The history of the first discovery and settlement of Virginia: being an essay towards a general history of this colony.
Stith, William, 1707-1755.
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_CAPTAIN Bartholomew Gosnold had made a Voyage to the Northern Parts of Virginia, in the Year 1602, as hath been before related. He was so wonderfully pleased with the Plea|santness and Fertility of the Places he saw, that, after his Return to England, he made it his Business to sollicit all his Friends and Acquaintance, to join with him in an Attempt to settle so delightful a Country. After some Years spent in vain, he at last prevailed with Cap|tain Iohn Smith, Mr. Edward-Maria Wingfield, the Rev. Mr. Robert Hunt, and divers others, to join in the Under|taking But settling Colonies is an Enterprise of too great Burten and Expence for a few private Persons; and there|fore after many vain Projects, they applied themselves to several of the Nobility, Gentry, and Merchants, and by their great Charge and Industry, recommended their Scheme so effectually to them, that they came into it very heartily.

AND first, Letters patent were obtained from King Iames I. bearing Date the 10th of April, 1606,* to Sir Tho|mas Gates, and Sir George Somers, Knights, Richard Hack|luyt, Clerk, Prebendary of Westminster, Edward-Maria Wingfield, with others unnamed, for the Southern Colony▪ and to Thomas Hanham, and Ralegh Gilbert, Esqrs, Wil|liam Parker, and George Popham, Gentlemen, and otherPage  30 unnamed,* for the Northern Colony. By this Charer, all that Tract of Country, from 34 to 45 Degrees of North Latitude, which then went under the common Name of Virginia, was divided into two Parts; called the First Co|lony and the Second. The First or Southern Colony was designed for the City of London, and such as would adven|ture with them, to discover and chuse a Place of Settlement, any where between the Degrees of 34 and 41. The Se|cond or Northern Part, was appropriated to the Cities of Bristol, Exeter, Plimouth, and the Western Parts of En|gland, and all those, that would adventure and join with them, to make their Choice, any where between the De|grees of 38 and 45; provided, there should be at least an hundred Miles Distance between the two Colonies. For each of them was to extend fifty Miles from the Place of their first Habitation, each way along the Coast. But I shall make no Abstract of this Charter, having caused it to be printed at large in the Appendix, to which I refer the Reader.

BUT besides this Charter, the King gave divers Articles, Instructions, and Orders, under his Sign Manual, and the Privy Seal of England, dated the 20th of November, 1606; wherein he establishes and ordains a Council, under the Name of the King's Council for Virginia. This consisted of the following Persons; Sir William Wade, Lieutenant of the Tower of London, Sir Thomas Smith, Sir Walter Cope, Sir George More, Sir Francis Popham, Sir Ferdinando Gorges, Sir Iohn Trevor, Sir Henry Montagu, Recorder of the City of London, and Sir William Romney, Knights; Iohn Dodderidge, Sollicitor General, and Thomas Warr, Esqrs; Iohn Eldred, of the City of London, Thomas Iames, of Bristol, and Iames Bagg of Plimouth, in the Country of Devon, Merchants. But these being soon found too few, and by Reason of the Distance of their Habitations from each other, difficult to be got together in any competent Number, his Majesty, by an Ordinance dated the 9th of March following, augmented this Council with Sir Thomas Challenor, Sir Henry Nevil, Sir Fulke Grevil, Sir Iohn Scot, Sir Robert Mansel, Sir Oliver Cromwell, Sir Morris Berkeley, Sir Edward Michelborne, Sir Thomas Holcroft, Sir Thomas Smith, Clerk of the Privy Council, Sir Robert Kil|ligrew, Sir Herbert Croft, Sir George Copping, Sir Edwin Sandys, Sir Thomas Roe, and Sir Anthony Palmer, Knights, nominated to him by and on the Behalf of the first Colony; and with Sir Ed••rd Hungerford, Sir Iohn Mallet, Sir Iohn Gilbert, Sir Thomas Freake, Sir Richard Hawkins, and Sir Bartholomew Mitchel, Knights; Thomas Scamer, Bernard Page  37 Greenvil, and Edward Rogers, Esqrs; and Matthew Sutcliffe, Doctor of Divinity, and afterwards Dean of Exeter, nomi|nated to him by and on the Behalf of the second Colony.

IN this last Instrument, there was a Distinction and Se|peration made of the two Councils; but in the former of the 20th of November, Sir William Wade, and the rest, were constituted his Majesty's Council for both Colonies,

for all Matters that should happen in Virginia, or any the Territories of America, between 34 and 45 Degrees of North Latitude, according to the Purport and Tenor of the Letters patent: That they should have full Power and Authority, at the Pleasure, and in the Name of his Majesty, his Heirs, or Successors, to give Directions to the Councils, resident in America, for the good Govern|ment of the People there, and for the proper ordering and disposing all Causes within the same, in Substance as near to the Common Law of England, and the Equity thereof, as might be; reserving to his Majesty, his Heir and Successors, a Power to increase, alter, or change the said Council, at their Will and Pleasure: And that this his Majesty's Council in England, should nominate and appoint the first Members of the several Councils, to be resident in the Colonies.

That the said Councils, resident in the Colonies, or the major Part of them, should chuse one of their own Body, not being a Minister of God's Word, to be Presi|dent of the same, and to continue in that Office by the Space of one whole Year, and no longer: And that it should be lawful for the major Part of the said Councils, upon any just Cause, either of Absence or otherwise, to remove the President, or any other of the Council; and in Case of Death or such Removal, to elect another into the vacant Place: Provided always, that the Number of each of the said Councils should not exceed thirteen.

That the said Presidents, Councils, and the Ministers, should provide, that the true Word and Service of God be preached, planted, and used, not only in the said Co|lonies, but also, as much as might be, among the Sava|ges bordering upon them, according to the Rites and Doctrine of the Church of England.

THAT they should not suffer any to withdraw the People of the said Colonies from the Allegiance of the King, his Heirs, or Successors; but should cause all Persons so offending, to be apprehended and imprisoned, till full and due Reformation, or if the Cause so required, should send them to England, with all convenient Speed, there to receive condign Punishment.

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THAT all Lands, Tenements, and Hereditaments, should be had, inhabited, and enjoyed, within the said Colonies, as the like Estates are held and enjoyed, by the Laws in England.

THAT Tumults, Rebellion, Conspiracy, Mutiny, and Sedition, together with Murder, Manslaughter, In|cest, Rapes, and Adultery, committed within any of the Degrees aforesaid, (and no other Offences) should be punished by Death without Benefit of Clergy, except in Case of Manslaughter, to which Clergy should be allow|ed: And that the said Presidents and Councils, within their several Limits and Precincts, should have full Power and Authority, to hear and determine concerning the said Offences, in Manner and Form following; viz. by a Jury of twelve honest and indifferent Persons, returned by proper Officers, and sworn upon the Evangelists, who should, according to the Evidence given, upon their Oath, and according to the Truth in their Consciences, convict or acquit the several Persons so accused, and tried by them: That every Person who should volunta|rily confess the said Offences, or should stand mute, and refuse to plead, or make direct Answer, should be, and be held as fully convicted of the same, as if he had been found guilty by the Verdict of the twelve Jurors afore|said: That the said Presidents and Counc••, or the ma|jor Part of them, within their several Precincts and Li|mits, should have full Power and Authority, to give Judgment of Death upon every such Offender, without Benefit of Clergy, except in Case of Manslaughter only: And that no Person, so adjudged or condemned, should be reprieved, but by the Consent of the said President and Council, or the major Part of them; nor should receive full Pardon, or be absolutely discharged from the said Offences, but by the Pardon of the King, his Heirs, or Successors, under the Great Seal of Englan And fi|nally, that all Persons, offending as aforesaid, within the Degrees abovementioned, but out of the Precincts of their own Colony, should be tried and punished in their proper and respective Colony.

THAT the said Presidents and Councils, within their several Precincts and Limits, should have Power and Au|thority, to hear and determine all other Wrongs, Tres|passes, and Misdemeanors whatsoever; and on sufficient Proof upon Oath, should respectively punish the Offen|ders, either by reasonable corporal Punishment and Im|prisonment, or else by awarding such Damages, or other Satisfaction, to the Parties aggrieved, as to them, or the Page  39 more Part of them, should seem fit and convenient: And that the said Presidents and Councils should have Power to punish all Manner of Excess, through Drunkenness or otherwise, and all loitering, idle, and vagrant Per|sons, within their respective Precincts, according to their best Discretions, and with such convenient Punishment, as they, or the most Part of them, should think fit: That these judicial Proceedings should be made summa|rily and verbally, without Writing, till they came to the Judgment or Sentence, which should be briefly registred into a Book, kept for that Purpose, together with the Cause, for which the said Judgment or Sentence was given, subscribed by the said President and Council, or by such of them as gave the Judgment.

THAT for five Years, next after their landing on the Coast of Virginia, the said several Colonies, and every Person thereof, should trade altogether in one Stock, or in two or three Stocks at most, and should bring all theFruits of their Labours there, with all their Goods and Com|modities from England or elsewhere, into several Maga|zines or Storehouses, for that Purpose to be erected, in such Order, Manner, and Form, as the Councils of the respective Colonies, or the more Part of them, should prescribe and direct: That there should be annually cho|sen by the President and Council of each Colony, or the major Part of them, one Person of their Colony, to be Treasurer or Cape-Merchant of the same, to take Charge of, and to manage, all Goods and Wares, brought into, or delivered out of, the said Magazines; upon whose Death, voluntary Resignation, or Removal for any just and reasonable Cause, it should be lawful for the said President and Council, to elect any other, or others, in his Room: That there should also be elected, by the said President and Council, two others (or more, if need be) Persons of Discretion; the one to enter into a Book, kept for that Purpose, all Goods, Wares, and Merchan|dises, brought into; and the other, to charge, in a like Book, all taken out of the said Magazines or Storehouses; which Clerks should continue in their Places, only at the Will of the President and Council of their respctive Co|lony: And lastly, that every Person of each of the said Colonies, should e furnished with Necessaries out of the said Magazines, for the Space of five Years, by the Ap|pointment, Direction, and Order, of the President and Council of their respective Colonies, or of the Cape, Merchant and two Clerks, or the major Part of them.

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THAT the Adventurers of the First Colony should chuse, out of themselves, one or more Companies, each consisting of three Persons at the least, to reside in or near London, or at such other Place or Places, as the Council for that Colony, for the time being, or the most Part of them, during the said five Years, should think fit: In the same Manner, that the Adventurers of the Second Colony should chuse the like Companies, to be resident at or near Plimouth, or at such one, two, or three other Places or Ports, as the Council for that Co|lony should think fit: And that these minor Companies should, from time to time, take Care and Charge of the Trade, and an Account of all the Goods, Wares, and Merchandises, that should be sent from England to their respective Colonies, and brought from the Colonies into England, and of all other Things, relating to th Affairs and Profits of their several Companies.

THAT no Person should be admitted to abide or re|main in the said Colonies, but such as should take, not only the usual Oath of Obedience, but also the Oath, prescribed in the last Session of Parliament, holden at Westminster in the fourth Year of his Majesty's Reign, for due Obedience to the King, his Heirs, and Succes|sors.

THAT the Presidents and Councils of the said Colo|nies, or the major Part of them, should have Power to constitute, make, and ordain, from time to time, Laws, Ordinances, and Officers, for the better Order, Go|vernment, and Peace of their respective Colonies; pro|vided nevertheless, that those Ordinances and Constitu|tions did not touch any Party in Life or Member: And that the said Laws and Ordinances should stand and con|tinue in full Force, till the same should be otherwise altered or made void by the King, his Heirs, or Suc|cessors, or by his Majesty's Council in England for Vir|ginia, or by their own Council, there resident: Providd always, that the said Alterations should stand with, and be in Substance consonant to, the Laws of England, or the Equity thereof.

THAT all Persons should kindly treat the savage and heathen People in those Parts, and use all proper Mean to draw them to the true Service and Knowledge of God, and that all jst and charitable Courses should be taken with such of them, as would conform themselves to any good and sociable Traffick, thereby the sooner to bring them to the Knowledge of God, and the Obe|dience of the King, his Hirs, and Successors, under such Page  41 severe Pains and Punishments, as should be inflicted by the respective Presidents and Councils of the several Co|lonies.

THAT as the said Colonies should, from time to time, encrease in Plantation, the King, his Heirs, and Successors, should ordain and give such Order, and fur|ther Instructions, Laws, Constitutions, and Ordinances, as by them should be thought fit and convenient: Pro|vided always, that they be such as might stand with, and be consonant to the Laws of England, or the Equity thereof.

AND lastly, that his Majesty's Council in England for Virginia, should take uch Oath, as should be limit|ed and appointed by the Privy Council; and each Coun|sellor, resident in the Colonies, should take such Oath, as should be prescribed by the King's Council in England for Virginia: And that these, as well as all future Or|ders and Instructions of the King, his Heirs, or Succes|sors, should be transmitted over to the several Councils, resident in the said Colonies, under the legal Seal of the King's Council in England for Virginia.

THESE Articles contain several Things of an extraor|dinary Nature; which Sir Iohn Randolph, in the Sketch, he has left of the Beginning of his History of Virginia, pro|mised afterwards to animadvert upon. I am no Lawyer, and therefore shall not presume to enter deeply into the Matter. I shall only transiently remark, that, notwith|standing the frequent Repetition of the Laws of England, and the Equity thereof, his Majesty seems, in some things, to have deviated grosly from them. He has certainly made sufficient Provision for his own despotic Authority; and has attributed an extravagant and illegal Power to the Pre|sidents and Councils. For he has placed the whole Legis|lative Power solely in them, without any Representative of the People, contrary to a noted Maxim of the English Constitution; That all Freemen are to be governed by Laws, made with their own Consent, either in Person, or by their Representatives. He has also appointed Juries only in Cases of Life and Death; and has left all other Points, relating to the Liberty and private Property of the Subject, wholly to the Pleasure and Determination of the Presidents and Councils. He has indeed, agreeably to the Dictates of his own Nature, been express enough with Respect to Rebel|lion, Conspiracy, and other Offences immediately against the Magistrate; but then he has been very sparing in all other criminal Matters. For altho' he has made Adultery punishable with Death, contrary to the Laws of England, Page  42 and contrary to a greater, the Law of the Gospel, in the noted Determination of our B. Saviour, concerning the Woman taken in Adultery; yet he has passed over all the several Species of Robbery, Burglary, and Felony, with other Crimes, capital by the Laws of England, and decla|red, that none, but those there specified, should be subject to the Punishment of Death.

HOWEVER, furnished with these Powers and Autho|rities, the First or Southern Colony, which still retains the Name of Virginia, was undertaken and begun by several Nobleman, Knights, Gentlemen, Merchants and Citizens, in and about London; and they chose Sir Thomas Smith, a very eminent and wealthy Merchant of London, their Treasurer, to have the chief Management of their Affairs, and to summon and preside in all Meetings of the Council and Company in England. He had been the chief of Sir Walter Ralegh's Assignees, and was either now, or soon after, Governor of the East-India Company; and had also been sent, two Years before, his Majesty's Embassador to the Emperor of Russia. And next, having provided two Ships and a small Bark, they committed the Transporta|tion of the Colony to Captain Christopher Newport, who was esteemed a Mariner of Ability and Experience on the American Coasts. For he had fourteen Years before, Anno 1592, with much Reputation and Honour, conducted an Expedition against the Spaniards in the West-Indies; where, with three Ships and a small Bark, he took several Prizes, plundered and burnt some Towns, and got a considerable Booty.

TO him therefore, by an Instrument, bearing Date the 10th of December 1606, under the legal Seal of the Coun|cil, they gave Power to appoint all Captains, Soldiers, and Mariners, and to have the sole Charge and Command of the same, and of the whole Voyage, from the Date there|of, till they should land on the Coast of Virginia; and in Case of his Death, the several Captains of the Ships and Bark were ordered and impowered, to proceed and carry them to the Coast of Virginia aforesaid. To Captain New|port, Capt. Bartholomew Gosnold, and Captain Iohn Rat|cliffe, they also delivered several Instruments, close sealed with the Councils Seal, which they, the Survivors, or Sur|vivor of them, should, within twenty four Hours after their Arrival on the Coast of Virginia, and not before, open and unseal, and publish the Names of the Persons, therein set down, who should be declared and taken to be his Ma|jesty's Council for that Colony: That the said Council should immediately proceed to the Choice and Nomination Page  43 of a President, who should have two Votes in all Matter of Controversy and Question, where the Voices happened to be equal; and should have full Power and Authority, with the Advice of the rest of the Council, or the greater Part of them, to govern, rule, and command, all the Captains and Soldiers, with all other Persons whatsoever of the said Colony: And that the President, immediately upon his Election, should, in the Presence of the Council, and of twenty others of the principal Adventurers in the Voyage, to be by the President and Council called thereto, take his Oath, according to a Form prescribed, to bear true Allegiance to the King, and for the Performance of his Duty in the Place and Office of President; after which he should administer the like Oath to each of the Council par|ticularly. And finally, Captain Newport was commanded, with such a Number of Men, as should be assigned him by the President and Council, to bestow two Months in the Search and Discovery of the Rivers and Por of the Coun|try, and to give present Order for the lading the two Ships (the Bark being designed to remain in the Country) with such principal Commodities and Merchandise, as could there be had and found, and to return with the said Ships, full laden, bringing a particular Account of every thing, by the last of May following, if God permit.

TO these Orders the Council added other Instructions, by way of Advice, concerning their strict Observation f the above-mentioned Ordinances by the King's Majesty, delivered to them under the Privy Seal; concerning the Choice of a Place, and the Manner of seating themselves; the necessary Orders and Methods of Discovery; their Caution before, and Behaviour towards, the Natives; with various other Counsels and Directions for the better con|ducting themselves and the Enterprise. And as the Council in England were ever sollicitous and intent on the Discovery of the South-Sea, as the certain and infallible Way to im|mense Riches, they were commanded, if they happened to discover divers navigable Rivers, and among them any, that had two main Branches, if the Difference was not great, to make Choice of that, which tended most towards the North-West; since the other Sea, as they judged, would be soonest found that Way. And they were to discover, if they could, whether the River, on which they seated, sprung out of the Mountains or out of Lakes. For if it rose from any Lake, it was likely, that the Passage to the other Sea would be the more easy, and that out of the same Lake they might find some other Stream, running the contrary Way, towards the East-India, or South-Sea. And they Page  44 concluded lastly and chiefly, that the Way to prosper and obtain Success was to make themselves all of one Mind, for their own and their Country's Good, and to serve and fear God, the Giver of all Goodness, since every Plantation, which he did not plant, would certainly be rooted out.

ALL these Orders and Instructions being put into a Box, they set Sail from Blackwall the 19th of December 1606; but were kept six Weeks on the Coast of England by contrary Winds. Even then they neglected the Coun|cil's last salutary Advice, concerning Unity and Concord among themselves. For they began to fall into such Fac|tions and Discords, as would have ruined the whole Voyage, had not Mr. Hunt, their Preacher, by his prudent Con|duct and pious Exhortations, allayed their Fury and Dis|sension. That good Man, altho' he was so sick and weak the whole Time, that few expected his Recovery, and had the additional Aggravation of being the principal Object of their Malice and Reproach, yet bore all with the utmost Meekness and Patience. And he never betrayed the least seeming Desire to leave the Business, altho' his Habitation was but twenty Miles from the Downs, but preferred the Service of God and his Country, in so good a Voyage, be|fore all other private Respects or Considerations whatso|ever.

*As soon as they got clear of the Coast of England, they took the old Rout by the Canaries, where they watered. Here their Quarrels and Dissensions grew so high, that Captain Smith was seized and committed close Prisoner. It was suggested by Mr. Wingfield and some others of the chief among them, who envied his Repute and Interest with the Company, that he intended to murder the Council, usurp the Government, and make himself King of Virginia; and this, they pretended, would be attested and proved against him by several of his Confederates, who were dispersed in all the three Ships. Upon these scandalous Suggestions, he was suspected, and kept in close Confinement thirteen Weeks. From the Canaries they went to the West-Indies; where having traded with the Natives, and staid three Weeks to refresh themselves, they steered away Northward, in Search of Virginia. The Mariners had passed their Reckoning three Days, and yet found no Land; which so disheartened the Company, that Captain Ratcliffe, Com|mander of the Bark, was urgent to bare up the Helm, and return for England. But a violent Storm, obliging them to hull it all Night under their bare Poles, drove them pro|videntially, beyond all their Expectations, to their desired Port, For the next Day, being the 26th of April 1607, Page  45 they made a Coast, which none of them had ever seen.* The first Land, they descried, they called Cape-Henry, in Honour to the Prince of Wales; as the Northern Cape was named Cape-Charles, after the Duke of York, King Iames's second Son at that time, and afterwards King Charles I. of England. Thirty Men went ashore on Cape-Henry, to recreate and refresh themselves; but they were suddenly assaulted by five Savages, who wounded two of them very dangerously.

WITHIN these Capes they found a Country, which, according to their own Description, might claim the Pre|rogative over the most pleasant Places in the known World, for large and majestic navigable Rivers, for beautiful Mountains, Hills, Plains, Vallies, Rivulets, and Brooks, gurgling down, and running most pleasantly into a fair Bay, encompassed on all Sides, except at the Mouth, with fruit|ful and delightsome Land. In the Bay and Rivers were many Islands, both great and small, some woody, others plain, but most of them low and uninhabited. So that Heaven and Earth seemed never to have agreed better, to frame a Place for Man's commodious and delightful Habi|tation, were it fully cultivated and inhabited by industrious People.

THE Night of their Arrival, the Box was opened, and the Orders for Government read. In them Edward-Maria Wingfield, Bartholomew Gosnold, Iohn Smith, Christopher Newport, Iohn Ratcliffe, Iohn Martin, and George Ken|dall, were appointed of the Council. They were employ|ed, till the 13th of May, in seeking a Place for their Set|tlement; and then they resolved on a Peninsula, on the North Side of the River Powhatan, about forty Miles from the Mouth. After which,* Mr. Wingfield was chosen Pre|sident, the Council sworn, and an Oration made, why Captain Smith was not admitted of the Council, as the rest. But besides these Gentlemen and Mr. Hunt, their Chaplain, there came over another Person of very great Distinction and Quality. This was the Honourable Mr. George Percy, of the ancient Family of the Percies, so re|nowned in Story, and Brother to the Earl of Northumber|land. Neither did his Actions here disgrace the Nobility of his Birth. For he justly obtained the Reputation of being a Gentleman of great Honour, Courage, and Industry. He seems to have come merely a Volunteer upon the Ex|pedition, and bore no Post or Office of Government▪ which might perhaps have proceeded from the Cloud, un|der which his Brother, the Earl of Northumberland, then lay. For on some distant Surmises, and upon Account of Page  46 Mr. Percy,* his Kinsman, who was concerned in that Trea|son, the Earl was suspected to have been privy to the Gun-powder Plot; and was therefore thrown into the Tower, where he lay above twelve Years, was fined thirty thousand Pounds Sterling in the Star-Chamber, and under|went much hard Usage. And besides Mr. Percy, there were Anthony Gosnold, Captain Gabriel Archer, Nathaniel Powel, Kellam Throgmorton, William Smithes, Richard Frith, and divers others of Note in this first Plantation. And Mr. Thomas Studley was elected the first Cape-Mer|chant, or Treasurer, of the Colony.

HAVING pitched upon a Place to settle, they called it Iames-Town, in Honour of his Majesty then reigning, and every Man fell to work. The Council contrive the Fort▪ and of the rest, some cut down and clear away the Trees, to make a Place to pitch their Tents; some get Clapboard▪ to relade the Ships; whilst others were employed in making Gardens and Nets, and providing other Necessaries and Conveniences. The Indians often visited them kindly, which was a great Satisfaction to them. For the President's Jealousy would admit of no Exercise at Arms, nor any other Fortification, but the Bough of Trees cast together in the Form of a half Moon, by the extraordinary Pains and Diligence of Captain Kendall. And soon after New|port and Smith, with twenty others, were sent to discover the Head of the River Powhatan, which, from King Iames, was afterwards called Iames River. They passed by divers small Habitations; and in six Days arrived at a Town, called Powhatan, consisting of about twelve Houses, plea|santly seated on a Hill, on the North Side of the River, with three fertile Isles before it. This Place I judge to be either Mrs. Mayo's, or else Marring's Plantation; and it was the principal Seat, by Inheritance, of Powhatan, Em|peror of the Country. To this Place they found the River navigable; but within a Mile higher, by reason of the Rocks and Isles, there was no Passage for a small Boat; and this they called the Falls. They were kindly treated by the People in all Parts; but being returned to Iames-Town, they found seventeen Men hurt, and a Boy slain, by the Indians; and had not a Cross-bar Shot from the Ships hap|pened to strike a Bough from a Tree among them, which frighted, and made them retire, the English had been all cut off, being securely at Work, and their Arms in dry Fats. After this the President permitted the Fort to be pa|lisadoed, the Ordinance to be mounted, and the Men to be armed and exercised. For many and sudden were th Assaults and Ambuscades of the Indians; and the EnglishPage  47 by their disorderly straggling, were often hurt, whilst they, by the Nimbleness of their Heels, escaped.

ALTHO' Captain Newport was named of the Council, yet was he only hired for their Transportation, and wa to return with the Ships. The time of his Departure ap|proaching, Captain Smith's Enemies pretended, out of Tenderness and Compassion to him, to refer him to the Council in England, to receive a Reprimand, rather than by pushing on their Accusation, to endanger his Life, or utterly destroy his Reputation. But he, being a Man of high Spirit, and conscious of his Innocency, scorned their Charity, and defied their Malice; and behaved himself in the whole Affair with such Clearness and Prudence, that all the Company perceived his Integrity, and their Envy and Injustice. Insisting therefore upon his Trial, the Persons, suborned to accuse him, accused their Suborners; and al|tho' many Falshoods were alledged against him, yet were they all so plainly disproved, that it raised a general Resent|ment in the Hearts of the Audience against such unjust Commanders, and the President was condemned to pay him two hundred Pounds, in Reparation of the Injury. In Consequence hereof, all the President's Effects were seized in Part of Satisfaction; but Smith generously pre|sented them to the publick Store for the Use of the Colony. Soon after their Heats and Animosities were appeased by the good Doctrine and Exhortations of Mr. Hunt, who procured Captain Smith to be admitted of the Council; and the next Day, they all received the Communion, in Con|firmation of their Peace and Concord. The Day after, being the 15th of Iune, the Indians voluntarily sued for Peace, and Captain Newport set Sail for England, leaving an hundred Persons behind him in Virginia.

THE Colony, being now left to their Fortunes, fell into such a violent Sickness, that within ten Days scarce ten a|mong them could either go or stand. This was chiefly owing to the Difference of their Diet. For whilst the Ships staid, either by Way of Traffick, or for Money, or Love, they got a daily Proportion of Biscuit and other 〈◊〉 from the Sailers, who always abounded even to Luxury and Profusion. But now they were all reduced to the common Kettle; which contained the Allowance of half a Pint of Wheat, and as much Barley, boiled with Water, for a Man a Day. And this, having funked for six and twenty Weeks in the Ship's Hold, contained no|thing substantial, being only Bran, with as many Worms s Grains. The Council in England, but especially Sir Thomas Smith, their Treasurer, were justly charged with Page  48 much Cruelty and Inhumanity for these scanty and ill-conditioned Provisions; which Management however con|tinued, more or less, the whole time of that Gentleman's Administration of the Affairs of the Company and Colony. This unwholesome Food, together with their continual Toil and Labour in the Extremity of the Heat, carried of fifty of the Company by September; in which Number was Captain Gosnold, the first Mover and Projector of the whole Business. The rest, that survived by the Care of Captain Smith, and the Skill and Diligence of Mr. Thomas Wotton, their Surgeon-General, subsisted on Crabs and Sturgeo, till September.

BUT the President, all this while, had felt neither Want nor Sickness. For he had embezzled the public Otmeal, Sack, Aqua-vitae, Beef, and Eggs, and had lived in great Plenty and Elegance. Soon after, having projected a Escape to England in the Bark, it raised such Indignation in the rest, that they deposed him, and elet•• Captain Iohn Ratcliffe in his Room. Kendall was likewise at the same time disgraced,* and removed from the Council, for being concerned in these mal Practices of the President. And now, when all their Provisions were spent, the Stur|geon gone, and no Prospect of Relief from any Quarter left, God wrought so wonderful a Change in the Hearts of the Indians, that they brought such Plenty of their Fruit and Provisions, as no Man wanted.

Newport was gone, Gosnold dead, and Wingfield and Kendall in Disgrace; neither were their Places supplied by the Election of any others, according to the Authority given. So that the whole Government and Power of the Council now rested in the new President, Martin, and Smith. But the President and Martin, being little esteemed or beloved, of weak Judgment in Dangers, and less In|dustry in Peace, at first very candidly and wisely permitted every thing to Smith's Management, who was peculiarly fitted for conducting such an Enterprise, by a good Judg|ment, undaunted Courage, and an invincible Industry and Resolution. He immediately set about the building of Iames-Town; and by good Words, fair Promises, and his own Example (himself always bearing the gr••test Shr of the Labour and Fatigue) he pushed on the Work with such Vigor and Diligence, that he had, in short time, provided most of them with Lodgings, neglecting any for himself. After which, finding the Autumn Superfluity of the Savages begin to decrease, he resolved to search th Country for Trade. The Want of the Language and sufficient Power, with Cloathing for his Men and other Page  49 Necessaries, were infinite Impediments to this Design,* but no Discouragement to his bold and adventurous Spirit. For with five or six more, he went down the River, in a Shallop, to Kicquotan; where at first they scorned them, as poor famished Creatures, and would offer, in Derision, a Handful of Corn, or a Piece of Bread, for their Swords, Muskets, or Cloaths. But Smith, finding, that nothing was to be had by Trade and Courtesy, ventured to exceed his Commission, and entered upon such Measures, as Ne|cessity and the Exigency of his Case required. And there|fore, having discharged his Muskets among them, he ran his Boat ashore; at which the Indians all fled into the Woods. Then marching up to their Houses, they saw great Heaps of Corn. But Smith with much ado restrained his hungry Soldiers from immediately seizing it; expecting, the Savages would return to assault them, as it soon after happened. For sixty or seventy of them, some painted black, some red, some white, and some party-coloured, issued out of the Woods, singing and dancing, and making a most hide|ous Noise, with their Okée borne before them. This was an Idol; made of Skins, stuffed with Moss, and all painted and hung with Chains and Copper. For there was no Place in Virginia found so barbarous and void of Humani|ty, in which they had not a Religion, Deer, Bows, and Arrows. In this Savage Manner, being armed with Clubs, Targets, Bows, and Arrows, they charged the English, who received them so warmly with a second Volley of Muskets, loaded with Pistol Shot, that down fell their God, and several of them lay sprawling on the Ground. The rest fled again into the Woods, and soon after sent one of their Priests, to redeem their God and offer Peace. Smith told him, if only six, would come unarmed, and load his Boat with Corn, he would not only restore their Okée, but would be their Friend, and give them Beads, Copper, and Hatchets besides. Which was agreed to, and performed to the Satisfaction of both Parties. And then they brought him Venison, Turkies, Wildfowl, Bread, and whatever else they had, singing and dancing in Sign of Friendship, till he departed. And in his Return up the River, he dis|covered the Town and Country of Warrasqueake.

AFTER his Return to Iames-Town, he made several Journies by Land, and discovered the People of Chickaho|miny. In one of these, Wingfield and Kendall, seeing all things at random in Smith's Absence▪ and the Com|pany's Scorn of the President's Weakness and Martin's never-mending Sickness, took Advantage of the Occasion, ••d combined with the Sailers and others, to regain their Page  50 former Authority, or at least to seize the Bark, which Smith had fitted for a trading Voyage, and in her to escape and go for England. But Smith, returning unexpectedly, with much Difficulty preveted their Design. For he was obliged to turn the Cannon of the Fort upon them, and so force them to stay or sink in the River; which Action cost the Life of Captain Kendall. And not long after, their new President Ratcliffe and Captain Gabriel Archer intended to abandon the Country; but their Project was likewise restrained and suppressed by Smith. The Spaniards was ne|ver more gre••y of Gold, than he was of Provisions; nei|ther did the rest desire more eagerly to abandon the Coun|try, than he to keep it. And therefore, having found Plenty of Corn up the River Chickahominy, he went a tra|ding Voyage thither, and was received by hundreds of In|dians, who stood in divers Places with Baskets, expecting his Coming. And now the Winter likewise coming on, the Rivers were so covered with Swans, Geese, and Ducks, that they daily feasted with good Bread, Virginia Pease, Pumpions, and Paslimmons, and with Fish, Fowl, and di|vers Sorts of wild Beasts, as fat as they could well eat them. So that none of their humoursome and tuftaffety Sparks (as Smith calls them) were any longer discontented, or desirous to go to England.

BUT Captain Smith's Activity and Industry, in disco|vering the Country, and providing for the Colony, could not screen him from the vain Exceptions and Murmurs of many Idr at Iames-Town. He was censured by some▪ and even taxed by the Council, of being too remiss and negligent in discovering the Head of Chickahominy River. And therefore soon after, with much Labour in cutting away Trees and clearing a Passage, he went up as far, as his Barge could pass. And then leaving her in a broad Bay, beyond the Reach of the Indians Shot, he himself, with two English more, and two Indians, proceeded higher up in a Canoe. When he left the Barge, he ordered, that none should go ashore, till his Return. But he was not long gone, before his disorderly and ungovernable Crew disobeyed this Command, and thereby gave the Indians an Opportunity of surprising one George Cassen; and indeed narrowly escaped being all cut off to a Men. For 〈◊〉, Brother to Powhatan, and King of Pamunkey, a subtle and savage B••barian, was there with three hundred Bowen. And after having extorted from Cassen, which Way his Captain was gone, he put him to Death in a most cruel and barbarous Manner, and then went in Pursuit of Smith.

Page  51CAPTAIN Smith had got up twenty Miles higher, a|mong the Swamps and Marshes at the Head of the River; and leaving the Canoe to the Care of Robinson and Emry, his two Men, he himself was gone to kill some Provisions. Opechancanough first happened on the two Men, asleep, as it was supposed, by the Fire; and shooting them full of Ar|rows, slew them. And then they traced the Captain; who, finding himself beset, bound an Indian, whom he had for his Guide, to his Arm for a Buckler, and received their Attack so smartly with his Fire-Arms, that he soon laid three dead upon the Spot, and so wounded and galled diver others, that none of them cared to approach him. He himself received a slight Wound in the Thigh, and had many Arrows sticking in his Cloaths, but without any great Hurt. Having the Indians thus at bay, he endeavoured to sheer off to his Canoe; but regarding them, as he went, more than his Way, he suddenly slipped up to his Middle into an oozy Creek. Altho' he was thus hampered, yet none of them durst come near him, till, being almost dead with Cold, he threw away his Arms and surrendered. Then drawing him out, they carried him to the Fire, where hi Men were slain, and carefully chased his benumbed Limbs. For this Winter, 1607, was extremely cold in Virginia, as it was likewise remarkable for an extraordinary Frost in Europe.

WHEN Smith was a little recovered, he asked for their Captain, and being shewed Opechancanough, he presented him with a round Ivory double compass Dial. They won|dered greatly at the playing of the Fly and Needle, which they could see so plainly, and yet not touch, because of the Glass, that covered them. But when he explained by it the Roundness of the Earth, the Skies, the Sphere of the Sun, Moon, and Stars, with other surprising and unheard of Doctrines to them, they all stood amazed. Yet within an Hour after, they tied him to a Tree, and drew up in Order to shoot him. But the King holding up the Com|pass in his Hand, they all laid down their Arms at once. And then, with much Triumph, and in martial Order, they conducted him to Orapakes, which was a hunting Town and Seat, lying on the upper Part of Chickahominy Swamp, on the North Side, belonging to, and much fre|quented by Powhatan and the Imperial Family, on Account of the Abundance of Game, it afforded. In their March, they drew themselves all up in File; and Opechancanough, be|ing in the Midst, had the English Swords and Muskets carried before him. Captain Smith came next, led by three great Savages, holding him fast by each Arm; and on either Page  52 Side went six in File, with their Arrows notched. When they arrived at the Town, the Women and Children stood staring at a human Creature, so unlike whatever they had before seen; and the Soldiers, that had taken him, pe|formed their military Exercise, throwing themselves with great Dexterity into their War-Dance, with strange Dis|tortions and antic Postures, singing and yelling out fright|ful and inharmonious Notes and Screeches. But they treated Smith here very kindly, and feasted him with that Forma|lity and Abundance, that he suspected, they intended to fatten and to eat him. In the midst of these melancholy Thoughts and Surmises, one of them, in Return for some Beads and Toys, which Smith had given him at his first Arrival, brought him his Gown; which was of singular Service to him, and a very seasonable Defence against the excessive Coldness of the Season.

BUT whilst his Mind was thus taken up with imaginary Deaths, he had like to have met a real one. For a Man came violently upon him, and would have slain him for the Death of his Son, had he not been prevented by his Guard. Whether this was one of those, that were wound|ed, when Smith was taken Prisoner, or whether he was dying a natural Death, which they, through Ignorance and Superstition, attributed to some Sorcery in Smith, is not easy to be determined. However, they carried him to recover the poor Man, breathing out his last. Smith told them, he had a Water at Iames-Town, that would do it, if they would let him fetch it. But they had more Sense than to permit that, or to trust him out of their Hands.

THEY were now making the greatest Preparations they could, to assault Iames-Town. To this End they desired Smith's Advice and Assistance; and, as a Reward, promised him Life, Liberty, Land, and Women. But he represent|ed to them the extreme Danger and Difficulty of the At|tempt; and described the Springing of Mines, great Guns, and other warlike Engines, in such a Manner, as exceed|ingly frighted and amazed them. And then he persuaded some of them to go to Iames-Town, under Pretence of fetching some Toys; and in Part of a Table-Book, he in|formed them at the Fort, what was intended, and directed them, how to behave and affright the Messengers, and with|out fail, to send him such Things, as he wrote for. Within three Days, the Messengers returned, through as bitter Weather as could be, for Frost and Snow; and were great|ly astonished themselves, as well as all that heard it, how Smith could divine, or the Paper speak. For all thing were delivered them, and had happened at Iames-Town, ac|cording 〈◊〉 he foretold.

Page  53ALL Thoughts of an Attack upon Iames-Town being therefore laid aside, they led Smith in Show and Triumph about the Country. And first they carried him to those, that dwelt on Youghtanund, or as it is now called, Pamun|key River. For the main River, which is since named York River, was then called Pamunkey; altho' the Country of Pamunkey, over which Opechancanough was King, lay in the Fork of the River, and his chief Seat was nearly, where the Pamunkey Town now is. From the Youghtanunds they led him to the Mattaponies, the Piankatanks, the Nantaugh|tacunds, on Rappahanock, and the Nominies, on Ptowmack River. And having passed him over all those Rivers, they brought him back, through several other Nations, to O|pechancanough's Habitation at Pamunkey: where, with fright|ful Howlings, and many strange and hellish Ceremonies, they conjured him three Days, to know, as ••ey told him, whether he intended them well or ill. After this, they brought him a Bag of Gunpowder, which they judged to be a Grain, springing out of the Earth, as other Grain did; and therefore they carefully preserved it, intending to plant it the next Spring, as they did their Corn. And then he was invited, and feasted, in a sumptuous Manner, by Opitchapan, second Brother to Powhatan, and next Heir to all his Dominions. But here, as in all other Places, none of them would touch a Morsel with him; altho' they would feast very merrily upon what he left. At last they conducted him to Werowocomoco, where Powhatan, the Emperor, was. Werowocomoco lay on the North Side of York River, in Glocester County, nearly opposite to the Mouth of Queen's Creek, and about twenty five Miles be|low the Fork of the River. It was at that Time Pow|hatan's principal Place of Residence; altho' afterwards, not admiring the near Neighbourhood of the English, he retired to Orapakes.

Powhatan himself was a tall, well-proportioned Man, of a four Aspect, and of a very strong and hardy Constitution of Body. His proper Name was Wahunsonacock; and he had that of Powhatan, from the Town so called, near the Falls of Iames River, which was the chief Seat and Metro|polis of his hereditary Dominions; and he seems to have removed to Werowocomoco for Conveniency, after he had extended his Conquests far North. For his hereditary Co••tries were only Powhatan, Arrohattock, about twelve Miles lower down, which hath since been corrupted to Haddihaddcks, Appamatock, Youghtanund, Pamunkey, and Mattapony; to which may be added, Werowocomoco, and Kisk••ck, or as it hath since been called, Cheesecake, be|tween Page  54Williamsburg and York. All the rest were his Con|quests; and they were bounded on the South by Iames Ri|ver, with all its Branches, from the Mouth to the Falls, and so across the Country, nearly as high as the Falls of all the great Rivers, over Patowmack even to Patuxen in Maryland. And some Nations also on the Eastern Shore, owned Subjection to him. These Dominions descended, not to his Sons r Children, but first to his Brothers, whereof he had three, Opitchapan, Opechancanough, and Catataugh; and then to his Sisters, according to their Se|niority; and after them to the Heirs male or female of the eldest Sister, and so of the rest, but never to the Heirs of the Males.

HE lived in great barbaric State and Magnificence. He usually had about his Person forty or fifty of the tallest Men, his Country afforded; which Guard was, after this time, encreased to two hundred, on Account of the En|glish. Every Night, upon the four Corners of his House were placed four Sentinels, each a slight Shot from the other; and every half Hour, one from the main Guard hollowed, shaking his Finger between his Lips, and every Sentinel was obliged to answer from his Stand. If any failed, an Officer was immediately sent, who beat him extremely. At all his ancient Inheritances, he had Houses, some of them thirty or forty Yards long; and at every House, Pro|vision for his Entertainment, according to the Season. He kept as many Women, as he pleased; and when he laid down, one sat at his Head, and another at his Feet; but when he was up, one sat on his right Hand, and another on his left. And as he was weary of them, he bestowed them on such of his Servants, as ha most pleased him, or best deserved them at his Hands.

ALTHO' both himself and People were very barbarous, and void of all Letters and Civility, yet was there such a Government among them, that the Magistrates for good Command, and the People for due Subjection, excelled many Places, that would be counted very civil. He had under him above thirty inferior Kings or Werowances, who had Power of Life and Death, but were bound to govern according to the Customs of their Country. However, his Will was, in all Cases, their supreme Law, and must be obeyed. They all knew their several Lands, Habitations, and Limits to fish, fowl, or hunt in. But they held all of their great Werowance, Pwhatan; to whom they paid Tribute of Skin, Bead, Copper, Pearl, Deer, Turkies, wild 〈◊〉, and Corn. All his Subjects reverenced him, 〈◊〉 only 〈…〉 but 〈◊〉 hlf a God; and it was curious Page  55 to behold, with what Fear and Adoration they obeyed him. For at his Feet they presented whatever he commanded; and a Frown of his Brow would make their greatest Spirits tremble. And indeed it was no Wonder; for he was very terrible and tyrannous in punishing such, as offended him, with Variety of Cruelty and the most exquisite Torture.

WHEN Smith was presented to him, he was about sixty Yers of Age, something hoary, and of a savage Majesty and Grandeur. He sat before a Fire, upon a wooden Throne, like a Bedstead, cloathed with a great Robe of Racoon Skins, and with a Coronet of Feathers about his Head. On either Hand, sat a young Wench, of about six|teen or eighteen Years of Age; and along each Side of the Hous, Row of Men, and behind them, as many Wo|men▪ painted and adorned in their best Manner. When Smih entered, all the People gave a Shout; and the Queen of Appmato was appointed to bring him Water to wash his Hands, and another brought a Bunch of Feathers, in|stead of a Towel, to dry them. After that, having feasted him in their best Manner, a long Consultation was held; at the Conclusion of which, two great Stones were brought before Powhatan, and Smith was dragged to them, and his Head lid thereon, in order to have his Brains beat out with Clubs. But Pocahontas, the King's darling Daughter, when no Entreaty could prevail, got his Head into her Arms, and laid her own upon it, to save his Life. Where|upon Powhatan was persuaded to let him live, to make himself Hatchets, and her Bells, Beads, and Copper. For the King himself would make his own Robes, Shoes, Bows, Arrows, and Pots; and would hunt, plant, and do every thing else, like the rest; and therefore they thought him of all Occupations, as well as themselves. And besides this surprising Tenderness and Affection of Pocahontas, who was at that Time about twelve or thirteen Years of Age, Cap|tain Smith received many Services from Nantaquaus, the Emperor's Son. He was a Youth of the comeliest and most manly Person, and of the highest Spirit and Courage, of any in the Court of Powhatan; and he embraced Smith's Interest with much Warmth and Heartiness, and did him many Acts of Friendship and Kindnss.

Two Days after, Powhaton, having disguised himself in the most frightful Manner, he could, caused Captain Smith to be carrid to a great House in the Woods, and there to be left alone on a Mat by the Fire. Not long after, from behind a Mat, which divided the House, was made the most doleful Noise, he had ever heard; and then Pow|atan, with about two Hundred more, as frightful as him|self, Page  56 came to him, and told him, they were now Friends, and he should immediately go to Iames-Town, to send him two great Guns and a Grindstone; for which he would give him the Country of Capahowsick, and ever after esteem him, as his Son Nantaquaus. Captain Smith put little Confidence in his Words, and expected every Minute, even till he got to Iames-Town, to be put to one Kind of Death or other. But Powhata sent him off immediately, with twelve Guides; and having lodged that Night in the Woods, he arrived the next Morning early at the Fort.

AND thus Captain Smith, after seven Weeks Captivity, returned to Iames-Town, with the Advantage of being much improved in the Knowledge of the Country and their Lan|guage. He used his Guides with the utmost Kindness; and shewed Rawhunt, Powhatan's trusty Servant, two Demi-Culverins and a Mill-stone, to carry to their Master. Their Weight was sufficient to deter them from the Attempt; but when they saw him discharge them, loaded with Stones, among the Boughs of a great Tree, hung with Icicles, the Terror of the Report, and the Ratling of the Boughs and Ice, so frighted the poor Savages, that they ran away, half dead with Fear. But having regained some Conference with them, he gave them such Toys for themselves, and sent Powhatan, his Women, and Children, such Presents, as gave a general Satisfaction.

AT Iames-Town every thing was in Confusion, and the strongest were preparing once more to run away with the Bark. But Smith, with the Hazard of his Life, forced her the third time, to stay or sink in the River. And the next Day, several combined with the President, to put him to Death by the Levitical Law, for the Lives of Robinson and Emry, whom, they said, he had led to their End, and was consequently the Author of their Death. But he quick|ly took such Order with those Lawyers, that he laid them by the Heels, till he sent some of them Prisoners to England. And then, by his Relation of the Plenty, he had seen a|mong the Natives, especially at Werowocomoco, and of the State and Bounty of Powhatan, till then unknown, he very much appeased their Fears, and revived their dead Spirits. And Pocahontas, with her Attendants, ever once in four or five Days, brought him so much Provision, as saved th Lives of many, who must otherwise have perished with Hunger. Several others also of the Natives repaired daily to the Fort, with such Provisions, as sufficiently served them from Hand to Mouth. Part they always brought Smith, as Presens from their Kings or Pocahontas▪ and be▪ Page  57 as their Market-Clerk, set the Price upon the rest. So much had he astonished and enchanted those poor Souls, whilst their Prisoner, that they esteemed him, as a Demi-God, and were ready, at his Beck, to do, whatever he commanded. And the God, who created all things, they knew, he adored as his God, and would, in their Dis|course, call him the God of Captain Smith.

AND this their high Opinion was much increased by the Arrival of Captain Newport, whom Smith, among them, called his Father, nearly about the time, that he had fore|told. For the Treasurer and Council in England sent two Ships, the latter End of this Year, with a Supply of Pro|visions, and an hundred and twenty Men. These came, well furnished with all things, that could be imagined ne|cessary, as Captain Smith tells us. But however, we mut always make some Allowance in his Account of these things. For he was a very great Friend to Sir Thomas Smith; and we shall see hereafter, from several authentic Papers, but especially from a Representation of our General Assembly, among the Records in the Capitol, that that Officer was most scandalously negligent, if not corrupt, particularly in this Matter of Supplies. One of these Ships was com|manded by Captain Newport, the other by Captain Francis Nelson, an honest Man and expert Mariner. But such was the Lewardness of his Ship, that altho' he was within Sight of Cape Henry, yet by contrary Winds and stormy Weather, he was driven off the Coast, and forced to the West-Indies, to repair his Masts, and to get a Recruit of Wood and Water. But before this, the President and Council so much envied Smith's Esteem among the Natives, altho' they all equally participated of the good Effects of it, that to raise their Credit and Authority above his, they would give them four times as much for their Commodities, as he had appointed. And now, out of Joy for the Ar|rival of this first Supply, and to gratify the Mariners, they gave them free Liberty to trade, as they pleased. So that in a short time, what was before bought for an Ounce of Copper, could not be had for a Pound. To which Captain Newport's profuse Presents to Powhatan were added, and gave the finishing Blow to their Trade. They served in|deed to entertain and keep up the high Idea of Newport' Greatness, which Smith had raised in Powhatan, and made him very desirous to see him.

ACCORDINGLY the Bark was prepared, and a great Coil there was at Iames-Town to set him off. Captain Smith and Mr. Matthew Scrivener, a discreet and under|standing Gentleman, newly arrived and admitted of the Page  58 Council, attended him with a Guard of thirty or forty chosen Men. When they came to Werowocomoco, New|port began to entertain many Fears and Suspicions of Trea|chery. But Smith, with twenty Men, undertook to en|counter the worst, that could happen; and going ashore, was kindly conducted by two or three hundred Indians to the Town. Powhatan strained himself, upon this Occasi|on, to the utmost of his Greatness to entertain them, with great Shouts of Joy, Orations, and Protestations, and with the most sumptuous and plentiful Banquet, he could pro|vide. He sat on a Bed of Mats, with a Pillow of Leather embroidered with Pearl and white Beads; and was cloathed in a Robe of Skins, as large as an Irish Mantle. At his Head and Feet, sat a handsome young Woman; and on each Side the House, twenty of his Concubines, with their Heads and Shoulders painted red, and a great Chain of white Beads about each of their Necks. Before them, sat▪ his chief Men, in the like Order; and above forty Platters of fine Bread stood in two Files, on each Side of the Door. Four or five hundred People attended, as a Guard; and Proclamation was made, that none, upon Pain of Death, should presume to do the English any Wrong or Discour|tesy. And thus did Smith and he spend the Day, in a kind Renewal of their former Acquaintance, and in feasting, and seeing them dance and sing, and play their other Feats of Humour and Activity. And that Night, the English were quartered and lodged by Powhatan.

THE next Morning, Newport came ashore, and they spent three or four Days more in feasting, and dancing, and rading. In all which time, Powhatan behaved himself with such Loftiness and State, and yet with so much Discretion, that they could not forbear admiring his natural Parts and Understanding. Scorning to trade, as his Subjects did, he told Newport, that he esteemed him a great Werowance, as well as himself; that it was not agreeable to their Dig|nity to trade, in that pedling Manner, for Trifles; and that therefore, if he would lay down all his Commodities together, he would chuse, what he liked, and give him their Value. Smith, who was their Interpreter, and knew Powhatan's Disposition, told the Company, his Intent was only to cheat them. But Newport, thinking to out-brave this stately Barbarian in Ostentation and Gretnss, and by his Bounty to obtain from him, whatever he please, ac|cepted the Condition. And then Powhatan, having taken what he liked, valued his Corn at such a Rate, that they had not four ushels, for what they expected twenty Hogs|heads. This bred some Distaste between the two EnglishPage  59 Captains. But Smith, smothering his Dislike before the Savages, glanced several Trifles in the Eyes of Powhatan, who soon fixed his Fancy on some blue Beads. He was a long time importunate to have them; but Smith valued them so much the higher, and told him, they were com|posed of a rare Substance of the Colour of the Skies, and were not to be worn by any, but the greatest Kings in the World. This made him the more eager and mad for them; so that, for a Pound or two of blue Beads, he drew from him two or three hundred Bushels of Corn, and yet parted in good Friendship. Upon this Voyage Newport gave Powhatan a Boy, named Thomas Savage, whom he called his Son; and Powhatan gave him Namontack, a Servant of his, of a shrewd and subtle Capacity.

FROM Werowocomoco they went to Pamunkey, where they were feasted in like Manner by Opechancanough. Smith fitted him also, at the same Rates, with blue Beads; which, by this Means, grew into such Estimation, that none durst wear them, but their great Kings, or their Wives and Children. At length weighing from thence, they returned to Iames-Town; where this new Supply of Corn being lodged with the rest, their Store-house was by some Acci|dent fired, and so the Town, which, being thatched with Reeds, burnt with that Fierceness and Violence, as soon consumed their wooden Fortifications, with their Arms, Apparel, and Bedding, and much private Goods and Pro|vision. The good Mr. Hunt lost all his Library, with every thing else, that he had, except the Cloaths on his Back; yet no one ever heard him murmur or repine at it.

NOTWITHSTANDING this unfortunate Accident,* they had yet a tolerable Stock of Oatmeal, Meal, and Corn, had not the Ship loitered fourteen Weeks in the Country, when she might as well have been gone in fourteen Days. For they thereby helped to consume a great Part of the Colony's Store, and near all the Provisions, sent to be land|ed. When they departed, they left them, what little they thought proper to spare; which they were glad to receive, and make up an Account, highly commending their Care and Providence, lest they should disourage the Council at home from sending any more. Yet those Persons, who had either Money, spare Cloaths, Credit for Bills of Ex|change, Gold Rings, Furs, or any such valuable Commo|dities, were always welcome to this floating Tavern. Such was their Necessity and Misfortune, to be under the Lash of those vile Commanders, and to buy their own Provisions at fifteen times the Value; suffering them to feast at their Charge, whilst themselves were obliged to fast, and yet Page  60 dare not repine,* lest they should incur the Censure of being factious and seditious Persons. By these Means and Ma|nagement, the Colony was rather burthened than relieved, by the vast Charge of this Ship; and being reduced to Meal and Water, and exposed, by the Loss of their Town, to the most bitter Cold and Frost, above half of them died. Smith indeed and Scrivener endeavoured to correct all A|buses, and to put things into a better Posture; but they could do nothing to Effect, being overpowered by the Pre|sident and his Party, who had long before this laid aside their Deference to Smith's Judgment and Management.

ABOUT this time also, there sprung up a very trouble|some Sect of Gold-finders, which was headed by Captain Martin, and warmly embraced by Newport. There was no Thought, no Discourse, no Hope, and no Work, but to dig Gold, wash Gold, refine Gold, and load Gold. And notwithstanding Captain Smith's warm and judicious Re|presentations, how absurd it was, to neglect other things of immediate Use and Necessity, to load such a drunken Ship with guilded Dust; yet was he over-ruled, and her Re|turns made in a Parcel of glittering Dirt, which is found in various Parts of the Country, and which they very sanguinely conluded to be Gold-Dust. And in her they sent home Mr. Wingfield and Captain Archer, to seek some better Place of Employment in England. For they had assumed many empty Titles of Offices here, as Admirals, Recorders, Chronologers, Justices of the Peace and of the Courts of Plea, with other such idle and insignificant Pre|tensions.

AND now Martin and the President, carrying all things, 〈◊〉 they pleased, by their Faction, lived in great Splendor by the Sale of the Store's Commodities, as if they had been their proper and hereditary Revenue. And the Spring ap|proaching, Captain Smith and Mr. Scrivener prepared Field for Corn, and applied themselves to rebuild Iames-Town, and repair the Church, Store-house, and Fortifications. But whilst they were all busily engaged at their several La|bours, Captain Nelson, who had been driven off the Coast, as was before said, and as they all thought, lost, unex|pectedly arrived, to their great Joy. He had been very careful and provident, and had fed his Company on what he got at the West-India Islands; so that the Provisions, he now landed, joined to their former Store, were sufficient to support them half a Year, according to their present Allowance. He himself also freely imparted, whatever h had; and by his fair and generous Behaviour, h got th Good-word and Love of the whole Colony. And the Pr|sident, Page  61 to send some good News by this Ship, ordered Captain Smith, with sixty able Men, to discover the Coun|try of the Monacan, or as they were afterwards called, the Manakin Indians; a Nation above the Falls of Iames-River, not subject to Powhatan, but profest Enemies to him and his Dominions. For that strange Blood-thirstiness, and, as it were, judicial Infatuation, of warring against and exterminating each other, which at present infests our Indians, and has been the Cause of the utter Extirpation of most of the Nations on this Continent, was even then root|ed in their Nature, and may be observed in the oldest Ac|counts, that we have of them. However as it was the Time of planting Corn, and this Ship was to be dispatched, Captain Smith thought those and other thing more urgent at that time, and therefore deferred the Discovery, till h could perform it with less Charge and more Leisure.

WHEN Newport left the Country, Powhatan presented him with twenty Turkies, and in return demandd twenty Swords, which were immediately ••nt him. Afterward he presented Captain Smith with the like Number; but having no Swords in Return, he was highly offended, and ordered his People to take them by Stratagem of Force. So that they became insufferably troublesome and insolent, would surprise the English at their Work, and seise their Swords at the very Ports of Iames-Town. Th President and Martin, who now bore the Sway, would keep their Houses, or do any thing, rather than transgress a strict Com|mand from England, not to offend them. But at length they happened to meddle with Captain Smith, who gave them a rough Encounter, hunted them up and down the Island, and seised seven, whom he whipped and imprison|ed. By this and other smart Proceedings, he brought them to Submis••on; and they unanimously confessed, that they acted by Powhatan's Direction, in order to get Swords from the English, to cut their own Throats; and they likewis discovered, how, where, and when, this Design was to be put in Execution; all which was confirmed by many con|current Circumstances. But Powhatan, finding, that things went not according to his Desire and Intent, sent Pocahon|tas with Presents, to excuse himself for the Injuries done by some of his ungovernable Captains; and he desired their Liberty for this time, with Assurances of his Love and Friendship for ever. And Smith having given them a pro|per Correction, delivered them to Pocahontas; for whose Sake alone he pretended to save their Lives, and give them heir Liberty. Thus, without the Death of one Man, he •••trained their Insolence, and brought them into such per|fect Page  62 Fear and Obedience, that his very Name was sufficient to fright them; whereas before they had sometimes Peace and War twice in a Day, and seldom a Week passed without some Treachery or Ambuscade. But the peaceable Coun|cil were highly offended at these Proceedings, and expostu|lated warmly with him for his Rashness and Cruelty.

THERE had been a Dispute between Martin and Smith; whether this Ship should be laded with Cedar or Dirt. But her Freight being concluded to be Cedar, she was, by the Diligence of her Captain and Smith, quickly dispatched. In her Captain Martin, being always sickly and unservice|able, and having his Head full of the idle Whimsy of a Gold Mine, was most willingly admitted to return to En|gland. In these two Ships, besides Mr. Scrivener, came Walter Russel, Doctor of Physick, Richard Fetherstone, and some others of Note. And whilst Nelson and Smith were engaged in loading the Ship, Mr. Scrivener was neither idle nor slow in carrying on the Works of Iames-Town. But the President's Prodigality and State went so deep, and was so sensibly felt in their small Store, that he and Smith were obliged to bind him and his Parasites to the Rules of Pro|portion.

ON the second of Iune Captain Nelson fell down the River, and was accompanied to the Capes by Smith, who, in an open Boat of about three Tons Burthen, together with Dr. Russel and thirteen more, was going to discover Chesapeake Bay. Parting with the Ship at Cape Henry, they stood over to those Islands, which were then called, after him their first Discoverer; Smith's Islands. The first People, they saw, were two grim and stout Indians on Cape Charles, with long Poles, like Javelins, headed with Bone. They sternly demanded▪ what they were, and what they wanted; but grew afterwards more kind, and directed them to Accomack, the Habitation of their Wero|wance. This King treated them very kindly, and was the comliest, most proper, and civil Indian, they had me with. They spoke the Language of Powhatan, and at that time lay under the Misfortune of a strange Mortality, which they attributed to a Miracle. Passing on from thence, they coasted it along, and searched every Inlet and Bay, that seemed proper for Harbours or Habitations; and many Harbours they found for small Vessels, but none fit to re|ceive large Ships. Then spying many Islands out in the Bay, they bore up for them; but before they could reach them, there rose such a Gust of Thunder, Lightning, Wind, and Rain, that with great Difficulty they escaped being foundered. These Islands they named Russel's Islands; Page  63 after Dr. Russel; and they are the same with those, now called Tanger Islands. Being in Want of Water, and find|ing none in these Islands, they were obliged to follow the next Eastern Channel, which brought them into the River Wighcocomoco, which is the River now called Pokomoke. The Northern Point, at the Mouth, they called Watkins's Point, and a Hill, on the South of Pokomoke Bay, Keel's Hill, after two of the Company. Running up the River, the Natives at first threatened, with great Fury, to assault them; but at last became very tractable and kind. Thy dug in several Places, and searched their Habitations, yet could get but little Water, and that mere Puddle. Yet such was their Distress two Days after, that they would have refused a Quart full of Gold for a Pint of that Pud|dle.

DEPARTING from thence, they found on a high Point of Land, which they called Point Ployer, a Pond of fresh Water, but so exceedingly hot, that they supposed it to b some Bath. Then standing over to some other Islands, there arose such another Thunder-Gust, that their Mast and Sail was blown overboard, and such mighty Waves over-racked their Boat, that they could scarce, with much Labour in bailing out the Water, keep her from sinking. Two Days they staid among these Islands, and because of the Gusts and Storms, that then happened, they called th Place Limbo; but they are the same, which have since been named Wats's Islands. Having repaired the Loss of their Sail with their Shirts, they stood over again to the Eastern Shore, and fell in with a pretty convenient River, then called Cuscarawock. This is, what is laid down in our pre|sent Charts by the Name of Wighcocomoco, by whatever Accident that Name hath shifted, in Process of Time, from Pokomoke River to this. Here the Natives opposed them very furiously; but leaving some Toys in their Huts, they brought some of them over at last, to be very fond and obliging. On this River lived the Nations of Sarapinagh, Nause, Arseck, and Nantaquack, who were the best Mer|chants, and greatest Traders of all the Indians of this Country. They had the finest Furs, and made large Quantities of the best Roanoke; which was a Sort of whit Bead, that occasioned as much Dissension among those Barbarians, as Gold and Silver among Christians. They told the English of, and highly extolled, a great Nation, called the Massawomecks; in Search of whom they return|ed again, by Limbo, into the Bay. And finding the Coast of the Eastern Shore, nothing ut shallow, broken Isles, nd for the most Part without fresh Water, they stood away Page  64 from thence across the Bay, bearing a little upward, and fell in on the Western Side, above the Mouth of Ptuxen River, against some high Clifts, which hey called Riccard's Clifts. From hence they sailed thirty Leagues farther Northward, without finding any Inhabitants. The Coast was all along well watered, but very mountainous and bar|ren, except the Vallies, which were rich and fertile, but extremely thick wooded, and therefore abounded in Wolves, Bears, Deer, and other wild Beasts. They passed by many Coves and small Streams. The first they found navigable for a Ship, they called Bolus River, because the Clay, in many Places under the Clifts, grew up in red and white Knobs, like Gum out of Trees, and they concluded it to be Bole Armeniac and Terra Sigillata. This River, by it's Situation and Bearings, must be the same with Patapsco in Maryland.

And now Captain Smith's Crew, who at first feared no|thing so much as his too hasty Return, began to be very much foiled and fatigued. They had laid twelve or four|teen Days in that open Boat, were often tired at the Oars, and their Bread was spoiled and rotten with the Rain; so that they were very importunate with him to return. But he reminded them of the memorable Resolution of Sir Ralph Lane's Company, in the Discovery of the River M|ratuc, who insisted on his going forward, as long as they had a Dog left, which, being boiled with Sassafras Leaves, would afford them a rich Repast in their Return. And he told them, wht a Shame it would be, to oblige him to return, with o much Provision, as they then had, when they could scarce say, where they had been, or give any Ac|count of what they were sent to discover: That they could not deny, but he had shared with them, in the worst of what was past; and he was willing, to take to himself the worst Part of what was to come: That it was not likely, any thing worse should befal them, than what had already happened; and that to return was as dangerous, as to pro|ceed. He therefore advised them, to resume their lost Courage; for he was determined not to desist, till he had seen the Massawomecks, found Patowmack, or traced the Head of the Bay. But after this, they were detained by the Wind and Weather three Days; which added such a Dis|couragement, that three or four fell sick, whose Dissatis|faction and piteous Complaints at last prevailed with him to return.

On the 16th of Iune, they fell in with the Mouth of Patowmack. Their Fears being now gone, and Men rco|vered, they all agreed to take some Pains in the Discovery Page  65 of that seven-mile broad River. For 〈◊〉Smith had been carried over it in his Captivity, yet he knw it not again by the Mouth. For thirty Miles they found no Inhabitants; but afterwards were conducted, by two Savages, up a little bayed Creek, towards Nominy, where they discovered the Woods laid with Ambuscades, to the Number of three or four Thousand Indians, strangely grimmed and disguised, and making a horrible shouting and yelling. They made many Bravadoes, and Smith prepared, with as great seem|ing Willingness, to encounter them. But commanding some Muskets to be discharged on Purpose, the grazing of the Bullets on the Water, together with the Report and Eccho of the Woods, so frighted and amazed them, that they threw down their Arms, and became very kind and hearty Friends. They owned, they were commanded to betray that Party of English, by the Direction of Pow|hatan, who was desired so to do, by some discontented Persons at Iames-Town, because Captain Smith obliged them to stay in the Country against their Will. They afterwards went up the River, as high as they could with their Boat; and were received in some Places kindly, and in others in a hostile Manner. Up a small River, then called Quiyough, which I take to be Patowmack Creek, was a Mine like Antimony. In this the Indians dug, and washing away the Dross in a clear Brook, which ran by, they put up the Re|mainder in little Bags, and sold it all over the Country, to deck their Bodies, Faces, and Idols; which made them look like Blackamores, dusted over with Silver. Newport had carried some of these Bags home, and assured them, that they were found, upon Trial, to contain half Silver. Being therefore very eager after this Mine, they obtained Guides from Iapazaws, King of Patowmack, who lived at the Mouth of that little River, and went up to it; but all, they got, proved of no Value. Towards the Falls of Pa|towmack, they met several Parties of Indians in Canoes, loaded with the Flesh of Bears, Deer, and other wild Beasts, which they generously imparted to them; and in divers Places, they saw that Abundance of Fish, lying with their Heads above Water, that their Barge driving among them, for Want of a Net, they attempted to catch them with a frying Pan. But they found that a bad Instrument to catch Fish.

FROM Patowmack they set Sail for Rappahanock, or as it was by many called, Toppahanock River; where the Cap|tain intended to visit his Captivity-Acquaintance. But their Boat, by Reason of the Lowness of the Tide, ran aground 〈…〉 Shoals, at the Mouth of that River, where they Page  66 spied many Fish, lurking in the Sedge. The Captain iverted hmself by nailing them to the Ground with his Swo••; and the rest betaking themselves to the same Sport, they took more Fish in an Hour, than they could eat in a Day. But Captain Smith, taking from his Sword a Fish, like a Thornback, with a long Tail, in the Midst of which was a poisoned Sting, of two or three Inches Length, bearded like a Saw on each Side, she struck her Sting into his Wrist an Inch and a half. No Blood or Wound was seen, but only a lit|tle blue Spot; yet such was the Extremity of Pain, and his Hand, Arm, and Shoulder, were so swoln in four Hour Time, that they all, with much Sorrow, expected his Death, and prepared his Grave in an Island by, as he him|self directed. But it pleased God, by the Application of an Oil, which Dr. Russel had with him, his Torment was so eased and asswaged before Night, that to the great Joy of the Company, he eat of the Fish for his Supper. And in Memory of this Accident, they called the Isle Stingray Is|land, after the Name of the Fish.

THEIR Provisions being near spent, and being also de|terred by this Misfortune, they set Sail immediately for Iames-Town; and passing by the Mouths of Piankatank and Pamunkey Rivers, they arrived the next Day at Kicquotan. From thence they proceeded up to Warrasqueake; where trimming their Barge with painted Streamers, and other such Devices, they were taken for a Spanish Frigot at Iames-Town, where they arrived the 21st of Iuly. There they found the last Supply of Men all sick; and of the rest, some lame, some bruised, and all in a Tumult and Uproar against the unreasonable Pride and Cruelty of the President, whom they would as strangely have tormented with Revenge, had it not been for this seasonable Arrival of the Discovery Barge. He had riotously consumed the Store, and had greatly harrassed and fatigued the People, in building an unnecessary House of Pleasure for himself in the Woods. But their Fury was much appeased, by the good News of this Discovery, and by the Hopes, from some mistaken In|terpretation of the Savage's Account, that our Bay reached to the South-Sea, or somewhere near it; but above all, by the deposing Ratcliffe, and Captain Smith's taking the Go|vernment upon himself.

Smith substituted his good Friend Mr. Scrivener, who then lay exceeding ill of a Calenture,* in the Presidency; and having settled all things to his own, and the People's Satisfaction, he staid but three Days at Iames-Town. For the 24th of Iuly, he set forward, with twelve Men, to fi|nish the Discovery of the Bay. They were detained two Page  67 or three Days at Kicquotan, by contrary Winds,* where they were kindly entertained and feasted by the King, and in Diversion fired several Rockets, which greatly terrified and astonished the poor Savages. From thence they an|chored, the first Night, at Stingray Island; and the next Day, crossing the Mouth of Patowmack, they hasted to the River Bolus. A little beyond that, they found the Bay divided into four Streams, all which they searched, as far as they could sail. Two of them they found inhabited, the Rivers Susquesahanock, and Tockwogh, since called Sassafras River. In crossing the Bay, they met seven or eight Ca|noes, full of Massawomecks, a great and poweful Nat••n of Indians inhabiting upon some of the Lakes of Canad, and the Original perhaps of those, at present known by the Name of the Senecas or Six Nations. They were at that Time profest Enemies, and a great Terror, to the Nations dwelling on the upper Part of our Bay, and had then been at War with the Tockwoghs. After mutual Threats of As|sault between them and the English, they were at last in|duced to go on board the Barge; and by interchangeable Presents becoming good Friends, they departed without farther Intercourse or Conversation.

THE next Day, entering the River Tockwogh, they wer invironed with a Fleet of Canoes, full of armed Men. But coming to a Parley, and the Tockwoghs seeing the Massa|womeck Arms, which they had presented to the English the Day before, and which the English made them believe▪ they had taken in War, they were soon reconciled, and conducted them to their Town. It was pallisadoed round, mantled with the Barks of Trees, had Scaffolds, like Mounts, and was breasted very formally. The Men, Wo|men, and Children did their utmost to express their Affec|tion; and welcomed them with Songs, Dances, Fruits, and Furs, and with whatever else they had. Here they saw many Hatchets, Knives, and Pieces of Iron and Brass, which, they told them, they had from the Susquesahanocks, a mighty Nation, dwelling on the chief of the four Bran|ches at the Head of the Bay, two Days Journey above the Falls of that River. They prevailed with two Tockwoghs to go and invite some of the Susquesahanocks to them. In three or four Days, sixty of those gigantic People came down, with Presents of various Kinds; and the Wind being two high for their Canoes, five of their chief Werowances came boldly on board the English Barge, and crossed th Bay to Tockwogh.

THIS Nation of the Susquesahanocks could muster a|bout six Hundred fighting Men, and lived in pallisadoed Page  68 Towns, to defend themselves against the Massawomecks, their mortal Enemies. They were very large, well-pro|portioned Men, and appeared like Giants to the English and other Indians; yet seemed of an honest and simple Dis|position, and were scarcely restrained from adoring the En|glish, as Gods. And their Language and Attire were very suitable to their Stature and Appearance. For their Lan|guage sounded deep, and solemn, and hollow, like a Voice in a Vault. Their Attire was the Skins of Bears and Wolves, so cut, that the Man's Head went through the Neck, and the Ears of the Bear were fastened on his Shoul|ders, while the Nose and Teeth hung dangling down upon his Breast. Behind was another Bear's Face split, with a Paw hanging at the Nose. And their Sleeves, coming down to their Elbows, were the Necks of Bears, with their Arms going through the Mouth, and Paws hanging to the Noses. One had the Head of a Wolf, hanging to a Chain, for a Jewel; and his Tobacco Pipe was three Quarters of a Yard long, carved with a Bird, a Deer, and other Devices at the great End; which was sufficient to beat out a Man's Brains. They measured the Calf of the largest Man's Leg, and found it three Quarters of a Yard about, and all the rest of his Limbs were in Proportion; so that he seemed the statliest and most goodly Personage, they had ever be|held. His Arrows were five Quarters long, headed with the Splinters of a white chrystal-like Stone, in Form of a Heart, an Inch broad, and an Inch and half, or more, long. These he carried at his Back, in a Wolf's Skin for his Qui|ver, with his Bow in one Hand, and his Club in the other.

THE Manner of the English was daily to have Prayers with a Psalm; at which Solemnity those poor Barbarians wondered greatly. Prayers being done, the Susquesahanocks held a Consultation; and then began in a very passionate Manner to hold up their Hands to the Sun, with a most frightful Song. Then embracing Captain Smith, they be|gan to adore him in like Manner. He rebuked them for it; but they persisted, till their Song was finished. After which, with a strange furious Action, and a dismal Voice, they began an Oration of their Love; which ended, they covered him with a large painted Bear's Skin. One stood ready with a great Chain of white Beads, weighing six or seven Pounds, which he hung about his Neck. The others had eighteen Mantles, made of divers Sorts of Skins sewed together; all which, with many other Baubles, they laid at his Feet, stroaking their Hands about his Neck, for his Cre|ation to be their Govern•• and Protector. They promised him Aids of Men and Victuals, and even offered all, that Page  69 they had, if he would stay with them, to defend and re|venge them on the Massawomecks. But he was obliged to leave them at Tockwogh, very sorrowful for his Departure; yet promised to visit them again the next Year. They knew nothing of Powhatan and his Territories, but the Name; and they informed the English, that their Hatchets and other Commodities came originally from the French of Canada.

HAVING searched all the Rivers and Inlets, worth Note, they passed down the Bay, naming all the remark|able Head-lands and Places after some of the Company or their Friends. On the River Patuxen they found the Peo|ple tractable and civil above all others. They, as well as the Patowmacks, were very urgent with Smith to revenge them on the Massawomecks, which he promised to do, but was afterwards crossed in his Purpose. For depending upon the Assistance and Provisions of those two Nations, and of the Susquesahanocks, he was very willing to hazard his Per|son in the Expedition; and therefore, after his Return, he petitioned the Council for forty Men, to effect such a Con|quest and Discovery. But the Council, envying his In|dustry and Success, and deterred perhaps also by the Diffi|culty of the Undertaking, refused to risque the Lives of so many Men, in so long and so dangerous an Enterprise.

IN the Discovery of Rappahanock River, they were kindly received and entertained by the People of Moraugh|tacund. Here they met with an old Friend and Acquain|tance, one Mosco, a lusty Indian of Wighcocomoco on the River Patowmack. They supposed him some Frenchman's Son, because, he had a thick, black, bushy Beard, and the Indians seldom have any at all. And he was not a little proud of this, and to see so many of his Countrymen. He was very officious and useful to the English; and advised them, by all Means not to pass over to the Rappahanocks, who would certainly kill them for being Friends with the Moraughtacunds, who had lately stolen three of their King's Women. But thinking, he only said this to secure their Trade to his Friends, they crossed the River to the Rappahanocks. There, under Pretence of Trade, they were invited up Rappahanock Creek, where they had laid an Am|bush; and after a smart Skirmish, in which many Indians were slain and wounded, the English came off Victors with|out the least Hurt. Having driven them up into the Woods, they seized three or four Canoes, full of Commodities, which, with some Arrows, they had gathered up, they presented to Mosco for his Kindness. And he, on his Part, received them in the most triumphant Manner, and in thPage  70 best martial Order under Arms, that he could procure of the Moraughtacunds.

THEY spent the rest of the Day in fitting up their Boat with a Breast-work of Massawomec Targets, which they had received from them, as Presents, at the Head of the Bay, and which had been of singular Use in the Battle with the Rappahanocks. They were made of small Twigs, woven together so firmly with Strings of wild Hemp and Silk-grass, that no Arrow could possibly pierce them. The next Morning, they set Sail up the River; and Mosco fol|lowed along the Shore, and at last desired to go with them in the Boat. As they passed by Pisacack, Matchopeake, and Mecuppom, three Towns, situate on the North Side of the River, on high, white, clay Clifts, with a low Marsh over against them, and the River but narrow (the Place, where the Bristol Works now are) thirty or forty Rappahanocks had so disguised themselves with Branches, that they took them for little Bushes, growing in the Sedge. They saw their Arrows often strike against the Targets, and drop into the River; and at last Mosco, falling flat on his Face in the Boat, cried out; The Rappahanocks. They soon per|ceived them to be the Bushes in the Sedge, which at the first Volley fell down. And when they had passed about half a Mile further, they again shewed themselves, singing and dancing very merrily. But they were kindly treated by the rest of the Nations to the Falls, and they even used their utmost Interest with Mosco, to bring the English to them. Between Secobeck, on the South, and Massawteck, on the North Side of the River, there was a small Island or two, which made the River broader, than ordinary. Here Mr. Richard Fetherstone, one of their Company died; who, from his first coming to the Country, had behaved himself ho|nestly, valiantly, and industriously. They buried him in a little Bay, which they then called Fetherstone's Bay, with a Volley of their Arms. But the rest of the last Supply, who had, on the Expedition, been miserably sick and harrassed with their Seasoning, had by this time perfectly recovered their Health.

THE next Day, they sailed up as high, as their Boat could go, setting up Crosses, and carving their Names on the Trees; which they constantly did at all the highest Places, they went to, As they ranged about at the Falls, the Sentinel saw an Arrow fall by him; and giving the A|larm, they perceived about an hundred nimble Indians, skipping from Tree to Tree, and letting fly their Arrows as fast, as they could. But after half an Hour's Skirmish, they all vanished as suddenly, as they came. As the English re|urned from the Pursuit, they found an Indian, lying aPage  71 dead, shot in the Knee. Mosco, who had been of great Service in the Battle, was as furious to beat out his Brains, as ever Dog was against a Bear. But protecting him from his Rage, and carrying him to the Surgeon, who attended to cure the Captain's Hurt of the Stingray, he was within an Hour so far recovered, that he both eat and spoke. He was Brother to the King of Hassininga, one of the four Nations of the Mannahocks. These were a Peo|ple, dwelling above the Falls of Rappahanock, Neighbours to, and in strict Friendship and Alliance with the Manakins a|gainst Powhatan and his Territories. For the Manakins were not confined to one Place or Town, as is vulgarly thought, but spread all that Country, from a small Distance above the Falls of Iames River up to the Mountains, in se|veral Towns; and they were the Heads or Chiefs of the League and Confederacy of the upland and mountain Indians against the Power and Tyranny of Powhatan. These Mannahocks, their Neighbours and Allies, lived on small Streams, in a hilly Country, chiefly by hunting; and were then come down to fish at Mohaskahod, a small hunting Town, on the North Side of the Falls of Rappahanock, and the Boundary between them and the Nantaughtacunds, a large Nation on the navigable River, below the Falls. The English asked their Prisoner; Why they had endevoured to destroy them, who came to them in Peace, to seek their Friendship. He answered, that they heard, the English were a People, come from under the World, to take their World from them. Being asked; how many Worlds, he knew, he said, he knew none but that, which was under the Sky, that covered him, and which consisted of the Powhatans, the Manakins, and the Massawomecks. And he told them, that the last dwelt on a great Water, had many Boats, and so many Men, that they warred on all the World besides. Afte many other Questions concern|ing the Country, espec••••• beyond the great Mountins, o which he could give no •••••factory Answers, the〈…〉 him with some Toy, 〈◊〉••rsuaded him to go aong with them. But he pressed them much to stay the coming of the Mannabock Kings, who, for their good Usage to him, should be their Friends. And notwithstanding Mosco's ager Representations to be gone, they resolved to stay till Night, preparing themselves to entertain, whatever should come.

ALL this while the King of Hassininga was seeking the rest, and held a long Conultation, what to do. When the English had weighe, and were gone, they followed them all Night, yelling, and hollowing, and shooting their Arrows, and would come to no Terms or Discourse. But in the Page  72 Morning, being brought to a Parley, Amoroleck, the Priso|ner, held a long Discourse with them. He told them, how good the English were, and how kindly they had used him; that they had a Patowmack with them, that loved them as his Life, and would have slain him, had they not prevented it; and that he might have his Liberty, if they would be Friends; to which he advised them by all means, since to do them any Hurt was impossible. Upon this they all hung their Bows and Quivers upon the Trees; and one came swimming aboard with a Bow tied on his Head, and ano|ther with a Quiver of Arrows. Having presented them to the Captain, he used them very kindly, and told them, that the other three Kings should do the same, and then the great King of his World should be their Friend. This was no sooner demanded, than performed; and so going ashore on a low morass Point of Land, those four Kings came, and received Amoroleck. And after many mutual Civilities and Presents, the English departed, leaving four or five hundred Mannahocks, singing, and dancing, and making loud and barbarous Rejoicings.

IN their Return down the River they visited all their Friends, who rejoiced much at their Victory over the Man|nahocks. By their Intreaty, Captain Smith was induced to make Peace with the Rappahanocks; upon Condition, that they should present him the King's Bow and Arrows, and not offer to come armed, where he was; and that they should be Friends with the Moraughtacunds, his Friends, and give their King's Son a Hostage for the Performance. Accordingly, the King's of Nantaughtacund and Pisasack met the English at the Place, where they first fought. There the King of Rappahanock presented his Bow and Ar|rows, and performed all, they demanded, except the de|livering his Son. For having no other, he said, he could not live without him; and he offered in his Stead, to give up the three Women, which the Moraughtacunds had stolen from him. This was accepted; and the Women being brought, Captain Smith presented each of them with a Chain of Beads. Then causing the King of Rappahanock, of Moraughtacund, and Mosco to stand before him, he bid the King of Rappahanock take her, he loved best, Mo|raughtacund to chuse next, and to Mosco he gave the third. And thus was the Peace concluded and celebrated with feasting, singing, and dancing. And Mosco, to express his Love to the English, changed his Name to Uttasantasough, which signified in their Language, Stranger, and was the Name, by which they called the English. And then all the Indians, promising to be always their Friends, and 〈◊〉Page  73 plant Corn purposely for them; and the English, on their Side, to provide Hatchets, Beads, and Copper for them; they departed, giving them a Volley of their Fire-Arms, which they returned with as loud Shouts and Cries, as their Strengths could utter.

THAT Night they anchored in the River Piankatank, and discovered it, as high as it was navigable. But the People were gone out to hunting, except a few old Men, Women, and Children, that were tending their Corn. Of these they obtained a Promise of Part, when they should fetch it; as they had likewise done of all the Nations, where-ever they had been. Going from thence to Point Comfort, they where in a Bay on the South of the Mouth of York River, then called Gosnold's Bay, surprised, in the Night, with such a sudden Gust of Thunder and Rain, that they never expected more to see Iames-Town. But discerning the Land by the Flashes of Lightening, they avoided splitting on the Shore; till, by the Help of the same Light, they found Point Comfort, where they landed, and refreshed themselves the rest of the Night.

HAVING discovered so many Nations at a Distance, they thought it highly proper and necessary to know their near Neighbours, the Chesapeakes and Nandsamonds, of whom they had, as yet, only heard. Therefore setting Sail for the Southern Shore, they entered a narrow River, then called Chesapeake, but now Elsabeth, on which the Town of Norfolk stands. It had a good Channel, but some Shoals about the Entrance. They sailed up six or seven Miles, and saw two or three little Garden-plots with Houses, and the Shores overgrown with the largest Pines, they had ever seen in the Country. But neither seeing, nor hearing any People, and the River being very narrow, they returned back, and coasted the Shore towards Nandsamond, which they found to be chiefly Oyster-Banks. At the Mouth of Nandsamond, they spied six or seven Indians, making their Weirs, who presently fled. But the English went ashore, and threw divers Toys, where they were working, and so departed. They were not gone far, before the Indians re|turned, and began to sing, and dance, and call them back. One of them came voluntarily into their Boat, and invited them up the River to his House, which was in a little Island, where (as well as on the main Land against it) they saw many and large Corn-fields. He treated them with great Civility, and they in return, presented him, his Wife, and Children, with such Toys, as highly pleased them. By that time the others being come, invited them higher up the River, under Pretence of going to their Page  74 Houses likewise.* But they soon found, that they only in|tended to decoy them up into the Narrows of the River, where the whole Nations of the Nansamonds and Chesapeakes were in Ambush to receive them. Having discovered the Treachery, they made the best of their Way down into the Open, amidst the Shot of three or four Hundred Indi|ans, which they returned from their Muskets with such Ef|fect, that they soon made them glad to take Shelter behind the Trees. Above an hundred Arrows stuck in their Breast|work of Massawomeck Targets, and about the Boat, yet none was hurt. Only Anthony Bagnall, the Surgeon, was shot in his Hat, and another in the Sleeve. Having gained the Open against the Island, they seized on all their Canoes, and resolved, upon Consultation, to burn every thing on the Island at Night. In the mean while, they began to cut to Pieces their Canoes; at the Sight of which the Indians threw down their Arms, and sued for Peace; which the English granted, on Condition, they would bring their King's Bow and Arrows, with a Chain of Pearl; and should, when they came back again, give them four hundred Baskets of Corn. Otherwise they threatened, to break all their Ca|noes, to burn their Houses and Corn, and to destroy all, that they had. To these Conditions the Indians most joy|fully agreed; and flocking down in great Numbers with their Baskets, they soon loaded the Boat with Corn, and so parted good Friends.

AND thus having viewed and reconnôitred all the Places on the Bay, one of the finest perhaps and most commodious Countries in the World, which Nature seems to have form|ed for one noble and complete Dominion, but which is since unhappily divided by the large Grant to the Lord Baltimore, nd having passed about three thousand Miles, according to their own Computation, in that small and open Boat, and in the Midst of many barbarous and savage Nations, they returned with Joy and Triumph to Iames-Town, where they arrived safe the 7th of September, 1608. There they found Mr. Scrivener, and several others, well recovered; some sick; many dead; the late President a Prisoner for Mutiny; and the Corn, by Mr. Scrivener's honest Diligence, gathered; but the Provisions in the Store much injured by the Rain.

BUT whilst Captain Smith and others were thus industri|ously engaged in making good this Settlement, the Second or Northern Colony, granted by the Letters patent to the Town of Plimouth and others, was embraced and under|taken by several Persons of Fortune and Distinction, and particularly by Sir Iohn Popham, Lord Chief-Justice of En|gland. Page  75 He was a Gentlemen of one of the greatest Families in the West of England,* but is memorable to all Posterity for his infamous Partiality and Injustice in the Trial of Sir Walter Ralegh. However, he was a Person, at that Time, of great Power and Interest, and in high Esteem with ma|ny for Wisdom and Virtue; and having procured Men and Money, he sent Captain George Popham, as President, Cap|tain Ralegh Gilbert, as Admiral, and many other Gentle|men in several Posts and Offices, with an hundred Men, to possess and settle the Country. They set Sail from Pli|mouth, the last of May, 1607, and fell in with some Islands, then called Monahigan. From thence they proceeded to the Continent, and settled upon a very barren and rocky Coast, at the Mouth of Sagadahock, a large navigable River, which must be either the River Saco in New-England, or else St. Iuan in Acadia. But that Winter was so extreme|ly cold and frozen, that they could not range much about, nor search the Country; and their Provision was so scanty, that they were obliged to send all, except forty five of their Company back. Captain Popham, their President, died soon; and not long after, they were informed by the Ships that brought them Supplies, of the Death of the two prin|cipal Promoters and Supporters of the Undertaking, the Lord Chief-Justice Popham, and Sir Iohn Gilbert. This last Gentleman, who was Brother, or perhaps rather Ne|phew, to the famous Sir Humphry Gilbert, before-men|tioned, was chosen President of the Council for the Nor|thern Colony. His Brother, Captain Ralegh Gilbert, Ad|miral of this Colony, succeeding to his Estate, was obliged to return to England, to enter upon his Inheritance, and take Care of his Affairs. And the rest also, being doubtful of proper Assistance and Encouragement, and having no Prospect in the Country, but of the most extreme Misery and Famine, all returned to England this Year 1608. And thus was this Plantation begun and ended in one Year; and that vast Grant, in which lay large Tracts of fine and no|ble Country, was stigmatized in the Gross, and despised, as a cold, barren, mountainous, and rocky Desert.

ABOUT this Time also, Captain Henry Hudson diso|vered Long-Island, New-York, Hudson's River, and the Parts adjacent. As the English were busily employed in their own Discoveries and Settlements, he could hope for but little Advantage from his own Country; and therefore he applied himself to the States-General of the United Pro|vinces, and sold this important Discovery to them. But this Sale was always excepted against by the English, as the Discovery was made by his Majsty's C••mission, and the Page  76 Sale passed without the King's Consent, to whom, of Right, all new Lands and Discoveries belong. However, the Dutch crept in by Degrees, built new Amsterdam, and other Towns, strongly fortified themselves, planted, and became a flourish|ing Colony.

DOCTOR Whitgist, rch-Bishop of Canterbury, a Man of a mild and gentle Disposition, having died four Years be|fore this, was succeeded in that high Preferment by Dr. Richard Bancroft, a Person of a quite different Temper. He had very high Notions with Relation to the Government of both Church and State; and was accordingly a great Stickler for, and Promoter of, the King's absolute Power, and failed not to take all Occasions, to oblige the Puritans to con|form to the Church of England. This Prelate's Harshness and Warmth caused many of that People to take the Reso|lution this Year of settling themselves in Virginia, and some were actually come off for that Purpose. But the Arch-bishop finding, that they were preparing in great Numbers to depart, obtained a Proclamation from the King, forbid|ding any to go, without his Majesty's express Leave. And this was the more readily grated, as the Court mortally hated that Sect, and were now afraid, that they would be|come too numerous and too powerful in Virginia.

IN Virginia, on the 10th of September, by the Election of the Council,* and the Request of the Colony, Captain Smith was invested with the Government; which, till then, he would by no Means accept, tho' often importuned to it. And now the building of Ratcliffe's Palace was stopped, and Works of more immediate Use and Necessity undertaken. The Church was repaired; the Store-house new covered; and a Place made ready for the Reception of the Supplies, they daily expected from England. The Fort was reduced into Form; the Order of the Watch was renewed; the Troops trained at each Setting of the Watch; and the whole Compny every Saturday exercised, in the Plain to|wards the West, which was prepared for that Purpose, and called Smithfield; where sometimes above an hundred In|dians would stand in Amazement, to behold how a File would batter a Tree, where the President had made them a Mark to shoot at. And now being the Time of gathering Corn, and of Plenty among the Indians, the Boats were trim|med for Trade, and sent out under the Command of Lieute|nant Percy. But in their Way, meeting Captain Newport with the second Supply, he brought them back to Iames-Town.

CAPTAIN Newport was in reality an empty, idle, in|terested Man; very fearful and suspicious in Times of Dan|ger and Difficulty; but a very great and important PersoPage  77 in his own Talk and Conceit. He had,* by the Advantage of going to and fro, gained so much upon the Ear and Confidence of the Council and Company in England, that •••tever he proposed, was, for the most part, concluded and resolved on. And upon this Voyage, he obtained a privae Commission, not to return without a Lump of Gold, a Certainty of the South-Sea, or one of the lost Company, sent out by Sir Walter Ralegh. Besides▪ he brought an express Command, to discover the Country of the Mana|kins, wit a Barge, for Conveniency of Carriage, to be taken into five Pieces, which they were to carry beyond the Falls, to convey them to the South-Sea. He likewise brought over a Crown for Powhatan, with Orders for his Coronation, and Presents of a Bason and Ewer, Bed, Bed|stead, Cloaths, and other costly Novelties; which stately Kind of Court had this bad Effect, that it made him value himself too much, and overrate his Favour, which they had before much better for a plain Piece of Copper. In this Voyage came over many Persons of Distinction; Captain Peter Wynne, and Captain Richard Waldo, two old Soldiers nd valiant Gentlemen, both appointed of the Council; Mr. Francis West, Brother to the Lord Delawarr; Ralegh Cro|shaw, Iohn Russel, Iohn Codrington, Daniel Tuker, Mr. Hunt, Thomas Forest, and others, to the Number of seven|ty Persons. In this Ship likewise arrived Mrs. Forest, and Anne Burras, her Maid, the first Englishwomen ever in this Country. And eight Poles and Germans were sent, to make Pitch, Tar, Glass, Mills, and Soap-Ashes; which, when the Country was replenished with People and Necessaries, would have done exceedingly well, but in that their infant State, they were only a Burthen and Hindrance to the rest, who were sufficiently puzzled and employed to find Sub|sistance for themselves.

CAPTAIN Smith, whose Mind was solid and provident, and plainly foresaw the ill Consequence of spending that Time in these Projects, which ought to be employed in the speedy Dispatch of the Ship, and in trading and laying in a Store of Provisions for the Year, was much mortified and per|plexed with these Orders, and strenuously opposed their Ex|ecution in Council. But Newport undertook to freight the Bark of twenty Tons with Corn, in going and returning from the Manakins; and to obtain another Load for her of Powhatan, from Werowocomoco. He also promised a large Proportion of Victuals from the Ship; which he was so far from performing, that the Colony was obliged to spare him three Hogsheads of Corn to victual him homeward. In short, he represented Smith's Opposition, as a mere Device, Page  78 to hinder his Journey, that he might himself effect the Dis|covery; and he said, that his Cruelty to the Indians might well be a Means to hinder these Designs, and to make them seek Revenge. Smith's Opinion being therefore over-ruled by the unanimous Voice of the Council, all other Works and Designs were laid aside, and an hundred and twenty chosen Men appointed for Newport's Guard on the Expedition.

BUT Smith, to clear himself of these Suspicions, and to shew, that the Indians were not so desperate, as was pre|tended by Newport, and how willing he was to assist, as far as he could, undertook himself to carry their Message to Powhatan, and to invite him to Iames-Town to receive his Presents. And taking with him only Captain Waldo, and three more, he went across by Land, about twlve Miles, to Werowocomoco, where he passed the River in an Indian Canoe. Powhatan, being thirty Miles off, was im|mediately sent for; and in the mean time, Pocohontas and her Women entertained him with a strange Mask and barbarian Pice of Rvelry, and feasted them with all the savage Dainties, they could devise. The next Day, Pow|hatan came, and Smith delivered his Message, together with Namontack, his Servant, whom he had sent to England. And he desired him to come to his Father Newport, to re|ceive his Presents, and to enter upon Measures for their effectual Revenge against the Manakins. To this that sub|tle Barbarian answered: That if their King had sent him any Presents, he also was a King, and that was his Land: That he would stay eight Days, to receive them: That Newport ought to come to him, and not He to go to their Fort, which was too foolish a Bait to be taken: That as to the Manakins, he could revenge his own Wrongs; and for any salt Water beyond the Mountains, he told him, that all the Relations, they had received from his People, were false. Whereupon he began to draw Plots upon the Ground, according to his Discourse, of all those Regions. Many other complimen|tal Discourses passed between them; and so Smith returned with this Answer to Iames-Town.

HEREUPON the Presents were sent round by Water, and the Captains went across by Land, with a Guard of fifty Men. All being met at Werowocomoco, the next Day was appointed for his Coronation. Then the Presents were brought; his Bason and Ewer, Bed and Furniture, were set up; and his Scarlet Cloak and Apparel, with much ado, put on him, being persuaded by Namontack, that they would not hurt him. But a great Coil and Trouble there was to make him kneel, to receive his Crown. He neither knew the Majesty of a Crown, nor the Meaning of bending the Page  79 Knee, which obliged them to use so many Persuasion, Examples, and Instructions, as tired them all. At last, by leaning hard on his Shoulders, he stooped a little, and three, being ready with the Crown, put it on his Head; when, by the Warning of a Pistol, the Boats were prepared with such a Volley of Shot, that the King started up in a hor|rible Fright, till he saw, all was well. Then recollecting himself, to return their Kindness, he gave his old Shoes and Mantle to Captain Newport; and finding him determined to discover the Manakins, he did his utmost to divert him from his Purpose, and refused to lend him either Men or Guides, except Namontack. And so after some slight Compliments on both Sides, in Requital for his Presents, he gave Newport a Heap of Ears of Corn, which might contain seven or eight Bushels, and as much more was purchased in the Town▪ with which they returned to the Fort at Iames-Town.

IMMEDIATELY upon their Return, Captain Newport▪ with an hundred and twenty chosen Men, led by Captain Waldo, Lieutenant Percy, Captain Wynne, Mr. West, and Mr. Scrivener, set forward for the Discovery of the Mana|kins; leaving the President at the Fort, with eighty or ninety weak and sickly Men, to load the Ship. Arriving at the Falls, they marched by Land about forty Miles, and found a very fair, fertile, well-watered Country. Two Towns of the Manakins they discovered, situate on the South Side of the River. The People used them neither well nor ill; yet for their Security, they took one of their petty Kings, and led him bound, to conduct them the Way. In their Return, they spent some Time in searching for Mines, hav|ing with them one William Callicut, a Refiner, for that Purpose. From the Crust of Earth, which they dug, he persuaded them, that he extracted some small Quantity of Silver. With this poor Trial, they returned down the same Path, they went, to the Falls; where the Indians feigned, that mny Ships were come into the Bay, to kill the English at Iames-Town. But as for their Corn, they had hid it in the Woods, and could by no Means be induced to trade. And being thus deluded and disappointed, they returned to Iames-Town, half sick, and all complaining▪ being sadly harrassed with Toil, Famine, and Discontent.

No sooner were they landed, but the President dispersed as many, as were able, some to make Glass, and others for Pitch, Tar, and Soap-Ashes. Leaving them at the Fort under the Councils Care and Oversight, he himself carried thirty about five Miles down the River, to learn to cut down Trees, make Clapboard, and lie in the Woods. A|mong these he chose Gabriel Beadl and Iohn Russel, two Page  80 fine and proper Gentlemen of the last Supply. These were, at first, strange Diversions for Men of Pleasure. Yet they lodged, eat, and drank, worked or played, only as the President himself did; and all things were carried so pleasantly, that within a Week they became Masters, and thirty or forty of such voluntary Gentlemen, would have done more in a Day than an hundred of the rest, who must be driven to it by Compulsion. Being inured to Labour by these means, they soon made it their Delight, to hear the Trees thunder, as they fell; and afterwards became very hardy, useful, and resolute Men, especially Mr. Russel. But the Axes often blistering their tender Fingers, they would, at every third Stroke, drown the Eccho, with a loud Volley of Oaths. To remedy which Sin, the Presi|dent ordered every Man's Oaths to be numbered, and at Night, for every Oath, to have a Can of Water poured down his Sleeve; which so washed and drenched the Of|fender, that in a short time, an Oath was not heard in a Week.

IN the mean while, Mr. Scrivener, Captain Waldo, and Captain Wynne, at the Fort, each, in their several Way, carefully regarded their Charge. But when the President returned, seeing the Time consumed, and no Provisions got, and that the Ship lay idle at a great Charge, and did nothing, he immediately embarked in the Dis|covery Barge, taing with him eighteen Men and another Boat, and leaving Orders with the Council, to send Lieutenant Percy after him, with the next Barge, that ar|rived at the Fort. Going into Chickahominy, the Indians were surly, and knowing his Wants, with much Scorn and Insolence refused to trade. But the President, perceiving, it was Powhatan's Policy to starve the English, told them, that he came not so much for Corn, as to revenge his own Captivity and the Death of his two Men; which he pre|tended to attribute to them. And so, landing his Men, and making ready to charge them, they immediately fled. Soon after they sent Ambassadors, with Corn, Fish, Fowl, and whatever else they had, to make their Peace. Their Corn being that Year but bad, they complained extremely of their own Wants, yet freighted their Boats with an hundred Bushels, and in like manner Lieutenant Percy's, that not long after arrived. Returning to Iames-Town, the Colony was much pleased and revived by this seasonable Supply. Yet such was the Malice and Envy of some, that they had rather hazard a Starving, than that Smith's En|deavours should prove so much more effectual, than theirs. And Newport and Ratcliffe had projected, not only to de|pose Page  81 him, but to keep him out of the Fort; under Pre|tence, that, being President, he had left his Place and the Fort, without their Consent. But their Horns were too short, and they themselves narrowly escaped a greater Mischief.

ALL this while, their old Tavern, the Ship, made as much of all them, that had either Money or Ware, as could be desired. By this time, they were become perfect on all Sides, the Sailers, the Soldiers, and the Indians; and much more Care was taken, to maintain their private and pernicious Trade, than to provide things necessary for the Colony. Newport and his Mariners had so many private Factors at the Fort, that in six or seven Weeks, of two o three hundred Axes, Hoes, Pick-axes, and other Instru|ments for the Use of the Colony, scarce twenty could be found; and for Pike-heads, Powder, Shot, or any thing else they could steal, they knew well, how to convey them secretly, to trade with the Indians for Fur, Bskets, young Beasts, and other such-like Commodities. So that, altho' Virginia afforded no Commodities for those, who were at the Expence of the Settlement, yet these Men found Means, by these indirect Methods, of driving on a very profitable Trade. And thus, by their false Excuses, Informations, and Advices in England, and by their unlawful Trade here, the Adventurers were cousened, and the Action almost overthrown. Upon this Account therefore, as well as un|der Pretence, that his Orders were, not to return, without a Lump of Gold, a Certainty of the South-Sea, or one of Sir Walter Ralegh' lost Company, the President had once determined to send away the Ship, and to oblige Newport to stay one Year in the Country, to learn to speak of hi own Experience. But upon his Submission and Acknow|ledgment, this Punishment was remitted, and he was suf|fered to return to England in the Ship; where, it is not to be doubted, but that he represented Matters in the worst Light.

IT is certain, that the Treasurer and Council in England were greatly disappointed in their Hopes. For they expect|ed, upon their Discoveries in Amrica, to have speedy Re|turns, in Gold and Silver, and such other rich Commodi|ties, as the Spaniards found at their first Arrival. But Vir|ginia is not a Country of Mines. It is formed by Nature for producing all the Necessaries, or even Elegancies of Life, to as high a Degree, as perhaps any other Country whatsoever. It lies under the same Clime, as some Parts of Spain, Italy, and Sicily, and is a Country of Plenty and Abundance; and therefore, in the End, is more valuable, Page  82 and even richer, than those Regions, which abound in Gold and Silver. The Truth of this is confirmed by Experience; and it is an undeniable Maxim in Politcks, that Commo|dities of the first Necessity, or such as are of absolute Use for our Subsistance and the Support of Life, have a much greater real and intrinsic Value, than those, which only receive an imaginary Worth, by Compact or Agreement, and are wholly designed, as a Gage, or Measure, of the real and intrinsic Value of other Commodities. The true Riches therefore, and Power of every Country, depend upon the plentiful Production of Corn, Stocks, Cloathing, and other such Commodities of the first Necessity; the Want of which can, by no means, be supplied by ever so great an Abundance of Gold and Silver. But the Want of them, on the contrary, may be, and often have been, sup|plied, by stamped Leather, Tallies, Shells, Paper, or other such arbitrary Representations. But altho' these Necessa|ries of Life are of this greater real Value, yet they are not to be had at once. Previous Preparations by Culture, Manu|facturing, Stocks, and other Improvements, are necessary; which often require a long Time, to bring them to any tolerable Degree of Perfection. And the English, when they first came to Virginia, happened upon a Land, just as God had made it, little planted, manured or improved. The Inhabitants were an idle, improvident, vagabond Peo|ple; knowing nothing of Gold and Silver, and other valua|ble Commodities; and careless of every thing, but just from Hand to Mouth.

BUT however free they might be from Blame, the Council in England were certainly very much fretted with the Disappointment, and by this Ship, wrote the President a very angry Letter. They complained of the vain Hopes, they had been fed with, and very small Proofs; and of their Factions and silly Projects about dividing the Country, concerning which the late President and his Faction had written some idle Story to the Earl of Salisbury, at that time chief Minister of State. And they threatened, unless he Charge of this Voyage, amounting to about two thou|sand Pounds, was defrayed by the Ship's Return, they should be deserted, and left to remain here, as banished Men. To this Letter Captain Smith gave a very plain and soldierly Answer by the Ship, which was at length dis|patched, with the Trials of Pitch, Tar, Glass, Frankin|cense, and Soap-Ashes, and with what Wainscot and Clap|board could be provided. In it he endeavoured to lay ope to them the Causes, that kept them from laying such Foundation, as might have given better Satisfaction; and Page  83dvises them against expecting any profitable Returns at present. He declares his own Integrity and Sincerity to|wards them, and warns them against some Persons, who caused them to believe much more, than was true. He tells them, that their Directions by Newport had been fol|lowed, altho' he himself was directly against them, as they were very prejudicial and to the imminent Hazard of the whole Colony, whh was then, when it was too late, ge|nerally confessed. He complains of Newport, exposes the Vanity and ill Consequences of his Projects, his Lingering in the Country, the good Cheer and Luxury of him and the Sailers, and their Embezzlement of the publick Stores. For of the two thousand Pounds, which this Ship cost them, he as|sures them, that the Colony had not received the Value of an hundred Pounds. He blames Ratcliffe, Archer, and others, as the Authors of their Factions and Disturbances▪ and tells them, that he had sent Ratcliffe, a counterfeit Im|postor, whose right Name was Sicklemore; home, lest the Company should cut his Throat. And he judiciously in|sists upon their sending useful Labourers and proper Trades|men for their present Condition; and upon providing, first of all, Food, Lodging, and such other Necessaries, as were absolutely requisite for their Being and Subsistance, before they went on any other Projects of Gain or Curio|sity, for which they were no ways fitted, in their present weak and infant Condition. At the same time, he sent them two Barrels of such Stones, as he thought contained some Kind of Ore, with Notes, signifying in what Places he found them. And to shew, he could make as large a Discovery, as Newport's of the Manakins, for less Charge, than he spent them at every Meal, he sent them a Map of the Bay and Rivers, with a Relation annexed, of the Coun|tries, and of the Nations, that dwelt upon them. And this indeed was done with such wonderful Exactness, as shewed him to have travelled far, and seen much; and it has ever since been the Original, from which all later Maps and Descriptions of Virginia have been mostly copied.

AND now the Ship being gone, the grand Remora and Obstacle to all necessary Business, the Colony began to look about them. The Prospect was dismal, and they were all in the utmost Consternation, expecting nothing else but the most extreme Famine. However to make up, in som measure, their lost Time, Mr. Scrivener had been sent, be|fore Newport's Departure, with the Bark and Barges to Werowocomoco. There he found the Indians more ready to fight, than to trade. But his Vigilancy prevented their Plots; and by the Means of Namontack, he got three or Page  84 four Hogsheads of Corn, and as much Pocones, a red Root, at that time esteemed an excellent Dye. Meeting Newport at Point Comfort, he returned to the Fort; and the Presi|dent, taking him and Captain Wynne, set off immediately for Nandsamond. That Nation at first denied him, not only the four hundred Baskets of Corn, they had promised, but any Trade at all. They excused themselves on Ac|count of their Corn's being almost spent, and because they were commanded by Powhatan, to keep what was left, and not to let the English even enter their River. The President finding, nothing was to be done in the Way of Peace, resolved to use Force. At the irst Onset, the In|••ans all fled, without shooting an Arrow. Then marching up to their Houses, they set Fire to the first, they came to▪ When the Indians perceived that, they offered, if they would make no more Spoil, to give them half the Corn, they had. Accordingly, before Night, they loaded their three Boats; and for sparing them this Year, they promised to plant Corn purposely for them the next. With this they returned to Iames-Town, about the Time, that Iohn Laydon was married to Anne Burras; which was the first Christian Marriage, that ever was in Virginia. But the President staid not long at the Fort. For he fitted him|self and Captain Waldo out immediately with two Barges, and made a Voyage up the River. From Wyanoake, and all Parts there-abouts, he found the Indians fled; and there|fore hasting up higher, he then first discovered the River and People of Appamatox. The little Corn, they had, was equally divided; and the President gave them Copper for it, and such other Toys, as fully satisfied them. At the same time, Mr. Scrivener and Lieutenant Percy went abroad in Quest of Provisions, but could find nothing.

ABOUT this time, the President was invited by Powha|tan to come to him; and he promised to load his Ship with Corn, provided he would send some Worknen to build him a House, and would give him a Grind-stone▪ fifty Swords, some Muskets, a Cock and a Hen, with much Copper and Beads. The President was not ignorant of his Devices and Subtlety; yet was unwilling to neglect any Opportunity of getting Provisions, and resolved, sooner than fail, to take him and all his Store by Surprise. To thi End, he took Order with Captain Waldo, whom he knew to be sure in Time of Danger, to second him, if Need required. But Captain Wynne and Mr. Scrivener did their utmost to hin|der their Project. For Scrivener's strict Friendship with Captain Smith was now much cooled; and he was thought to join with some others, in a Plot to ruin him in England. Page  85 But the President, whom no Eloquence could persuade to starve, sent off two Englishmen before by Land, and four Germans, to build the House for Powhatan against his Ar|rival. And then, having left Mr. Scrivener his Substitute, he set forward with the Bark and two Barges, manned only with such, as offered themselves voluntarily to go upon the Service. In the Discovery-Barge went himself, Mr. Ralegh Chroshaw, Iohn Russel, and several other Gentlemen and Soldiers; and Mr. William Phittiplace, as Captain, Lieute|nant Percy, Mr. Francis West, Mr. Robert Ford, Clerk of the Council, with many others, went on board the Bark.

THE 29th of December they left Iames-Town, being victualled only for three or four Days. That Night they lodged at Warrasqueake, where the President got sufficient Provision. The King of that Town did his utmost to divert him from seeing Powhatan; but finding, he could not prevail, he told him, that Powhatan would use them kindly, although he had sent for them only to cut their Throats. He therefore advised him, not to trust him, and to be sure to give him no Opportunity of seizing his Arms. The President thanked him for his good Counsel; and having obtained Guides from him to the Chowanocks, a Nation dwelling in the Fork of Chowan, between Notta|way and Meherrin Rivers, he sent Michael Sicklemore, a very valiant, honest, and painful Soldier, with Presents to that King; but chiefly to look for Silkgrass, and to en|quire after Sir Walter Ralegh's lost Colony. The next Night they lodged at Kicquotan, and were detained there six or seven Days by the extreme Wind, Rain, Frost, and Snow.* This obliged them to keep their Christmas among the Savages; and they were never more merry in their Lives, lodged by better Fires, or fed with greater Plenty of good Bread, Oysters, Fish, Flesh, and Wildfowl. De|parting thence, they arrived on the 12th of Ianuary, thro' various Accidents, at Werowocomoco; where they found the River frozen near half a Mile from the Shore. But the President, running his Barge up, as far as he could by breaking the Ice, was left by the Ebb upon the oozy Shoals. In this dangerous Situation, he plunged first into the River himself; and by his Example, taught them to march, near Middle deep, a Flight-shot, through the frozen Ooze. When the Barge should float, he appointed two or three to re|turn her aboard the Bark; where they, soon after, came into such Distress for Want of Water, that the River being slt, they were obliged to make fresh Water, by melting te Ice.

THE President and his Company quartered in the next Cabbins, they found, and sent to Powhatan for Provisions. Page  86 He sent them Plenty of Bread,* Turkey, and Venison; and the next Day, feasted them after his usual Manner. But he pretended, he had not sent for them; neither had he any Corn, and his People much less; and soon began to be importunate with them to be gone. But the President confronting him with the Persons, who brought the Mes|sage, he endeavoured to put the Matter off with a Laugh, and asked for his Commodities. But he liked nothing, ex|cept Guns and Swords, and valued a Basket of Corn higher than a Basket of Copper; saying, he could rate his Corn, but not the Copper. Captain Smith, seeing his Intent, told him; that he had many Ways, to have got Provisions, but relying on his Promises, he had neglected all to satisfy his Desire, and had sent his Men to make his Buildings, whilst his own were undone: That he knew, he had en|grossed his People's Corn, and forbid them to trade; think|ing, by consuming Time, to consume them: That as for Swords and Guns, he had none to spare; and that he must know, those, he had, could keep him from starving: Yet he would neither rob nor wrong him, nor dissolve that Friendship, they had mutually promised, unless constrained to it by bad Usage. The King listened attentively to this Discourse; and promised, that both he and his People should spare him, what they could, and that they should receive it within two Days. But, says he, I have some Doubt about the Reason of your coming hither. I am in|formed from many Hands, that you come, not to trade, but to invade my People, and to possess my Country. This makes me less ready to relieve you, and frightens my Peo|ple from bringing in their Corn. And therefore to ease them of that Fear, leave your Arms aboard, since they are needless here, where we are all Friends, and for ever Powhatans.

IN these, and many such insidious Discourses, that Day was spent. But Captain Smith afterwards discovered, that the Germans, whom he had sent to build Powhatan's House, finding his Plenty and the Wants of the English, and thinking it scarce possible, that they could escape both him and Famine, had, to gain his Favour, revealed to him all, they knew, of the State and Designs of the English, and advised him, how to counteract and prevent them. And this Treachery was the more odious and unsuspected, be|cause the President had placed one of them, as a Spy upon Powhatan, being a Man of Judgment and Resolution, and therefore thought most proper for that Employ. And as he was sure of his Wages for his Labour, and had ever been well used, both he and his Countrymen, there was at Page  87 that time little Doubt concerning his Honesty. But whilst they expected the coming in of the Country, they wrangled Powhatan out of eighty Bushels of Corn for a Copper Ket|tle; which the President seeing him much affect, he told him, it was of much greater Value, yet in Regard of his Scarcity, he would accept that Quantity at present, pro|vided he should have as much more the next Year, or the Manakin Country. Both being satisfied with the Condition, Powhatan begun to expostulate the Difference of Peace and War, with Captain Smith, after this Manner.

HE told him, with a Vanity usual to Persons, who affect to be thought very old, that he had seen the Death of all his People thrice; and that not one of those three Genera|tions was then living, except himself: That he knew the Difference of Peace and War better, than any in his Country: That he was now grown old, and must die soon; and that the 〈◊〉 must descend, in Order, to his Brothers, Opitchapan, Opechancanough, and Catataugh, and then to his two Sisters, and their two Daughters. He wished their Experience was equal to his; and that Smith's Love to them might be no less, than his to Smith. He asked him; Why he would take that by Force, which he might quickly have by Love? Why he would destroy them, that provided him Food? and, What he could get by War? For they could hide their Provisions, and fly into the Woods; and then he must consequently famish by wronging his Friends. He desired to know the Reason of his Jealousy, since he saw them unarmed, and willing to supply his Wants, if he would come in a friendly Manner, and not with Swords and Guns, as to invade an Enemy. And he told him, that he was not so simple, as not to know, it was better to eat good Meat, lie well, and sleep quietly with his Women and Children; to laugh and be merry with the English, and being their Friend, to have Copper, Hatchets, and whatever else he wanted; than to 〈◊〉 from all, to lie cold in the Woods, feed upon Acorns, Roots, and such Trash, and to be so hunted, that he could neither rest, eat, or sleep. In that Circumstance, his tired Men must watch, and if a Twig did but break, all would be crying out, Here comes Captain Smith; and so, in this miserable Man|ner, to end his miserable Life; which might likewise soon be Captain Smith's Fate too, through his Rashness and Un|advisedness. He therefore earnestly exhorted him to peace|able Counsels; and above all insisted, that the Guns and Swords, the grand Cause of their Jealousy and Uneasiness, should be removed and sent away.

Page  88To this crafty Discourse the President replied: That it was the Fashion of the English, always to wear their Arms, like their Cloaths; and that they would, by no Means, part with them: That his People came frequently to Iames-Town, and were entertained with their Bws and Arrows, without any Exceptions: That if the English had intended him any Hurt, they could long since have effected it, as was evident to him, and all the World, especially consi|dering the Superiority of their Arms: That altho' Revenge was always in their Power, yet, out of an Inclination to Mercy and Friendship, they passed over the daily Viola|tions of the Peace by his Subjects: And as to hiding his Provisions, and flying into the Woods, he told him, they should not so unadvisedly starve, as he imagined. For they had a Rule to find things hidden, beyond his Knowledge. After much more Discourse, they at last began to trade. But the King, seeing that his Will would not be admitted as a Law, and that Smith was obstinate, not to dismiss his Guard, or disarm his Men, breathed out his Mind once more in this Manner, with a Sigh.

Captain Smith, I never use any Werowance so kindly as yourself; yet from you I receive the least Kindness of any. Captain Newport gave me Swords, Copper, Cloaths, or whatever else I desired, ever accepting what I offered him: and would send away his Guns, when requested. No one re|fuses to lie at my Feet, or do, what I demand, but you only. Of you I can have nothing, but what you value not, and yet you will have, whatsoever you please. Captain Newport you call Father, and so you call me; but I see, in spite of us both, you will do, what you will, and we must both study to humour and content you. But if you intend so friendly, as you say, send away your Arms. For you see, my undesigning Simplicity and Friendship cause me, thus nakedly, to forget myself.

THE President, perceiving this Barbarian only trifled the Time to cut his Throat, resolved to treat him in his own Way. He therefore procured the Indians to break the Ice, that his Boat might come, to fetch him and his Corn; and at the same Time, gave Order for more Men to come a|shore, to surprise the King. In the mean while, to pro|trct the Time, he endeavoured to entertain him with much specious and fallacious Discourse; promising, the next Day to quit his Arms, and to shew, by trusting to his Word, that he loved and confided in him, as a Father. But whilst the Ice was breaking, Powhatan conveyed himself away, with his Women, Children, and Luggage. Yet to avoid Suspicion, he l••t two or three of his Women talking with the President, whilst he secretly ran off, and his Men as Page  89 secretly beset the House. Which being presently discover|ed, the President issued forth, with his Pistol, Sword, and Target. At his first Shot, those, next him, tumbled one over another; and the rest fled nimbly off, some one Way, some another. And thus, without any Hurt, only accom|panied with Mr. Iohn Russel, he reached the main Body of his Men. But when the Indians perceived him so well escaped, they used their utmost Art, to excuse and dissem|ble the Matter. Powhatan sent him a great Bracelet and Chain of Pearl by an ancient Orator, who told him, that their Emperor was fled for Fear of his Guns: That know|ing, when the Ice was open, there would come more Me ashore, he had sent those Numbers, whom he had assaulted, only to guard his Corn from being stole, which might ha|pen without the President's Knowledge: That altho' some were hurt by his Mistake, yet Powhatan was still his Friend, and for ever would continue so. And he desired, since the Ice was open, that he would send away his Corn; and if he expected his Company, that he would also send away his Guns, which so frighted his People, that they were afraid to bring in their Corn, as he had promised they should. And then Baskets being provided for the English, to carry their Corn to the Boats, those Indians kindly offer|ed their Service, to guard their Arms, lest they should be stolen. There was a great Number of goodly, well-pro|portioned Fellows, painted and grimmed, like Devils. But the very Sight of the English cocking their Matches, and being ready to charge, made them quit their Bows and Ar|rows, at Command, to the Guard, and carry down the Corn upon their Backs. And there was no Occasion to importune them, o make Dispatch.

BUT Powhatan and the Germans were still eager to have the Head of Captain Smith. For if they could but kill him, they thought, all would be their own. And therefore, the English being staid by the Ebb till late within Night, the King spent his Time in making ready his Forces, to sur|prise the House and him at Supper. But Pocahontas, in a very dark and dismal Night, came alone through the Woods, and told the President, that great Cheer would be sent them soon; but that Powhatan, with all the Power, he could make, would come after to kill them all, if those, who brought the Victuals, could not effect it with their own Arms, while they were at Supper. And therefore, as they tendered their Lives, she advised them to be gone. The President would have given her such Things, as he knew, she delighted in. But, with Tears running down her Cheeks, she refused them; saying, she durst not be seen to Page  90 have any of them. For should her Father know it, it would be certain and immediate Death to her. And so the ran away, by herself, as she came. Within less than an Hour after, came eight or ten lusty Fellows, with large Platters of Venison and other Victuals; and they were very importunate with the English, to put out their Matches; pretending▪ their Smoke made them sick. But the Presi|dent made them taste of every Dish; and then sent some of them back to Powhatan, to bid him make Haste; for he was ready for his coming. oon after came more Messen|gers, to see what News; and not long after them, others. And thus was the Time spent, with equal Vigilancy on both Sides, but without any farther Hurt. At high Water, the English departed; but to oblige Powhatan, they left him, at his Request, Edward Brynton, to kill him Fowl, and the Germans, who were yet unsuspected, to finish his House.

THEY had no sooner set Sail, but Powhatan returned, and sent two of the Germans to Iames-Town. They pre|tended to Captain Wynne, that all things were well, and that the President had Occasion for their Arms; and there|fore they desired new ones, with some spare Tools, and shift of Apparel; all which were readily granted them. During their loitering there, by the Promise of Powhatan' Favour, and of an Exemption from the Miseries, which would certainly happen to the Colony, they drew over to their Confederacy six or seven more, such expert Thieves, as presently furnished them with fifty Swords, eight Mus|kets, eight Pikes, and Powder and Shot; which were speedily conveyed away, by Indians at Hand for that Pur|pose. The other German Powhatan kept, as a Pledge▪ whose Diligence provided him with three hundred Toma|auks, or Indian Hatchet. In the mean Time, Edward Brynton and Thomas Savage▪ seeing the Germans so diligent to accommodate the Indians with Arms, attempted to make their Escape to Iames-Town. But they were apprehended and brought back, and expected, every Minute, to be put to Death.

The President and the rest, being arrived at Pamunkey, ere entertained some Days by the King, with great Feast|ing and Mirth. The Day, appointed to begin their Trade, he went ashore with Lieutenant Percy, Mr. West, Mr. Russel, Mr. Beethlnd, Mr. Croshaw, Mr. Powel, Mr. Ford, and others to the Number of fifteen; and going up to Opechancanough's House, a Quarter of a Mile from the River, they found nothing but a lame Fellow and a Boy, and all the Houses round abandoned, and stripped of every thing. They staid not long, before the King came, and Page  91 after him several of his People, loaded with Bows and Ar|rows. But their Commodities were so trifling, and those held at such a Rate, that the President began with the King, and said: That the Professions of his Tongue were proved by his Actions to be mere Deceit: That last Year he kindly freighted his Vessel; but had how treacherously invited him, with a View to famish and destroy him: That as the King was not ignorant of his Wants, so neither was he of the King's Plenty; of which, by some Means, he must have Part. And he told him, it was highly proper and decent for Kings, above all others, to keep their Pro|mise. And therefore, shewing his Commodities, he offered him his Choice, and the rest, he said, he would proportion in fit Bargains for his People. Opechancanough seemed kind|ly to accept his Offer; and the better to colour his Designs, sold them, what they had, at their own Price; promising, the next Day, more Company, better provided.

THE next Day, the President, with the same fifteen, marched up to the King's House, where they found four or five Men, newly arrived, with each a great Basket. Soon after came the King; and putting on a strained Chear|fulness, he entertained them in Discourse, about the great Pains he had been taking, to keep his Promise; till Mr. Russel brought in News, that at least seven hundred In|dians, well armed, had invironed the House, and beset the Fields. The President, seeing some of the Company great|ly dismaid at the Thought of such a Multitude, told them: That he was less concerned at the Danger and Number of the Enemy, than at the malicious Representations, which the Council, and their open-mouthed Minions, would make to England, of his breaking the Peace: That he, alone, was once assaulted by three hundred; and had it not been for an Accident, would have made his Way good among them all: That they were now sixteen, and the Enemy but seven hundred at the most. And therefore he desired them, to fight like Men, and not die like Sheep. For if they dared to follow his Example, and to do, as he did, he doubted not, by God's Assistance, to extricate them out of the present Difficulty and Danger. The Time not per|mitting any Argument, they all chearfully vowed, to exe|cute, whatever he attempted, or die. But that they might not fight for nothing, or be even ruined and starved by their Victory, the President told Opechancanough: That h saw his Plot to murder him, but he feared it not: That their Men had done no Harm, but by their Directions: That therefore, if each of his Men would bring a Basket f Corn, he would stake against it the Value in Copper, Page  92 and they two would go over into the Island, in the 〈◊〉, against that Place, and decide the Matter by single Combat: That he should have his Choice, and all Advantage of Wea|pons: and, That the Conqueror should have all, and be Lord and Master over all their Men.

BUT duelling in fair and open Field is not the Manner of the Indians. Their chief Valour consists in way-laying and murdering the unsuspecting and unprovided, or perhaps the weak and helpless. Neither had Opechancanough such Regard for the Lives of his Subjects, as to save them from Danger, at the Hazard of his own. He therefore kindly endeavoured to appease the President's Anger and uspicion, by a Present at the Door, which he intreated him to ac|cept. This was only to draw him out, where the Bait was guarded with two hundred Men, besides thirty, which lay behind a great Tree, fallen across, with each his Ar|row notched, ready to shoot. But the President, having discovered the Treachery, seised the King, in the Midst of his Men, by his long Lock of Hair, and presented his Pis|tol, ready cocked, to his Breast. Thus he led him, trem|bling and half dead with Fear, among his People; who were easily induced to throw down their Arms, and to de|liver the King's Vambrace, Bow, and Arrows; little dreaming, that any one durst to use their King in that Man|ner. And now Opechancanough, to rescue himself, bestow|ed his Presents in serious Sadness; and his Subjects, being upbraided and threatened by the President n a smart and angry Speech, mixed with some Expressions of Love and Confidence, cast away their Bows and Arrows, and Men, Women, and Children, brought in their Commodities. For two or three Hours, they so thronged and wearied him, that he retired into the House to rest, leaving others to trade, and receive their Presents. Whilst he was asleep, fifty of their choice Men, with each an English Sword or Club in his Hand, and seconded by two or three hundred more, pressed into the House to murder him. But the Pre|sident, being waked from his Sleep, by the Noise of the People and shaking of the House, betook himself to his Arms, together with Mr. Croshaw and some others; which soon made them throng back, faster than they cam. But Opechancanough and some of his Ancients, who were kept Prisoners with him, endeavoured, in a long Oration, to excuse this Intrusion. The rest of the Day was spent with much Kindness, the Indians renewing their Presents, and feasting the English with their best Provisions.

WHILE these things were transacting, there happened an unlucky Accident at the Fort. Mr. Scrivener had re|ceived Page  93 Letters from England, which gave him towering Thoughts, and made him decline entirely in his Affection and Friendship to Captain Smith, who still regarded and loved him, as his Brother. This made him more headstrong and conceited, than was naturally consistent with his Prudence and Moderation. And having taken it into his Head to visit Hog-Islamd, he could not be turned from it, by the Advice and repeated Entreaties of Captain Waldo and several others. Therefore, taking with him Captain Waldo, who was not to be absent from the Fort, but to be ready to second the President, if called for, and Mr. Anthony Gosnold, a very worthy, honest, and industrious Gentleman, and Brother to Captain Bartholomew Gosnold, with eight others, he went into the Skiff. She was so overloaded, that she scarce could have lived in calm Weather; but, in that cold and boisterous Day, she sunk, none knowing how or where, and all aboard were drowned. To advertise the President of this heavy News, none could be got, till Mr. Richard Wyffin undertook it alone. He was encountered with many Dangers and Difficulties, in all Places, as he passed. And at Werowocomoco, not finding the President, and perceiving such Preparations for War, he was certainly assured, that some Mischief was intended. But Pocahontas hid him for a Time, and sent those, who pursued him, the quite con|trary Way. At length, by her Means and extraordinary Bribes and Trouble, in three Days Travel, he found the President at Pamunkey, in the Midst of those Broils and Difficulties. The President, having sworn him to conceal this unhappy News from the Company, and dissembling his Sorrow with the best Countenance, he could, went safely aboard at Night, and left Opechancanough at Liberty, according to his Promise, and likewise with a Design, the better to entrap Powhatan in his Return. Soon after, he went down the River, having searched the Countries of Yough|tanund (now Pamunkey River) and Mattapony; where the poor Creatures imparted the little Corn, they had, with such Complaints, and Tears from the Eyes of Women and Children, as fully satisfied, and moved them with Com|passion.

Powhatan had threatened Death to his Men, if they did not, by some Means or other, kill Captain Smith. But they hated fighting with him, almost as bad as hanging. And the President, on his Side, was as eager, to surprise and take that subtle and persidious Barbarian. Therefore, in his Way down the River, there were many Feints and Strategems, on both Parts, but without any remarkabl Ef|fect. Only the President, with Mr. West and some others, Page  94 would have been poisoned, had their Art been equal to their Will. It only made them Sick, and so worked itself off. And thus, through many Dangers an Dif••culties, they returned to Iames-Town, where they delivered, near 200 lbs. of Deer's Suet, and 479 Bushels of Corn, to the Cape-Merchant.

AT Iames-Town they found nothing done, but their Pro|visions spent, and a great Part of their Tools and Arms conveyed to the Indians. But altho' what was left by the Ship was so rotten with the Rain, and so mangled by the Rats and Worms, that the Hogs would scarcly eat it▪ yet upon casting up their Store, they found a sufficient Provi|sion for the Year. Wherefore, the Fear of starving being laid aside, the Company was ranged into proper Divisions, and six Hours each Day spent in Work, the rest in Pas|time and merry Exercises. And the President, having cal|led them together, told them: That their late Experince and Misery were sufficient to persuade every one t a pre|sent Amendment: That they must not think, that either his Pains, or the Adventurers Purses, would for ever main|tain them in Sloth and Idleness: That he knew, many de|served more Honour, and a better Reward, than was yet to be had; but that far the greatest Part of them must be more industrious, or starve: That it was not reasonable, that the Labours of thirty or forty honest and industrious Men should be consumed, to maintain an hundred and fifty Loiterers: and, That therefore every one, that would not work, should not eat: That they had often been screened and protected, in their Disobedience to his just and necessary Commands, by the Authority of the Council: But that now, all being either dead or gone, except Captain Wynne and himself, that whole Power rested, in Effect, solely in him. And therefore, he advised them, not to feed them|selves up with the vain Presumption, that his Authority was but a Shadow, and that his Life must answer for theirs. For the Letters Patent, and other Powers, would prove the contrary, and should, every Week, be read to them; and every one, that offended, might assuredly expect his due Punishment. He also made a Table, as a publick Me|morial of each Man's Deserts, to encourage the Good, and to spur on the rest by Shame. By this, many became very industrious; but more were driven to their Business, by Punishment, and the President's extraordinary Vigor and Diligence.

As they came down Pamunkey (since called York River) off of Werowocomoco, the President had sent Mr. Chroshaw and Mr. Ford to Iames-Town, by Lnd. In their Way, Page  95 they met four or five of the Grman's Confederates, going to Powhatan; who to clear themselves from those Gentle|mens Suspicion, that they were running to the Indians, re|turned with them to the Fort, and there continued. But the Germans, to know the Reason of their Stay, sent one of their Company, a stout young Fellow, disguised like an Indian, to the Glass-house. This stood in the Woods, about a Mile from Iames-Town, and was the common Place of Rendezvous for all their secret Villany. The Pre|sident, hearing of this, immediately sent to apprehend this German. But he being gone, he dispatched twenty good Shot after, to intercept him in his Return to Powhatan. They soon brought him back, and notwithstanding his fair Tale and plausible Excuses, he was thrown into Prison. However the President spared his Life, hoping thereby to regain his Countrymen.

CAPTAIN Smith, having sent all his Men after the German, returned from the Glass-house alone, armed only with a Faucheon. In his Way he met the King of Pas|pahey, a Man of great Strength and gigantic Stature. At first, he endeavoured to draw the President into his Am|buscade; but failing in that, he attempted to shoot him. But Smith, to prevent it, closed in and grappled with him. And the Indian, by mere Dint of Strength, bore him into the River, with a Design to drown him. Long they strug|gled in the Water, till the President got such Hold of his Throat, that he almost strangled him. And then, having disengaged himself, so as to draw his Faucheon, the poor Savage begged his Life, in such a pitiful Manner, that he led him to Iames-Town, and put him into Chains; where he continued for some time, till by the Negligence of his Keepers, he escaped. Some Endeavours were used to re|take him, but without Effect; only the President took two Indians Prisoners, Kemps and Tussore, the two most exqui|site Villains in all the Country. These Men would have betrayed both King and Kindred for a Piece of Copper; and had Captain Wynne and Lieutenant Percy, who were sent upon the Business with fifty Men, followed their Di|rections, they would certainly have regained the King, and been fully revenged for the Injury and Assault. However, that this might not encourage them to farther Boldness, they attacked and slew several of the Nation, burnt their Houses, took their Canoes and fishing Weirs, and planted some of them at Iames-Town, and were resolved to prose|cute them with War, till they were fully humbled and subdued.

Page  96NOT long after, the President, passing by Paspahey in in his Way to Chickahominy, was assaulted by them. But as soon as they knew him, they all threw down their Arms, and sued for Peace. Their Spokesman was a lusty young Fellow, named Okaning, whose Discourse well deserves to be remembered. He told the President, that the King, his Master, was there present in the Company: That they took him for Captain Wynne, who pursued them in War, altho' they had never injured him: That if the King offended him in escaping from Prison, he ought to consider, that the Fishes swim, the Fowls fly, and the v••y Beasts strive to escpe the Snare and live: That therefore, his Master, who was a Man, ought not to be blamed, for following this ncessary Instinct of Nature even in brute Animals. He reminded him of the Pains, his Master took, to save his Life, whn a Prisoner; and if be had since injured him, he was compelled to it, and it had however been already fully revenged, to their too great Loss. And he further told him, if he still persisted in his Resolution to destroy them, they must abandon their Habitation, and set|tle somewhere beyond his Reach; which would only cost them more Labour, but would be of worse Consequence to the English, who could not well subsist without their Corn and Fruits. And therefore he earnestly entreated him to grant them his Friendship, and to permit them to enjoy their Houses, and plant their Fields, in Peace and Security. Concluding, that if he ould promise them Peace, they would trust to his Wor▪ but if he proceeded in his Re|venge, they would 〈◊〉 the Country. Whereupon the President promised th•• Peace, if they would do no far|ther Injury, and would bring in Provisions to the Fort. To which they joyfully agreed, and parted good Friends, and so continued, till Smith left the Country.

SOON after this, an Indian, who had been imprisoned at Iames-Town for Theft, had so stifled himself, by a Char|coal Fire in a close Room of the Pris••, that he seemed to be dead. But the President, by the Application of Vinegar and Aqua-vitae, brought him to himself; which was soon spread abroad among the Indians, throughout the whole Country, as a Miracle; and it was generally believed, that Captain Smith could raise a dead Man to Life. And another at Werowocomoco, having got a large Bag of Powder, to shew his extraordinary Skill among his Companions, dried it on the Back of an Armour, as he had seen the Soldiers at Iames-Town do. Many stood peeping over, to see his Skill, till at last it took Fire, and blew him, with one or two more, to Death, and so scorched and mangled the rest, Page  97 that it raised a vast Dread and Astonishment in them, and a great Admiration of the Power and Art of the English. These, with some other Accidents, so frighted and amazed Powhatan and his People, that they flocked from all Parts, and with Presents desired Peace; returning many stolen Things, which had never been demanded, or thought of, by the English. And ever after, during the Remainder of Capt. Smith's Administration, both Powhatan and his People would send back to Iames-Town such, as had been taken stealing, to receive their Punishment; and the whole Country became as absolutely free and safe to the English, as to themselves.

AND now the Colony pursued their Business with Ala|crity and Success. They made three or four Last of Tar, Pitch, and Soap-Ashes; produced a Trial of Glass; sunk a Well in the Fort, of excellent Water, which till then was wanting; built about twenty Houses; new-covered the Church; provided Nets and Weirs for fishing; and to stop the Disorders of the Thieves and Indians, they built a Block-house in the Neck of the Island, to receive the Trade of the Indians; and none, neither Indian nor Christian, was suffered to pass or repass, without the President's Order. Thirty or forty Acres of Ground were broke up and planted. Of three Sows, in eighteen Months, increased sixty odd Pigs; and near five hundred Chickens brought up them|selves, without having any thing given them. But the Hogs were transported to Hog-Island; where also was built a Block-house, with a Garrison, to give Notice of any Ships; and for their Exercise at leisure Times, they made Clapboard and Wainscot. In this Time, died Captain Wynne; so that the Government devolved wholly upon the President, as it had before in Effect done, by his having two Voices in the Council.

BUT this Flow of Plenty and Prosperity lasted not long. For, upon Examination, they found half their Corn rotten, and the rest consumed by Rats; which, coming originally from the Ships, had increased to incredible Multitudes. So that all Works were intermitted, and the People sufficiently employed to get Provisions. But at first, the Indians, to express their Love, brought in an hundred a Day, at least, of Squirrels, Turkies, Deer, and other wild Beasts; and Powhatan spared them near half his Stock of Corn. But the President was nevertheless obliged to detach sixty or eighty down the River, to live upon Oysters. Twenty were sent to the Falls with Mr. West; and as many more with Lieutenant Percy to Point Comfort, to try for a Fishery. But he being very sick, and sorely burnt with Gun-powder, they would not agree in six Weeks, once to cast out their Page  98 Net. Many were billetted among the Indians, who knew, that they had such a commanding Power at Iames-Town, that they durst not wrong them in the least. And in all this Time of Distress, they caught more Sturgeon than could be devoured by Man and Dog. This the industri|ous, drying and pounding, would mingle with Caviare, Sorrel, and wholesome Herbs, and make Bread and good Meat. Others would gather as much Tuckahoe Root in a Day, as would make them Bread for a Week. So that, upon these wild Products, and what they caught, the de|ligent lived very well and plentifully.

YET such was the insufferable Sloth and unreasonable Perverseness of far the greater Number, that they would sooner have perished, than have been at the Pains to gather Food. And they were even importunate with the Presi|dent, to sell their Tools and Iron, nay, their Swords and Firelocks, and their very Houses and Ordinance, to the Indians for this Trash. And they took Occasion from hence, in a very turbulent and clamorous Manner, to insist on the Necessity of leaving the Country. But the President, hav|ing punished one of the worst and most seditious aong them, called the rest together, and represented to them the extreme Folly and Iniquity of their Proceedings. 〈…〉 told them, that if any more were found attempting to run away to Newfoundland with the Bark, they might assuredly expect the Gallows, as their Fate: That he never had more from the Store than the worst of them; for they well knew and saw, that his extraordinary Allowance, as President, was constantly distributed among the Sick: and, That since he found, Necessity had not Power to force them to gather the Fruits of the Earth, he was resolved, that they should gather, not only for themselves, but also for the Sick; and that whosoever would not gather, every Day, as much, as he himself did, should, the next Day, be set beyond the Ri|ver, and banished from the Fort, as a Drone. This Order raised a great Clamour and Outcry; but it made most of them bestir themselves so well, that they had Plenty of Food to eat, and continued very healthy and strong. Yet many of them, understanding, how well they were used, that were billetted among the Indians, ran away to Kemps and Tussore, their old Prisoners. But Kemps first made himself Sport with them, shewing his Countrymen, how he was used, when a Prisoner, and feeding them upon this Condition, that they, who would not work, should not eat; and then he carried them back, by Force, to the President.

THIS deterred many others, who intended to follow; and made them content, rather to labour at home, than venture Page  99 among the Indians. For the Kings, and better Sort of that People, were so afraid, or so friendly, that when the En|glish punished some of their baser Sort with great Severity, they would hire them, not to tell it to their Kings or Countrymen; lest they should punish them again, and send them to Iames-Town, to give full Satisfaction to the President.

ABOUT this time, Mr. Sicklemore returned from Cha|wonock; but without any Information of Sir Walter Ralegh's lost Company, or satisfactory Account of the Silk-grass. And the President, to pursue a Point, thought so necessary by the Council in England, sent off Mr. Nathaniel Powel and Anas Todkill, to the Mangoags, a Nation of Indians, not subject to Powhatan, dwelling on the upper Branches of Nottoway, or some small Streams of Roanoke River. He obtained Guides from the King of the Quiyoughquohanocks, a small Nation of Indians, seated on the South Side of Iames River, about ten Miles above Iames-Town. This good King did ever affect the English above all others; and al|tho' he was very zealous to his false Gods, yet he con|fessed, that the English God as much exceeded is, as their Guns did his Bow and Arrows; and in Time of Drought, he would often send Presents to Captain Smith, to pray to his God for Rain. His Guides conducted Powel and Todkill, three Days Journey, into a high Country, towards the South-West; where they saw, here and there, a Corn|field, by some little Spring or small Brook, but no large River. The People w••e, in all Respects, like the rest, except their Language. They lived chiefly by hunting, and on Fruits and Roots; and they trafficked their Skins with those towards the Sea and fatter Countries, for dried Fish and Corn. But neither did they here, or ever after, hear any thing of this Colony, left by Mr. White, in the Year 1587, on one of the Islands of Hatteras.

ALL this while, they employed one William Volday, a Zwitzer, by Promises and Pardons to reclaim his Country|men, the Germans, and one Bentley, another Fugitive. But this vile Hypocrite, pretending highly to detest their Vil|lany, hereby got an Opportunity, to convey them every thing, they wanted, to effect their Projects, and destroy the Colony. With much Devotion they looked for the Spaniard, to whom they were willing and intended to do good Service. And finding, the English were obliged to disperse themselves to gather Food, they importuned Pow|hatan to lend them his Forces; and they undertook, not only to destroy the Hogs, fire the Town, and seize on the Bark, but to bring most of the Colony to his Service and Subjection. This Scheme was communicated to many of their Confederates at the Fort; but two, whose Hearts re|lented Page  100 at the Horror of the Act, revealed it to the Presi|dent. He ordered them to keep it still a Secret, and to draw them into such Ambuscades, as he had prepared. But the thing taking Air, and coming to the Ears of the impatient Multitude, they were outrageous to go and de|stroy them immediately. Lieutenant Percy and Mr. Iohn Codrington, two Gentlemen of high and resolute Spirits, offered their Service, to go to Werowocomoco, and to cut their Throats before the Face of Powhatan. But the Pre|sident cared not to hazard such Persons, for whom he had other Employment; and gave Way to Mr. Wyffin and Ser|jeant Ieffery Abbot, to undertake the Matter. But the Germans so blinded Abbot, with a fair Tale, that he relent|ed; and Wyffin, tho' willing, cared not to attempt it alone. When Powhatan understood their Business, he sent imme|diately to the President, to inform him, that he neither de|tained them, nor hindered his Men from executing his Command. For he neither did, nor would, maintain them, or any other, to his Displeasure. But altho' these treache|rous Foreigners did all, they could, to raise and incense Powhatan and the Indians against the English, yet such ex|act Intelligence had Captain Smith of their Plots, that their Machinations were his greatest Advantage and Security. And if any Commotion had happened, he always had it in his Power to take Revenge. For all the Country now stood more in Fear of him, than of Powhatan; and he had such Parties among the bordering Nations, that, out of Love or Fear, they would have done any thing, he commanded. However, not long after, one of the Germans returned to his Duty; but the other still remained with Powhatan.

WHILST these things were passing, Captain Samuel Ar|gall arrived, who was afterwards an active Person here, and a noted Governor of the Country. He came to truck with the Colony, and to fish for Sturgeon, with a Ship well furnished with Wine and other good Provision. This was, at that Time, a prohibited Trade; but he being a Kinsman to Sir Thomas Smith, the Treasurer, it was con|nived at and overlooked. The Necessities of the Coony obliged them to take his Provisions, by which his Voyage was lost▪ but they revictualled him, when their next Sup|ply arrived, and sent him to England with a full Account of the State of their Affairs. By this Ship, they received Let|ters, which taxed the President for his hard Usage of the Natives, and for not returning the Ships freighted. And now also, they first had an Account of the Alterations in England, and of the great Preparations and large Supply, to be sent by the Lord Delawarr, appointed Captain-Gene|ral and Governor in Chief of Virginia.