The history of the first discovery and settlement of Virginia: being an essay towards a general history of this colony.
Stith, William, 1707-1755.
Page  176


*_THE Time of Sir Edwin Sandys's Office being expired, there was held a great and general Quarter Court of Election, at Mr. Deputy Farrar's House, in St. Sithe's Lane, on the 17th of May, consisting of three Earls, one Viscount, four Lords, thirty Knights, several Doctors and Esquires, and largely above an hundred other Gentlemen, Merchants, and Citizens. To this splendid Meeting, Sir Edwin Sandys made a long and very handsome Speech, laying before them the State of thir Affairs, at the time of his Accession to the Office of Treasurer, and then. In this he was naturally led to set forth, as well the Negligence and bad Government at hme, as particularly the vast Loss and Damage, which the Company had sustained, in the Time of their Deputy Governor, Captain Argall. And he informed them, that there had, within his Year, been set out eight Ships at the Company's Expence, and four others by private Adventu|rers; and that thse Ships had transported twelve hundred and sixty one Persons, whereof six hundred and fifty were for the publick Use, and the other six hundred and eleven for private Plantations. He also gave them an Account of the several Gifts, which had been made, this Year, for pious Uses; and of the many Patents, that had passed to various private Adventurers and their Associates, who had Page  177 undertaken,* to transport to Virginia great Multitudes of People, with much Cattle. And he recounted to them the several Methods, which had been taken, to draw the People off from their greedy and immoderate Pursuit of To|bacco, and to turn them to other more useful and necessary Commodities: That for this Purpose, an hundred and fifty Persons had been sent, to set up three Iron Works: That Directions had been given for making Cordage, as well of Hemp and Flax, as more especially of Silk-grass, which grew there naturally in great Abundance, and was found, upon Experience, to make the best Cordage and Line in the World; and that therefore each Family had been or|dered and obliged, to set an hundred Plants of it, and the Governor himself five thousand: That, besides, it had been recommended to them, to make Pitch and Tar, together with Pot and Soap-Ashes, and to provide Timber of all Sorts, for Shipping, and other Uses; to which End, suffi|cient Men and Materials had been sent over, for erecting sundry Sawing-Mills: That the Country abounding in Mul|berry Trees of the best Sort, whereon some Silkworms had been found naturally, producing excellent Silk, they had therefore pressed upon them the Culture and Improvement of that Manufacture; and that his Majesty, now the second time, after the Miscarriage of the former, had bestowed upon the Company Plenty of Silkworm Seed, of the best Sort, out of his own Store: That moreover, as the Coun|try yielded naturally a wonderful Variety of excellent Grapes, there had been sent divers skilful Vignerons, together with Store of Vine Slips, of the best European Kinds: And last|ly, that the Salt-Works, which had been suffered to run to Decay, were again restored and set up; and that there were now Hopes of such Plenty, as not only to serve the Colony for the present, but also shortly to supply the great Fishery on those American Coasts.

HE then exhibited to the Court the Book of his Accounts, examined and approved by five of the seven publick Auditors of the Company, the other two being absent. And he far|ther declared, that for any Business, done within his Y••r, he had not left the Company, to his Knowledge, one Pen|ny in Debt, except perhaps the Remain of some Charges, which had not been delivered in, or were not yet become du; and that he had also left in Stock twelve hundred Pounds more, than had been left to him the former Year. And next, he proceeded to inform the Company of the De|puty's Accounts, who himself presented them, exactly kept, after the Mnner of Merchants, in three Books, subscribed and approved, as well by the Company's Committees, as Page  178 all the Auditrs. And then Sir Edwin Sandys went on, and told the Court, that he could not but greatly commend Mr. Dputy-Treasurer's Fidelity, Care, and Industry; who, to the Neglect of his own private Affairs, had bestowed his whole Time, together with the great Help and Assistance of his Brothers, on the Business of his Office, which he had discharged, with wonderful Exactness, and an incredible Diligence and Labour. And lastly, he concluded, with his respective Thanks to the several Orders of the Company: First, to the Company in general, for their good Opinion and Affection, in chusing him their Treasurer: Then, par|ticularly to the Lords, for their frequent Presence, to the great Grace and Honour of the Court, and Furtherance of the Enterprise: Next, to the Officers, for their Fidelity and Diligence, in joining with him to support the great Burthen of the Compny's Business: And lastly, to the Court, for their Goodness and Patience, in bearing with his involntary Errors and other Infirmities. After which, delivering up his Office, together with the Seals, he dsired them to pro|ceed to their Election, according to the Message, lately re|ceived from his Majesty; and thereupon withdrew himself out of Court.

FOR at the Beginning of this Court, before they had en|tered upon any Business, a Gentleman from the King pre|sented himsel to the Board, and signified; that it was hi Majesty's Pleasure, out of his especial Care and Affection for the Colony, that the Company should elect one of the four, which he should name to them, and no other, to be their Treasurer. These were Sir Thomas Smith, Sir Thomas Roe, Mr. Alderman Iohnson, and Mr. Maurice Abbot. Sir Tho|mas Smith and Alderman Iohnson had before been in their chief Offices, and the Company conceived themselves to have little Reason, to be satisfied with their Conduct and Proceedings. But in Virginia more specially, where the Effects of their Management had been more sensibly felt, they were notoriously infamous, and utterly detested and cursed by the whole Colony. So that this may be looked upon, as an additional Instance of the unhappy Turn of that Monarch, in his Choice of publick Officers. Sir Thomas Roe was indeed an eminent Person, a Man of Letters, and a very great Traveller, and is well known to the Learned, by the Intimacy and Dearness, that was between him and Dr. Donne, Dean of St. Paul's; who was himslf afterward one of the Company, and of his Majesty's Council for Vir|ginia. But Sir Thomas Roe is most noted, for his Embassy from King Iames to the Court of the Great Mogul, and for his Journal of that Embassy, a most judicious and exquisite Page  179 Book of Travels. But since his Return from the Great Mogul's Court, he had been concerned in the Customs, and was likewise well known, to have had a long and intimate Friendship with Sir Thomas Smith; both which, being sus|picious Circumstances to the Virginia Company, would but little contribute towards recommending him to their Choice. As to Mr. Abbot, little is known of him; only that he was a Merchant, and may seem, from some obscure Circum|stances, to have been of Kin to his Grace, Dr. George Ab|bot, then Archbishop of Canterbury.

BUT the greatest Obstacle, to the Election of either of these Gentlemen, was, that the Company had, almost una|nimously, cast their Eye upon the Earl of Southampton for their future Treasurer, a Nobleman of eminent Quality, Grandson to the Lord Chanceller Wriothesy (one of King Henry VIII's Executors, and of the Regents during the Minority of Edward VI.) and Father to the great and vir|tuous Earl and Duke of Southampton, in the Reigns of Charles the First and Second. He is also famed in History, for his Friendship to the unfortunate Earl of Essex, by whose Rashness and Impetuosity, he was betrayed into some un|warrantable Actions; and was therefore, at the same time with that Nobleman, condemned to Death, but pardoned by Queen Elisabeth, and kept in Prison, during her Life. He was, in Truth, an early, constant, and great Encou|rager of this Settlement of Virginia, as well as of all other noble Works and Enterprises; and is particularly memora|ble, for his generous Patronage, and sngular Munificence, to Shakespear, the Glory and Prodigy of the English Stage. For he is said, to have given him, at one time, a thousand Pounds, to enable him to go through with a Purchase, which he understood, he had an Inclination to make. But altho' he had been a strenuous Friend of Essex's, to all whom King Iames declared a particular Regard and Obli|gation, as that Lord was thought to have acted for his In|terests, and altho' he was admitted of the Privy Council, yet was he but little affected or liked at Court. For his Friendship to the former Earl of Essex was continued down to his Son; whose hard Usage, in some Measure from the Court, in the Case of his Wife, could not but have been much disapproved and disgusted by him. And besides, a|bout this Time, the Encroachments of the Prerogative, and the avowed Principles of arbirary Power, begn to raise a Spirit of Liberty in the Nation; and the Earl of Southampton, together with the Earls of Essex and Oxford, were soon distinguished, as the undoubted Heads of the patriot Party in the House of Lords; whilst Sir Dudley Page  180 Digges, Sir Nathaniel Rich, Mr. Selden, and others of the Virginia Company, as well as divers Members not of that Company, appeared with equal Vigor and Resolution, in the House of Commons.

BUT however the Affections of the Company might stand, they were much troubled and perplexed, by this Message from the King. For should they proceed accord|ing to that Nomination, they would certainly admit a very great and evident Breach, in their Privilege of free Election. And should they reject it, they might incur the Suspicion of Defect in Point of Duty and Obedience; an Imputation, ever hateful and easy of Access to the jealous Minds of weak and pusillanimous Princes, and which many of their own disaffected Members would be too ready to improve, to the Disadvantage of the Company. Having therefore consulted the Letters patent, it was at length agreed to adjourn to Election to the next Quarter Court; and after much and earnest Refusal, they prevailed on Sir Edwin Sandys, to continue in his Office, till that time. In the mean while, as it evidently appeared, that the King had been much a|bused and misinformed, concerning the Management of their Affairs, they appointed the Earl of Southampton, the Viscount Doncaster, Lord Cavendish, Lord Sheffield, Sir Iohn Davers, Sir Nicholas Tufton, Sir Lawrence Hyde, with others, Gentlemen and Merchants, to deliver in, to his Majesty, a full and true Account, as well of the former, a of the last Year's Administration of their Affairs; and to beseech his Majesty, not to take from them the Privilege of their Charters, but to leave it to their own Choice, to hav a free Election. To which Request, his Majesty readily condescended; and farther signified, that it would be highly pleasing and agreeable to him, if they made Choice of such a Person, as might, at all times, and on all Occasions, have free Access to his Royal Presence. And he likewise de|clared, that the Messenger, in excluding them from the Li|berty of chusing any other, but one of the four nominated, had mistaken his Intention; which was indeed, to recom|mend those Gentlemen to their Choice, but not so, as to bar the Company from the Election of any other.

THIS Answer being received by the Company with grea Thnkfulness, Mr. Herbert observed to them, that their Business had, of late, suffered much, as well in Reputation, as otherways, by Reason of some unhappy Dissensions a|mong them: That they ought, therefore, seriously to think, of applying a present and effectual Remedy to this Evil: That the late Treasurer was a Gentleman of such acknow|ledged Sufficiency, and of so great Integrity and Industry, Page  181 that of his Rank, there could not certainly be any found to surpass him: That therefore, there seemed to him no Hope left, except some of those honourable Personages, then present, would vouchsafe to accept of the Place of Trea|surer; who, by the Addition of Nobility, and by the Lus|tre and Influence of their high Station, might effect that, which, they had found by Experience, could not be effect|ed, by mere Dint of Ability and Industry. Hreupon, the whole Court, beseeching his Lordship to redeem this noble Enterprise from imminent Danger and Destruction, did, with universal Joy and Applause, nominate the Earl of Southampton; and to testify their Thank•••ness and Respect, they elected him Treasurer, without the Ballot, by a gene|ral Acclamation and Erection of Hands. And his Lordship, after a short Pause, declared his Acceptance; and exhorted them all, to put on the same Mind, with which he accept|ed that Place, and laying aside all private Feuds and Animo|sities, to labour chearfully and unanimously, for the Promo|tion of the publick Good, and the Advancement of the Co|lony. But as his Lordship's Attendance in Parliament, and other weighty Affairs, might not always permit him, to be so constant at their Courts, as might otherwise be wished, they voluntarily, and without his Motion, dispensed with him, in that Particular. And they also re-elected Mr. Iohn Farrar, to the Plce of Deputy-Treasurer; whose Experience, and known Integrity and Diligence, might well supply the occasional Absence of their Treasurer. Sir Edwin Sandys likewise, who was in a close and intimate Friendship with the Earl of Southampton, was afterwards authorised, at his Lordship's Desire, to set his Hand, upon Occasion, to Receipts of Money, for the Company's Use; and did otherwise, by his private Diligence and Activity, give him great Ease and Assistance, in the Execution of the Office.

CAPTAIN Brewster's Appeal from the Sentence of the Court-Martial, in Virginia, had, all this while, hung in Suspence; and it had even been declared, by a Meeting of the Council at the Earl of Warwick's House, the former Year, that Trial by Martial Law was the noblest kind of Trial, being judged by Soldiers and Men of Honour. But now, proper Certificates and attested Copies of the Proceed|ings being returned from Virginia, the Cause came to a final Hearing and Determination, in an extraordinary Court, held for that Purpose, and composed of several Lords and others of eminen Quality and Distinction. But here there seems to have reigned a quite different Spirit from that, which appeared at the Earl of Warwick's. For they were Page  182 no way inclined, to give up the many Rights and Advan|tages of Juries and the Laws of England, for the extraordi|nary Privilege of being summarily tried by Martial Law, and dying honourably by the Verdict of Gentlemen of the Sword. And therefore, being shocked at the Cruelty and Terror of the Proceedings against Captain Brewster, they declared them to be unjust and unlawful, and not war|rantable, either in Matter or Form, by the Laws of En|gland, or by any Power or Authority, derived from his Ma|jesty's Charters: That Captain Brewster had committed nothing, any way worthy of the severe Penalty of Death: That the Manner of Trial by Martial Law, in time of Peace, and when there was no Mutiny or Rebellion, was utterly unlawful and of no Validity: And consequently, that Captain Brewster was to be held a legal Man, and not lawfully condemned. And all this then passed and was ra|tified by the universal Assent of the Court; altho' Sir Thomas Wroth, who had married the Earl of Warwick's Sister, did, in a subsequent Court, declare his Dissent, on some false and frivolous Pretences. Captain Brewster had also, upon his Request, a Copy of this Act of Court granted him, ex|emplified under the legal Seal of the Company; of which he sent a Duplicate to Virginia.

IN May this Year, there was held another General As|sembly, which has, through Mistake, and the Indolence and Negligence of our Historians, in searching such ancient Re|cords, as are still extant in the Country, been commonly reputed the first General Assembly of Virginia. But that Privilege was granted sooner, immediately upon the Disgust taken, by the worthier Part of the Company, at Sir Thomas Smith's ill Government, and the insufferable Tyranny and Iniquity of Captain Argal's Proceedings. And upon Sir George Yeardley's Representation of the Want of more Counsellors, the Company appointed the following Gentle|men to be of the Council; Mr. George Thorpe, Deputy for the College; Mr. Thomas Newee, who had also been sent over Deputy for the Company's Lands, with the Allow|ance of twelve hundred Acres, and forty Tenants; Mr. Tracy; Mr. Pountis; Mr. Middleton; Mr. Bluet; and Mr. Harwood, the Chief of Martin's Hundred. And we are likewise told by Mr. Beverley, that a Dutch Ship, put|ting in this Year, sold twenty Negroes to the Colony, which were the first of that Generation, that were ever brought to Virginia.

TOBACCO, a stinking, nauseous, and unpalatable Weed, is certainly an odd Commodity, to make the Staple and Riches of a Country. It is neither of Necessity nor Orna|ment Page  183 to human Life; but the Use of it depends upon Hu|mour and Custom, and may be looked upon, as one of the most singular and extraordinary Pieces of Luxury, that the Wantonness of Man hath yet invented or given into. It is not therefore to be wondered, that the Colony's Eagerness and Application, almost solely, to Tobacco, was much distasted and opposed by the Company; especially in those early Times, before it had yet otained such a general Re|ception and Dominion in the World. To which may be added, that the King himself, to whom the Age in general, and the Company in particular, did, on many Occasions, pay great Deference, had a Sort of natural Antipathy to it, and was perpetually haranguing, railing, and even writing against it. For that Solomon of England thought it not be|low his Royal Wisdom and Dignity, to write a Treatise, entitled; A Counter-Blast to Tobacco. The Company there|fore entered into and admitted various Projects, for raising other things of more immediate Necessity and Benefit to Mankind; such as the several Commodities, mentioned and recmmended by Sir Edwin Sandys, in his late Speech, at the •••ivring up of his Office, with many others. For this Purpose, they procured plenty of Silkworm Seed out of France, Italy, and Spain; and sent over a Person, who had been brought up, many Years, in tending the King's Silk|worms at Oatlands, and was thereby become very skilful, in breeding the Worms, and winding the Silk, and under|took to instruct others therein. And they also laid out for, and had Hopes of procuring, many more such skilful Artists from France. And as the Inhabitants were very eager, to have the Servants and Apprentices, sent over by the Com|pany, they made an Order, for the greater Encouragement of these Commodities, that such Planters, as had excelled, in building fit Rooms for Silkworms, and in planting Mul|berry Trees and Vines, should have the first Choice of such Apprentices and Servants; and that the Company would be paid for them, not a Whit in Smoke and Tobacco, but in Corn, Silkgrass, Silk, and other such useful Commo|dities. At Sir Edwin Sandys's Motion, there was likewise translated, by some of the Company, a French Treatise (re|commended, as excellent in that Kind) concerning the Management of Mulberry Trees and Silk; which was print|ed at the Company's Expence, and snt over in sufficient Numbers, and distributed amng the People. And they also appointed a select Committee of Merchants, to rate all those several Commodities at such a just Price, that the Company and Merchants might be no Losers thereby, and yet that the Planer might have good Encouragement to raise them.

Page  184BESIDES these, they entered into Projects and Con|tracts, for raising various other Commodities. And Sir Edwin Sandys in particular, who was ever studious and in|de••tigable in the Company's Business, presented a long and judicious Writing, containing many useful Instructions and Projects, for the Peace and better Government of the Com|pany at home, and for the Advancement of the Colony abroad; all which, in its several Parts and Branches, was entrusted to proper Committees, to ripen and bring into Execution. Sir William Monson also, a Person of great E|minence and Note (being Admiral in the Reigns of Queen Elisabeth, Iames I. and Charles I. and Author of the Naval Tracts) together with his Associates, offered to the Com|pany, if they would, for seven Years, grant them the sole Benefit and Importation, from Virginia, of two such new Commodities, as had not yet been discovered or planted by any other, to pay them an hundred Pounds per Annum, to plant twenty five Men, every Year during the said Term, and then to resign the Whole up into the Company's Hands. A Patent was therefore accordingly granted, with proper Restrictions; but what these Commodities were, or what was the Success or Consequence of this Undertaking, I do not find.

THIS Year 1620, Count Gondomar, the Spanish Am|bassador, who had a great Ascendant at Court, and governed the King, as he pleased, prevailed with him, to fit out a Squadron, of six Ships of War and twelve stout Merchant|men, in order to humble the Algerines, who then infested the Spanish Coasts and Trade, but were not any way parti|cularly troublesome to our Nation. And thus was this weak and timorous Prince, who could not be drawn to make any Steps, towards the Vindication of his own Honour, or to support the Rights of his Family, or the Interests of his Subjects, strangely engaged in a warlike Expedition, in De|fence of a treacherous and delusive Ally. This Squadron was put under the Command of Sir Robert Mansel, as Ad|miral; together with whom, Sir Richard Hawkins, Vice-Admiral, Sir Thomas Button, Rear-Admiral, Sir Henry Palmer, Arthur Manwaring, and Thomas Love, Esqrs. Captains of the other Men of War, and Samuel Argall, Esq who commanded one of the stoutest Privateers, were ap|pointed a Council of War. But this Enterprise was very weakly managed; and to use Sir William Monson's Remark, altho' it was designed to find out and destroy the Pirates of Algiers, yet the Fleet did not spend twenty Days at Sea, the whle time, they continued in the Mediterranean; but re|tired into Harbour, where the Pirates might find them, but Page  185 not they the Pirates. So that, this ill-conducted Action afforded sufficient Subject of Scorn and Laughter to all Na|tions; especially considering the great Reputation, the En|glish had justly gained, in their former Expeditions at Sea. But Cambden tells us, that, in Revenge for this Injury and Assault, the Algerines took, by the 9th of October follow|ing, thirty five Sail of English and Scotch Ships▪

ABOUT this time, there arose a warm Dispute between the two Colonies, concerning the Virginia Company's Right to fish at Cape Cod, within the Limits of the Northern Colo|ny; and upon Reference to the Letters-patent, it was found clearly, that their Pretensions were justly grounded. But Sir Ferdinando Gorges, with others principally concerned in the Northern Grant, endeavoured privately to obtain a new Patent, whereby the Southern Colony should be utterly ex|cluded from fishing upon that Coast, without their Leave and Licence first obtained. This gave a just Alarm to the Virginia Company. For besides six thousand Pounds, which they had already expended upon that Fishery, it was at pre|sent of main Consequence to them, as well for the Support and Sustenance of the Plantation, as for defraying the vast Charge of Shipping and Transportation of People, by Re|turns made from thence in Fish. They therefore applied to his Majesty, and got this Patent of Sir Ferdinando Gor|ges stopped and sequestered, in the Lord Chancellor's Hands. And finding, how precarious their Privileges were, upon his Majesty's soleGrant, and how liable to be perpetually violated and impeded, it was resolved, upon the Motion of Mr. Smith, a sensible, worthy, and useful Member of the Com|pany, to obtain a new Grant, with all such further Immu|nities, and larger Privileges, as were fitting and requisite, and to have it strengthened and confirmed in the Parlia|ment, which was to meet soon after; and upon the Earl of Southampton's Application to his Majesty, he readily gav his Consent to it. But notwithstanding the Earl of Sou|thampton's Interest and Endeavours, and Sir Edwin Sandys' great Pains and Industry therein, it was never brought to any final Issue or Conclusion.

BUT the Remedy, proposed by Mr. Herbert, for curing the Factions and Discords of the Company, by setting a Nobleman of eminent Distinction and Authority at the Head of their Affairs, was far from having the intended Effect. For their Animosities and Dissensions grew higher, towards the latter End of this Year, and never ended, but with the Dissolution of the Company. As therefore they were the chief Occasion and Pretence of that Dissolution, it will not be improper here, to give a fuller and more distinct Ac|count of them.

Page  186BESIDES the Affairs of the Magazine, which, notwith|standing its Dissolution, still afforded Matter of Contention, there were two other principal Subjects of Dispute and Con|fusion in the Company; the settling Sir Thomas Smith's Ac|counts, and the Prosecution of Captain Argall, for his many Outrages and exorbitant Proceedings in Virginia. Sir Tho|mas Smith had been Treasurer, from the first Constitution of the Company in the Year 1606, till April 28, 1619; and in that time, there had passed through his Hands about eighty thousand Pounds. He had, in those Days, a very great Interest and Sway in the Company; and to put the best Construction upon the Matter, he never expected to be called to a strict and rigorous Account, and his Servants had been very careless and remiss, in keeping his Books. But several of the Company suspected, that he had embez|zled and converted much of the publick Money, to his own private Use; and were therefore very eager, to bring him to an Account. Sir Thomas, on his side, was very fair in his Professions, and prssed, with much Warmth, the full Settlement and finishing the Affair; offering to pay, not only what should appear due from himself, but whatever Wrong or Damage should have happened to the Company, from his Under-Officers or Servants. But then his Receipts were so very faulty and deficient, and his Disbursements so void of all Warrant and proper Vouchers, that the Com|pany's Auditors, although they took much Pains, could bring nothing to a Head; and the whole only served, to administer fresh Fuel to Animosities and Quarrels, without any Prospect of coming to a satisfactory Conclusion.

AS to Captain Argall, altho' he was under Prosecution from the Company, yet by his Craft and Management, by the Power and Influence of his Frinds, by his shifting and turning, and by going on the Expedition against the Alge|rines, he so shuffled and perplexed the Company, that he at last escaped, without any Punishment or Restitution at all. And altho' Sir Thomas Smith, overpowered with the Justice and Necessity of the thing, had first commenced the Prose|cution against him, yet being now Fellow-Sufferers, and equally aggrieved at the present upright and vigorous Ad|ministration of the Company's Affairs, they joined Forces, and did every thing in their Power, to disgrace, and vilify, and retard the Success of the Enterprise. The principal Persons of their Faction were, the Earl of Warwick; Sir Nathaniel Rich, the Earl's Brother; Sir Thomas Wrth, who was nearly allied to them by Marriage; Sir Iohn Wolsten|holme, a wealthy Merchant and a Farmer of the Customs; with Alderman Iohnson, Mr. Caning, and Mr. Essington, Page  187 three factious Citizens, and others of less Note, to the Number of twenty six in the whole, when their Faction was strongest; a very inconsiderable Party, had they not gained the Ear and Support of a weak King, who had a wonderful Instinct and Propensity to the wrong Side of every Question, and with much Formality of Wisdom and Learn|ing, for ever mistook the true Interest of himself and his Subjects. On the other Side appeared the Earl of Southamp|ton, the Earl of Dorset, the Earl of Devonshire, the Vis|count Doncaster, Lord Cavendish, Lord Sheffield, Lord Paget, Sir Edward Sackvil, Sir Dudley Digges, Sir Edwin Sandys, Sir Iohn Davers, Sir Samuel Sandys, with a long Roll of others, and in short, the whole Body of Adventu|rers in general, which consisted of near fifty Noblemen, some hundreds of Knights, and many hundreds of Gentlemen, eminent Merchants, and Citizens, to the full Amount of a thousand Persons in all. But none acted in the Support of Truth and Justice, with greater Spirit and Vigor, than the Lord Cavendish, afterwards Earl of Devonshire, and Sir Edward Sackvil. The former was a young Nobleman of much Generosity, Spirit, and Eloquence; and he succeeded Sir Thomas Smith, in the Place of Governor to the Somer-Islands Company. The latter, who afterwards became Earl of Dorset, was the Person of the greatest Fame in that Age, for a facetious Vivacity, sparkling Wit, and undaunt|ed Courage, joined to a sound and comprehensive Under|standing, and an excellent Turn for Business. He was one of the first, that raised the Reputation of the Dorset Family, for Wit and Exactness of Taste and Discernment; but is best known to common Readers, for his Duel with Lord Bruce, which is related in my Lord Clarendon and the Guar|dian, Books deservedly popular and in the Hands of every Body. And as he appeared thus early in the Cause of the Colony (for such is it owned to be by our Assemblies of those times) so did he continue, to the last, a constant Friend and Favourer of Virginia.

AS Sir George Yeardley had expressed his Desire to leave the Government, at the Expiration of his Commission,* which would be in the November following, the Earl of Southampton recommended to the Company the Considera|tion of a proper Person, to succeed him. His Lordship pro|posed to their Choice Sir Francis Wyat, a young Gentleman, thought every way sufficient and equal to the Place, and highly esteemed, as he said, on Account of his Birth, Edu|cation, Intgrity of Life, and fair Fortune. However, he earnestly pressed on the Company the Nomination of such other Person or Persons, as they should think proper, to Page  188 stand in Election with him.* But no other being so much as named, Sir Francis Wyat was chosen Governor, to take his Place at the Expiration of Sir George Yeardley's Com|mission, and not before. And to do him the greater Grac and Honour, as well as the better to enable and encourage him in the Execution of his Office, they elected him one of his Majesty's Council in England for Virginia. They also allowed him two hundred Pounds, for all necessary Provisions for his Voyage, with the free Transport of him|self and Attendants, provided they did not exceed the Num|ber of twenty Persons.

DR. Lawrence Bohun, who had left Virginia in the Year 1611, with the Lord Delawarr, had now obtained a large Grant of Land, for the Transportation of three hundred Persons. He was also appointed the Company's Physician-General to the Colony, with the Allowance of five hundred Acres of Land and twenty Tenants; under Covenant, to maintain and make them good, from time to time, and at his Decease, or other Removal, to leave the like Number of Men and Stock of Cattle, as was allowed by the Compa|ny, and by them annexed to the Place. He accordingly set sail, in the Beginning of February, with eighty Passengers, in a Ship of an hundred and sixty Tons and eight Iron Gun and a Falcon, commanded by Captain Anthony Chester. But about the Middle of March, they were attacked, near Nevis in the West-Indies, by two Spanish Men of War, of three hundred Tons and sixteen or twenty Brass Cannon apeice. The Fight was sharp and desperate; but the En|glish so bestowed their Shot, and managed the Engagement with such Dexterity and Bravery, that the Spaniards were glad to stand aloof, and after following them a Day or two, without any other remarkable Annoyance, at last fell astern, and left them. There was made a very great Slaughter of the Spaniards, so that their Scupples ran with Blood; and the Captain of the Admiral-Ship, who acted the Part of a brave Commander, was slain. On the English Side, ten were killed; among whom was Dr. Bohun, whose Death was greatly lamented. He had studied long among the learned Physicians of the Low-Countries, and behaved him|self in this Battle, like a worthy and valiant Gentleman. In his Room, Mr. Iohn Pot was elected, by the Company, Physician-General to the Colony. He was recommended by Dr. Gulstone, an eminent Member of their Society, as a Master of Arts, well practiced in Chirurgery and Physic, and expert in Chymical Processes and other ingenious Part of his Profession; whose Service, he therefore conceived, would be of great Use to the Colony. He was accordingly Page  189 sent, upon the same Foot, as Dr. Bohun; and was allowed his own, his Wife's, and two Servants Passages. Dr. Gul|stone was likewise desired, to buy a Chest of Physic of twen|ty Pounds Value, and ten Pounds of Books, proper for the Profession, which should always belong to the Place.

CAPTAIN William Newce offered, to transport and set|tle a thousand Persons in Virginia, by Midsummer, 1625; and desired to be appointed their General, and to have a Patent, with that Proportion of Land, and such other Pri|vileges, as were usually granted on the like Occasion. A Patent was readily granted, in the largest and most ampl Manner. But as to the Title and Command of General, they refused to grant it him; because it was a Power, pro|perly belonging to the Governor only. Besides, it gave such an Independency, as was destructive of all Order and good Government; and had therefore been loudly cried ou against, in Captain Martin's extravagant Patent, and in a Grant, surreptitiously and illegally obtained by Captain Ar|gall, and therefore expresly stopped, by the Company's Or|ders to the Governor in Virginia. But Captain Newce far|ther requested, in order to enable him the better to go through the Charge of so great an Undertaking, to be ap|pointed Marshal of Virginia; for which Post he was emi|nently qualified, having ever been exercised in military Af|fairs and Arms, and of noted Experience and Skill in Martial Discipline; as appeared by his many Services in Ireland, and by the Testimony of divers honourable Persons, upon their own Knowledge. He was therefore constituted Marshal of Virginia; to take into his Charge, as well the Fortifica|tions, Arms, and Forces of the Colony, as to cause the People, to be duly trained up in Military Discipline, and to the Use and Exercise of Arms. And they annexed fifteen hundred Acres of Land and fifty Tenants to the Place, to be transported and furnished by himself, at eight Pound Charge to the Company a Man. And the King also, being highly pleased at the Nomination of this Gentleman, con|ferred the Honour of Knighthood upon him; calling him his Knight-Marshal of Virginia, and expressing great Hopes from the Management of a Person of his acknowledged Ca|pacity and Skill. However, he did not long survive his Ar|rival in Virginia; but died, two Days after the reading his Patent and Commission.

THERE was, at this time, above a thousand Pounds, due in Virginia to the Company, for Rents and Duties; and they were likewise greatly scandalised and offended, to find their frequent and pressing Orders, for raising good and staple Commodities, entirely slighted and neglected. It was Page  190 therefore thought necessary, to appoint a particular Officer, by the Name of Treasurer; who should have the Charge, not only of their Rents and Duties, but should also take into his more especial Regard and Care, to see all Orders and Directions, sent from England, duly and faithfully exe|cuted, from time to time; or otherwise to render a suffici|ent Reason to the contrary. To this Office Mr. George Sandys, the noted Poet and Traveller was unanimously elected, as a Person every way fit, on Account of his Abi|lity and Integrity. And they likewise allotted fifteen hun|dred Acres of Land, perpetually to belong to the said Place of Treasurer, with fifty Tenants thereon; and allowed Mr. Sandys an hundred and fifty Pounds, to furnish himself for the Voyage, with the free Passage of his Family, not exceeding the Number of ten Persons. And it was thought proper, that two such eminent Officers as Marshal and Treasurer, to which Places such worthy Gentlemen had been preferred, should be admitted of his Majesty's Coun|cil in England, and appointed of the Council of State in Virginia.

SOON after, Mr. Richard Norwood, a Man famous, in those Days, as a Mathematician, who had laid off the Tribes and Lands, and made an exact Plot of the Islands of Bermudas, was recommended to the Company for Sur|veyor of Virginia, and was accordingly elected to the Place. But I know not, how the Change came o be made, yet I find, very soon after, Mr. William Clayborne appointed and sent Surveyor. The Company allowed him thirty Pounds a Year and a convenient House, for his publick Service in laying off their Lands; with twenty Pounds paid in Hand, to furnish himself with Instruments and Books, which he was obliged to leave to his Successors. They likewise al|lowed him the Transport of three Persons, and gave him two hundred Acres of Land in Fee-simple; and in case he was employed in any private Survey, he was to receive six Shillings a Day, and to be found in Diet and Lodging.

MR. Pory's Commission of Secretary was to determine, at the same Time, as Sir George Yeardley's. He had given the Company little Satisfaction in that Office, but had been plainly detected, although a sworn Officer, of betraying the Proceedings, and secretly conveying the Proofs, against Captain Argall, to the Earl of Warwick. And as he was besides known, to be a professed Tool and Instrument to that Faction, the Company was at no Loss or Hesitation, about renewing his Commission. But four Gentlemen be+ing strongly recommended to them, as fully qualified for that Post, in Point of Learning, Honesty, and Experience, Page  191 they made Choice of Mr. Christopher Davison, and ad|mitted him a free Brother of the Company, and one of the Council of State in Virginia. And as the Company's Ships were often delayed in the Country, through Neg|ligence and Mismanagement, it was resolved, to appoint an Officer, by the Title of Vice-Admiral, who should take into his Charge the Care and Dispatch of them. Mr. Iohn Pountis therefore, one of the Council, who had deserved well of both the Company and Colony, was, this Summer, appointed to that Place provisionally, and afterwards confirmed by the Quarter Court in Novem|ber, with the Allowance of three hundred Acres of Land and twelve Tenants.

THE late large Transportations of People, the furnish|ing and fitting out the new Governor and these other Offi|cers, with the vast Charge of providing them with Tenants and Servants, and other needful and well-designed Expences, did so entirely exhaust the publick Treasury of the Compa|ny, that it never afterwards recovered itself to any tolerable Degree of Affluence or Wealth. And besides, the Lotte|ries were now at an End, which were the only Means of raising a Fund again, and which alone had brought twenty nine thousand Pounds Sterling into the Company's Stock. Wherefore Mr. Smith observed to them, that the Lotteries, which had thus far supplied the real and substantial Food, by which Virginia had been nourished, did now no longer subsist. To the End therefore, that she might still be pre|served, by divulging Fame and good Report, he proposed, in the Name of himself and many others of the Society, to have a fair and perspicuous History compiled of the Coun|try, from the first Discovery to that Time; wherein the Memory and Deserts of many of her worthy Undertakers, as Sir Walter Ralegh, Sir George Somers, the Lord Dela|warr, Sir Thomas Dale, and Sir Thomas Gates (for both those Knights, after their Return from Virginia, had gone to the East-Indies, and there died) together with diver others then living, might be commended to eternal Thank|fulness. He regretted their present Inability, in having no other Coin, wherewith to recompence the great Pains and Merit of the well-deserving. But he affirmed, that the best planted Parts of America, under the Spanish Government, at the like Age, afforded not better Matter of Relation, than Virginia then did. And he said, that the Effect, which such a general History, deduced to the Life, would have, throughout the Kingdom, on the popular Opinion of the common Subject, might be gathered, from the Success of the little Pamphlets or Declarations, lately published. And Page  192 he further urged the immediate Performance thereof, be|cause a few Years would consume the Lives of many, whose Memories retained much, and might also devour those Letters and Intelligences, which yet remained in loo•• and neglected Papers.

THIS Speech was received by the whole Court, with very great Applause, as spoken freely, and to an excellen Purpose; and it was resolved, to have it considered, and put in Practice, in due Time. Mr. Smith was also exceed|ingly commended, as well for this, as for always preferring Motions of especial Consequence. And it wa from th•• Motion, I suppose, that Captain Smith was requested, i the Company's Name, to write his History of Virgini as he himself tells us, p. 168. However the Captain's De|serts eem not, about this Time, to have been fully under|••ood or regarded. For I find him, soon after, preferring a Petition to the Company, setting forth; That he 〈◊〉 not only adventured Money, but had also twice built Iames-〈◊〉, and four other Plantations; and had discovered th Country, and relieved the Colony, three Years together, with such Provisions, as he got from the Savages, with gre•• Peril and Hazard of his Life; and therefore he desired, 〈◊〉 Consideration thereof, that the Company would be pleased o reward him, either out of their Treasury at home, o their Profits in Virginia. And certainly, considering h•• many great and extraordinary Services, he was highly wor|thy their Regard. But the Court referred him to the Com|ittee, appointed for rewarding Men upon Merit; and fro whatever Cause it happened, I find nothing farther do•• in the Matter. So that he, with a Fae very usual to pub|lick Spirits, had Reason to complain, that every Shilli•• which he had gained by these Enterprizes, had cost him a Pound; and tha what he had got, in some successful Cam|paigns at War, had been chearfully spent on Virginia and New-England, for the publick Good. Yet he begrdge it not, but should think himself happy, to see their Pros|perity and Advancement.

AT the Court of Election, the Earl of Southampton wa again chosen Treasurer for the ensuing Year, with an una|nimous Voice. His Lordship was then absent, having been long detained, that Day, in Parliament. But at his coming o Court, he wa pleased to accept the Place, in a very no|ble Manner; and he had the hearty Thanks of the whol Court returned him, for his honourable Care and Pains▪ ever since his Entrance into that Place of Government, to uphold and advance the Plantation. And at his Lordship' Request, Mr. Iohn Furrar, of whose Fidelity and Suffi|ciency Page  193 they already had so much Experience, was most wil|lingly continued in his Office of Deputy.

THE Earl of Warwick was highly offended at Sir George Yeardley, for intercepting a Pacquet of Letters, and disco|vering the Correspondence between Secretary Pory and himself. He therefore loudly declared his Displeasure, and took all possible Methods to daunt and discourage him, from proceeding vigorously in Argall's Prosecution. To this End, he caused it to be rumoured over all Virginia, even to Ope|chancanough, and had it confirmed by Letters from England, that he himself was coming over shortly, in Person, to be their Governor, with Captain Argall for his Pilot; and that then he would call Sir George Yeardly severely into Question, for his own Government, and would take a sharp and full Revenge. These Reports much weakened the Strength and Authority of the Government▪ and they likewise so affected Sir George Yeardley, a Man of a meek and gentle Nature, and threw him into such a Dejection of Spirit, that he fell into a long and languishing Sickness, to the general Hurt and Neglect of the publick Business, as well as Captain Ar|gall's Affair in particular.

THE Company also, this Year, entertained some Pro|jects for producing useful Commodities; and as three of the Master Workmen of their Iron Works were dead, they sent over Mr. Iohn Berkeley, and Maurice, his Son, who were commended, as very skilful in that Way, with twenty other experienced Workmen. They likewise ordered Bill to be prepared for the Parliament, for sending over the Poor, which were now become very numerous and burthen|some to the several Parishes, to be set to work, and usefully employed, in Virginia. Sir George Yeardley complained, that the Council of State lived very distant and dispersed; and having no Allowance for their Attendance, could scarce be got together. Whereupon the Company ordered, that the Council should meet, four times a Year, and should hold Quarter Sessions, a whole Week together; to assist the Governor, from time to time, as well in Matter of Counsel and of State, as in all Causes of Importance, and for Redress of general and particular Grievances. And that their Number might make their Meetings the more easy, besides the seven, last Year appointed, and the new Officers of State, now going over, they also added, in the Room of Dr. Bohun and two others, that were dead, Mr. Pot, the Rev. Mr. Robert Pawlet, Captain Roger Smith, and Mr. Leech. This last Gentleman was going over, to view the Country, and to pitch upon a proper Place of Settlement, for the fa|mous and munificent William Earl of Pembroke; who had Page  194 undertaken, with his Associates, to plant thirty thousand Acres of Land, and consequently to transport six hundred Persons.

THE latter End of Iuly, or Beginning of August, Sir Francis Wyat set out for his Government, with the Trea|surer, Secretary, Physician-General, and Surveyor, in Com|pany with nine Sail of Ships; all which arrived safe in Vir|ginia, about October, without the Loss of one single Pas|senger. With him, was sent a Body of Instructions to the Governor, for the time being, and the Council of State in Virginia; consisting of forty seven Articles, and signed by the Earl of Southampton, Sir Edwin Sandys, Sir Iohn D|vers, and others of the Council. In these, it was first re|commended to them, to take into their especial Regard th Service of Almighty God, and the Observance of his divine Laws; and that the People should be trained up, in tr•• Religion and Virtue. And since their Endeavours, for the Establishment of the Honour and Rights of the Church and Ministry, had not yet taken due Effect, they were required▪ to employ their utmost Care, to advance all things apper|taining to the Order and Administration of Divine Service, according to the Form and Discipline of the Church of England; carefully to avoid all factious and needless Novel|ties, which only te••ed to the Disturbance of Peace and Unity; and to cause, that the Ministers should be duly re|spected and maintained, and the Churches, or Places ••|pointed for 〈◊〉 Service, decently accommodated, ac|cording to former Orders in that Behalf. They were, i the next Place, commanded, to keep the People in 〈◊〉 Obedience to the King; to provide, that Justice might 〈◊〉 equally administered to all, as near as could be, according to the Forms and Constitution of England; to prevent all Corruption, tending to the Perversion or Delay of Justice▪ to protect the Natives, from Injury and Oppression; and to cultivate Peace and Friendship with them, as far as it should be consistent with the Honour of the Nation and Safety of the People. They were likewise required, to make the People apply themselves to an industrious Way of Life; and to suppress all Gaming, Drunkenness, and Excess in Apparel. To this End it was ordained, that no Person, except the Council, or the Heads of Hundreds and Planta|tions, with their Wives and Children, should wear Gold on their Cloaths, or any Apparel of Silk, except such as had been raised by their own Industry. But the Governor and Council answered to this, that they knew of no Excess in Apparel, except in the Price of it; and had it not come from them, they should have thought it a Flout upon the Colony, for their Poverty and Nakedness.

Page  195THEY were also enjoined, to use great Care, that no just Cause of Offence be given to any other Prince, State, or People; to permit no Captain, or other Person, under Pre|tence of Trade, to sail to the West-Indies, to rob and spoil; not to give Harbour or Refuge, on the Coasts or in the Country, to any Pirates or Banditti but severely to prose|cute and punish them; and to take better Care, for proper and effectual Fortifications. They further pressed upon them, in a particular Manner, the using all probable Means of bringing over the Natives, to a Love of Civility, and to the Knowledge of God, and his true Religion. To which Purpose, they observed to them, that the Example, given by the English in their own Persons and Families, would be of singular and chief Moment: That it would be proper, to draw the best disposed among the Indians, to converse and labour with our People, for a convenient Reward; that thereby, being reconciled to a civil Way of Life, and brought to a Sense of God and Religion, they might after|wards become Instruments in the general Conversion of their Countrymen, so much desired: That each Town, Bur|rough, and Hundred, ought to procure, by just Means, a certain Numbr of their Children, to be brought up in the first Elements of Litterature: That the most towardly of these should be fitted for the College; in building of which, they purposed to proceed, as soon as any Profit arose from the Estate, appropriated to that Use; and they earnestly required their utmost Help and Furtherance, in that pious and important Work; not doubting the particular Blessing of God upon the Colony, and being assured of the Love of all good Men, upon that Account.

THEY next proceeded to give Instructions, for the Reception and Accommodation of the new Governor, and of the other Officers and People, then sent. And they pressed upon them the raising several useful Com|modities; as well Corn, Wine, Silk, and others here|tofore frequently mentioned, as also the making Oil of Walnuts, employing their Apothecaries in Distillation, and searching the Country for Minerals, Dyes, Gums, Drugs, and the like. And they ordered them particularly, by the King's Advice and Desire, to draw the People off of their excessive planting of Tobacco. To that End, they were commanded to permit them, to make only an hundred Pounds of Tobacco a Head; and to take all possible Care, to improve that Proportion in Goodness, as much as might be, which would bring their Commodity into Request, and cause a more certain Benefit to the Planter. They likewise added many other Advices and Instructions, for the Admini|stration Page  196 of Justice, the good Government, and happy Ad|vancement of the Colony.

IN Case of the Death, Removal, or Suspension of the Governor, the Council, or major Part of them, then res|dent in Virginia, were ordered, immediately to assembl themselves, within fourteen Days, or sooner, and out of their own Body, to elect a Person, to supply the Place, for the Time. But if the Voices should happen to be equal▪ then Election was to be made of the Lieutenant-Governor▪ and in his Absence, or necessary Cause of declining it, the Marshal should succeed; next, the Treasurer; and then one of the two Deputies, for the College and Company' Lands; till the Government should be settled in one of those chief Officers. And the Governor was authorised, to de|termine and punish, at his Discretion, any sudden and emer|gent Business, and all Neglect or Contempt of Authority, in any Kind or Person whatsoever; except only the Coun|cil in their own Persons, who were, in such Cases, to be summoned to appear, at the next Quarter 〈◊〉 of the Council, and there to abide their Censure. But if the Go|vernor thought, it concerned the Peace and Welfare of the Colony, to proceed more speedily with such Offender, that then it should be lawful for him, to summon an extraordi|nary Council, at which six of the Council, at least, should be present with the Governor; and by Majority of Voice▪ any Counsellor might be committed, or obliged to give Bil for his Appearance.

SIR Francis Wyat also brought over with him an Ordi|nance or Charter, from the Treasurer, Council, and Com|pany in England, for settling the Constitution and Govern|ment of Virginia, in the Governor, the Council of State, as his Assistants, and the General Assembly. This Assem|bly was to consist of the Governor, Council of State, and two Burgesses, chosen by every Town, Hundred, or par|ticular Plantation. All Matters were to be decided, deter|mined, and ordered in it, by the Majority of Voices, then present; reserving to the Governor a Negative upon the Whole. And they were empowered, to treat, consult, and conclude, as well concerning all emergent Occasions, r|lating to the publick Weal of the said Colony, and every Part thereof, as also to make, ordain, and enact such gen|ral Laws and Orders, as should, from time to time, appear necessary: Provided nevertheless, that no Law, or Ordi|nance, made in the said General Assembly, should be of Force or Validity, unless the same should be solemnly con|firmed and ratified, in a General Quarter Court of the Company in England, and returned under their Seal: As Page  197 also, when this Form of Government should be once well framed and settled, that no Orders, of the Court in England, should bind the Colony, before they were ratified and con|firmed, in like Manner, by the General Assembly in Virgi|nia. But in all other things, they were commanded, to follow the Policy, Form of Government, Laws, Customs, Manner of Trial, and other Administration of Justice, used in England.

THE Company's Treasury was so reduced, that it could not now suffice for several things of the utmost Necessity and Advantage. Wherefore, to supply this Deficiency, they entered into a Method of preparing Rolls, and offering them to the voluntary Subscription of the Adventurers. What|ever was sent to Virginia upon these Rolls, was there sold, by the Cape-Merchant or some other Factor, at such a mo|derate Price, as should indemnify the Subscribers for their Money advanced, and for all Charges incident thereupon. At this time, four Rolls were prepared and brought into Court, for the Company's Subscription. The first was for Apparel, and other necessary Provisions and Utensils, for the Colony. The second, for sending an hundred more Maids, to make Wives; and sixty were accordingly sent, young, handsom, and well recommended to the Company, for their virtuous Education and Demeanor. With them was sent over the several Recommendations and Testimo|nials of their Behaviour, that the Purchasers might thence be enabled to judge, how to chuse. The Price of these Wives was stated at an hundred and twenty Pounds of To|bacco, and afterwards advanced to an hundred and fifty, and proportionably more, if any of them should happen to die; so that the Adventurers might be refunded their original Charge. And it was also ordered, that this Debt for Wives should have the Precedency of all others, and be first re|coverable. And it was strictly enjoined, that they should be well used, and not married to Servants, but to such Free|men and Tenants, as could handsomely support them; that, by their good Fortune, Multitudes of others might be al|lured to come over, on the Prospect of advantageous Mat|ches. And the Company likewise declared their Intention, that, for the Encouragement of settled Families, and secu|ring a Posterity, they would prefer and make Consignments to married Men, before single Persons; and that as many Boys should be sent, as there were Maids, to be Prentices to those, who married them. They also granted the Ad|venturers, who subscribed to this Roll, a ratable Proportion of Land, according to the Number of the Maids sent, to be laid off together and formed into a Town, by the Name of Page  198Maidstown. The third Roll was for a Glass Furnace, 〈◊〉 make Beads, which was the current Coin in the Indian Trade; and one Captain Norton, with some Italian Work|men, was sent over for that Purpose. The fourth was for setting out a trading Voyage with the Indians, for Skins and Furs. For▪ the Company was informed from several Hands, that the French and Dutch carried on a very profitable Trade of that sort, in Delawarr and Hudson's Rivers, which were within the Lmits of their Grant, and then esteemed Parts of Virginia. They therefore resolved, to vindicate their Right, and not to permit Foreigners to run away with so lucrative a Branch of their Trade. One Captain Iones was accordingly sent upon the Voyage; but by the Wick|edness of him and his Mariners, the Adventure was lost▪ and the whole Project overthrown. To these Rolls, the Earl of Southampton and Sir Edwin Sandys, each sub|scribed two hundred Pounds; and such was the Zeal and Resolution of the Adventurers to advance the Colony, that they were soon compleated, and put into Execution. At the same time, the Company, in their Letters to the Go|vernor and Council, recommends to them the Prevention of Fraud and Deceit in Tobacco; and that some Provision should be made, for burning all base and rotten Trash, and none suffered to go home, but what was very good; where|by, they said, there would certainly be more advanced in the Price, than lost in the Quantity.

BUT Tobacco was, at this time, a very sinking Com|modity. For altho' the Planters magisterially forced it on the Company and others, at the current Price of three Shil|lings a Pound, yet it would not turn out at home, after Shrinkage and Waste, and the Discharge of the Duty and Freight, (which last alone was three Pence, and sometimes four Pence, a Pound) at above two Shillings for the best▪ and the inferior Sort at scarce eighteen Pence a Pound. And besides, the Trade was strangely hampered and perplexed, by the weak and unsteady Counsels of the puny Monarch▪ then on the Throne. For altho', in the Beginning of the former Year, the Company had yielded to his unreasonable Demand of twelve Pence a Pound, yet soon after, in the same Summer, he issued a Proclamation, prohibiting a ge|neral Importation of Tobacco, and restraining the Quantity from Virginia and the Somer-Islands, to fifty five thousand Weight. At the same time, taking Advantage of an Offer of Sir Thomas Smith and Alderman Iohnson, in the Name of the Company, but without their Knowledge or Autho|rity, and so utterly disclaimed by them, he granted a Mo|nopoly of Tobacco; the sole Importation whereof waPage  199 granted by Letters patent, first to Sir Thomas Roe and his Associates (at whose Desire and Instigation the Proclamation, above mentioned, was issued) and the Year after, to Mr. Iacob and certain other Patentees. They proceeded most injuriously against both Companies, not only stinting them to too scant a Proportion, but also restraining them from selling their Tobacco, without their Seal and Allowance first had; for which, under the Pretence and Title of Garb|ling, they were obliged to pay four Pence a Pound. This Garbling was an ancient Custom of the City of London; and an Officer was appointed, who had Power to enter into any Shop or Warehouse, to view and search Drugs and Spices, and to garble the same; that is, to make them clean from all Garbles or Trash. And it was now put into Execution, and arbitrarily applied to Tobacco (a new Commodity in England, and therefore not legally subject to Garbling, without an express Law) in order the more effectually to oppress the Companies and Plantations, and to squeeze the greater Gain out of them.

THUS injured and distressed, the Company presented their Petition and Representation to his Majesty, to which they received a gracious Answer, with large Professions of his Love to the Colonies, and that it never was his Intention to grant any thing to their Prejudice; but without any Re|dress of their Gievance. It was therefore at last resolved, to prefer a Petition to the House of Commons, and therein to complain of these Oppressions, which tended to the utter Destruction and Overthrow of the Colonies; and as that House had called into Question, and intended to suppress▪ other Monopolies (a great and crying Grievance of those Times) they doubted not, to receive from them a full and ample Redress. They likewise, at the Motion of Sir Ed|win Sandys, presented Mr. Edward Bennet, a Citizen of London, with the Freedom of their Company; because he had written a Treatise, setting forth, in a clear and lively Manner, the great Inconvenience and Damage to the Na|tion, by the Importation of Spanish Tobacco; and because he had frequently attended the Committees of the House of Commons, who were well inclined, to afford their utmost Assistance, for the Prohibition of foreign Tobacco. This Mr. Bennet immediately became the most deeply engaged, and was far the largest and most considerable Adventurer of any, then known, in the Affair of Virginia; whose Foundations, in that early time, have continued down to the present. For his Nephew, Richard Bennet, Esq was the first Governor of Virginia, by the Election of the Co|lony, in the time of Cromwell's Usurpation; and the Re|main Page  200 of the Family, now seated in Maryland, is still the richest and most wealthy, in all Kinds of Fortune and E|state, of any in this Part of America. However, since the Somer-Islands could not well subsist without the Profits of their Tobacco, and as the Territory of Virginia was large; their Soil good, and great Hopes conceived, that many other valuable Commodities would soon be produced and returned from thence, it was agreed, that the whole 55,000 Weight should be imported from those Islands; and the Virginia Company procured Storehouses, and appointed Factors, at Middleburg and Flushing, and compounded with the States of those Cities, for a Half Penny a Pound Custom, for the Import, and the same Rate for the Export, of their To|bacco. So that no Virginia Tobacco was imported into England, this Year, but all was carried and disposed of in Holland.

THE News of this State of their Affairs coming to Vir|ginia, the Colony was greatly alarmed, and drew up an humble Petition to the King, setting forth: That his Ma|jesty, out of his religious Desire to speed the Gospel of Christ, and princely Ambition to enlarge his Dominions▪ had given Encouragement to such, as would go to Virgi|nia, and granted them many goodly Privileges and Liberties, under the great Seal of England, than which they thought no earthly Assurance more firm and inviolable: That in Confidence hereof, they, his Majesty's poor Subjects, had adventured their Lives and Fortunes thither; and in the Prosecution of the Enterprise, had undergone such incredi|ble Difficulties and Sufferings, as would be shocking, in the Relation, to his Majesty's sacred Ears: That they had now, by the Divine Assistance, in some Measure, overcome those Difficulties, and brought themselves to n Ability of subsist|ing, without any other Help from England, than the usual Course of Commerce; but that they had, of late, been brought into Danger, of returning into their former, or even worse Circumstances, by the sinister Practices of some Mem|bers of the Company at home; who, pretending his Ma|jesty's Profit, but really aiming at their own exorbitant Gain, had obtained a Proclamation, to prohibit the Impor|tation of Tobacco into England: That other things, of greater real Value, required more time, than their pressing Necessities would allow, and more Help, to bring them to Perfection, than they had, till of late, been furnished with|al; and that, therefore, Tobacco was the only Commodity, they had yet been able to raise, in order to supply themselve and Families with Apparel, and other needful Supplements of Life: That, if it should be thus suppressed and prohi|bited, Page  201 they must all, of Necessity, perish, for Want of Cloathing, and such Necessaries, as both their Nature and Education required: That his Majesty would, thereby, not only lose so many good and loyal Subjects, as had adventu|red their Lives and Substance to Virginia, for the Promo|tion of those great Ends, the Glory of God, and his Ma|jesty's Service, but must likewise be deprived of the Hope and Prospect, of acquiring a Territory, as large, and capa|ble of becoming as opulent, as any of those Kingdoms, he at present possessed: Since therefore they were assured, that his Majesty tendered the Lives and Welfare of his Subjects, above Thousands of Gold and Silver, and since his Royal Word was engaged, and even ratified under the great Seal of England, they besought him, out of his princely Com|passion, either to revoke that Proclamation, and to restore them to their ancient Liberty, or else to send for them home, and not suffer the Heathen to triumph over them.

THIS Petition was transmitted to the Treasurer and Com|pany, and was seconded by a Letter, from Sir George Yeard|ley and the Council, to the Company; desiring, that it might be presented to his Majesty, in as humble and effec|tual a Manner, as possible; because, as they conceived, the very Life of the Colony depended upon the Success of it, But before it came to hand, the King was become sensible of the Damage, that hence accrued to himself, by the Di|minution of his Customs. The Deputy therefore, and som others of the Company, were snt for, in October this Year, and received an angry Rebuke from the Lords of the Privy Council; importing, that Complaint had been made to that Board, that the Company had set up a Trade in Holland, and carried all their Commodities thither; and requiring an Answer, whether they would bring all their Commodities into England, or continue their Trade in the Low-Countries. To the former Part of this, the Answer was ready and ob|vious; that they had indeed carried their Tobacco to Mid|dleburg, not out of Choice, but being constrained thereto by his Majesty's Proclamation, and an Order of their own Board. And as to the latter Part, concerning bringing all their Commodities into England, as it was a new and un|expected Proposition, and a Point of great Weight and fu|ture Consequence, they took some time to consider of it, and then returned a long and very respectful Answer:

THAT it was a Liberty and Privilege, generally taken and enjoyed, by all his Majesty's Subjects, to carry their Commodities to the best Markets: That many Commodi|ties were now set on Foot, and expected soon to be returned from Virginia, which, altho' in some Demand in other Page  202 Countries, yet would not be vendible in England, nor pay the Expence of Freight and Custom: That neither the Muscovy Company, nor any other ancient Corporation, was under such a Restraint, to whose greatest Privileges and Im|munities, they were entitled, by the express Words of his Majesty's Charter: That the Company had granted several Patents, with the same Privileges, as they themselves en|joyed, to divers Persons of noble and worthy Families, who had thereupon expended great Sums of Money, and some their whole Estates in the Plantation; and that it was not in their Power, nor would it be consonant to Law or Equi|ty, now to revoke or restrain them: That they conceived themselves to have no Right or Authority, to dispose of the Goods of the private Planters in Virginia, who are declared, by his Majesty's Charter, to be as free, as any other his Sub|jects, and who had merited, by their long and hard Services, all Manner of Immunity and Encouragement: That they could not forbid or restrain them, from trading and barter|ing their Commodities freely, with such Ships, as carried Passengers, most of which proceeded on trading Voyages, and returned not directly to England: That a Trade had lately begun between Ireland and Virginia, for Cattle and other Necessaries, for which Contracts were made in To|bacco; and that this Trade would hereby be nipped in the Bud, to the exceeding great Prejudice, and the Hazard of the utter Ruin of the Colony: And lastly, That it was not in the Power of the few Members of the Company, then in Town in the time of Vacation, to conclude any thing posi|tive, in an Affair of that vast Importance; wherein above a thousand Adventurers in England, and near four thousand Inhabitants of Virginia, were deeply interested and concern|ed. After which they concluded, with assuring their Lord|ships, that they affected no foreign Trade, but in Cases of mere Necessity, and for the better Support and Advance|ment of the Colony; that they should always endeavour at such a mutual Commerce between England and Virginia, as should be consistent with the Honour and Benefit of both; and that, next to God's Glory, they chiefly aimed at the Good of their Country, his Majesty's Honour, and the Ad|vancement of his Profit and Revenue; for which Ends, they had, out of their own private Estates, besides their Labour and Time, expended above an hundred thousand Pounds, without any Return, not only of Profit, but even of the least Part of the Principal itself, to any one of the Ad|venturers, that they knew of.

THIS Answer gave no Satisfaction to their Lordships; but they were referred to Mr. Iacob, their old Antagoni••Page  203 and Oppressor; and were likewise ordered, to give in their peremptory Answer, whether they would import, not all their Commodities, but all their Tobacco only, into En|gland. With Mr. Iacob, they could come to no satisfac|tory Accommodation; and as to importing all their Tobac|co intEngland, they besought their Lordships, to be left at Liberty, either to import, or not import it into England, as they should find it most beneficial to the Colony. But if they must be obliged to import all or none, they declar|ed, it was their Choice, to import none into England, the ensuing Year. But their Lordships termed this an unduti|ful Answer, and commanded them, at their Peril, to bring all their Tobacco into England. And the Deputy and Com|mittee, appointed to attend their Lordships, offering some Reasons, they were told, that they were not to dispute a that Board, but to obey; and so were dismissed, with high Marks of their Displeasure and Indignation.

THESE Proceedings, being reported to the Company, caused great Grief and Dejection among them. For the Importation of Spanish, and all other Tobaccoes, was then free; and altho' the House of Commons, in their last Ses|sion, had entered into some Consideration about it, yet I cannot find, that any thing material was done in the Mat|ter. And as to the King, out of his doating Fondness for the Spanish Match, and his eager Desire, to give all possible Pleasure and Advantage to his good Friend and Brother, the King of Spain, he was even active and diligent, to protect and advance the Importation of Spanish Tobacco. How|ever the Deputy exhorted the Company, not to be discou|raged at these Disasters. For he hoped, that God would still exert himself in the Protection of Virginia, who had turned for the best, divers former Projects, which threatned the Ruin and Destruction of the Colony. And he desired, that having put their Hands to the Plough, they would not now look back, or be weary of well-doing. For the Ac|tion was universally confessed, to be most christian, ho|nourable, and glorious, and of extreme Consequence to the Commonwealth and Realm of England; and altho' they might seem to have cast their Bread upon the Waters, yet after many Days, he doubted not, but they should find it again, to their great Comfort and Advantage. And he far|ther told them, that altho' their exhausted Treasury had been able to do little, that Year, for sending People to Vir|ginia, yet it had pleased God, to stir up so many worthy Minds, for the Advancement of the Colony, that no less than twenty Ships were already gone, or ready to go, in which would be transported above a thousand Persons. But Page  204 by Captain Smith's Account, there were twenty one Sail of Ships sent this Year, with thirteen hundred, Men, Wo|men, and Children; which might likewise be true, as it was only October, and the Y••r not concluded, when Mr. Deputy Farrar made this Report to the Company.

MR. Copeland, Chaplain to the Royal Iames, an East-India Ship just returned to England, by his Example and Persuasions, prevailed on the Ship's Company, to contribute seventy Pounds, towards building a Church or a Free-school in Virginia; and an unknown Person gave thirty Pounds more, to make the Benefaction an hundred; to which twen|ty five Pounds were afterwards added, by another unknow Person. It was therefore determined, to build a School at Charles-City (which was judged the most commodious Place, and most convenient to all Parts of the Colony) by the Name of the East-India School; and the Company allotted, fo the Maintenance of the Master and Usher, a thousand A|cres of Land, with five Servants and an Overseer. This School was to be collegiate, and to have Dependence upon the College at Henrico; into which, as soon as the College was sufficiently endowed, and capable to receive them, the Scholars were to be admitted and advanced, according to their Deserts and Proficiency in Learning. Mr. Copeland was also presented with the Freedom of the Company, and with three hundred Acres of Land in Virginia. And Car|penters were accordingly sent over for this Purpose, early the next Year.

ON the 18th of November, Sir Francis Wyat entered upon his Government;* but instead of his hundred Tenants, he received only forty six from Sir George Yeardley, who refused to make the Number good, as he was under no such Contract with the Company, when he came Gover|nor, and as he had even offered to surrender them all back again, into the Company's Hands. Sir Francis sent Mr. Thorpe immediately, to Opitchapan and Opechancanough, to confirm all former Leagues, between the English and them. They both expressed great Satisfaction at the Arrival of thi new Governor, and were content, that the English should inhabit the Country; and Mr. Thorpe thought, that he per|ceived more Motions of Religion in Opechancanough, than could easily be imagined, in so great Ignorance and Blind|ness. He acknowledged his own Religion, not to be the right Way; and desired, to be instructed in the Christian Faith. He confessed, that God loved the English better than them; and he thought, the Cause of God's Anger against them was their Custom of conjuring their Children, and making them black Boys. He had also some Know|ledge Page  205 of the Heavens; had observed the North Star, and the Course of the Constellation about it; and called the Great Bear, Manguahaan, which, in their Language,* sig|nified the same. He gave Mr. Thorpe Hopes of their en|tertaining some English Families among them, and their sending some of theirs to cohabit with the English; and confirmed a former Promise, of sending a Guide with the English to some Mines beyond the Falls. But all these fair Professions and Promises seem to have been only Dissimula|tion and Policy. For that savage Prince certainly nev•• had any real Friendship or Love for the English; but watched all proper Opportunities and Pretences, to do them Mischief, or even utterly destroy them. It was likewis ordered, upon the Accession of this new Governor, that the Colony should only tend a thousand Plants, for every Head, with nine Leaves on each Plant; which, by their Compu|tation, would amount to about an hundred Weight, ac|cording to the Company's express Instructions, in Conse|quence of his Majesty's Desire and Advice. Mr. Gooi too, who was under Contract with the Company for Cat|tle, arrived with them out of Ireland, on the 22d of No|vember; and he brought with him fifty Men of his own, and thirty Passengers, exceedingly well furnished with all Kind of Provision, and seated himself at Newport's-News. The Inhabitants also made a Contribution of fifteen hundred Pounds, to build a Guest-House, for the Reception and Entertainment of New-Comers; which was accordingly undertaken, and in a Way of being well executed, by Lieutenant Iabez Whitaker, to his own great Commenda|tion, and to the general Satisfaction of the People here, and the Company in London.

BEFORE I finish this Year, it will not be improper, briefly to remark, wha then passed in the Parliament of England. There were two Sessions of Parliament, this Year. The first began in Ianuary, and passed off pece|ably. They granted the King Money, to support the Pa|latine of the Rhine, against the House of Austria; and were content to suppress some Monopolies, without touch|ing on their Author, the Marquiss of Buckingham, altho' he was generally known, and even plainly accused of it, by Sir Henry Yelverton, the late Attorney General. However I do not find, that the Monopoly of Tobacco came under their Restraint. Only the eminent Lawyers of the House of Commons declared the Patent for Garbling utterly ille|gal, and a great Grievance in the Erection, but much more so, if it should be brought into Execution. And this Session had also another good Effect: For at their very first Met|••g, Page  206 the Restraint on Tobacco was taken off, and Liberty given, at least by Connivance, freely to import it into En|gland; which indeed, I suppose, was the Reason, that nei|ther the Company's Petition was delivered, nor any thing else done in the House of Commons, with Relation to that unlawful, unjust, and oppressive Monopoly.

THE second Session began the 20th of November, and was hot and angry. The Dispute between the King and the House of Commons, concerning the Extent of the Royal Prerogative, and the Rights, Franchises, and Privi|leges of Parliament, rose so high, that the King first ad|journed, and then dissolved them, in a Passion. Howev••, ••fore that could be done, the Commons entered up•• their Journals a Protestation, asserting their Parliamentary Rights and Privileges. But the King, eleven Days after the Adjournment, called for the Clerk of the House of Commons; and demanding the Journals, he declared, i full Council, and in the Presence of all the Judges then in Town, that it was invalid, annulled, void, and of no Ef|fect; and did moreover, with his own Hand〈◊〉 take the 〈◊〉 Protestation, out of the Journal-Book of the House of Commons. And not content with these Marks of his Dis|pleasure, he proceeded farther against some of the war•••t of the House of Commons; whom he stiled fiery, popu|lar, and ill-tempered Spirits. Sir Edwin Sandys was im|prisoned, during the Session, which caused a great Tumult in the House. And altho' the King, upon the House's sending a Message to Sir Edwin, to know the Reason of his Confinement, declared, in a Letter to the Speaker, that it was not for any Misdemeanor in Parliament, yet I suspect, his Imprisonment was designed, to prevent him from act|ing with Vigor, in the Case of the Monopoly, and other illegal Oppressions on Tobacco; and this the more espe|cially, as I can no where find, that any Reason or Pretence was given for his Commitment. However the King's Opinion, concerning his Power over the Members, was plainly expressed in that Letter. For he ord••s the Spea|ker, to tell the House, in his Name, that he conceived himself, to have both Right and Ability, to punish any Man's Misdemeanors in Parliament, as well during ••eir sitting, as after; which Power he meant not hereafter to spare, as Occasion should be administered, by the insolent Behaviour of any of their Members. And agreeably to this Declaration, Sir Edward Coke, the great Lawyer, Sir Robert Philips, Mr. Iohn Selden, another Prodigy of Law and all Kinds of Knowledge, Mr. Pym, and Mr. Mallery, were imprisoned, after the Rcess, professedly for their Be|haviour Page  207 in Parliament. And Sir Dudley Digges, Sir Thomas Crew, Sir Nathaniel Rich, and Sir Iames Perrot, were se•• into Ireland, under Pretence of enquiring into sundry Mat|ters, relating to his Mjesty's Service in that Kingdom, but, in reality, by Way of Bnishment. The Earls of Oxford and Southampton were likewise sent to the Tower, soon af|ter the Dissolution, on some far-fetched Pretences. But the true Reason was easily and publickly perceived, and that their real Crime was, having spoke too freely in Parliament, concerning the King's Conduct.

I have made this Relation, not so much as it is a remark|able Aera in the English History, which gave Rise to two professed Parties, the one for the King's Prerogative, and the other for the Rights of Parliament and the Liberty of the Subject; nor as it was also the first open Breach, be|tween the King and the People, which, by subsequent Pro|vocations and Heart-burnings, at last broke out, into a most unhappy and virulent Civil War. But I have mentioned these things chiefly, as they relate to my Subject, and will contribute to let the Reader more fully, into the Springs and Motives of some future Transactions. For it will be readily perceived, that many of the most eminent and activ Opposers, in Parliament, of the King's arbitrary Views, were also principal and leading Members of the Virginia Company; and it is well known, with what an Eye of Jealousy and Displeasure, that Prince ever looked upon such, as dared to stand up for the Liberty of their Country, or were so far infected, with the mortal Taint of a publick (or as he thought it) a republican Spirit, as to oppose his Claim to an unlimited and despotic Power. It will not therefore be surprising, to find him hereafter, notwithstand|ing his many affected and anile Professions of Love and Af|fection to the Colonies, not only much disgusted at the Company, and little inclined to do them any Favour, but even, in their Dissolution, making a Stretch of that Prero|gative, which many of them had the Boldness, to question and withstand.

BUT the Colony being now much enlarged and en|creased, it was found very troublesome,* to bring all Causes to Iames-Town. Inferior Courts were therefore, in the Beginning of the Year 1622, appointed in convenient Places, to relieve the Governor and Council from this vast Burthen of Business, and to render Justice the more cheap and ac|cessible. This was the Original and Foundation of our County Courts; altho' the Country was not yet laid off in Counties, but still continued in Townships and particular Plantations, as they called those Settlements, which werPage  208ot considerable enough, to have the Title and Privileges of Burroughs.

BUT this Year is rendered most memorable in our An|nals, by a cruel and bloody Massacre, concerted by Ope|chancanough and the Indians, and executed on the English Colony, upon the 22d of March, on the following Occa|sion and Manner. There was a noted Indian, called Ne|•••tanow, who was wont, out of Bravery and Parade, to dress himself up, in a strange antic and barbaric Fashion, with Feathers; which therefore obtained him, among the English, the Name of Iack of the Feather. This Indian was highly renowned among his Countrymen, for Courage and Policy; and was universally esteemed by them the great|est War-Captain of those Times. He had been in many Skirmishes and Engagements with the English, and bravely exposed his Person; yet by his Activity, Conduct, and good Fortune, he had always escaped without a Wound. This, aided by his Craft and Ambition, easily wrought, in the Minds of those ignorant and superstitious Barbarians a fond Conceit, that he was invulnerable and immortal. This Captain came to the House of one Morgan, who had many such Commodities, as suited the rude Taste of the Indians. Being smit with the Desire of some of those Baubles, he persuaded Morgan to go with him to Pamunkey▪ upon the Promise and Assurance of a certain and advantageous Traf|fick. But, upon the Way, he murdered the poor credu|lous Englishman; and within two or three Days, returned again to his House. There were only two sturdy Lads there, the late Morgan's Servants; who seeing him wear their Master's Cap, asked for their Master, and Iack frankly told them, he was dead. Being confirmed in their Suspi|cion, they seised him, and endeavoured to carry him before Mr. Thorpe, who then lived at Berkeley. But Iack so pro|voked them, by his Resistance and Insolence, that at last they shot him down, and put him into a Boat, in order to carry him before the Governor, who was then within seven or eight Miles of the Place. On the Way, our fainting Immortal felt the Pangs of Death very strong upon him, and earnestly entreated the Boys, to grant him two things; first, never to make it known, that he was slain by a Bullet; and secondly, to bury him among the English, that the cer|tain Knowledge, and Monument of his Mortality, might be still concealed, and kept from the Sight of his Country|men. Such was the Vanity of this poor Barbarian, and so strong his Desire of false Glory in the Opinion of others, against the Experience and plain Conviction of his own Sense.

Page  209Opechancanough was a haughty, politic, and bloody Man, ever intent on the Destruction of the English, and ready to catch at every Pretence, for effecting his Purpose. He had been discovered, the Year before, tampering with a King on the Eastern Shore, to furnish him with a Poison, either real or supposed, in order to poison the English Co|lony. He had also been accused to the Governor, of a De|sign, to draw together a very great Force, under Colour of celebrating some funeral Rites to Powhatan, but really with Intent to cut off all the English. But Sir George Yeardley, by this Information, was rendered very watchful of his Mo|tions; so that he was either disappointed in his Scheme, or else, as Sir George thought, had never really formed any such Design. As to this Warrior, he was so far from be|ing in his Favour, that he had sent Word to Sir George Yeardley, some time before, that he should be content, if his Throat were cut. Yet he being a popular Man, and much lamented by the Indians, Opechancanough pretended, the bet|ter to enflame and exasperate them, to be much grieved at his Death, and was very loud, at first, in his Threats of Revenge. But the Reason and Justice of the thing being evinced, and receiving also some stern and resolute Answers from the English, he cunningly dissembled his Intent for the present, and treated a Messenger, sent to him about the Middle of March, with extreme Civility and Kindness; assuring him, that he held the Peace so firm, that the Sky should fall sooner, than it should be violated on his Part. And such was the Treachery and Dissimulation of the rest of the Indians, that, but two Days before, they kindly conducted the English through the Woods, and sent home one that lived among them, to learn their Language. Nay, on the very Morning of that fatal Day, as also the Even|ing before, they came, as at other times, unarmed into the Houses of the English, with Deer, Turkies, Fish, Fruits, and other things to sell; and in some Places, sat down to Breakfast with them. Yet so general was the Combination, and their Plot so well laid, to cut off the whole Colony, in one Day, and at the same Instant, that they had all Warn|ing, one from another, through all their Habitations, though far distant from each other, and every Party and Nation had their Stations appointed, and Parts assigned, at the Plan|tations of the English, some being directed to one Place, and some to another.

THE English, on the other hand, were by this Beha|viour, as well as on other Accounts, lulled into a fatal Se|curity. They thought the Peace sure and inviolable, not so much because of their solemn Promises and Engage|ments, Page  210 as because it was highly useful and necessary to the Indians themselves. For those poor, weak and naked Bar|barians were, every way, advantaged by the English. By the Peace, they were safely sheltered and defended from all other Enemies; they were supplied with several necessary Tools and Utensils, and other Commodities of Pleasure and Entertainment; they were something acquainted with, and got a Taste of Civil Life; and were besides no ways in a Condition, to withstand an English War, because of the Superiority of their Arms, the Advantage of their Disci|pline and native Courage, and their greater Skill in all mili|tary Arts and Stratagems. The English had likewise ever treated them, with the utmost Humanity and Kindness, out of the Hope and Desire, of thereby alluring and bringing them over, to the Knowledge of God and his true Religion. For nothing was more earnestly recommended from En|gland, or more heartily desired and endeavoured by many good and pious Persons of the ••lony, than their Conver|sion; which, agreeably to the Spirit of the Gospel, and of the Protestant Religion, and greatly to the Honour of our Nation, was always pursued, by the Ways of Gentlene•• and Persuasion, and never by those unchristian Arguments of Fire and Sword. On all these Accounts, the English were so confident and secure, that there could seldom be 〈◊〉 with, in their Houses, a Sword or a Firelock, and most of their Plantations were seated in a scattered and straggling Manner, as a convenient Situation, or a choice Vein of rich Land invited them; and indeed it was generally thought, the further from Neighbours the better. All Indians were kindly received into their Houses, fed at their Tables, and even lodged in their Bedchambers; so that they seemed, entirely to have coalesced, and to live together, as 〈◊〉 People. And the English were so far infatuated, by 〈◊〉 Opinion of their Simplicity, and of their Inclination, and even Interest, to maintain the Peace, that they lent them their Boats, as they passed backwards and forwards, to con|cert their Measures, and to consult upon the execrable De|sign of murdering and utterly extirpating the whole Nation.

THE Hour appointed be••g come, and the Indians, by reason of their Familiarity, knowing exactly, in what Places and Quarters every Englishman was to be found, rose upon them at once, sparing neither Sex nor Age, Man, Woman, nor Child; and they were so quick and sudden in their Execution, that few perceived the Weapon or Blow, that brought them to their End. Some entered their Houses, under Colour of Trade; others drew them abroad, upon specious Pretences; whilst the rest fell suddenly oPage  211 those, that were at their several Works and Labours. And thus, in one Hour, and almost at the same Instant, fell three hundred and forty seven, Men, Women, and Chil|dren; most of them, by their own Tools and Weapons, and all, by the Hands of a perfidious, naked, and dastardly People, who durst not stand the presenting of a Staff, in Manner of a Firelock, nor an uncharged Piece, in the Hands of a Woman. Neither were they content with their Lives only; but they fell again upon their dead Bodies, de|facing, dragging, and mangling them into many Pieces, and carrying some Parts away, with a base and brutish Tri|umph.

IN this Havock, six of the Council were slain. For those Blood-hounds, with equal Spight and Barbarity, mur|dered all before them, without any Remorse or Pity, and without having any Regard to Dignity, or even to those Persons who were best known to them, or from whom they had daily received many Benefits. Among these was that pious, worthy, and religious Gentleman, Mr. George Thorpe, Deputy to the College Lands, and both in Com|mand and Desert, one of the Principal in Virginia. He had been of the King's Bed-Chamber, and was a Person of considerable Figure in England. Yet so truly and earnestly did he affect their Conversion, that he left all at home, and came over chief Manager to the College, a Foundation designed for their Education and Conversion. And here he severely punished, whosoever, under him, did them the least Displeasure. He thought, nothing too dear or precious for them, nor ever denied them any thing. Insomuch that, being frightened at the English Mastives, he caused some of them to be killed in their Presence, to the great Grief of their Owners, and would fain have had all the rest gelt, to make them mild and peaceable. He also built the King handsome House, after the English Fashion; in which he took such Pleasure, especially in the Lock and Key, that he would lock and unlock his Door, an hundred Times a Day, and was so taken with the Device, that he thought nothing in the World comparable to it. And thus insinuating him|self into that Barbarian's Favour, he would often confer with him about Religion; and that treacherous Infidel would seem much pleased with his Discourse and Compa|ny, and very desirous to requite all 〈◊〉 Courtesy and Kind|ness. Yet did this ungrateful and viperous Brood, not only murder this good Gentleman, but with such Spight and Scorn abuse his dead Corps, as is unfit to be heard, or re|lated. At the very Minute of the Execution, his Man, perceiving some Treachery, warned him to look to himself▪ Page  212 and withal ran off, and so saved his own Life. But his Master, out of his good Meaning, was so void of Suspicion, and full of Confidence, that they had slain him before he could, or would believe, they intended any Harm. Captain Nathaniel Powel, another of the Council, who had some time been Governor of the Country, was also killed. He was one of the first Planters, a brave Soldier, had deserved well in all Ways, was universally valued and esteemed by all Parties and Factions, and none in the Country better known among the Indians. Yet they slew both him and his Family; and afterwards haggled their Bodies, and cut off his Head, to express their utmost Height of Scorn and Cruelty.

THIS Slaughter was a deep and grievous Wound to the yet weak and Infant Colony; but it would have been much more general, and almost universal, if God had not put it into the Heart of a convertd Indian, to make a Discovery. This Convert, whose Name was Chanco, lived with one Richard Pace, who treated him, as his own Son. The Night before the Massacre, another Indian, his Brother, lay with him; and telling him the King's Command, and that the Execution would be performed the next Day, he urged him to rise and kill Pace, as he intended to do by Perry, his Friend. As soon as his Brother was gone, the Christian Indian rose, and went and revealed the whole Matter to Pace; who immediately gave Notice thereof to Captain William Powel, and having secured his own House, rowed off before Day to Iames-Town, and informed the Governor of it. By this Means, their Design was pre|vented at Iames-Town, and all such Plantations, as could possibly get Intelligence in time. For where-ever they saw the English upon their Guard, or a single Musket presented, they ran off, and abandoned their Attempt.

SUCH also, at other Places, as had sufficient Warning to make Resistance, saved their Lives. Nathaniel Causie, one of Captain Smith's old Soldiers, being cruelly wounded, did, with an Ax, cleave down one of their Sculls; and tho' they were all about him, yet they fled away, and he escaped. At another Place, two Men only, having Notice of their Design, defended a House against sixty or more, that assaulted it. At Warrasqueake, one Mr. Baldwin, when his Wife was so wounded, that she lay for dead, yet by often discharging his Piece, drove them off, and saved both her and his House, together with himself and divers others. At Mr. Harrison's, about half a Mile from Bald|win's, was Mr. Thomas Hamer, with six Men, and eigh|teen or nineteen Women and Children. To him the In|diansPage  213 came, with many Presents and fair Professions. They pretended, they wanted Captain Ralph Hamer, to go to their King, then hunting n the Woods. Mr. Hamer sent immediately for his Brother, who was at a new House, he was then building. But he not coming according to their Wish, they set Fire to a Tobacco House, and came and told them in the Dwelling House of it. The Men ran to|wards it; and the Indians following, first shot them full of Arrows, and afterwards beat out their Brains. Mr. Hamer, having finished a Letter he was writing, ran out to see what was the Matter. But he soon received an Arrow in his Back, which obliged him to retire into the House, and barricade the Doors. Hereupon the Indians set Fire to the House; but Harrison's Boy, just at that Instant, finding his Master's Gun loaded, shot at Random. At the bare Report, the Indians all fled; and thereby left the Way open, to Mr. Hamer and twenty two more, to get to Bald|win's House. Captain Ralph Hamer, all this while, was wholly ignorant of what was passing; but coming to his Brother, who had sent for him, he met the Indians, cha|sing some of the English Whereupon he retired to his new House, and with only Spades, Axes, and Brickbats, defended himself and his Company, till the Savages depart|ed. Soon after, the Master of a Ship, lying near, and per|ceiving the Confusion, sent him six Musketeers; with whom he recovered their Merchant's Store-house, and armed ten more; and so, with thirty other unarmed Workmen, he found out his Brother and the rest, at Baldwin's. But in the Midst of this miserable Slaughter and Uproar, a little House and small Family, not far from Martin's Hundred, at which Place alone seventy three were slain, not only escaped, but never heard any thing of it, till two Days after.

AT this time also, Captain Ralegh Croshaw was in Pa|towmack River, trading in a small Bark, commanded by Captain Spilman. There an Indian stole aboard, and told them of the Massacre; and that Opechancanough had been practising with his King and Country, to betray them, which they refused to do; but that the Indians of Wighcocomoco had undertaken it. Hereupon Captain Spilman went thither▪ But they, seeing his Men so vigilant and well armed, sus|pected themselves to be discovered; and therefore, the bet|ter to colour their Guilt, and delude him, they gave him such Satisfaction in his Trade, that his Vessel was soon near loaded. After this, Captain Croshaw went up to Patow|mack. He had been long acquainted with that King; who now very earnestly entreated him, to stay with him, and to e his Friend, his Director, and Captain, against several Page  214 neighbouring Nations, his mortal Enemies. Croshaw very readily embraced his Offer; as well to promote some pri|vate Views of his own in Trade, as to keep him firm to the English Interest, and make him an useful Opponent and In|strument against Opechancanough. Therefore, relying on the Faith of this Barbarian, he ventured, with one Man only, to stay behind at Patowmack.

IN the Beginning of this Year, before the Contrivance and Perpetration of this bloody Conspiracy in Virginia, the unknown Gentleman in England, who had given five hun|dred and fifty Pounds, towards the Conversion and Educa|tion of Indian Children, having waited two Years, and re|ceived no satisfactory Account of the effectual Prosecution of his Design, wrote a Letter to the Company. Herein he complains, that what was done in that Affair, did by no means answer his Expectation or Intent. And he requires, of the whole Body of the Company, towards which he ex|presses much Respect, and an entire Confidence in their Uprightness and Integrity, that, as he had entrusted the Dis|posal of that Money, a great and painfully gotten Part of his Estate, to their Care and Management, so they would see the same, speedily and faithfully applied, to the Use intended. And he further proposed to them, the procuring some of th male Children of the Indians to be brought over into En|gland (where they might be immediately under the Com|pany's Eye and Inspection) there to be educated and taught, and to wear a Habit, as the Children of Christ-Church Hos|pital do. In that Case, he desires, that the five hundred and fifty Pounds might be converted to that Use; and e faithfully promises, to add four hundred and fift Pound more, to make the former Sum a thousand, as soon 〈◊〉 eight or ten Indian Children should be placed in London, either in Christ's-Hospital, or in the Virginia School or Hos|pital, as it might be called; which, he doubted not, would be Yearly augmented, by the Legacies and Gifts of good Men. But if they liked not this Proposition, then it wa his humble Suit and Motion, that the former Gift, of five hundred and fifty Pounds, should be immediately applied, and wholly bestowed, upon a Free-school in Southampt•• Hundred, or such other Place, as he or his Friends should approve: That in this School, properly endowed with suc Privileges, as they, in their Wisdom, should think fit, both English and Indians should be promiscuously taught and brought up together; and that great Care should be taken, to send over such a Master, as should bring a found Testi|monial, of his Sufficiency in Learning, and Sincerity of Life. And so praying, that the Lord would give them wise anPage  215 understanding Hearts, that his Work herein might not be negligently performed, he concludes, and subscribes himself Dust and Ashes; a Name which he had ever, from the first, assumed and made Use of, in this Affair.

THIS important Letter being read in Court, Sir Edwin Sandys gave the Company a particular Account of that whole Business: That the Money had been brought, in the Time of his being Treasurer: That, upon mature Deli|beration, it was resolved by the Company, to divide it be|tween Smith's, since called Southampton Hundred, and Mar|tin's Hundred; each to undertake for a certain Number of Infidel Children: That Martin's Hundred, being then in a very weak and confused Condition, was afterwards, at the Entreaty of the Adventurers, eased from that Burthen and Charge, and the Whole laid on Southampton Hundred: That that Society, considering the Weight and Difficulty, as well as the Hazard of succeeding, were also very unwilling to meddle with it, and offered an hundred Pounds, to be added to the former five hundred and fifty, if they might be ex|cused from it; but being earnestly pressed, they did at last yield to accept and undertake it: That after much and careful Consultation, it was agreed by that Society, to em|ploy the said Money, together with a far greater Sum out of the Society's Purse, to furnish out Captain Bluet, with eighty able and sufficient Workmen, for setting up an Iron-Work in Virginia; whereof the Profits accruing, were in|tended and ordered, in a ratable Proportion, to be faith|fully employed, in educating thirty Indian Children, ac|cording to the Directions and Intent of the Donor: That Letters were likewise sent to Sir George Yeardley, then Go|vernor of Virginia, and Captain also of Southampton Plan|tation; not only giving him large Advice and Direction therein, but also commending the Excellency and Piety of the Design, and adjuring him to employ his utmost Care and Industry in it, as a Work, whereon the Eyes of God and Men were fixed: That in Answer hereto, Sir George informed them, how difficult it was to obtain any of the Children, with the Consent and good Liking of their Pa|rents; as well on Account of their Tenderness and Fond|ness of them, as out of their Fear of hard Usage from the English: That he therefore recommended a Treaty with Opechancanough; which was accordingly ordered, and Sir George promised, to use his utmost Endeavours therin▪ That this Backwardness and Jealously of the Indians was not the only Hindrance to that pious Work; for Captain Blu•• dying soon after his Arrival, it occasioned another great Stop▪ That, however, Care had since been taken, to restore that Page  216 Iron-Work, by a fresh Supply; so that he hoped, the Gen|tleman would soon receive good Satisfaction, concerning the Disposal and Effect of his Charity, as he was sure, they would, at all times, be both ready and willing to give a faithful Account of the Employment of the said Money.

SIR Edwin Sandys further said, that as he could not but highly commend the Gentleman, for this his worthy and most christian Action, so he had observed great Inconveni|ency to arise from his Modesty, by shunning Ostentation and vain Glory, and concealing his Name. For they were there|by deprived of that mutual Help and Advice, which they might otherwise have, by Conference with him. Neither could he receive such clear Satisfaction, or fully know, with what Integrity and Care, the Affair had been managed; the Success whereof must be submitted to the Will and Pleasure of Almighty God, as it had been already commended to his Blessing. But as to the two Methods, now proposed in his Letter, he doubted greatly for his Part, whether either of them would attain the desired Effect. For, to send for them to England, would be far from answering the End, if he might judge from the Experience of those, brought over by Sir Thomas Dle. And to build a Free-school for them in Virgini, he feared, considering, in their presnt Dotage on Tobacco, that no proper Workmen could be had, but at excessive Rates, it would rather tend to exhaust this sacred Treasure in some small Edifice, than to accomplish such a Foundation, as might satisfy Mens Expectations and Desires. He therefore again wished, that a Meeting might be had, between the Gentleman, or his Friends, and the Society of Southampton Hundred. That so, all things being fully de|bated, and judiciously weighed, some Course might be en|tered upon and pursued, for advancing and bringing to Effect so pious and excellent a Work; for which he prayed the Blessing of Almighty God to be upon the Author: And all the Company answered, and said, Amen.

BUT this charitable Gentleman, however studious he was to conceal himself, was afterwards (if any Credit may be given to Captain Martin's Report) found to be Mr. Ga|briel Barber, the chief Manager and Book-keeper of their Lotteries, and a very worthy, honest, and useful Member of the Company. He was himself then present, and heard this Account, with which he seems to have been satisfied. For he made no farther Demand or Stir in the Matter; but continued afterwards, in the time of their subsequent Quar|rels and Dissensions, a very hearty and strenuous Friend to the Company. Mr. George Ruggles also, Fellow of Clare-Hall, in Cambridge, and a Brother of the Company, did, Page  217 the latter End of this Year, notwithstanding the News of the Massacre, bequeath an hundred Pounds, for the Educa|tion of Indians. He is represented as a Gentleman, who was esteemed, in that University, second to none in Knowledge and Learning, of very great Wisdom and Understanding, of singular Honesty and Integrity of Life, and very sincere and zealous 〈◊〉••ligion. And he had, for the three last Years of his Life, almost wholly exercised and employed his Time and Abilities, in the Service of the Colony. For, be|sides the Counsels and Assistances of himself and his Brethren, in their several Places, he wrote divers Treatises, for the Benefit of the Plantation; particularly one concerning the Government of Virginia, which is often mentioned, in the Company's Records, with Commendation, especially by Sir Edwin Sandys.

BUT there succeeding, immediately upon this violent and injurious Assault, a continual and exterminating War be|tween the English and the Indians, all the Difficulties of their Conversion were greatly encreased; and I do not find, what farther was done, with Relation to these Benefactions. The College People also received a great and deadly Slaughter in the Massacre; which, together with the 〈◊〉 of Mr. Thorpe, their grand Principle of Life and 〈◊〉, caused them to abandon the College Lands, and to retire lower down the River, to such Places as were more defensible against the sudden Assaults and Inroads of the Indians, be|cause of the greater Numbers of People, and the nearer Situation, and more ready Assistance, of other Plantations. Thus did that brutish and unhappy People tear up, as it were, with their own Hands, the Foundations, which had been laid, for their Conversion to Christianity and Civility of Life. For altho' the Company, in London, did after|wards frequently enter upon serious Consultation, about re|storing again and setting forward this charitable Work, yet by reason of their own Troubles, and of the Factions and Discords among themselves, nothing therein was ever brought to Effect. So that, from this time, there was no publick Attempt, nor any School or Institution, purposely designed for their Education and Conversion, before the Benefaction of the late Honourable Robert Boyle, Esq which shall be fully related, in its proper Time and Place.

BUT whilst the Colony in Virginia lay under the Pressure and Calamity of this bloody Massacre, the Company in En|gland were greatly rejoiced and encouraged, by the favour|able Account of things, which they received, about that time, from the Governor and Council. For they were in|formed, by their Letters, that all the Ships were safely arrived, Page  218 without the Loss of one Person, by Sea or Land; that Mr. Iohn Berkeley had put the Iron Works in so good a For|wardness, that he doubted not to begin to make Iron, by Whitsuntide; that the Cotton Trees prospered exceedingly well; that the Frenchmen declared the Mulberry Trees of Virginia to be of the very best Kind; and daily, by their Example, encouraged the People to plant them in Abun|dance, so that they were in high Expectation, of shortly succeeding in, and bringing to Perfection, that rich Com|modity of Silk; that the French Vignerons had conceived great Hopes, of speedily making Plenty of good Wine, whereof they had already made an Experiment, and sent home a Taste by that Ship; and in short, that they now had a fairer Prospect, and more certain Hope, than ever yet, of soon becoming a rich and flourishing Country. For which joyful News, and happy Success, the Company voted and resolved, that a Sermon should be preached, to testify and express their Thankfulness to God, for his Blessing on their Labours and Undertaking. And Mr. Copeland, a Bro|ther of the Society, who, by his hearty Zeal for the En|terprise, was well acquainted with the Success of their Af|fairs, for the last Year, was requested to undertake the Performance of this holy Exercise; which he accordingly did, at Bow Church, the 17th Day of April.

MR. Copeland was also himself, soon after, publickly en|treated by the Company, to go over in Person to Virginia, and to apply himself to the Ministry there. And in Con|sideration of his good Services and worthy Endeavours, which had redounded much to the Honour and Benefit of the Colony, as also in Respect of his known Sufficiency and Worth, they constituted him one of the Council of State, and appointed him Rector of the College for the Conversion of Indians, to receive, as a Salary, the tenth Part of the Profits arising from their Lands and the Labours of their Tenants; and also to have the Pastoral Charge of the College Tenants about him, which were to be erected into a Par|sonage, according to the Company's general Order in that Behalf. But this Design, together with all their sanguine Hopes and Ideas of an immediately rich and prosperous Country, was dashed to Pieces and cut off, by the Massa|cre. The Iron-Work on Falling Creek, in particular, was entirely ruined and demolished, and Mr. Iohn Berkeley slain, with all his Workmen and People, except one Boy only and a Girl, who found Means to hide themselves, and escape. Their Preparations likewise, for other Commodi|ties and Manufactures, were quite destroyed and deserted; the People, all this Summer, being in such a State of Ter|ror Page  219 and Flight, that they did not even make Corn for their Support and Subsistence.

TO this sad Posture of Affairs in the Colony, was added the continual Increase of the Company's Dissensions and A|nimosities at home, which became daily more furious and irreconcileable. Captain Argall and that Faction, omitted no imaginable Methods of Vexation and Trouble; and the more to disparage and perplex the Company's Proceedings, they were perpetually raising new Authors and fresh Sub|jects of Complaint, as well to the Publick, as most espe|cially to the King, and to the great Lords and powerful Persons of his Court. It hath been already said, that Cap|tain Iohn Martin came over, one of the Council of State, in the first Adventure; and there hath been frequent Oc|casion since, to mention his weak Conduct and Behaviour here. This Gentleman was well born, and nearly related to Sir Iulius Caesar, then Master of the Rolls. In the Time of Sir Thomas Smith's Treasurership, he had surreptitiously obtained a Grant, to be Master of the Ordinance in Vir|ginia; as also a most extravant and illegal Patent for Land, at the Place, which he himself named Martin's Brandon. For, by the express Words of his Majesty's Charter, the Company was restrained to their four great and general Quarter Courts, one to be held each Term, for transacting any Business of great Importance, and particularly for grant|ing Lands in Virginia. But both these Grants, to Captain Martin, had been passed in a private Court, called purposely for that Jobb, and could never after reeive the Assent and Confirmation of a Quarter Court. For the Company, be|ing apprised of the Matter, strongly opposed their Execu|tion, and endeavoured to keep them from taking Effect. Captain Argall in particular, when Governor of Virginia, had sent home grievous Complaints, against the Exorbitan|ties of Martin's Patent and Behaviour; and both Sir Tho|mas Smith and Alderman Iohnson, at that time Treasure and Deputy of the Company, had been willing and assisting, to stop and prevent these Grants from being further con|firmed, and receiving the legal Sanction of a Quarter Court.

BUT now, the Company's witholding Captain Martinrom the Fruition of those Privileges and Immunities, which appeared to have been granted under their Seal, being, at first Sight, a specious Pretence of Clamour and Complaint, which might be turned to disgrace and vilify the Justice and Honour of their Proceedings, these very Gentlemen insti|gated and assisted him, to get a Certificate under the Hands, of several noble Lords, and others, and to have it delivered in to the Company, by one Captain Haswell. The Pur|port Page  220 of this Writing was: That whereas Iohn Martin Esq having been a long and faithful Servant to the Colony of Virginia, desired a Testimonial of his Carriage and De|meanor in all things, according to their Knowledge and the Truth, they did thereby certify: That, by the general Consent of his Majesty's Council in England, for Virginia▪ the said Captain Iohn Martin was, in the Face of the pub|lick and open Court, elected, chosen, and sworn, one of his Majesty's first Council of Virginia: That afterwards, in the said honourable and open Court, he was, with the free and full Consent thereof, appointed, chosen, and sworn, Master of the Ordinance in the said Colony: That, besides his first Adventure, which was very laudable and good, he had, ever since, constantly and very worthily en|dured all the Miseries and Calamities of fore-past Times, with the Loss of his Blood, the Death of his only Son (the sole Hope and Comfort of his Age) together with Sickness, Famine, and many other inexpressibly hard and misrable Sufferings: That he had also providently and very careful|ly endeavoured all the Good and Benefit to the Plantation▪ that was in his Power; in all things, upholding and labour|ing to maintain, with equal Justice and lemency, all 〈◊〉 Majesty's Laws, Prerogatives, and Rights whatsoever: That for these honest and worthy Services, They, tho Com|pany and Council for his Majesty, resident in England, hd formerly granted him sundry Privileges, by Charter under their Great Seal, for settling a pri••te Plantation upon his own Allotment of Land in Virginia; wherein he had since proceeded with much Charge and Expence, and for which they neither saw nor knew any Reason, why he should not be permitted to enjoy the same, according to the true Intent and Meaning of his said Grant.

THIS Certificate was signed by the Earls of Pembroke, Warwick, Leicester, and Montgomery, by Lord Sheffield, Sir Robert Mansel, Sir Thomas Smith, Alderman Iohnson, Captain Argall, and a few others, to the Number of twelve in all. Being presented to the Company, they conceived themselves much wronged and affronted, that a few Mem|bers of their Body should, in this Paper, assume to them|selves the Name and Authority of the whole Company; stiling themselves, We, the Company and Council for his Majesty, here resident in England. And they found them|selves under a Necessity of doing something, to avoid the foul Aspersion, contained therein, as if they now went a|bout to disavow their own Act and Deed; as also to pre|vent the evil Consequences, that might follow, and the ill Constructions, that might be made thereon. Being there|fore Page  221 fully apprised, that some of the Lords, and others, had been mislead and betrayed into it, by the false Representa|tions and malicious Practices of the rest, they drew up an Answer, and ordered their Secretary to make divers Copie thereof, which they entreated Sir Iohn Davers and Mr. Tomlins, to deliver, as well to such Lords as had signed the Certificate, as also to his Majesty's Masters of Request. For, by representing Captain Martin, as labouring to main|tain the King's Laws, Prerogatives, and Rights (a Stil exactly suited to the Taste and Views of the Court) it was easy to perceive, which Way it was chiefly intended and addressed. But as to the other Subscribers, the Secretary was commanded, to deliver each of them a Copy himself.

IN this Answer they set forth: That the Company are limited and directed, by his Majesty's Charters, to their Quarter Courts only, for passing of all Matters of greatest Weight, and particularly for disposing of Lands in Virginia: That, contrary to this fundamental Law, notoriously known to all the Company, and frequently published and declared to the Planters, as an Ordinance from his Majesty to be in|violably observed, Captain Martin's two Grants were pre|sented to an inferior private Court, ready engrossed, the Company not being before acquainted with the Matter: That by this Court, called extraordinarily, and as it seems, for this Business only, the said Patents were unlawfully and unduly passed, notwithstanding the Dissent and Opposition of divers then present; and that they never could after|wards have the Confirmation of a Quarter Court: That the said Patent for Land contained sundry transcendent Li|berties and exorbitant Privileges, apparently repugnant to Justice and the good Government of the Colony, and which the Company, by his Majesty's Charters, had no Power to grant: That therein was given an Exemption of all the People within the Limits of his Patent, from the Command and Government of the Governor and Council, and from all other Charges and Services of the Colony whatsoever, except in Case of War only; as likewise a Grant of an unlimited Fishing, of the fifth Part of all rich Mines, with many other general and indefinite Liberties: That, under Colour of these extraordinary Privileges, ma|ny great Inconveniencies had arisen, to both the Company and Colony: That Captain Martin refused to submit him|self to the Laws and Orders of Government there: That his Plantation was made a Receptacle and Harbour for all dissolute Persons, who fly thither from ordinary Justice: That all these, and many other Mischiefs, had been ofte complained of by the Colony, in their particular and gene|ral Page  222 Assemblies; as also by the Governors there, and mo•• especially by Captain Argall, notwithstanding his Subscrip|tion to this Certificate: That, upon his Letter to the Com|pany, an Order was made, in a Great and General Quarter Court, held in May 1618, and a Committee appointed, to examine and reform the said Patent: That Sir Thomas Smith and Alderman Iohnson then presided, as Treasurer and Deputy to the Company; so that it seemed strange to them, to find their Hands also to that Certificate, contra|dicting the Act of that Great Court, wherein themselve were the principal Managers and Directors: That the said Inconveniencies had moreover been lately testified, by several Persons, before the Company, in open Court: But that the Company had nevertheless frequently offered, and was alway ready to grant Captain Martin (whose Merits they should be glad to hear of, and to cherish) upon the Surrender of his former, a new Patent, with as large and ample Privi|leges, as any other had, or could enjoy.

NOTWITHSTANDING the Truth, Justice, and Rea|sonableness of this Answer, Captain Martin preferred a Petition to the King, containing many scandalous Sugges|tions, as well against the whole Body of the Company, 〈◊〉 against some special Members in particular. And he ob|tained an Order from his Majesty, to have his Cause hear and determined, at Sir Thomas Smith's House, before uc Referees, as he himself named; among which were those, who chiefly instigated and set him on. In Answer to this▪ the Company made two Addresses; one to the Referees, i like Manner as they had done in the Case of the Certifi|cate; and the other to the King, as well to clear the Com|pany and such particular Persons, as stood accused and d|famed in Martin's Petition, as also to inform his Majesty▪ that some of those, unto whom the Reference was procu|red, were violently suspected, to be Captain Martin's chief Abettors and Supporters in this Affair. They therefor desired, that the Matter might be referred, together with those Lords in Martin's Reference, to certain other Lords of the Privy Council, whom they named. But upon Lord Cavendish's presenting this, his Majesty said, that he was much surprised at this new Custom, lately sprung up, that Petitioners should chuse their own Referees. To which his Lordship answered; that, in that Point, Captain Martin had been their Example, who in his Petition, which his Lordship then produced and shewed his Majesty, had named his own Referees, which his Majesty had approved and ap|pointed accordingly.

Page  223BUT not content to give the Company this Trouble and Disturbance, Captain Martin, together with one Captain Robert Haswell, presented another Petition to his Majesty, setting forth: That in the Time of Sir Thomas Dale's Government, there was a large Quantity of Woodland, Marsh, and other Ground, being in Circumference by Estimation about fourscore Miles, for which Sir Thomas Dale compounded with Powhatan, the Indian King, and bounded the same by Trees, and other Marks of perpetual Knowledge and Remembrance, with a solemn Procession of many of his Majesty's Subjects, then and there living, com|manding Notice to be taken thereof, to be, and always so called and entitled, The King's Forest: That within the said Forest, there was of Deer and wild Hogs a very grea Number; which being preserved, with Care and Judgment, from the Spoil and Havock, which continually was, and would be made, both of them and their Brood, the Colony might therein have a constant Stock and Support, and Ship|ping might, at all times, be plentifully victualled and sup|plied: And that there were besides, within those Limits, many other profitable Commodities, already known. They therefore humbly besought his most sacred Majesty, to take the said Forest into his own Royal Hands, and to appoint some honourable Person, to be Commander thereof, autho|rising him, to giv Order for converting the Plantations thereon to his Majesty's best Use and Behoof, and for ap|pointing a Justice of Oyer, and Rangers, with such other Officers, as should be thought most proper and convenien for the said Forest and Plantation.

To such a Height of Falshood, Fraud, and Imposture, did the Passions of these unhappy Men carry them, as thu to give the King at once, as far as it was in their Power, all the Lands and Possessions of a very great and principal Part of the Colony; who had, by their Labours and Suf|ferings, struck out new Branches of Trade and Profit to the King and Nation, and well deserved all Manner of In|dulgence, and the utmost Security and Stability in their Properties. But King Iames was not of a Temper, to forego any Views of Profit and Advantage. He therefore referred the Examination of the Matter to Sir Christopher Perkins, one of the Masters of Requests; who summoning the Company, received for Answer:

THAT they held not their Lands from King Powhatan, nor acknowledged any King of Virginia, but King Iames: That it was true, for a perpetual Memorial and permanent Honour to his Majesty and his Royal Issue, they had named their chief Towns, and other most remarkable Places, after Page  224 the King and his Children: That they however supposed, this did no way alter the Property of Inheritance in those Places, which his Majesty, by Letters-patent under the Great Seal of England, had granted to the said Company, for and throughout all Virginia: That as to the King' Forest, it was a Name happily known to Captain Martin and his Associates, but never before heard of by the Com|pany: That within the Circuit, which they had been pleased to appropriate for the Forest, were placed Iames-City, their chief Town, and Place of Residencefor the Go|vernor and Council, and divers other principal Seats and Plantations: That as for the Deer, it was true, the whole Country did generally abound in them; but the Swine were no other, but the Breed of such as had been transported thither by the Company: That Captain Martin was a Per|son, who had ruined his own Estate, (if ever he had any) a also the Estates of others, who had put him in Trust: That he made his Territory in Virginia a Receptacle of Vagabonds and Bankrupts; and was famous for nothing▪ but all Kinds of base Conditions and Actions, as had been published in Print, above ten Years before: That he had been therefore displaced from the Council, by Lord Dela|warr, as a most unworthy Person, who had presumed, of his own Authority, no ways derived from his Majesty, to pass unjust Sentence of Death upon divers of his Majesty' Subjects, and to see the same put into cruel Execution: That it was therefore a Matter of great Surprise to them, to find such a Man dare to offer himself to his Majesty, as an Agent, either for Matter of good Husbandry, or goo Government: That as to Captain Haswell, he was nei|ther Adventurer in the Company, nor Planter in the Colo|ny, but a mere Stranger to both; nor otherwise known to them, than as Interpreter to a Polonian Lord, of his own creating: That however, if the King was pleased, to have a Royal Domain laid off for him in Virginia, nothing could be more joyful and agreeable to the said Council and Com|pany, nor wherein they would more willingly employ their Endeavours.

AT the same time, Mr. Pierce, who had been Cape-Merchant in Virginia, understanding, that Captain Martin denied, that he ever protected any within his Territories, averred, that he had delivered several Warrants, to be served upon Persons, that lived loosely within Captain Martin's Plantation, and that the Provost Marshal made Return, that the said Captain Martin resisted the Officer, and drew Arms upon him, and would not suffer him to execute the said Warrants. Others also affirmed, that it Page  225 was generally reported in Virginia, hat Captain Martin's Plantation was a Place of Refuge for all Debtors; and that, if he had been of Power, there would have been no living in Virginia. To which Mr. Iefferson added; that, to his Knowledge, Captain Martin, being summoned, had refused to obey the General Assemblies. All which, they all declared themselves to be ready and willing, whenever required, to confirm and justify upon Oath. Wherefore, in a Case of this clear Evidence and Truth, Captain Mar|tin was not able to carry his Point against the Company. He was afterwards induced to deliver up his illegal Patent in open Court, to be cancelled; and Orders were given for drawing a new one, with as large and ample Privileges, as the Earl of Southampton, or any other Adventurer had. But when this was drawn, Captain Martin complained, that he was therein abridged of a great Quantity of Land, granted in his former Patent. For, in that, ten Shares were given him, in Reward of his Services; and he pre|tended, that each of those Shares ought to be five hun|dred Acres of Land; and he therefore claimed five thou|sand Acres. For this, he desired that Spot of Land, as h called it, at Martin's Brandon, where he had formerly eated, containing about six thousand Acres, with all Marshes and sunken Grounds thrown in, as an Overplus. But the Court, having never heard of any Shares of five hundred Acres, and finding it expresly directed by their Charters, that no Share should exceed an hundred Acres, absolutely refused to grant his Demand. However, to give him Satisfaction, if possible, they gave him to a cer|tain Day, to produce any Instance or Evidence, that there had ever been Shares of five hundred Acres; and promised, to shew him all lawful Favour. But he afterward per|versely demanded the Re-delivery of his old Patent; and the Court, being quite wearied out with his Obstinacy and Impertinence, gave him for their last and resolute Answer▪ That, if he would accept such a Patent, as they could law|fully grant, he might have it; but as for his old Patent, they could not deliver it to him again, being void, not so much by his Resignation, as by the Extravagance and Ille|gality of the Grant itself. Whereupon he went away, and never spared, upon all Occasions, to load many very wor|thy and deserving Members of the Company, with all pos|sible Scandal and Reproach. But at last he accepted the new Patent, and pretended to be fully reconciled to the Com|pany; and came to Virginia, with a Recommendation from the Privy Council, and by the▪ Means and Interposition, ven from the Company themselves; which Favour he Page  226 accordingly requited, by propagating and spreading through the Country all the Falshoods and Calumnies against them▪ that he could invent or utter.

BUT besides Captain Martin, some others were raise up and suborned, to give in Complaints to the King, against the Company. One Adam Dixon, in his Petition, pre|tended to have been hired, for the Service of the Company and Colony, as Master-Calker of their Ships and Vessels in Virginia, at thirty six Shillings a Month, and that having served them many Years, he only had received three Pounds thirteen Shillings; so that there was now due to him an hundred and fifty Pounds, or there-abouts: That Captain Argall also, in the time of his Government, had given him an one Iohn Berry a Piece of uncleared Ground▪ on which they had expended an hundred Pounds in a House; but that, con••ary to all Justice and Equity, they had b••n turned out of their said House and Ground, the former Yer, by Sir George Yeardley, to their great Dis|comfort and uttr Undoing. To this the Company an|swered: That the Matters of the said Petition were to them utterly unknown, that there was not, in their Book, the leas mention of any such Officer or Contract; nei|ther had they any Inducements, to believe it to be true: That if any such thing had passed, it must have been in Sir Thomas Smith's Time, to whom they referred him, for An|swer and Satisfaction: That as to the Outrage and Wrong▪ pretended to have been done by Sir George Yeardley, th Petitioner had never yet complained thereof to them; but they would take a Course for speedy Justice therein, by commending the Matter to the Care and Examination of the Governor and Council in Virginia. And the Affair wa accordingly examined and tried in our General Court, th 21st of Ianuary 1623-4. It then appeared, by the Oath of Thomas Gates and the said Adam Dixon, that they, to|gether with Iohn Berry and Thomas Dingley, were hired by Sir Thomas Smith, upon Wages, for a certain Term▪ that their Wages were not only never paid, but they them|selves were detained, many Years longer, in very hard Ser|vitude; and that at lst, to free themselves, they were obliged to give Captain Argall an Acquittance, under their Hands, for their Wages; without which, he threatened▪ they should never be set free. And they further swore▪ that Captain Argall kept them a Year after, in his ow proper Service, without any Allowance of either Wage or Cloaths. But I cannot find, in our Records, that they prosecuted or made any Complaint here, against Sir Georg Yardly, about their House and Land.

Page  227ONE William Kemp also presentd a Complaint to his Majesty, of the Grievances of certain Inhabitants of Kic|quotan in Virginia; that William Iulian, Iohn Bush, and some others, ancient Planters and deserving Inhabitants of the best mechanical Trades, had been turned out of their lawful Possessions, by Sir George Yeardley, with many Cir|cumstances of Oppression and Cruelty. To which th Company answered: That the Parties, pretended to be wronged, had never made any Complaint to them: That Kemp had been in England above a Year, and had never laid the Matter before the Council and Company, where Justice might have been done: That he did not even pre|tend to have Authority from the Parties grieved, to exhibit this Complaint to his Majesty: That they therefore saw no Cause, to believe his Allegations to be true; but suspected him, rather to be set on by the Malice of others, than moved by his own Zeal for Right and Justice: That how|ever, according to their Custom in Causes of the like Na|ture, they would, by the first Opportunity, transmit thi Complaint to the Governor and Council in Virginia; that, if there appeared any Truth in any Part thereof, they might proceed, as well to the due Redress of the said Grie|vances, as to the condign Punishment of the Authors and Delinquents. And this Complaint appears, from our Re|cords, to have had this Foundation in Truth and Matter of Fact; that some Persons had set down, at Kicquotan, upon the publick Land of the Company, and were obliged, by the Governor and Council, to go off. But they how|ever had, either by this time or afterwards, (I cannot ex|ctly say which) Satifaction made them for their Clearing nd Improvements.

CAPTAIN Matthew Somers, who had returned to En|gland with his Uncle's Body, in the Year 1610, had, long before this, been a Prisoner in the King's Bench. From thence he often pelted and tiezed the Company, with an extravagant Demand for his Uncle's Adventure; and altho' something considerable in Adventure appeared, by their Books, to be due to Sir George Somers, yet they refused to pass it over to him, because he had an elder Brother in the Country, who was Heir at Law to Sir George, and he could not make sufficient Proof, that either his Uncle had be|queathed it by Will, or that his Brother had made over all his Right and Interest therein to him. In this time there|fore of presenting Petitions to the King, Captain Somers also preferred his; informing his Majesty: That Sir George So|mers was forced, by Stress of Weather, to save himself and Company, on the Islands of Bermudas, where he lost hiPage  228 Ship, and soon after, his Life: That he, the Petitioer▪ being his immediate Heir, and then present, built a small Bark, to convey his Company to England; and left thr•• Men, to continue the Possession of those Islands, in 〈◊〉 Majesty's Name: That the Virginia Company▪ hearin of this Discovery, challenged those Islands, as their Right▪ altho' they were above an hundred Leagues without th Limits of their Grant; and they sent a Governor, with Men, to take the Possession from his Majesty: That fi•••ing, the Petitioner's Men had, by their Industry, found Cake of Ambergrease of an hundred and sixty Pound Weight, the said Governor took it violently from them, for the Use of the Company, who sold it for twelve thou|sand Pounds, and likewise threatened Violence to the o Men, to make them confess more: That the said Compa|ny, shortly after, sold the said Islands to a particular Com|pany, for two thousand Pounds; and the poor Petitioner could never yet obtain any thing, either for his Adventur or otherwise, altho' he had long and often sollicited it, to his great Charge and utter Undoing: That these, and no other Comforts, could they, the ancient Adventurers, re|ceive from the Company; and therefore he humbly besought his Majesty, to take into Consideration his own Royal Righ•• therein, and to give Order for the Relief of him, the po•• Petitioner.

To this false and exaggerated Account of that Affair, thSomer-Islands Company gave in, for Answer, much the sam in Substance and Purport, as I have before related concern|ing it. And as for Captain Somers, they deny him to hav any just Pretence, to stile himself, either an ancient Adve|turer, or Planter. For he made a very short Abode there▪ and contrary to his Duty and Trust, returned suddenly to England, where he had ever since continued, without per|forming the least Service to either Plantation. They confes▪ that a Block of Ambergrease of very great Value was found▪ of which they got about a third Part; but were not able to deliver in an exact Account of its Worth, because Sir Tho|mas Smith, at that time Governor and Treasurer of their Company, had hitherto refused to give in any Account of their Treasury. And they further say, that they conceived the Right to that Ambergrease to be in the Virginia Com|pany, at whose Charge, and in whose Service, those thre Men had been set out and employed; but that they had nevertheless, since compounded with the Finders, so that non of them had any just Cause of Complaint, and least of all Captain Somers, who could have no Title or Pretence of In|terest therein.

Page  229As Captain Argall had been long and actively employed in Virginia, and was consequently well acquainted with most Persons and Passages there, he was strongly suspected to be at the Bottom of these Complaints and Petitions against the Company. They therefore, on their Part, resolved to pur|sue their Prosecution against him with greater Vigor; and they appointed a select Committee, to warn him perempto|rily to exhibit his Accounts, and to make a full and substan|tial Answer to such things, as the Company should charge him withal. But he, being a Man of good Sense and Ca|pacity, and of great Industry and Resolution, still soiled and perplexed their Proceedings, and gave them much Trou|ble and Annoyance, without their being able to bring him to any Account or Punishment, for all his unrighteous Gains and Extortions in Virginia.

CAPTAIN Samuel Each was sent, this Summer, in a large Ship of three or four hundred Tons, to build a Block|house or Fort, on those Banks which lie out in Iames River, near Blunt Point. This was designed, to command the Passage up the River; and it was judged, by divers of the Inhabitants, to be that, which ought first to be attempted, and would be most easily effected. Captain Each also, who was esteemed a very honest and skilful Man, having viewed the Place, when in Virginia, thought the thing very feasible. But this Undertaking, like many others, ended with great Charge to the Company, and without any real Effect o Advantage. However, in this Ship went over the Lady Wyat, and Mr. Barret, a Master-Shipwright, (whom Cap|tain Smith calls Captain Barwick) with twenty five Men, to build Ships and Boats, together with many House-car|penters for the East-India School, and other Uses. All these Persons, for publick Services, were sent in the common Method, used ever since the Company's Fund was exhaust|ed, by the voluntary Subscription of the Adventurers to a Roll. And I likewise find, that one Mr. Howe, who stile himself a Chronicler, made a Demand upon the Company, about this time, for twelve Pounds of Tobacco; which, he said, had been promised him annually, in Consideration of his Pains and Willingness to serve the Company, and to relate, in his Book, the several Passages concerning Vir|ginia. They granted him his Pension for that Year, which he most thankfully accepted. But he either never perform|ed the Service, or is at least a Writer of that Obscurity and Insignificancy, that I neither know, nor can find any thing of him.

BEFORE the Election of Officers came on this Year▪ he Company, in a previous Court, expressed their greaPage  230 Satisfaction in the Earl of Southampton's Administration▪ and they made it their humblesire and Entreaty to 〈◊〉 Lordship, which was entered upon their Records, that 〈◊〉 would vouchsafe, to hold the Place of Treasurer, for o•• Year more. But the Earl of Southampton was very obnoxi|ous to the Court, on Account of his Principles of Liberty, and his bold and resolute Opposition to an excessive Prero|gative. The King therefore endeavoured once more, to put him out of the Government of the Company. For, at the time of Election, Alderman Hamersley and Mr. Bell deli|vered a Message, in his Majesty's Name, signifying: That altho' it was not his Design or Desire, to infringe their Free|dom of Election, yet it would be highly pleasing to his Ma|jesty, if they would make Choice, for Treasurer and Depu|ty, of any of those Gentlemen, whose Names were writte in a Paper, then presented to the Court. In this, Sir Iohn Wolstenholme, Sir William Russel, Mr. Clither••, Mr. Mau|rice Abbot, and Mr. Handford, were proposed to their Choic for Treasurer; and for Deputy, Mr. Leat, Mr. Robert Offley, Mr. Stiles, Mr. Abdy, and Mr. Bateman. The Company expressed great Joy and Satisfaction, for this Tes|timony of his Majesty's Notice and good Wishes to the Co|lony, and of his gracious Intention, not to infringe their Privilege of free Election. But because, by their Rules and Orders, three only at a time could stand for either of those Places, they first put it to the Vote, which two, of the five recommended by the King for Treasurer, should be put 〈◊〉 Election, with one, whom the Company should name. Mr. Clitheros and Mr. Handford were chosen to stand in E|lection, and the Company named the Earl of Southampon; who was, upon the Ballot, chosen by a vast Majority, he having an hundred and seventeen Balls, Mr. Clither•• thir|teen, and Mr. Handford seven. In like Manner, they chose Mr. Leat and Mr. Bateman, to stand for the Place of De|puty Treasurer, to whom the Company added Mr. Nicho|las Farrar, who was also elected, by having an hundred and three Balls, Mr. Bateman ten, and Mr. Leat eight.

THE Earl of Southampton was then absent; and indeed seems, purposly to have abstained from their Courts at such times, to shew, that these things were carried, not by any Art or Ambition of his own, but merely by the free Choice▪ and unbiassed Affection of the Company. But Mr. Nicho|las Farrar, being present, took his Place, as Deputy Trea|surer, and returned Thanks to the Company, for this ho|nourable Testimony of their Love and Esteem, wherein he should, all his Life, exceedingly glory and rejoice. And h farther declared his Sense of the Weight and Difficulty of thPage  231 Office, and of his own Inability. But not to trouble them with any self-denying Intreaties, he promised, to the Utmost of his Power, to perform the Chage they had laid upon him; and besought the Honourable the Lords, and the other worthy Gentlemen and Officers, with their Counsels to di|rect, and the whole Court, with their Presence to assist him, in the Execution of his Office. And, in particular, he de|sired them, to request his Brother, Mr. Iohn Farrar (in Confidence of whose Assistance and Direction, he well knew, they had chosen him) to continue the same Care and Pains▪ he had formerly done. Whereupon Mr. Iohn Farrar pro|mised, not to slack any thing of his former Zel and Dili|gence, in the Business; and the Company, in thankful Ac|knowledgement and Approbation of his great and fithful Servics, in the Place of Dputy-Treasurer, for the three last Years, bestowed upon him twenty Shares of Land, old Adventure. And they further ordered, that together with the Gift, it should be entered on their Records, that the Court conceived his Services and Merits to be so great, that had not their Liberality been bounded, within the Compass of twenty great Shares, they would, for him, have exceed|ed it with a much larger Proportion. And the same Quan|tity had also been bestowed upon Sir Edwin Sandys, in his Absence, the former Year, with a like honourable Testi|mony and Acknowledgment of his Services and Deserts.

THE Company also requested the Lords Cavendish, Pa|get, and Houghton, to present their most humble Thanks to his Majesty, for his Remembrance and good Wises to their Affairs; and to inform him, with what Reverenc and Respect, his Message was received; but that the Elec|tion had fallen upon the Earl of Southampton, with an al|most unanimous Consent, the Company having found, that the Plantation had prospered, each of the three last Years, more than in ten before; and that more had been done with ten thousand Pounds, than formerly with fourscore thousand. And they further conceived, that as their Staple Commodities were then in establishing and perfecting, and as the Government of the Country was to be settled and confirmed, equal Sufficiency, in their Governors and Di|rector, would not so much advance the Plantation, as the Variableness of Instructions and Methods, in the Change of Officers, proceeding from different Conceptions and Way of thinking, would prejudice and retard the Business▪ But his Majesty was not well pleased to find, that out of so large a Number▪ as were recommended by him, not one had been chosen; and he said, he conceived Merchants to be ••ttest▪ for the Management of such Undertakings, because Page  232 of their Experience and Skill in Stple Commodities. In Confirmation of which, he instanced Sir Thomas Smith's Government, in whose time many Staple Commodities had been set up, which were now lid down, and only Tobacco raised or attempted. To which Lord Cavendish replied, that in this, as well as many other Particulars, relating to the Company and their Proceedings, his Majesty had been very grosly misinformed; that the following Tobacco only, and neglecting all othr Staple Commodities, had been th Fruits of Sir Thomas Smith's and Alderman Iohnson's Go|vernment; but tht since, they had laboured, with all In|dustry, Care, and Diligence, to erect Iron-Works, plant Vinyards, make Silk, and raise other such valuable Com|modities, of some whereof, they hoped, shortly to give hi Majsty Proof; and he said, that since Sir Thomas Smith's Tim, the Colony had grown to almost as many thousand of Peopl▪ as he left hundrds, besides a very great Increase of their Cattle. And his Lordship further assured his Ma|jesty, that some of the Persons recommended, being i Court, id then, and most of them have otherwise since, publickly acknowledged and eclared, that they would ne|ver have accpted those Places; professing themselves, thro' Want of Experience, and a Multitude of other Business, so very unfit and unequal to the Charge, that they should cer|tainly have brought back the Business more, in one Year, than it had gone forward and prospered, in the last three.

SOON after this, the News of the Massacre in Virgini arrived. This Event, so unexpected, and so contrary to all their Hopes and Prospects, was received, by the Com|pany, with inexpressible Grief; which was not a little ag|gravated, that so many had fallen, by the Hands of Men so contemptible, and after such plain Warnings, as Opechan|canough's Attempt to poison the whole Colony, and espe|cially the Death of Nemattanow had given. And they were therefore very loud in their Complaints against the Conduct of the Governor and Colony; nevr considering, how easy and natual it would be, to retort upon them (as the Go|vernor and Council actually did) their own constant and pressing Instructions, to win the Indians over by Courtesy and Kindness, to give them familiar Entertainment in their Houses, and if it were possible, to draw them to live toge|ther and cohabit with the English. However, all good and sensible Men thought not the worse of the Enterprise, for these Disasters; but many publick-spirited Adventurers un|dertook ••veral new Plantations, and ivers Ships were dis|patched away, with such Supplies and Assistance, as were thought sufficient. The King also was so far sensible of the Page  233 Loss of so many of his Subjects, and of the miserable State of the Colony, that he made them a Gift of Arms out of th Tower; such indeed, as were unserviceable in Europe a|gainst equal Enemies, yet might, with a little Trimming and Repair, be made very useful against the Indians. And for immediate Dispatch, his Majesty lent twenty Barrels of Powder, upon the Security of the Company's Seal, after|wards to repay it. He likewise promised, to levy four hun|dren young Men, out of the several Shires, to be sent to Virginia, in Supply of those, that had perished in the Mas|sacre; ut he never could be brought, tho' often sollicited by the Company, to make that Promise good. The Lord St. Iohn of Basing, also gave sixty Coats of Mail, for the De|fence of the Colony; and the City of London, with many private Persons, were much concerned at, and very forward to contribute towards the Repair of this Loss.

CAPTAIN Smith, with Mr. Stockham and Mr. Whita|ker, two Clergymen of Note in the Colony, had ever been of Opinion, that the Ways of Gentleness and Kindness would never be sufficient to bring the Indians over; and had there|fore recommended, that Mars ad Minerva should go Hand in Hand, as well in their Conversion, as in all other Trans|actions and Intercourse with them. But they were too san|guinary in their Notions of the Matter. For Mr. Stocka plainly declares, that, until the Throats of their Priests and Elders were cut, there could be no opes of their Conver|sion; and Captain Smith frequently mentions, and insinuate to Imitation, the detestable Example of the Spaniards, in their Conquest of the West-Indies. They were indeed some|thing excusable, if, their Patience being worn out by a long Experience of the Perfidiousness, Baseness, and almost in|vincible Brutality of that People, they at last gave too much Way to the Dictates of Anger and Violence. Captain Smith, in particular, thought, that there had long since been given just Occasion, to prosecute them with War, and entirely to conquer and subdue them; and he now looked upon the Massacre, as rather an Advantage than Detriment, as it would open the Eyes of the English, and set them upon their Guard, and would give them just Grounds for a War, even to their utter Extirpation, and thereby contribute to he fu|ture Security and speedy Advancement of the Colony. And this indeed seems to have been the general Opinion of the Times. For the Company themselves, in a Letter this Year to the Governor and Council▪ declare, that they saw such a Disposition in Mens Minds, as made them think, that this Addition of Price had endeared the Purchase, and that the Blood of these People would be the Seed of thPage  234 Plantation. And, for their own Parts, they thought it Sin against their dead Brethren, who had lost their Lives in it, to abandon or give over the Enterprise, till they had ful|ly settled and got Possession of the Country.

CAPTAIN Smith likewise, upon this Occasion, offered his Service to the Company. He proposed, that they should transport him, with an hundred Soldiers and thirty Sailors, and all proper Provisions and Ammunition; and should giv him a Bark of an hundred Tons, with Means and Materials, to build six or seven Shallops, to transport his Men fro Place to Place, a Occasion required; and then he under|took, to form a flyig Camp, and to range about and tor|ment the Indians, till he either obligd them to quit the Country, or brought them into such Fear and Subjection, that every Man should follow his Businss in Peace and Se|curity. And as to the Support and Subsistence of this Par|ty, he thought, if his Majesty were truly informed of the Necessity and Benefit of the thing, he would give the Cus|tom of Virginia for a time. For, without some such Me|thod, it was much to be doubted, whether there would come, in a few Years, either Custom, or any thing else, from thece to England. And he doubted not, but that the Planters would, according to their several Abilities, con|tribute towards so useful and necessary a Design. But he in|•••ted, that the Governors should 〈◊〉 be permitted, by Vir|tue of their Authority, to take his Men away, or any thing else, to employ them, as they thought proper. And he far|ther promised, to make the best Use of his Experience, a well within the Limits of Virginia, as New-England, to bring them both into one Map, with all the Countries, that lay between them. As to the Reward of his own Pains and Danger, he asked not any thing, but what he could raise, from the proper Labour of the Savages themselves.

THIS Proposal was well approve by most, that heard it; but such were their Divisions an Confusion at that time, that he could obtain no other Answer, but that th Expence would be too great, and their Stock was exhausted▪ and they thought, the Planters should do something of that Nature themselves, if they could find sufficient Means to effect i. However, he was given to understand, as he tell u, that if he would undertake the thing upon his own pri|vate Account, he might have the Company's Leave; pro|vided, they might have half the Pillage. But he rejcted this Intimation with Scorn; thinking, that all the Pillag of those poor and naked Barbarians, except a little Corn, to be had at some times of the Year, would not, in twenty Years, amount to twenty Pounds▪ But I suspect▪ that all Page  235 this only passed in Conversation, or was at most privately talked at their Courts, without ever being brought regular|ly before the Company. For I have the Company's Re|cords of that time, now in my Possession, in which there is not the least Mention of any such Proposition, altho' things of a trivial and much more minute Nature are mo•• exactly entered. Neither does it seem consistent with the Character of the Company and its Leaders, who gave a fair Course and Debate to all Propositions offered, and were rather profuse in their Expences for the good of the Colony, than lying upon the Catch for little Advantages and mea Gains. However, the Captain's open Nature, and Simpli|city of Honesty, might be blinded by crafty and designing Men, and easily made believe, that that came from the Company, which had really never come under their Cog|nisance, or been laid before them.

IN the mean time, the Colony in Virginia, being muc frightened at this lamentable and unexpected Disaster, r|solved to abandon all the petty Plantations, and to draw the People together, to make good five or six of the best and most defensible Places. Nay, so great was the Terror and Alarm, that many Persons were urgent, to abandon Iam•• River, and to retire to the Eastern Shore, where they might easily fortify and defend themselves against the Indians. And for quieting those, who were many, the Governor 〈◊〉 obliged to hold some Councils, under Colour of considering their Proposal, but yet with a full Resolution, never to take so undvised and destructive a Step. However, many Plan|tations were quitted by Authority; and all the People were drawn together to Shirley Hundred, Flower-de-Hundred, Iames-Town, with Paspahey and the Plantations right op|posite, Kicquotan, and Southampton Hundred; to which were added, by the Obstinacy and Resolution of their Ow|ners, Mr. Samuel Iordan's Plantation, now called Iordan'Point, and Newport's-News. For Want of Boats and other Conveniencies, it was impossible, on such a sudden, to se|cure and bring off all their Cattle and other Goods, which were, for the most part, after their Departure, burnt, ru|ined, and destroyed by the Indians. But Mr. Gookin, at Newport's-News, refused to obey the Order of Govrnment, and draw off his People; and having got together thirty five of all Sorts, he secured his Plantation, and defended himself and Company against all their Assaults and Incur|sions. The like was also done by Mr. Samuel Iordan; and by Mrs. Proctor, a proper, civil, and modest Gentlewo|man, who, with an heroic Spirit, defended her Estate for Month, till she, with all with her, were obliged, by thPage  236English Officers, to go with them, and to leave their Sub|stance to the Havock and Spoil of the Enemy. Mr. Ed|ward Hill also, at Elisabeth-City, altho' much Mischief was done to his Cattle, yet did himself alone defend hi House, whilst all his Men were sick and unable to give him any Assistance.

CAPTAIN Thomas Newce, Deputy and Superintendant of the Company's Lands, foreseeing the Difficulties and Famine, that must necessarily ensue, caused as much Cors possible, to be planted at Elisabeth-City, where he com|manded; whilst other destroyed even that, which had been before planted, fearing, it might be of Service to the Indians, and trusted wholly to Relief by Trade or from England, which had ever been one of the principal Cause of their Miseries. For, Supplies from England were very precarious, and liable to many Accidents and Disappoint|ments, and had been, formerly at least, very stingily af|forded: And the Trade for Corn, with the Natives, wa usually carried on by Men of Substance, to their own Gai and Advantage, and as it was complained, especially by the Company's Enemies, to the great Oppression of the poor and suffering Inhabitants. But Captain Newce called all his next adjoining Neighbours to his House, and omitted nothing, to relieve their Wants and Necessities. He like|wise, with all Speed, entrenched himslf; mounted thre Pieces of Ordinance; sunk a Well of fresh Water; and soon put himself into a Posture of Defence, above the Fear of any Danger or Assault from the Enemy. In all these Works, he acted the Part of a Sawyer, a Carpenter, or a Labourer; till he brought upon himself many Sicknesses, and at last a Dropsy, to the very great Grief of his Fami|ly, and of all under his Government. The latter End of Iune, Sir George Yeardley, in his Way to Accomack, staid three or four Days with Captain Newce, being accompa|nied by the Council, and many other gay Gentlemen. The Captain, being oppressed with so large a Company, com|plained, to one of the chief among them, of the Want of Provisions. Whereupon he gave the Word to the rest, and they entered the Fields of Corn near the Fort, which were th best guarded and preserved from the Ravage of the Enemy, and altho' the Ear were scarce half grown, they devoured and made a miserable Waste among it. But it must be observed, that this Particular relies wholly on the Authority of Captain Smith, who w•• himself absent, and whose Relations of these times wer chiefly taken from Persons of the opponent Faction. They are therefore always o be somewhat suspected; and especially in this Story, as iPage  237 clashe so much with Sir George Yeardley's general Charac|ter, and the universal Love and Esteem, which he obtained from the Colony. Howeer Captain Newce was certainly a Man of great Goodness and Merit. As long a he had any thing, his Company shared it equally with him; and when all was spent, being obliged to live on Crabs and Oysters, they fell into a very weak and feeble Condition. Yet Captain Newce distributed among them, as he saw Occa|sion, a little Milk and Rice, which he still had left; and behaved himself, in all things, with such a fatherly Ten|derness and Care, tht he obtained the Reputation, of be|ing the Commander, throughout the whole Country, thaook the most continual Pains for the Publick, and did th least Good for himself, of all others. On the 9th of Sep|tember, his Men were attacked at their Labours, by thIndians, which was the first Assault, they had made since the Massacre, and four were slain. The Captain, altho' extremely sick, sallied forth to engage them; but they, hiding themselves in the Corn and other lurking Places, scaped his Vengeance. Soon after, this worthy Gentle|man died; and the Company, in Consideration of his, a well as her own Merit, granted his Widow a Moiety of the Labours of the Tenants, due to his Place, till another Person should be appointed to succeed him. And after|wards, in a Letter to the Governor and Council, they or|dered her the whole Profits of their Labour for the follow|ing Year, with no small Commendation of her Virtue and Desert.

CAPTAIN Ralegh Chroshaw was, all this while, at Pa|towmack, with one Man. He had not been long there, before Opechancanough sent two Baskets of Bead to Iapa|aus, the King, to kill them; assuring him of the Slaugh|ter he had made, and that before the End of two Moons▪ there should not be an Englishman lft in all their Coun|tries. Iapazaus disclosed this to Captain Chroshaw, who expressed great Scorn and Contempt for Opechancanough▪ whose Treachery and Cowardise he had seen sufficiently tried by Captain Smith, when he took him Prisoner, at th Head of seven hundred Men. After two Days Delibera|tion, Iapazaus made Answer, that the English were hi Friends, and Opitchapan, the Indian Emperor, his Brother▪ and that therefore, there should be no Blood shed between them, by his Means. He also returned the Present of Beads, advising the Pamunkeys to come no more into hi Country, lest the English, though against his Will, should do them a Mischief. But the English Colony concluded Chroshaw undoubtedly dead, till Captain Hamr came to Pa|towmack, Page  238 in Iune, to trade for Corn; where he found hi safe, and was kindly entertained by both him and the King. By the King's Direction and Assistance, he assauled and took a Town, where was some Corn; and at his Depar|ure, he left Captain Chroshaw four Men more. Chroshaeceiving continual Alarms, retired with these to a Place of Advantage, where, with the Assistance of the Patowmackse soon fortified himself, sufficiently against all such wild Assailant. Soon after, he was visited by Captain Newce▪ from whom understanding the miserable State of the Colo|ny, he offered, if they would send him a bold Shallop, wit Provision to trade, and proper Arms and Men, to providhem Corn sufficient, after the getting in their Corn; bus yet, it being but the latter End of Iune, he told him▪ here was little or none in all the Country.

Newce communicating this to the Governor and other▪ Captain Isaac Maddison was sent, with thirty odd Men, 〈◊〉 a Ship and small Bark. His Commission from the Go|ernor, expresly charges and requires him, to assist and de|fend their Friends and Confederates, the Patowmacks, a|gainst the common Enemy; to protect them and their Corn, o his utmost Power; and in his Carriage, as well toward them as the Enemy, to discharge, faithfully and circum|spectly, the great Trust, reposed in him, as he would an|swer the same, at his Peril. But just at that time, Capta••Chroshaw had received a Letter from Mrs. Boyc, a Womaf Figure, who wa Prisoner, with nineteen more, at P|munkey. Having some Prospect of recovering their Liber|y, he went to Iames-Town, with two Chiefs of the Pa|••wmacks, to sollicit the Governor, and to enter into Mea|••res for their Release. But before this, Opechancanoug had returned an insolent Answer to the Governor's Message▪ concerning restoring the English Captives, and had treat••he King's Picture with great Dishonour and Contumely▪ The English also dissembled their Intents, and pretending Peace and Friendship, invited the Indians back, to plan their Corn at their usual Hbitations; which being now grown up, so as to make the Loss irreparable by a new Crop, the Governor was preparing, with five hundred Men, o make a sharp and vigorous War upon them, especially upon Opechancanough and his bloody Adherents; and hoped, by destroying their Corn, and other Means, to drive them quite out of the Country. As to the lawful Emperor, O|pitchapan, who by this time indeed was only an Emperor n Name, he seems very greatly to have disapproved of th Massacre. For I find him, early the next Year, sending Chanc, Pace's Christian Convert, who discovered the In|dianPage  239 Conspiracy, to assure Sir Francis Wyat, that if h would send ten or twelve Men, he would give up the rest of the English Prisoners, that were in his Possession; and would also deliver his Brother Opechancanough, the Author of the Massacre, into the Hands of the English, either alive or dead. Captain Tucker was accordingly sent upo this Service, but without the desired Success. However Opitchapan sent back Mrs. Boyce, naked and unapparaled▪ in Manner and Fashion, like one of their Indian Queen.

FOR these Reasons, the Governor was unwilling, at that Juncture, to hear of any Treaty with Opechancanough; and Captain Chroshaw's Journey to Iames-Town was in vain▪ but his Absence from Patowmack had a very unhappy Con|sequence, on anther Account. For, Maddison was a Ma of a jealous and timorous Nature; and not liking to liv among the Savages, as Chroshaw did, he built himself a strong House, within Chroshaw's Fort, and there soon ros great Coldness and Reserve between him and the Patow|macks. There was also then at Patowmack an exile King▪ who was inwardly exasperated at Iapazaus, because h would not assist him in the Recovery of his Kingdom. This subtle and malicious Barbarian did therefore, in Re|venge, forge a Plot, as if Iapazaus anhe Patowmacks were in Treaty with Opechancanough, how to cut off and destroy the English there. And to give his Lye the greate Credit and Air of Probability, he wrested and applied s|veral Circumstances, that had lately happened, to this D|sign. Maddison, naturally fearful and suspicious, was a|larmed at this, and made his Men stand punctually to their Arms. Some time after, under Pretence of Business, h sent for the King to his strong House; where having locked him, his Son, and four others up, and set a Guard of fivEnglishmen upon the House, he fell on the Town, wit the rest of his Company, and slew thirty or forty, Men, Women, and Children. The poor King, being surprised t such an unexpected Assault, called out, and begged hi to cease from so undeserved a Cruelty. But he gave not over the Execution, till he had slain, or put to Flight, all in the Town. Then he returned, and taxed the King of Treachery; who denied it bitterly, and told him, it w•• some Contrivance of those, who wished his Destruction▪ for being a Friend to the English. After that, Maddison le him, his Son, and two others to his Ship, promising to set them at Liberty, as soon as his Men were all safely ship|ped; and the King, vey readily ad effectually, ordered his Subjects, not to shoot at, or annoy the English, whil•• they were going on board. But notwithstanding this▪ Page  240Maddison, contrary to all good Faith, carrid them P••|soners to Iames-Town; where they ly, till the Octob•• following, when they were carried home by Captain H|mer, who took a Quantity of Corn for their Ransom. However, this perfidious Dealing did not pas off, entirely without Notice or Animad version. For, Mr. Iohn P••ntis▪, as a Case properly belonging to his Office of Vice-Admiral, fterwards lodged a Complaint against some Persons, who going out to trade with the Indians, under Pretence of Friendship, and in the Governor's Name, had seised their Persons, and sometimes taken their Lives, and sometimes their Goods, for nothing, o at their own Rates, contrary to all Laws human and divine, and to the Dishonour of God's Name, of the King, and the whole English Nation. Altho' this was conceived in general Terms, so as to reach all other Persons, guilty of the same Crime, yet we arold, in the Act of Court itself, that it was chiefly levelled against Maddison and Hamer. And some Examinations a|gainst them were accordingly taken; but by reason of Ha|•••'s Sickness, and Maddison's Absence, who soon after eturned to England, the Suit dropped, and never proceed|d to full Trial.

THIS rash and unadvised Action of Maddison (not to call it by any worse Name) was of very ill Consequence to the Colony. For they were thereby cut off from all Hope and Pretensions, to trade for Corn on that River; which was then their only Refuge and Dependance, as the In|dians, in all the other Parts of the Country, were in an pen and declared War with them, and as they themselve had not attempted any thing of a Crop, lest the Corn▪ when grown up, should give Means and Opportunity for Assaults and Ambuscades. Captain Chroshaw's Design wa also quite defeated; who intended to make Ipazaus a pro|per Instrument and Ally against Opechancanough. For h had at his Command above two hundred fighting Men, in the Town of Patwmack; and was, besides, a Person of great Interest and Authority, throughout the whole River, being a Kind of petty Emperor there, and unwilling to own Subjection to the other Emperor, whom he alway affected to treat, rather as Brethren than Superiors. It wa therefore probably thought, that Chroshaw would have succeeded in his Scheme, and might easily have made him rise against a Power, which he was before jealous of, and always looked upon, as usurped and oppressive.

HOWEVER Captain Henry Spilman, who had been pre|served by the Means of Pocahontas, and had lived several Years at Patowmack, rlying on his Interest and Acquain|tance Page  241 with them, ventured to go thither, in a Bark, with twenty six Men, to trade for Corn. But himself, with twenty one more, were surprised and slain by the Pascoti|cons, the greatest People in those Parts. They immediate|ly boarded the Vessel in their Canoes, and entered so fast, that the five Men, left to guard her, were in the utmost Amazement, till a Sailor gave fire to a Piece of Ordinance at Random; the bare Report whereof so frightened the poor Savages, that they leaped overboard, and forgetting their Canoes, swarm ashore. Soon after, they heard a great Noise among them, and saw a Man's Head thrown down the Bank; whereupon they weighed Anchor, and returned. And thus died this unfortunate Gentleman▪ who was of a good Family in England. He had, three Years before, been tried and found guilty, of depreciating and under|mining the Governor's Authority, by telling Opechancanough▪ that a Great Man (meaning the Earl of Warwick) would soon come, and take his Place. For which Crime, they thought it a Mercy to spare his Life; but they however degraded him from his Captainship, and condemned him, to be a Servant to the Colony for seven Years, in Quality of Interpreter; for which Office he was peculiarly fitted▪ by having long lived, and been very conversant, among the Indians.

Edward Waters, one of the three, that staid in the Islands of Bermudas, and found the great Block of Ambergrease▪ dwelling in Virginia, at the time of the Massacre, was himself, together with his Wife, taken and kept Prisoners by the Nandsamonds. But this Fall, some English, near Newport's-News, were surprised in so great a Storm, that altho' the Men saved their Lives, the Boat was lost; which was cast, by the Winds and Waves, upon the Shore of Nandsamond. The Indians, finding it, were so busied, with Songs, and Dances, and Invocations, according to their Manner of Triumph, that Waters and his Wife found Means, to get secretly into one of their Canoes, and crossed the River, nine or ten Miles over, to Kicquotan; where they were received with no less Joy and Wonder by the English, than their Escape gave Anger and Vexation to the Indians.

SHORTLY after, Sir George Yeardley and Captain Powel, each with a Company of Gntlemen Volunteers, went to seek the Enemy. But all being fled, except three, which Captain Powel met by Chance and slew, they burnt their Houses, destroyed every thing, they could find, and so re|turned. Three hundred Soldiers, the best, they could 〈◊〉▪ were▪ not long after▪ raised and embarked in co|venient Page  242 Vessels, under the Conduct of Sir George Yeardly▪ with all things ncssary for the Expedition. They went first to Nandsamond; where the Indians set fire to their own Houss, spiled all they could, and then fled away▪ with what they could carry off. So that the English had no Opportunity to make any Slaughter of them. But their Corn being nwly gathered, they seized all, they could find; b••nt the Houses, which the Inhabitants ha in their Hurry lft unburnt; and so departed. From thence they went to Pamunkey, the chief Seat of Opechancanough▪ He did not apper himself; but the Indians there seemed exceedingly astonished, and promised to bring them all thEnglish, yet living, and to restore their Arms, and what|ever else they had; pretending, much to desire Peace, an to give them any Satisfaction in their Power. But this wa only a Device, to procrastinate the Time, till they could convey away their Corn from all other Places, except where the English were quartered. At length, the Englis, perceiving their Design, seised on the Corn in their Power▪ burnt their Houses, and pursued them into the Woods. But they fled before them, and easily escaped, not without Contempt and Insult. For some lurked about in Ambush, and discharged some Shot out of English Pieces, whic hurt and wounded several disorderly Stragglers. After this, Sir George returned, with a thousand Bushels of Corn, and each of the Soldiers had three Bushels a piece. CaptaiSmith tells us, that they were however obliged to pay t•• Shillings a Bushel, before they received it, for Freight and other Charges of the Expedition. But the Governor and Council's Letters to the Company, an Authority not to be contested, expresly say, that Sir George Yeardley freely em|ployed his own Shipping, Shallops, Mariners, and Servants, without any Recompence or Freight at all. But this is not the only Instance, in which that Gentleman's Actions ar misrepresented in Smith's History. For, he immediately pre|ceeding and coming after Captain Argall's Government, and having a Commission to examine and punish his Of|fencs, became a peculiar Mark of Hatred and Calumny to that Faction. The same Letters inform us, that thr•• thousand Bushels of Corn more were taken from the Ene|my, by Force or Trade, and brought in, by different Par|tis of Men. By these, and other such small Inroads and Depredations, the Indians were reduced to great Want and Necessity that Winter, and endured no small Misery and Famine. So that many of the English, in Confidence of their Weakness, and Inability to hurt them, returned to heir former Habitatio••▪ For, besides plundering and ruin|ing Page  243 their Corn, and other Ways of distressing and destroy|ing them, the Governor and Council, in the aforesaid Let|ter, assure the Company, that more Indians were slain that Autumn and Winter, than had ever fallen by the Hands of the English, put them all together, from the first Beginning and Settlement of the Colony.

THE Earl of Warwick, not satisfied with the Spoils of Virginia, had also, by his Interest and Intrigues, procured his Follower and Dependent, Captain Nathaniel Butler, to be sent Governor of Bermudas for three Years; where he exercised the same bare-faced Oppression and Extortion, that Captain Argall had done here. But from the petty Offence of plundering the Colony, he proceeded to a higher Crime and Misdemeanor, and committed some Pillage upon a Spanish Wreck. This incensed Gondomar, and the Lord of the Privy Council sent a sharp Order to the Company, to make an immediate and strict Enquiry into the Matter. The Time of his Government being therefore now expi|red, a Commission was given to Mr. Bernard, who was going over to succeed him, to enquire into the Affair of the Spanish Wreck, as well as the Truth of many other Com|plaints and Allegations, sent over against him to England. But, as had been done in Captain Argall's Case, a Bark was dispatched from Barnstaple, in which he escaped, just before the Arrival of the new Governor, and came to Vir|ginia. He left those Islands in a most miserable Plight, be|ing reduced to Beggary and Ruin, by his Rapines and Ex|tortions; and coming hither in the Extremity of Winter, he found the Colony labouring under the Distresses and un|happy Consequences of the Massacre. Sir Francis Wyat received and entertained him, with great Hospitality and Good-manners; but his Behaviour here was infamously lewd and riotous. Among other things, he demanded to be admitted of the Council, and grievously resented his being refused, altho' he could shew no Colour of Right or Title to it. After about three Month's Stay, and having gone up as high as Chickahominy, where, like a common Robber or free Booter, he fell upon, an made Spoil of Lady Dale's Cattle, he set Sail, and returned for Eng|land.

BUT before this, in the Beginning of the Summer, there had been set afoot a most unhappy Affair for the Com|pany; which gave it, as it were, a settling Blow, and not without some Face of Reason, was the Occasion of greater Clamours and Animosities than ever. It hath been fre|quently related, how the King took all Opportunities of grinding the Company and infant Colony, by laying op|pressive Page  244 and illegal Impositions on Tobacco. This he did, partly out of his natural Abhorrence and Aversion to that Weed, but chiefly out of a Desire of Gain. For, with a Conjunction not unusual to be found in Men's Cha|racters, Profusion, and a voracious Appetite after Money, had met together in that Prince's Nature. In all these Exactions, Sir Lionel Cranfield had been his principal Instru|ment. He had been at first a Merchant of London, and then an Officer in the Customs, from whence he was in|troduced to Court, as a Projector; which, in the Lan|guage of those Times, signified a Person, who could fur|nish Expedients to the Ministers, to raise Money, in the Vacancy, and without the Assistance, of Parliament. He was a very wise and dextrous Officer; and in this Execrable Function, had been so useful and successful, that, together with the Advantage of having married one of Buckingham's Relations (an extraordinary Merit then, and an infallible Road to the highest Preferments) he had risen, before this time, to the Dignity of Earl of Middlesex, and Lord High Treasurer of England. He was himself an ancient Ad|venturer in the Affair of Virginia; and well knew, how uneasy they were, under the Pressure of the Monopolies, Garbling, and other illegal Patents. He therefore resolved to try, whether he could not make the Company consent to their own Oppression, and squeeze out of them a greater Profit and Revenue to his Majesty, by making a particular Contract with themselves.

To this End, he first broached the Matter privately to Sir Edwin Sandys; offering a Grant, to the two Companies of Virginia and the Somer-Islands, for the sole Importatio of Tobacco into the Realms oEngland and Ireland, re|serving to his Majesty a certain valuable Rent. This he did, with large Professions of his Love and Affection to the Colony of Virginia, whereof he was an ancient Counsellor; and declared, that, besides the personal Duty of his Place, as Lord High Treasurer, his principal Motive herein was the Profit and Advancement of the Colonies. Sir Edwin professed his Ignorance, in Affairs of that Nature; but after some Thought, he consulted with Sir Arthur Ingram, another Member of the Virginia Company, then present, but a fast Creature and Retainer to the Lord Treasurer. At length, considering, that Tobacco was a deceiveable Weed, and the Use of it wholly founded on a Humour, which, might soon vanish into Smoke, and come to no|thing, he told his Lordship, that to settle any great Rent in Money, upon such an uncertain Commodity, might soon bankrupt the Companies, and utterly ruin the Planta|tions. Page  245 Wherefore, he conceived it much the safer Way for the Companies, to yield his Majesty a certain Propor|tion, in Specie, out of the Tobacco itself; whereof, he thought, they might be induced to give a fourth Part, pro|vided they might be discharged from all other Burthens upon it. But his Lordship, falling into a Calculation, told him, that without the Grant of a Third, there could not be that Revenue raised to his Majesty, as was expcted; and for the old Custom, of six Pence a Pound upon Roll, and four Pence upon Leaf Tobacco, it was already granted to his Majesty's Farmers, and could not be reversed.

AFTER this, Sir Edwin Sandys, by his Lordship's Com|mand, communicated this Proposal to the Lords Southamp|ton and Cavendish, and the two Deputies; who having im|parted it to their Councils, brought it before the Companies. Such a Contract, if it could be concluded on any reasonable Terms, was certainly of very great and visible Advantage to the Companies and Colonies. For it would enable them, by having the whole Commodity in their own Hands, to exclude all foreign Tobacco, and to raise, or at least keep up, the Price of their own; and would as well ease them from the Extortions and Insults of other monopolising Pa|tents, as secure them from any farther Impositions. For the Court, as the Colonies advanced in Strength, was still loading them with new Impositions, and kept them always staggering, and scarce able to go forward, under the Bur|then of Taxes and Imposts. And this was then done, solely by the King's Authority, without granting Parliaments their undoubted Right, of giving Money, and laying new Duties on the Subject. And what was a notorious, and (if the sa|red Character of Kings and Ministers would allow the Ex|pression) an impudent Breach of Faith, it was done against the plainest and most express Words and Tenor of former Grants; which was, beyond Doubt, the present Case of the Virginia Company, as hath been before observed and recited.

HOWEVER, the Companies, sitting down peaceably under these Oppressions, readily embraced this Overture, and appointed each a Committee, to treat with the Lord Treasurer about it. But in the Progress of the Business, his Lordship was still squeezing in new Hardships upon them▪ and particularly surprised and shocked them with a Propo|sal, that for each of the two Years, then next ensuing, the Companies should be obliged, to bring in sixty thousand Weight of Spanish Tobacco, or otherwise permit forty thou|sand Weight to be imported by some other. This Propo|••tion seemed very grievous to the Committees, and crossed Page  246 one of their chief Purposes. They therefore replied: Tht no such Obligation was laid on the former Patentees for the sole Importation of Tobcco: That the Example of obliging Men to bring n any foreign Commodity, whereof ther was sufficient of the Growth of the King's own Dominion, would seem very strange and accountable; and such a thing, as they thought, had not been heard of, in any Part of the World: That to prohibit the planting Tobacco in England, and yet to command the importing so large a Quantity fro a foreign Country (especially when it was confessedly a great Drain of the Cash of the Nation) would be very grievouo the English Subject; and was so odious a thing, that they were ashamed to be concerned in it: That the Quantity of sixty thousand Weight of Spanish Tobacco was very exces|sive, and more than had been mported, in divers Years, when there was no Restraint at all: That so large a Pro|portion (the whole Import of Tobacco into England, upo an Average for the last seven Years, being only an hundred forty two thousand and eighty five Pounds Weight a Year) must utterly abase the Price of the Plantation Tobacco, 〈◊〉 manifestly appeared from that Year's Experience; so that the Colonies would part with a third of their Tobacco to the King, without any Retribution in the Price of the rest, a was at first proposed: And that, in excluding all Spani•• Tobacco, there could be no Room for Fraud or Error▪ whereas, under the Colour of so large an Importation, it would be impossible to prevent the running and stealing i a much greater Quantity.

THESE Objections were certainly very sharp and home, and did not a little expose the partial and most unpatriot Measures of the Court. But it was the Misfortune of that Time, that the Company dealt much in Reason, and the Courtiers in Command. They were therefore peremptorily told▪ that this was a Point of such Importance, that it could not be dispensed with, without dissolving the whole Con|tract. For we must remember, that the Spanish Match was still on Foot; and therefore his Majesty would sacri|fice so lar•• an Interest of his own Subjects to that Natio, to gratify and oblige his good Friend and Ally, the King of Spain; who had been now, for many Years, bubbling and abusing him, to the open Scorn and Mockery of all Europe. Besides which, it is not to be supposed, that Gondomar, who, about this time, bore a very great Sway in the Affairs of England, would let slip such an Opportunity, of acquiring so great a Profit to his Country. And indeed we are told by Mr. Oldy, that the Obstruction of these Plantaions, w•• a main Branch of the Aims and Endeavours of that SpanishPage  247 Buffoon; and that he opposed all Voyages to the West-Indies, and particularly crossed these Undertakings of Virginia and Bermudas, left from them there should afterwards arise ano|ther England in America, of equal Dread and Annoyance to New Spain, as that in Europe was to the Old. But the Company, having had some Gleams of Hope, and dreading nothing so much, as falling into their former Calamities and Oppressions, did at last, after much Dispute and Contesta|tion, consent to this Article; and the whole Contract was concluded and agreed upon, chiefly on these Conditions. For I shall in this, as I have done in other Cases, take the Liberty, for Brevity's Sake, only to give the main Substance of Matters, and to leave out such Points, as are immate|rial, and of little or no Consequence to be known.

I. THAT the sole Importation of Tobacco, into the Realm of England and Ireland, should be granted to the Virginia and Somer-Islands Companies, by Patent under the Great Seal of England; which Grant should be drawn and construed, in the most beneficial Manner for the Compa|nies Behoof, and the Advancement of the Colonies; his Ma|jesty's Profit, hereafter recited, only reserved.

II. THAT his Majesty should, by Proclamation, pro|hibit all others from importing, as also from planting To|b••co in England and Ireland, during the said Contract, un|dr grievous Penalties; and that what was already planted, ••ould, by Virtue of the former Proclamation, be confis|cated.

III. THAT his Majesty, and the Lord High Treasurer▪ should take all proper Methods, for preventing and confis|ating all Tobacco, unduly imported; and should endea|vour, in all Points, to keep up effectually to the true Intent nd Meaning of this Contract; and particularly, that hi Majesty should grant no Licences to Retailers of Tobacco, that the Market might still remain free and open, as it had itherto done.

IV. THAT in Consideration hereof, as also for that the Companies should be discharged from all other Payments on Tobacco (excepting only the ancient Custom, in the Book of Rates, of six Pence a Pound on Roll Tobacco, and four Pence upon Leaf) the said Companies should pay to his M|esty the clear Proceed of a full third Part of all Tobacco▪ Yearly imported and landed by them in the said two Realms▪ Provided nevertheless, that they should not be obliged to import more Tobacco of the Growth of the two Colonies, han they themselves thought proper.

Page  248V. THAT the Lord High Treasurer should cause the Custom to be reduced to a Medium for seven Years last past, ending at Michaelmas, 1621; wherein should be spe|cified, how much was Roll Tobacco, and how much Leaf, because of the different Custom; and that the Whole should be reduced to a certain Sum of Money, whereof on 'Third to be paid by the King, for his Part, and two Third by the Companies, and the Customers to make no farther Demand on any Tobacco, either imported or expo••ed.

VI. THAT his Majesty should be discharged from Pay|ment of Freight, and all other previous Charges▪ but that immediately upon the Arrival of the said Tobacco (at which time his Majesty's Interest therein would commence) 〈◊〉 should bear the third Part of all Charges, for landing, h••|sing, keeping, and transporting by Land, Sea, or fresh Wa|ter, into divers Parts; as also his third Part of all Law-suits, of the Salaries of all Officers, Agents, Factors, and Ser|vants; and in general, of all Matters and Businesses what|soever, incident to the said Tobacco, or Contract.

VII. THAT all the Tobacco imported, should be co|signed into such Hands, as should be appointed by the sai Companies; who should, in their General Courts, have the sole Nomination of all Officers, Agents, Factors, Ministers, and Servants, and the entire Management of the said To|bacco: Yielding to his Majesty, a true and perfect Account thereof, and paying the clear Profits, which should become due to his Majesty for his Third, and come into their Hand: In which Account the third of all Charges should be allowd and defalcated, as aforesaid.

VIII. THAT the Companies should be obliged to i|port, not above sixty thousand, nor under forty thousand Weight of Spanish Tobacco, for each of the first two Year of this Contract, and no longer: Upon Condition never|theless, that the King and State of Spain did not purposely (upon Knowledge of their being obliged to import so large a Quantity) raise the Custom, or impose new Burthen and Charges upon their Tobacco; and on Condition likewise, that the Price of Tobacco, at which it was then sold in Spai▪ be not purposely enhanced, and that the Market be, in 〈◊〉 respects, as free and open, as formerly they have 〈◊〉 Provided also, if any of the said Quantity of Spanish To|bocco do, in any wise, miscarry by Casualties at Sea, that in that Case, the said Companies should not be bound, to restore and make good the Proportion so lost, by any new Provision and Importation.

IX. THAT this Contract should commence at 〈◊〉, 1622, and continue for the Space of seven Years, the〈◊〉••suing.

Page  249THIS ntract was certainly very well and cautiously worded, 〈◊〉Edwin Sandys, who drew it, and was indeed their constat Draughtsman upon all such Occasions. But it w•• at last esteemed a very hard and pinching Bargain upon the Trade; and as a certain noble Person expressed it, was not to be looked upon as a pleasant Dish, well sauced and seasoned, but as a bitter Potion, which must, of necessity, be swallowed down, for avoiding greater Evils. The Earl of Southampton therefore, earnestly desired te Company, duly to consider each Article, and not to spare to give their best Counsel and Advice, in so weighty a Business, which so nearly concerned themselves and the Colonies, it being not only free, but demanded, as a Duty, from every Man, to speak his Mind boldly, as his 〈◊〉 Reason should suggest. But after a long Pause, it appearing, that nothing more could be said, than had formerly been delivered, his Lord|ship, at the Company's Request, put it to the Question▪ and it was ratified and confirmed, by an almost unanimous Consent, one Hand only being held up against it. After which, it was, by the Lord Cavendish, their Governor, proposed to, and confirmed by the Somer-Islands Company, with the like Unanimity. For the Adventurers in that Plan|tation, being about an hundred and twenty six in Number, were all likewise Members of the Virginia Company.

BUT before the Bargain was throughly concluded and ra|tified by the Lord High Treasurer, he pressed in upon them an Obligation, to import the forty thousand Weight of Spa|nish Tobacco, in the best Varinas, with a Promise (which however he did not keep) not to trouble them any farther▪ if that was granted. The Company therefore yielded to it▪ on Condition, that such a Quantity of best Varinas could b procured. For there had been some Years, when the whole Importation of that Kind of Tobacco into Spain did not amount to forty thousand Weight. But if Varinas could not be had, they undertook (to give his Majesty and the Lord Treasurer Satifaction) to import the rest of their Quantity, i the 〈…〉 most costly Sorts of Spanish To|bcco. It will doubtless be very surprising to every thinking Reder, to find a King thu load and oppress his Subject▪ with the Importation of a foreign Commodity, of no Us or Necessity, but of mere Luxury and Wantonness, and that too, in the dearest and most grievous Manner; espe|cially when that Commodity might be supplied by our own Colonies, and must, in Spain, be paid for in hrd Cash▪ as the Case then wa. But to account for so unconscionabl Proceeding, it must still be observed, that herein were an|•••red the two grand Ed, which at that time y neare••Page  250 to that Prince's Heart; since by taking off their dearest To|baccoes, he did the more oblige the Spaish King and Na|tion, and threw more Money into their Pockets, out of hi Subjects Purses (which was, in Truth, so much clear Los to the English Nation) and did also, at the same time, ad|vance his own Profit and Revenue. For a the King wa, by the Contract, to have the clear Proceed of one Third of all Tobacco imported, it was more to his Gain and Ad|vantage, to have the best Spanish Tobaccoes, which would then sell for eighteen or twenty Shillings a Pound, and some|times more, than the Plantation Tobacco, which would scarcely fetch two and six Pence a Pound.

THE Affair of the Contract, being thus settled and con|cluded, the next thing that fell under their Considertio, was appointing proper Officers, with their Salaries; and the resolving on a steady Course, for the Management of the Business. For this Purpose, a Committee wa appointd out of both the Companies, consisting of the Earl of Sou|thampton, the Lords Cavendish, Paget, and Houghton, 〈◊〉Iohn Brooke, Sir Edwin Sandys, Sir Iohn Davers, Meffir. Nichlas and Iohn Farrars, the Deputies of the two Com|panies, Mr. Samuel Wrote, and other, Gentlemen ad Merchants, to the Number of twenty one in all. After a whole Day's Consultation and Debate, they at last agreed upon all 〈◊〉; and the Lords Southampton and Cavendish, Treasurer and Governor of the Companies, reported 〈◊〉 Result of their Deliberation, to their respective Cor••. ut first, the Earl of Southampton, with much Candor 〈◊〉 Earnestness, entreted the Virginia Com••ny, to deliver their Opinions freely, either for, or against, what he should then propound; which (he said) himself, the Council, and Committee, had consulted upon, not with Intent to con|clude or determine any thing, nor to prejudice the Cour•• in their Judgment, but only the better to prepre the Bus|ness for their Consideration; looking upon themselve, 〈◊〉 his Lordship expressed it, only as Se••ants to the Court.

AFTER which Declaration, he proceded and told them, that, 〈◊〉 it was proposed, and in some Measure concluded, n the Preparative Court, they judgd it necess••y, that the•• should be one principal Officer, by the Name of Director, on whose Sufficiency, Care, and Integrity, the whole Su|cess of the Business did chiefly depend▪ and hat they co|ceived the said Director would wll deserve, for his Salary of t••t Year, five hundred Pound. Next to him, was a D|puty: For without such an Assistant, it would be impo••iblor the Director, to undergo all the Burthen of Busines, hat would lie upon him. And to this Office they conce••••Page  251 requisite an extraordinary Deal of Pain and Industry, and no small Sufficiency. The Third Officer was a Treasurer, to keep the Cash. But altho' the Offices of Deputy and Treasurer were distinct in themselves, and would require two Persons, yet the better to husband the Expences for that Year, they thought it best (according to the Resolu|tion of the Preparative Court) to join them both in one Per|son, for the present. And to this Officer, they allotted a Salary of four hundred Pounds, for the current Year. Next they conceived it necessary, to have a Committee of, at least, eight able and judicious Persons, chosen out of th two Companies, for selling and disposing of their Tobaccoe, and for assisting the Director, with their Counsels, and Help, in the several Parts of his Office; which would be very many and exceedingly weighty and important. And to these▪ they appointed a Salary of fifty Pounds, a Man. And be|sides these principal Officers, he told them, there would b necessary, two Cashiers, the one to be constantly residnt i the Treasury, the other to receive and gather in the Moni••▪ a Book-keeper; two Clerks; a Sollicitor; a Husband, t whom the Custody of the Warehouses should be committed▪ and a Beadle; with a House, for the Meetings of the O•••|cers; and Warehouses, for the Reception of the Tobacco. And the whole Amount of all these Salaries and Expence▪ was computed at two thousand Pounds a Year, which 〈◊〉 be raised upon the Tobacco. But as the Spanish va••ly ex|ceeded the Plantation Tobacco in Price, it was agreed, th•• it should bear a double Proportion in the Rate of the Charg••.

HIS Lordship farther told them, that they conceived i necessary, that there should be five hundred Pounds mor set apart, for such contingent Expences, as should occasi|onally arise; which Money, if it were not, by the Consent and Order of the Court, expended for the Advantage and Improvement of the Price of Tobacco, was to be again re|paid, to each Adventurer proportionably. And altho' this Sum, of twenty five hundred Pounds a Year, might to ma|ny seem very great and extraordinary; yet, he said, consi|dering, that five hundred Pounds was not to be expended, except for the evident Advantage of the Commodity; and that, of the two thousand Pounds remaining, his Majesty was to bear one third Part, and the Spanish Tobacco a Pr••portion double to the rest, he conceived, it would be ound no great Burthen upon the Plantations (whose Bene••t w•• the grand Point in View) but such, as it was hoped, would be manifoldly repaid, by the Advancement of the Price. And as to the Officers Salaries, he declared it to be his Opinion, that they were far below the Pain, Care, a•• Charge, that they must, of necessity, be at.

Page  252THE Earl of Southampton having thus finished his Report, there followed, for some time, a general Silence among the Adventurers. Whereupon his Lordship entreated them, freely to speak their Minds concerning all these things, and to declare, what and how they would have them done. And he repeated it again, that they esteemed themselves on|ly as their Ministers or Servants, to prepare Business for the Court, in whom alone, was Power and Authority to de|termine and conclude Matters. He therefore earnestly en|treated them, without Respect to himself, or any others, from whom those Propositions came, to declare their Opi|nions freely, especially concerning the Salaries, which, he perceived, was the grand Rock of Offence.

HEREUPON, Mr. Robert Smith, the Under-Chamber|lain, said; that he thought, many able Gentlemen might be found, who, for Conscience Sake, would do the Business for far less Salaries. To which Sir Edward Sackvil replied; that for his Part, he thought Men bound in Conscience, to give those whom they employed, some reasonable Satis|faction for their Labour and Pains; and that he had found by Experience, that some Men, who had, for Conscience Sake, served the Company, had also, for Conscience Sake, undone it. But the Earl of Southampton, to soften the Quick|ness of Sir Edward Sackvil's Reply, an to encourage a Free|dom of Debate, declared, that Mr. Robert Smith was a very worthy and honest Man; and he thanked him, for speaking his Mind freely, desiring all others to do the same. After which, there ensued a short Debate; and it was often ob|served, in the Progress of the Affair, that this was properly a Point of Merchandise, and not of settling Colonies; and that it was not just or reasonable, to expect, that Men, fit to be trusted with, and capable to perform, so important a Business, should expend their whole Time and Labour, for the Advancement of other Mens Estates, without any Reward or Retribution at all. Mr. Barker also now said; that, having been, many Years, a Member of that Court, he had never heard of such great Salaries, as four and five hundred Pounds a Year; but that he had however heard of five hundred, and a thousand Pounds, deficient in the Ac|counts of some Officers, who did their Business for nothing. Soon after, the Earl of Southampton was called upon, to put the several Propositions to the Vote. But his Lordship said, he would once more read them over to them; which having done, and no Man making any Objection, after a good Pause, he put the several things, concerning the Offi|cers and Salaries above related, distinctly to the Question▪ and they were all approved and confirmed.

Page  253THEY then proceeded to the Election of their Officers. Sir Edwin Sandys had been nominated, in a former Court, to the Place of Director; but he earnestly refused it, as be|ing unexperienced in Matter of Trade and Merchandise, in which that Officer ought to have an exact Knowledge; and as he could not constantly reside in Town, having a great Family in the Country. Besides which, he said▪ he began, as he now grew old, to wax weak; and theefore puposed, rather to withdraw from all Business of the World, than to engage himself farther in it. But the Court, espe|cially the Earl of Southampton and the other Lords, being not satisfied with this Excuse, earnestly pressed him, not to refuse a Place, wherein he might do such singular Ser|vice to the Colonies; the whole Welfare of which did, al|most entirely depend, upon the wise and upright Manage|ment of this Contract. No other Person therefore being so much as named against him, and himself rather not op|posing, than consenting to accept the Place, he was, upon the Ballot, chosen Director, by having sixty five Balls for, and only five against him. Mr. Iohn Farrar had also, at the same Court, been named to the joint Place of Deputy and Treasurer; but he likewise refused, alledging, that the Company had laid such a Burthen of Business upon him, for now almost four Years together, that he had been obli|ged to neglect his own private Affairs, which required his immediate and diligent Insection. All which the Court acknowledged to be true; yet declared, they held him so fit a Man for that Place, that they would not propose any other to stand in Election with him; and so he was chosen, by having sixty eight Balls for, and only two against him. They then made Choice of their Committee, and inferior Officers; and also added a Committee extraordinary, to be chosen out of the Council, without Salaries. They were not obliged to a constant Attendance; but were only to give their Ad|vice and Assistance to the Director and other acting Com|mittee, in Cases of a high and extraordinary Nature. And this Committee consisted of the Lords Paget and Maynard, Sir Edward Sackvil, Sir Iohn Brooke, Sir Iohn Davers, Sir Henry Mildmay, Mr. Thomas Gibbs, Mr. Samuel Wrote Mr. Iohn Smith, and Mr. Robert Smith.