oppression, or of repelling it by force. This is a dreadful alternative, and usually terminates in the increase of the evil. We are un|d••〈◊〉 such necessity. Our government is so con|stituted, that publick oppressions may be soon re|moved without force, either by remonstrances against the measures of rulers, or by a change of the rulers themselves.

YOU will ask, 'What if our new-chosen rulers pursue the measures of the former?' In this case can|dour will lead us to suspect, that possibly they may judge better than we. If their measures meet with Page  10general approbation, the few who are dissatisfied must submit, until, by speaking and publishing their sentiments, they can give general conviction. If we should ever be so unhappy as to fall under succes|sion of wicked rulers, we must censure our ill choice. We have still wise and good men among us If the time should come, when there is not a man to be found, who will execute judgment, and seek the truth, how will God pardon us for this! Nothing, but immediate reformation, can prevent the fatal consequences of such woful depravity. These fol|low by a divine establishment, and it is not in the power of human government to guard against them.

PERHAPS it will be asked, 'Is there no case in which a people may resist government?' Yes, there is one such case; and that is, when rulers usurp a power oppressive to the people, and continue to sup|port it by military force in contempt of every respect|ful remonstrance. In this case the body of the people have a natural right to unite their strength for the restoration of their own constitutional government. And, for the same reason, if a part of the people at|tempt by arms to controul or subvert the govern|ment, the rulers, who are the guardians of the con|stitution, have a right to call in the aid of the people to protect it. If the people may use force to sup|press an armed usurpation of unconstitutional autho|rity, rulers may, on the same principle, use force to suppress an armed insurrection against constitutional authority.

CIVIL liberty is a very valuable blessing. It was the professed object of the late dangerous war. It is secured to us, as far as success in the prosecution of the war, wisdom in the settlement of the peace, and Page  11 deliberation in framing our government, could se|cure it. Our own virtue and prudence, under pro|vidence, must do the rest.

THIS is a land; not only of civil, but religious li|berty. The enjoyment of gospel-privileges was a grand motive with our ancestors to enterprise on emigration to this distant world. They brought with them the sacred scriptures, early formed church|es for divine worship, diligently instructed their chil|dren in the knowledge of religion, erected private schools for their education, and, as soon as the a|bilities of the country would permit, they established larger seminaries, in which youth might be trained up for publick employments, especially for the mi|nistry, that this important office might not become useless and contemptible by falling into the hands of illiterate men. Care was taken to secure to the churches the privilege of chusing their own teachers, and of worshipping God according to the dictates of their own consciences; a privilege which these churches now possess in the amplest manner, and which is happily confirmed by the civil government under which we are placed. In consequence of the pious zeal of our fathers, we still, through the divine goodness, enjoy the gospel of the Redeemer, and the offers and means of eternal salvation. The word of God is dispensed, his ordinances administred, his sabbaths continued, churches are maintained and religious worship preserved in them, and, we have reason to hope, that the gracious influences of the divine spirit, are not wholly withdrawn, but are still vouchsafed to render the gospel successful.

IS any thing now wanting to make this a good land? —Nothing but our own virtue and wisdom in the improvement of these advantages.

Page  12THIS thought naturally introduces our other ob|servation,

II. That our enjoyment of the good of this land de|pends on our obedience to God.

External advantages, without wisdom and virtue to apply them, will make neither a people, nor a person happy. A man, surrounded with all the means of wealth, will be indigent, if he knows not how to use them. One possessed of the amplest for|tune, without a capacity to enjoy it, will suffer all the miseries of real poverty. The best natural con|stitution of body will soon be ruined by excessive indulgence. So a people, blest with all imaginable circumstances of national felicity, may be enslaved, and even destroyed by their own vices and follies.

There is a connection between virtue and happi|ness; between vice and wretchedness, in social as well as private life. From the justice and goodness of the supreme Governour, we may naturally con|clude, that he will protect and prosper a virtuous people, while he leaves corrupt and irreclaimable nations to suffer the fatal effects of their own per|verseness. This natural conclusion from the divine character is confirmed by the declarations of scrip|ture, and the usual course of providence. The threatning and the promise in our text are most ex|plicit and peremptory; and to give them the great|er solemnity, it is added, The mouth of the Lord hath spoken them.

IT will be proper for us particularly to consider, what those virtues are, on which our national hap|piness principally depends.

1. The first thing that here meets our thoughts is internal peace and union.

Page  13CAN a man be happy, whose breast is the seat of contending passions? Can a family prosper, who a members continually oppose and counteract each o|ther? Can the harvests of your fields stand secure a|midst a war of conflicting elements?—No more can a nation flourish, while it is distracted with intestine broils. 'Every kingdom divided against itself is bro't to desolation.' A small people united will be strong and respectable: the largest community broken and disjointed becomes impotent and contemptible. It was our union in the late war, that gave us strength to bear up against the power of a superiour enemy. Had we been divided, we must have fallen. The union, which was necessary to an effectual defence, is still necessary to our enjoying the good of the land.

IT is not uncommon, that when the burthens ari|sing from a long war press hard on a people, and the terrour of the invading enemy, which for a while animated and united them, is intirely remov|ed, they lose their patriotick zeal, and fall into dan|gerous contentions. This is an event which our enemies predicted for us; which our friends fore|warned us of, and which, to our disgrace, we now begin to realize.

WHATEVER oppressions we suffer, or seem to suf|fer, our measures of redress must be only such, as may consist with our internal peace; for being di|vided against ourselves, we shall become an easy prey to foreign invaders; or rather, shall fall a con|temptible prey to one another. Contentions, once begun, may proceed to, we know not what, dreadful lengths; and may terminate in, we know not what, direful events. While, with a watchful eye we guard against every real invasion of our rights, we Page  14 must place a reasonable confidence in our rulers, and study and pursue the things which contribute to peace, both in our smaller societies, and in the com|munity at large.

A general distrust is inconsistent with government and subversive of all security. Confidence joined with circumspection tends both to peace and liber|ty. Let not Ephraim envy Judah, nor Judah vex Ephraim, and their common adversaries will be re|moved.

2. In order to our enjoying the good of the land, there must be mutual justice and benevolence.

These are necessary to internal peace, and branches of the obedience recommended in the text. Seek judgment, relieve the oppressed, plead for the widow.

OUR first obligation to mankind is justice. This is rendering to all their dues, in opposition to every kind of fraud, oppression and violence. The great law, which ought to govern our social conduct, is to do to others, as we would, that they should do to us; to owe no man any thing, but to love one another. This law, written in the heart, will prompt us to the vo|luntary exercise of equity, integrity and righteous|ness. It is the want of this, that makes the coercion of human government so absolutely necessary to the subsistence of society. 'The law is made for the lawless.' Every man can easily judge of himself what is right, by asking his own heart, what, in a similar case, he would expect from another.

OUR next obligation is goodness. The poor we have always with us: and there are times when their number is increased. The late war, as might na|turally be expected, has made a considerable change of property. It has reduced many to absolute po|verty, Page  15 and others to an incapacity of sustaining any great share of the common burthen without leaving their families to want. Government, at such a time, ought to adjust their demands to the common abil|ity; and this, we hope, is their aim, for they bear a part of the burthen with others. But it should be considered, that the general rules, by which the measures of government must be directed, will often operate with some inequality. This is an unavoidable imperfection of human society. In such cases, in|stead of charging government with cruelty, it would be proper for the more strong to assist the weak. Bear ye one another's burthens, says the law of Christ. The law of reason says the same.

NO community ought to leave her prudent and industrious members to struggle in vain under an insupportable load. By mutual succour in times of distress we increase the common strength. Recip|rocal support and protection is one end of society. 'Two are better than one, for if they fall, the one will lift up his fellow; but wo to him that is alone when he falleth, for he hath not another to help him up. And if one prevail against him, two shall with|stand him, and a threefold cord is not quickly brok|en.'

A community, in which an opposite spirit prevails, cannot be happy. Mutual fraud, injustice and op|pression cause perpetual animosities, and frequent litigations, discourage industry and enterprize, des|troy all confidence, and obstruct every measure pro|posed for the common good.

3. The happiness of a people farther depends on industry and frugality.

THIS, though a good laud, will not support us in Page  16 idleness and profuseness. If it would, it must soon cease to be a good land. In a country, where every man could grow rich with little labour, almost every man would in fact be poor; for there being no spur to industry and few examples of it, the body of the people would sink into idleness, luxury and wretched|ness. All the wealth, and all the power would be engrossed by the provident and enterprizing few. The rest would be slaves, or little superiour.

AT a time like this, when the expenses, incurred by the late contest for independence, are lying as a burthen on the country, diligence in our callings, and prudence in our manner of living, are of pecu|liar importance. While the object of the war ap|peared precarious, we thought no sacrifice too great to obtain it. Since we have obtained it, let us sub|mit to some self-denial, that we may secure it. Tho' our burthens are heavy, yet we may hope, that by those smiles of heaven, which will always attend a virtuous people, we shall soon, in a way of prudence and industry, find relief: without these, miracles could not make us happy. Idleness and luxury brings on poverty; this multiplies the temptations to injustice; injustice breeds contention, and this makes confusion and every evil work.

4. Our enjoyment of the good of the land will de|pend on the regular administration of, and a peacea|ble submission to civil government.

MANKIND cannot subsist without society, nor so|ciety without government. If there was no way to controul the selfishness, check the passions and res|train the vices of men, they would soon become in|tolerable to each other. Government is the com|bination of the whole community against the vices Page  17 of each member. The design of it is not meerly to provide for general defence against foreign power, but to exercise a controul over every individual, to restrain him from wrong, and compel him to right, so far as the common safety requires. The best form of government will not make a people happy, without a just administration of it, and cheerful obe|dience to it; and both these very much depend on the virtue of the people. We must commit the ad|ministration of our government to our wisest and best men: not to those, whom we would not dare to trust in our private affairs; but to those, whose known ability and integrity intitle them to our confidence; for 'he that is faithful in the least, is faithful also in much; and he that is unjust in the least, in un|just also in much.'

WILL you think a man capable of being a patriot whom you see to be dishonest, unfaithful, dissolute, and profane? You may as well judge him a saint. As well may your charity send him to heaven, as your prudence prefer him to be a leader in the affairs of state. We must also contribute our aid to car|ry into effect the good laws of the state, especially those which relate to virtue and morals. If we dis|cover errours, we must endeavour to rectify them; but let us not, under pretence of redressing wrongs, destroy what is right; nor in our zeal to amend the state, forget to amend ourselves. The more virtue there is among the people, the more there will be a|mong rulers, because better men will be elected to power; and they, who are elected, will be more strongly influenced to a right use of their power. If we indulge in ourselves the faults that we condemn Page  18 in rulers; if, while we complain of publick oppres|sion or profuseness, we are prodigal in our expenses, or unjust to our neighbours, we are grossly incon|sistent. We shew, how government would be ad|ministred, if it was committed to our hands.

ZEALOUS for a good government, let us be zea|lous of good works, maintain them ourselves, en|courage them among others, and, as far as our in|fluence extends, give efficacy to wholesome laws, that they may be a terrour to evil doers and a pro|tection to them who do well.

5. Another thing necessary to our national happi|ness is a diligent attendance on the instituted means of religion.

THE gospel inculcates those virtues, which imme|diately conduce to publick felicity, such as peace, justice, charity, industry and temperance; and there|fore our attendance on its institutions, which are designed for the promotion of these virtues, is a prin|cipal mean of national prosperity. The observance of sabbaths and of social worship is, in this view, of vast importance to society, and of still higher im|portance to each individual in regard to his future salvation. It much concerns us therefore as mem|bers of civil society, and more as christians, to main|tain the publick dispensation of God's word and ordinances, to attend on it ourselves and encourage the attendance of others, and to be likeminded one toward another, that we may with one mind and one mouth glorify God.

6. As we wish to transmit to our children the good|ness of our land, we must train them up in such a manner, that they may be capable of enjoying it.

WE have generally professed, that the happiness Page  19 of posterity, rather than our own, was our object in the late war. This was our language, 'The pre|sent generation will suffer much in the conflict; but we cannot be reconciled to the prospect of leaving our children slaves. We suffer to purchase freedom for them? The war has ended as successfully as we wished, and we have suffered no more than we pro|fessed to exert. If the good of posterity was our aim, let us not lose sight of it now. Let us educate them in knowledge and virtue, and teach them to be will|ing and obedient, that they may eat the good of the land. What benefit will all our labours and suffer|ings in the cause of liberty transmit to them, if we leave them to grow up slaves to their own lusts and to the evil manners of the world, and thus to bring down on themselves the fatal judgments of an an|gry Deity?

POLITICAL liberty depends on national virtue. Prevailing vice sooner or later introduces national slavery. Under almost any form of government a virtuous people will be free and happy. But a peo|ple sunk in corruption must be wretched. Their go|vernment, however liberal in its principles, will be fevere in its administration, because they can sub|sist under no other. If we would convey to our chil|dren the greatest possible freedom, we must train them up in virtuous sentiments and manners.

HAVING illustrated the observations contained in the text, let us now seriously apply them.

WE see what obligations we are under to God for his goodness to our nation; and how we may enjoy the continuance of his goodness.

HE has placed us in a land of health, plenty, free|dom and gospel light; defended us in the enjoy|ment Page  20 of our privileges; prospered us in a dangerous war; granted the sweet return of peace; allowed us the independence which we sought; settled us under a government of our own chusing; given us abundance of health; made the seasons peculiarly favourable for several years, and especially in the year past, and smiled on all the labours of our hands.

IT becomes us, under a thoughtful sense of his great goodness, to praise and exalt his name, and to resolve that our future conduct shall be correspon|dent with our present professions of gratitude. 'They who offer praise glorify God, and to them who or|der their conversation aright, 'he will shew his sal|vation.'

LET us, as becomes a people professing their de|pendence on God, deeply humble ourselves for our sins. One principal design of his goodness is, to lead us to repentance.

LET the restoration of peace, after a bloody and distressing war, influence us to peace and union a|mong ourselves. How provoking, in the sight of the God of peace, would be intestine divisions and animosities, after such recent experience of the cala|mities of war, and of the divine goodness in our de|liverance! Would he not be angry with us, till he had consumed us?

LET the bounty of our divine Benefactor, in sup|plying our various wants, excite us to do good to the needy. The best expression of gratitude to God, is an imitation of his beneficence. We are to offer the sacrifice of praise continually, and especially to do good and communicate, for with such sacrifices he is best pleased.

Page  21LET us use the bounties of his providence with temperance and moderation. This is a moral duty at all times; it is a political duty at such a time as this. As christians we are required to be temper|ate in all things, and with quietness to work the thing that is good, that we may eat our own bread, and have to give to those who need. As members of society we are now under additional obligations to industry and sobriety, that we may relieve our|selves and our country from the peculiar burthens of the day, and may enjoy the good of the land.

LET us remember our obligations to God for con|tinuing to us his glorious gospel, and pray for its ge|neral success, and for a divine power to accompany it in our own souls.

LET us attend on the instituted worship of God, cultivate peace in the religious societies of which we are members, and avoid all such divisions as tend to obstruct the influence of the gospel and to defeat the end for which churches are formed.

LET us bring up our children in the knowledge, and inculcate on them the duties of religion, teach|ing them to deny ungodliness and worldly lusts, and to live soberly, righteously and piously in the world, and thus to look for the blessed hope which the gos|pel sets before them.

WORLDLY prosperity, however desireable, is not an object of the first importance. We are soon to quit this mortal state; let us be chiefly solicitous to secure a title to a better country.

WE have here no continuing city. In a few days we shall make our final remove, and another set of mortals will succeed in our places. Every year makes considerable changes; a few years produce vast al|terations Page  22 in the inhabitants of this dying world. Though the past year has been generally healthful, yet the number of deaths in this society has been greater than usual.

GOD's providence utters a warning voice to people of every age.

CHILDREN and youths are solemnly warned of their mortality, and urged to give an immediate at|tention to their everlasting concerns. Let this day, be with you, my children, not a day of thoughtless levity, wanton mirth and wild dissipation; but a day of serious recollection, fervent prayer, and humble dedication of yourselves to God. While you praise him for his goodness in preserving you another year, repent of the sins and follies of the year past, con|secrate your spared lives to his service and enter on a speedy preparation for the changes, that may await you in the year to come.

HEADS of families, and persons in the midst of life, are taught the uncertainty of their continuance here. While the death of a neighbour and friend awakens in our minds a grateful remembrance of God's spar|ing mercy to us and our families, let it also impress us with a sense of the changes to which we are ex|posed, and excite a serious concern to maintain re|ligion in our hearts, and promote it in our houses.

THE aged have been repeatedly warned. My fa|thers, a greater number of your cotemporaries have been removed in the year past, than has been com|mon in preceding years. God's voice to you is, Be ye also ready. You stand on the borders of the eternal world. Soon you must go the way, whence you will not return. Within the ensuing year, it is probable, some of your small number will make Page  23 their last remove. You ought to examine your state, to be instant in prayer, to live in the daily ex|ercise of faith and piety, and by a holy and blame|less example recommend religion to those who are coming after you. May you, and may we all, when the time of our departure is come, be able to rejoice in the reflection, that we have finished our course well, and in the hope that there is laid up for us a crown of righteousness.

THIS, though on many accounts a day of rejoice|ing, is, in other respects, a day of danger and dark|ness.

THE general indifference to the instituted ordi|nances of the gospel, threatens the discontinuance of them; the prevalence of wickedness forbodes divine judgments; and our civil commotions and distur|bances give cause to apprehend a troublous scene approaching. Should they spread and prevail so far as to involve the state in a civil war, what have we to expect as the consequences, but general poverty, bondage and wretchedness?

THAT the people are under great burthens, all are agreed. Whether there are grievances, I leave with others to determine. Admitting there are, undoubt|edly there may be methods of redress more safe, and more effectual than arms. If any of you have thought this a necessary measure, I only ask, that you would calmly review what I have said on the nature of our government, and seriously consider what may be the consequences of drawing the sword; and pos|sibly you will see reason to alter your sentiments.

I have spoken with freedom, because I am anxious for my country; and without fear of offending, be|cause I know the candour of my audience.

Page  24LET us all be solicitous to prove what is acceptable with God. Let us study the wisdom which is pure and peaceable, full of mercy and good fruits. Let us humbly implore the interposition of that being, who has all events, and all hearts in his hand, to a|vert the evils that threaten us, to awaken our drow|sy hearts to a sense of the importance of religion, to lead us to repentance and amendment of life, to pre|pare us for his mercies and make us a happy people.