THE County of York, ina Saxon Euer∣ƿicscyre, Effrocscyre, and Ebora∣scyre, commonly Yorkshire, by far the largest County in England, is re∣puted to be pretty fruitful. If in one place the soil be of a stony, sandy, barren nature, yet in another it is pregnant and fruit∣ful; and so if it be naked and exposed in one part, we find it cloathed and sheltred with great store of wood in another; Nature using an allay and mixture, that the entire County, by this variety of parts, might seem more pleasing and beautiful. Towards the west, it is bounded by those hills already mention'd, by Lancashire, and by Westmorland. Towards the north, it borders upon the County of Durham, which is en∣tirely separated from it by the river Tees. On the east, it bounds upon the German Ocean. The south∣side is enclosed, first with Cheshire and Derbyshire, then with Nottinghamshire, and lastly with Lincoln∣shire,* where that noble aestuary the Humber breaks in, which is a common rendezvouz for the greatest part of the rivers hereabouts. The whole County is divi∣ded into three parts, denominated from three several quarters of the world, West-Riding, East-Riding, and North-Riding. West-Riding or the West-part, is for some time bounded by the river*Ouse, Lanca∣shire, and the southern limits of the County, and lies out towards the south and west. East-Riding or the east-part of this County, lies towards the east, and towards the Ocean, which together with the ri∣ver Derwent, encloses it. North-Riding or the north-part, fronts the north, and is in a manner included by the rivers Tees and Derwent, and a long course of the river Ouse. From the western mountains, or those bordering in the west-part of the County, ma∣ny rivers gush forth, which are every one at last re∣ceived by the Ouse, and so in one chanel flow into the Humber. Neither do I perceive any better method in describing this part, th•n to follow the course of the Dane, the Calder, Are, Wherfe, Nid, and Ouse, which issue out of these mountains, and are the most remarkable, not only as being the best rivers, but as flowing by the most considerable places.
Danus, commonly Don and Dune,* is as it seems so called, because 'tis carried in a low deep chanel; for that is the signification of the British word Dan. After it hath saluted Wortley, which has given name to that excellent family of the Wortleys [a], and also a place near it called Wentworth,* from which many Gentry both in this County and elsewhere, as also the Barons of Wentworth, have deriv'd their name and original [b]; it arrives at Sheafield,* remark∣able, among many other places hereabouts, for Blacksmiths, there being much iron digg'd up in these parts; and for a strong old Castle, which is de∣scended in a right line from the Lovetofts, the Lords Furnival,1 and Nevil Lord Furnival,* to the most ho∣nourable the Talbots, Earls of Shrewsbury [c]. From hence the Dane, under the shade of alder, yew-trees, and others, flows to Rotheram,* which glories in ha∣ving had an Archbishop of York of it's own name, viz. Thomas Rotheram, a wise man, who was born here, and prov'd a great benefactor to this place, ha∣ving, upon a laudable design, founded a College here, with three Schools, for instructing boys in Wri∣ting, Grammar, and Musick; which are now sup∣prest by the wicked avarice of this age [d]. Then it runs within view of Connisborow* [e], an old Castle, called in British Caer Conan, situated upon a rock, whither (at the battel of Maisbelly, when Aurelius Ambrosius routed the Saxons and put them to a dis∣orderly flight) Hengist their General retired to secure himself;* and a few days after took the field again against the Britains, who pursued him, with whom he engaged a second time, which proved fatal both to himself and his army: for the Britains cut off ma∣ny of them, and taking him prisoner, beheaded him, if the authority of the British History is to be prefer∣red in this matter before that of theb Saxon Annals, which report him to have dy'd a natural death, being worn out and spent with fatiegue and business [f]2.Page 707-708
After this it washes Sprotburg, the ancient Seat of an ancient family the Fitz-Williams, Knights, related to the best families of England, and the ancestors of3 William Fitz-Williams,* within the memory of the last age Earl of Southampton; and also of William Fitz-Williams late Lieutenant of Ire∣land. But this seat is now descended to the Copleys; as Elmsley and many other estates of theirs in these parts, to the Savills.
From hence the Dan severs into two courses, and runs to an old town, to which it leaves its name, commonly called at this day Doncaster* [g], but by the Scots Doncastle, and the Saxons Dona cester; by Ninius, Caer-Daun; by Antoninus, Danum; and so likewise by the Notitia, which relates that the Praefect of the Crispinian Horse under the Dux Bri∣tanniae garrison'd the•e. About the year 759. it was burnt to the ground by lightning, and so bury'd in it's own rubbish, that it has hardly yet recover'd it self. The plat of a large tower is still visible, which they imagine was destroyed in that fire; where now stands a neat Church dedicated to St. George, the on∣ly Church in this town [h]. Scarce five miles di∣stant, to the southward, stands a place which I must not pass by, called Tickhill,* being an ancient town, and fortified with an old castle, which is large, but barely surrounded with a single wall, and by a huge mount with a round tower upon the top of it. It was of such dignity heretofore, that all the manours here∣abouts appertaining to it, were stiled, the Honour of Tickhill. In Henry the first's reign it was held by Roger Busty; but afterwards King Stephen made the Earls of Ewe in Normandy Lords of it. Next, King Richard 1. gave it to his brother John.* In the Ba∣rons war, Robert de*Vipont took and detained it, till Henry the thi•d deliver'd to him the castle of Carlisle, and that County, upon condition he would restore it to the Earl of Ewe. But upon the King of France's refusal to restore the English to the estates they had in France, the King dispossest him again, John Earl of Ewe still demanding restitution of it from King Edward the first, in right of Alice his great grandmother Lastly, Richard the second, King of England, gave it to John of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster. Now the Dan, which here begins to rise and frequently overflows its banks, re-unites its scat∣ter'd streams, and after it hath run on in one entire chanel by Hatfield Chase, where there is special good Deer-hunting [i], it divides it self again, one stream running towards the river Idel which comes out of Nottinghamshire, the other towards the river Are; in both which they continue till they meet again, and fall into the aestuary of Humber [k]. Within the Island, or that piece of ground encompassed by the branches of these two rivers, are Diche-march and Marshland,* fen∣ny tracts, or rather River-islands, about fifteen miles round, which produce a very green rank grass, good for cattel, and are as it were set round with lit∣tle villages. Some of the inhabitants imagine the whole Island floats upon the water; and that some∣times when the waters are encreased, 'tis rais'd higher; just like what Pomponius Mela tells us of the Isle of Antrum in Gaul. Among other brooks which water this place, I must not forget to mention the Went, because it arises from a pool near Nosthill,* where for∣merly stood a monastery dedicated to that royal Saint Oswald,* which was repaired by A. Confessor to King Henry the first; and at this day is the seat of the fa∣mous family of the Gargraves Knights [l].b
*The river Calder, which flows along the borders be∣tween this and Lancashire, among other inconsidera∣ble little places, runs by Gretland, situated on the ve∣ry top of a hill, and accessible but on one side, where was digged up this Votive Altar, sacred, as it seems, to the tutelar God of the city of the Brigantes. It is to be seen at Bradley, in the house of the famous Sir John Savil, Kt. Baron of the Exchequer [m]4.
ET NVM. GG.
T. AVR. AVRELIAN
VS DD PRO SE
ET SVIS. S. M. A. G. S.
On the other side.
Which is to be read, Dui Civitatis Brigantum & numi∣nibus Augustorum, Titus Aurelius Aurelianus dedicavit pro¦se & suis. i.e. To the God of the City of the Brigantes, and to the Deities of the Emperours, Titus Aurelius Aure∣lianus hath dedicated this in behalf of himself and his. As for the last remaining letters, I cannot tell what they mean. The Inscription on the other side, is, Antonino tertiùm & Getae Consulibus.
Whether this Dui be that God which the Britains call'd Diw,* or the peculiar and local Genius of that Ci•y, may be decided by those who are better Judg∣es. But as Symmachus has it,*As the souls are distri∣buted among those that are born, even so are the fatal Ge∣nii among Nations. God does appoint every Kingdom its respective Guardians. This was the perswasion and be∣lief of the Ancients in those matters. For, to say no∣thing of foreign Nations, whose Histories are fruff'd with such local Deities, the Britains themselves had their Andates in Essex,* their Bello-tucadrus in Cumber∣land, their Viterinus and Mogontus in Northumber∣land; as will be more manifest from the Inscriptions, I shall insert in their proper places. And lastly, 'tis rightly observ'd by Servius Honoratus, that these local Gods were never transitory or shifted from one Coun∣try to another. But to return to the Calder. Which, with supplies from other currents, is now become lar∣ger, and therefore made passable by a very fine bridge at Eland, not far distant from Grimscar, where bricks have been dug up with this Inscription:
From hence the river Calder passes through the Mountains on the left by Halifax,* a very famous town, situated from West to East upon the gentle descent of an hill. This name is of no great anti∣quity: not many ages since it was call'd Horton,* as some of the Inhabitants say; who tell us this story concerning the change of it. A certain Clergy-man of this town, being passionately in love with a young woman, and by no means able to move her to comply with his lust, grew stark mad, and in that condition villanously cut off her head. Her head was afterward hung upon an Ew-tree, where it was reputed holy by the vulgar, till quite rotten; and was often visited in Pilgrimage by them; every one plucking off a branch of the tree [as a holy relique.] By this means the tree became at last a meer trunk, but still retain'd its reputation of sanctity among the people, who even perswaded themselves that those little veins, which are spread out like hair in the rind between the bark and the body of the tree, were indeed the very hair of the Virgin. This occasion'd such resort of Pil∣grims to it, that Horton, from a little village grew up soon to a large town, assuming the new name of Ha∣lig-fax or Halifax, which signifies holy hair.* For fax is used by the English on the other side Trent, to sig∣nifie hair. And that noble family of the Fairfax in these parts, are so denominated from their fair hair. And therefore whoever, from the affinity of their names, would have this to be what Ptolemy calls Olicana, are certainly out. This town is no less fa∣mous among the Commonalty for a By-law,* whereby they behead any one instantly that's found stealing; nor among the Learned, who will have John de sacro Bosco, Author of the Treatise De Sphaera, to be born in it. But 'tis more remarkable for thec unusual ex∣tent Page [unnumbered] and largeness of the Parish, which has under it eleven Chapels (two whereof are Parochial) and a∣bout twelve thousand men in it. So that the Parishi∣oners are wont to say, they can reckon more men in their Parish, than any kind of animal whatsoever; whereas in the most populous and fruitful places of England elsewhere, one shall find thousands of sheep, but so few men, in proportion, that one would think they had given place to sheep and oxen, or were devour'd by them. But of all others, nothing is so admirable in this town, as the industry of the inha∣bitants, who, notwithstanding an unprofitable, barren soil, not fit to live in, have so flourish'd by the Cloath trade (which within these seventy years they first fell to) that they a•e both very rich, and have gain'd a reputation for it above their neighbours. Which confirms the truth of that old observation, That a barren Country is a great whet to the industry of the Natives: by which alone we find, Norinberg in Ger∣many, Venice and Genoua in Italy, and lastly Limoges in France, notwithstanding their situation on a bar∣ren soil, have ever flourishing Cities [n]. Six miles from Halifax, not f•r from the right side of the river Calder, and near Almondbury,* a little village, there is a very steep hill only accessible by one way from the plain;* where the marks of an old rampire, and some ruins of a wall, and of a castle well guarded with a tri∣ple fortification, are plainly visible. Some would have it the remains of Olicana, but 'tis really the ruins of Cambodunum (which is, by a mistake in Ptolemy, call'd Camulodunum, andd made two words by Bede, Campo-dunum) as appears by the distance which Anto∣ninus makes between that and Mancunium on the one hand, and that and Calcaria on the other. In the be∣ginning of the Saxon times, it seems to have made a great figure in the world. For it was then a Royal Seat, and graced with a* Cathedral built by Paulinus the Apostle of these parts, and dedicated to St. Alban; whence for Albanbury 'tis now call'd Almonbury. But in those cruel wars that Ceadwall the Britain and Penda the Mercian made upon Edwin the Prince of these Territories, it was burnt down: which in some measure appears in the colour of the stones to this day. Afterwards a Castle was built here, which, as I have read, was confirm'd to Henry Lacy by King Stephen [o].
*Not far from this stands Whitley, the Seat of the ancient and famous family of the Beaumonts, which is different and distinct from that of the Barons and Vi∣counts Beaumont, and flourish'd in England before they came over.
The Calder having passed by these places, runs on to Kirkley,* heretofore a Nunnery; thence to Robin Hood's Tomb, who was a generous robber, and very famous;* and so to Deusborrough, situated at the foot of a high Hill. Whether this name be deriv'd from Dui, that local Deity already mention'd, I can∣not determine: the name is not unlike; for it resem∣bles Duis Burgh in sound, and this town has been con∣siderable from the earliest date of Christianity among the English of this Province. For I have been inform'd of ae Cross yet to be seen here with this Inscrip∣tion:
That this Paulinus was the first Archbishop of York, about the year 626. we are assured by the concurring evidence of our Historians. From hence it goes by Thornhill, which from a knightly family of that namef descended to the Savils: and so Calder marches to Wakefield,* a town famous for it's Cloath-trade, largeness, neat buildings, great markets; and for the bridge, upon which King Edward the fourth built a very neat Chapel, in memory of those that were cut off in a battel here. This town belong'd heretofore to the Earls of Warren and Sur•y; as also Sandal-castle just by, built by John Earl of Warren, whose mind was never free from the slavish dictates of his own lust; for being too familiar with the wife of Thomas Earl of Lancaster, his design was to detain her there securely from her husband. Below this town, when England was embroil'd with civil wars, Richard Duke of York, [ 1460] and father of Edw. 4 (whose temper was rather to provoke fortune, than quietly to court and expect it) was here slain amongst many o∣thers, by the Lancastrians. The ground hereabouts for a pretty way together, is call'd the Lordship of Wakefield, and hath always some one or other of the Gentry for its Seneschal or Steward; an Office often administer'd by the Savils,* a very numerous family in these parts, and at this day in the hands of Sir J. Savil Knight, whose exceeding neat house appears at Howley,* not far off [p]. About five miles from Wakefield, the river Calder loses both its name and waters in the river Are. Upon the confluence stands Medley,* formerly Mede∣ley, so call'd from its situation, as edging in be∣tween two rivers. In the last age this was the Seat of5Robert Waterton, Master of the Horse to K. Henry the fourth, but at present of the famousg Sir John Sa∣vil, a most worthy Baron of the Exchequer, who must be ingenuously own'd not only to have promoted this work by his great learning, but also to have encou∣rag'd the Author of it, by his humanity and kind∣ness.
The river Are issuing from the root of the Moun∣tain Pennigent (which is the highest in these parts,*) at first seeming doubtful, whether it should run for∣wards into the Sea, or return into its Spring, is so wind∣ing and crooked, that in travelling this way, I had it to pass over seven times in half an hour upon a strait road. It's course is calm and quiet; so easie that it hardly appears to flow: and I am of opinion this has occasion'd its name. For I have already observ'd that the British word ara, signifies slow and easie: and hence that slow river Araris in France, takes its name.* That part of the Country where the head of this river lyes, is call'd Craven,* possibly from the British word Crage, a rock: for what with stones, steep rocks, and rough ways, this place is very wild and unsightly. In the very middle of which, and not far distant from the Are, stands Skipton,* hid (as it were) with those st•ep pre∣cipices, lying quite round; just like*Latium in Italy, which Varro thinks was really so call'd from its low situation under the Appennine, and the Alps. The town is pretty handsome, considering the manner of building in these mountainous parts, and is secured by a very beautiful and strong Castle, built by Robert de Rumeley; by whose posterity it came to be the inheritance of the Earls of Albemarle. But being afterwards escheated (as the Lawyers term it) to the Crown, Edward the second gave it (with other large possessions hereabouts) in exchange, to Robert de Clif∣ford ancestor to the Earls of Cumberland, for some lands of his in the Marches of Wales [q].
The Are having pass'd Craven, is carried in a much larger chanel with pleasant fields on both sides, by Kigheley, from which the famous family of Kigheley* derive their name. One of whom, call'dhHenry Kigheley, procured from Edward the first, for his ma∣nour here, the privilege of a Market and Fair,*and a free Warren, so that none might enter into those grounds to chase there, or with design to catch any thing pertaining to the said Warren, without the permission and leave of the said Henry and his Successors. Which was a very consi∣derable favour in those days: and I the rather take notice of it, because it teaches us the nature and Page [unnumbered] meaning of a Free-Warren. The male-issue in the right line of this family ended in Henry Kigheley of Inskip, within the memory of this age: the daugh∣ters and heiresses were married, one to William Ca∣vendish at this time Baron Cavendish of Hardwick; the other to Thomas Worseley of Boothes. From hence, the river Are glides on by Kirkstall, a famous Mona∣stery, founded about the year 1147. by Henry Lacy. And thence by Leedes,* in Saxon Loydes, which was made a royal village when Cambodunum was burnt down by the enemy: now enriched by the woollen manufacture. Here Oswy the Northumbrian routed Penda the Mercian, to the great advantage, says Bede, of both people; for it both secured his own nation from the inroads of the Pagans, and was the occasion of converting the Mercians to the Christian Religion. The very spot where this engagement was, goes by the name of Winwidfield* in our Historians. I suppose, deriv'd from the victory it self; as when Quintilius Varus and his Legions were cut off in Westphalia, the place of Action was called in High Dutch Winfield (the field of Victory) as the most learned, and my most worthy friend, Abraham Ortelius has well observed [r]. The Country, for some little way about it, was formerly called by the old wordhElmet;* which Edwin King of Northumberland, son of Ella, brought under his own dominion,* by the conquest of Cereticus a British King, An. Dom. 620. There is Limestone* plentifully found he•e: they burn it at Brotherton and Knotting∣ley; and at certain seasons convey it in great quan∣tities, for sale, to Wakefield, Sandall, and Standbridge: from thence it is sold into the western parts of this County, which are naturally cold and mountainous; and herewith they manure and improve the soil. But leaving these things to the husbandmen, let us re∣turn [s].
The Calder above-mention'd, is at last received by the Are: near the union of them stands the little village Castleford,* but called by Marianus Casterford; who tells us, that the Citizens of York slew many of Etheldred's army, pursuing them in a disorderly flight; when he infested this Country for their trea∣chery and breach of Leagues. Yet the older name of this place is that in Antoninus, where 'tis called Legeo∣lium* and Lagetium which among other remarkable and express remains of antiquity, is confirmed by those great numbers of Coins (called by the com∣mon people Sarasins-heads) dug up here in Beanfeild, a place near the Church, and so called from the beans that grow there. Also by the distance of it from Danum and Eboracum on each side: not to men∣tion its situation by a Roman way; nor that Hove∣den expresly calls it a City [t].
The river Are, now enlarged by the confluence of the Calder, leaves Brotherton* on the l•ft, where*Mar∣garet Queen to King Edw. 1. took up as she was hunting, and was brought to bed of her soni Tho∣mas sirnamed de Brotherton from this place, who was afterwards Earl of Norfolk, and Marshal of England. Somewhat below this town the river Are is joyned by the Dan, and then runs into the river Ouse. On the right, there is found a yellow marle* of such virtue, that the fields once manur'd with it prove fruitful many years after. From hence the river is still car∣ry'd on not much wide of Pontfract (or, broken bridge) commonly called Pontfreit,* which arose out of the ruins of Legcolium. In the Saxon times, the name of this town was Kirkby, which was changed by the Normans into Pontfract,* because of a broken bridge there The story is, that there was a wooden bridge over this river there, when William Archbishop of York, and sister's son to King Stephen, returned from Rome; and that he was welcom'd here with such a c owd of people, that the bridge broke, and they fell into the river;* but the Archbishop wept and prayed so fervently, that not one of them was lost [u]. This town is sweetly situated, and is remarkable for pro∣ducing Liquorish and Skirworts in great plenty: the buildings are neat, and secured by a castle which is very stately, and strongly founded upon a rock; and not only fortified, but beautified with many out∣works. It was built by Hildebert Lacy a Norman,* to whom William the Conquerour gave this town, and the grounds about it, after he had dispossest A•ric a Saxon.*But Henry Lacy his Nephew (as the Pl•ad∣ings of those times tell us) being in the battel of Trench∣brey against Henry 1. was disseised of his Barony of Pont∣fract; and th•n the King gave the honour to Wido de Laval, who held it till King Stephen's time, when Henry de Lacy re-entred upon the said Barony; and by the K•ng's intercession, the difference was adjusted with Wido for 150 l. This Henry had a son Robert, who died with∣out issue, leaving Albreda Lisours,*his sister by the mo∣ther's side, his heir; for there was no one else so nearly related to him: so that by the decease of Robert, both the inheritances, that of the Lacies by her brother, and that of the Lisours by her father, descended to her. This is word for word out of the Register of Stanlow Monastery. She was then married to Richard Fitz-Eustach (or the son of Eustachius) Constable of Chester, whose posterity have took the name of Lacy, and have ••en honoured with the Earldom of Lincoln. The •ast daughter of this family conveyed this fair inheritance* by a short Deed to the Earls of Lancaster; who have enlarged the Castle very much: it was afterwards repaired, at great expence, by Queen Elizabeth, who began a fine Chapel here. The Castle has been fa∣tal to great men: it was first stain'd with the blood of Thomas Earl of Lancaster6,* who held it in right of his wife, and was the first of this family that own'd it. He was justly beheaded here by King Edward 2. for fomenting those plots and rebellions which em∣broiled the Kingdom: however, he was afterwards Sainted by the people. Here also King Richard 2. deposed by Henry 4. was barbarously destroyed with hunger, cold, and other unheard-of torments. Here Anthony Earl Rivers, Uncle to Edward 5. and Sir Richard Grey Knight, brother by the mothers-side to the said King Edward, were both murder'd (not∣withstanding their innocence) by King Richard 3. For this tyrant was suspicious, that men of such spi∣rits and honour as these were, might check his designs of tyranny and absolute power. As for the Abbey founded here by the Lacies, and the Hospital by the bounty of7R. Knolles, I indust•iously omit them, be∣cause the very ruins of them are hardly in being.
From Legeolium we pass by Shirborn [w], a populous small town, (which takes that name from the clear∣ness of the little river there, and was given by Athel∣stan to the Archbishops of York [x];) and so travel on upon a Roman way, very high rais'd, to Aberford,* a little town situated just by that way, famous for its art of pin-making; those here made being in particu∣lar request among the Ladies. Under the town lies the course of the river Cock (or as 'tis in books Co∣karus.) Between it and the town the•e is the foun∣dation of an old Castle,* (which they call Castle-Cary) still visible. About two miles from hence, where the Cock springs, stands Berwick in Elmet,* which is said to have been the royal seat of the Kings of Nor∣thumberland. It has been walled round, as the rub∣bish it self shews.* On the other side stands Hessell∣wood, the chief seat of that particularly famous and ancient family the Vavasors,* who take that name from their Office, (being formerly the King's Valva∣sors) and towards the end of Edward the first's reign, we find by the Writs of Summons of those times, that8William Vavasor was summoned to Parliament among the other Barons of this Kingdom [y]. Under the town is the remarkable Quarry called Petres-Post,*Page [unnumbered] because the stately Church at York dedicated to St. Peter, was built with the stones hewed out there by the bounty of the Vavasors.
From Aberford the Cock runs somewhat slow to the river Wherf, as if it were melancholy, and detest∣ed Civil wars ever since it flowed with that English blood which was formerly shed here. For upon the very bank of this river,* not far from Towton, a small country village, was truly the English Pharsalia. Here was the greatest fight of Nobility and Gentry, and the strongest army that ever was seen in England; no fewer than an hundred thousand fighting men on each side; who under the conduct of two daring and furious Captains, engaged here upon Palm-Sunday, in the year 1461. The Victory continued wavering for a long time; but at last the Lancastri∣ans proved the weakest, even by their being too strong. For their number proved cumbersome and unweildy; which first caused disorder, and then flight. The York-party gave the chase briskly; which, to∣gether with the fight, was so bloody, that no less than 35000 English were cut off, and amongst them a great many of the Nobility. Somewhat below this place,* near Shirburn, at a village called Huddleston, there is a noble Quarry; out of which when the stones are first cut, they are very soft; but by being in the air, they presently consolidate and harden9.
Out of the foot of Craven-hills springs the river Wherf or Wharf,* in Saxon Guerf, the course of which for a long way, keeps at an equal distance from the Are. If any one would derive the name of it from a British word Guer, swift, the nature of the river will favour him; for it's course is swift and violent, fret∣ful and angry, as it were, at those stones which ob∣struct it's passage; and so rolls them along very strangely, especially when it swells by a wet winter. However, it is dangerous and rapid even in the sum∣mer time; as I am sensible by experience, who in my travels this way run no small risk in passing it. For it has either such slippery stones, that a horse's foot cannot fix on them; or else the current it self is so strong, that it drives them from under his feet. Tho' the course of it be long, (no less than fifty miles, computing from the first rise to its joyning the Ouse) yet there are no considerable towns upon it. It runs down by Kilnesey-Cragge (the highest and the steepest that ever I saw,*) to Burnsall, where Sir Wil∣liam Craven, Alderman of London, was born, and is now building a stone bridge; as he has lately, out of a pious concern for the good of his Country, found∣ed a Free-school hard by [y]: then to Barden-towre, a little tower belonging to the Earls of Cumberland, noted for the good hunting thereabouts: then to Bolton, where stood formerly a little Monastery [z]: and to Bethmesley, the seat of the famous family of Claphams, of which was J. Clapham, a famous souldier in the Wars between York and Lancaster. Hence it passes by Ilekely,* which I imagine to be the Olicana in Ptolemy, both from its situation in respect of York, and the resemblance of the two names. It is, with∣out question, an ancient town; for (not to mention those engrav'd Roman pillars, lying now in the Churchyard and elsewhere) it was rebuilt in Seve∣rus's time by*Virius Lupus, Legate and Propraetor of Britain, as we are informed by an Inscription lately dug up near the Church.
AVG. ET ANTONINVS
RANTE VIRIO LVPO.
* LEG. EORVM ‖ PR. PR.
That the second Cohort of the Lingones quartered here, is likewise shewed us by an old Altar I have seen there, now put under a pair of stairs, and inscribed by the* Captain of the second Cohort of the Lingones to Verbeia, perhaps the Nymph or Goddess of the Wherf (the river) called Verbeia, I suppose from the likeness of the two words.
PRAEF. COH. II LINGON.
For Rivers, says Gildas, in that age had divine ho∣nours paid them by the ignorant Britains.* And Seneca tells us of Altars dedicated to them; We worship the heads of great rivers, and we raise altars to their first springs. And Servius says, that every river was presided by some Nymph or other. In the walls of the Church there is this other imperfect Inscription.
PRAEF. COH. [aa].
I found nothing in my search up and down the Church for pieces of Roman Antiquity, but the por∣traicture of Sir Adam Middleton, armed and cut out in stone, who seems to have liv'd in Edward the 1.'s reign. His posterity remain still in the neighbour∣hood, at a place called Stubham [bb].
Somewhat lower stands Otley,* which belongs to the Archbishop of York; memorable for nothing but its situation under a huge craggy Cliff called Chevin.* For the ridge of a mountain is in British Chevin;* and so that long ridge of mountains in France (which formerly us'd the same language with our Britains) is called Gevenna* and Gebenna. From hence the river flows in a chanel, bank'd on both sides with Lime∣stone, by Harewood,* where stands a neat and strong Castle, which has always chang'd its master as the times turn'd. It was formerly the Curcies, but went from them, with Alice the heiress of that family, to Warren Fitz-Gerold, who married her,* and had issue Margery; who being one of his heirs, and a great fortune, was first married to Baldwin de Ripariis, son to the Earl of Devonshire, who died before his father; and then, by King John's means, to Falcatius de Brent, a favourite, upon account of his great service in pilla∣ging. Afterwards, Isabel de Ripariis, Countess of De∣vonshire, dying without issue, this Castle fell to Robert de Lisle, the son of Warren, as a relation,* and one of her heirs. At last, by those of Aldborough, it came to the Rithers, as I learn'd from Fr. Thinn, who with great judgment and diligence has long studied the Antiquities of this Kingdom [cc]. Nor must I forget to take notice of a place just by, called Gaw∣thorp, remarkable for that ancient and virtuous family the Gascoigns,* descended very probably from Gascoigne in France.
Hence, the course of the river Wherf is by Wetherby,* a notable trading town, which has no remains of An∣tiquity, but only a place under it called Helensford, where a Roman military way has lain through the river [dd]. Then by Tadcaster,* a very small town; which yet I cannot but think was the same with Cal∣caria,* both from the distance, name, and nature of the soil; especially, since it is agreeable to the opini∣on of Mr. Robert Marshall of Rickerton, a person of excellent judgment: for 'tis just nine Italian miles from York, which is the distance of Calcaria from it in Antoninus. And Limestone (which is the main ingredient in mortar) is no where to be found all a∣bout, but plentifully here; from whence it is conveyed to York, and all the Country round, for the use of building. This Limestone was call'd by the Britains, the Saxons, and the Northern English, after the man∣ner of the Latins, Calc (
Yet if he had travell'd this way in winter, he would have thought the bridge little enough for the river. For, (as Natural Philosophers know very well) the quantity of water in springs and rivers ever depends upon the inward or outward heat and cold10 [ee].
*Somewhat higher, the river Nid, issuing from the roots of Craven-hills, is carried in a muddy chanel by Nidherdale, a valley so call'd from it; and thence un∣der the covert of wood on both sides, by Ripley,* a market-town, where the family of the Inglebeysl flou∣risht with great antiquity and reputation [ff]. Then proceeds to Gnaresburgh, vulgarly Knarsborrow,* a Ca∣stle situated upon a craggy rock (from whence it takes its name) and surrounded by that deep river. 'Tis reported to have been built by Serlo de Burgh, uncle by the father's side to Eustace Vescy; afterwards it came to be the Seat of the Estotevilles; and now it belongs to the Dutchy of Lancaster. Under it, there is a fountain, which does not issue from the bowels of the Earth, but distills in drops from the rocks hanging over it, and so 'tis call'd Dropping-Well:* if a piece of wood be put in it, it shall be presently crust∣ed over with a stony substance, and by degrees turn'd into stone [gg]. In the adjacent fields Liquorish grows plentifully, and they find a yellow soft marl, which proves an excellent rich manure. The office of Keep∣er of the Forest here, belong'd formerly to one Gamel∣lus, whose posterity took the name of Screven from Screven the place of their habitation. From them are descended themSlingsbeys,* who were made Rangers of this Forest by King Edward the first, and live here at this day in a very flourishing condition. The Nid having pass'd these places, runs on but a little way before it falls into the Ouse, near Allerton the Seat of a truly ancient and famous family thenMallivers, Knights, who in old writings are call'd Mali-Leporarii.
Out of these Western mountains springs likewise the river Ure,* but in another part of the Country, namely in the North-riding: which still retaining this name, and watering the North part of the County, a little before it comes to Rippon, is made the boun∣dary between the North and the West-riding. This Rippon,* in Saxon hrippun, is situated between the Ure and the little river Skell, and owes its greatness to Religion; especially to a Monasterynn built by Wilfred Arch-bishop of York, in the infancy of the English Church; and wonderful, says Malmesbury, for its arched vaults, its fine pavements, and winding en∣tries. But this pompous Mon•stery was entirely de∣molish'd (together with the whole town) by the Danes, whose outrage and cruelty knew no distinction between things sacred and prophane. After that, it was rebuilt by Odo Arch-bishop of Canterbury, who being a most religious observer of holy Rites, trans∣ferred the Reliques of St. Wilfrid from hence to Can∣terbury. However, this town was never so considera∣ble as since the Norman Conquest, (when, as one tells us, greater plenty of Monasteries began to be built.) Then this Monastery began to encrease and flourish under the patronage of the Arch-bishops of York; and the town too, partly by the advantage of a Go∣vernour, call'd in Saxon Wakeman,* that is to say Watchman; and also by their diligence in the woollen manufacture, which is now slackned. The town is adorn'd with a very neat Church, built by the con∣tributions of the Gentry hereabouts, and of the Treasurer of the town; having three Spire-steeples, which welcome strangers to the town at a distance, and seem to vie witho the rich Abbey of Fountain, built within sight of it, by Thurstin Arch bishop of York [hh]. On one side of the Church stands a little College for singing-men, founded by Henry Both Arch-bishop of York; on the other side a great earthen Mount, call'd Hilshaw, cast up, as they say, by the Danes. Within the Church,*Wilfrid's Needle was mighty famous in the last age. The busi∣ness was this; there was a strait passage into a room close and vaulted under ground, whereby trial was made of any woman's chastity: if she was chast, she pass'd with ease; but if otherwise, she was, by I know not what miracle, stopt and held there. This Mo∣nastery of Fountain* is delicately situated, in a fruitful soil, wherein some veins of Lead are to be found; and had its original from twelve Monks of York, who affecting a more rigid and strict course of life, left their Cloisters; and after a great deal of trouble and hardship, were settled here by Thurstin Arch-bishop of York11, who then founded it for that pur∣pose12. However, I should scarce have took notice of them, but that St. Bernard in his Epistles has so much commended their Order and Discipline.
Not much lower, upon the river Ure, is situated Burrowbridge,* a little town so call'd from the bridge there which is made of stone, very high and stately; yet in Edward the second's time it seems to have been only a wooden one. For we find, that when the Ba∣rons harrass'd that King and the whole Kingdom, Humphrey de Bohun Earl of Hereford, in passing over it, was run up the groin quite through the body by a Souldier that lay in ambush under the bridge, and took the advantage of pushing through a chink. Just by the bridge, in three little fields to the West∣ward, I saw 4 huge stones, of a pyramidal form,* very rough and unpolish'd, placed, as it were, in a streight line one from another. The two middle stones (one of which was lately displac'd in hopes of finding mony) almost touch'd one another; the outer ones standing at some small and equal distance from them. As for the design or meaning of them, I have nothing to re∣mark, but that my opinion is agreeable with some others in this point, That this has been a Roman trophy raised by the high-way, which runs along here. As for the silly stories of their being those bolts which the Devil shot at some cities hereabouts,* and so destroy'd them; I think it not worth while to men∣tion them. Thus much is observable, that many, and those learned men, are of opinion, that the stones kkPage [unnumbered] are not natural, but artificially compounded of Sand, Lime, and Vitriol (for of this they fancy it has some grains) as also of an oily unctuous matter. Much like those cisterns at Rome, which Pliny tells us were made of Sand and a hot Lime, so very compact and firm, that one would have took them for real stone [ii].
Somewhat Eastward from the bridge before men∣tion'd,* stands Isurium Brigantum, an ancient city, which took its name from the Ure that wash'd it; but has been demolisht many ages since. Still there is a village upon the same spot, which carries antiquity in its name, being call'd Ealdburg and Aldborrow,* that is to say, an old Burrough. There is now little or no signs remaining of a City, the plot thereof be∣ing converted into arable and pasture grounds. So that the evidence of History it self would be suspect∣ed in testifying this to be the old Isurium, if the name of the river Ure, the Roman coins continually digg'd up here, and the distance between it and York, ac∣cording to Antoninus, were not convincing and un∣deniable [kk]. For by that time the Ure (which from hence-forward the Saxons call'd Ouse, because the Ouseburne, a little brook, falls into it here) has run 16 Italian miles f•rther, it arrives at the City Eboracum or Eburacum,* which Ptolemy (in Lib. 2. Magnae Constructio∣nis) callsooBrigantium, (if the Book be not faulty, and that mistake have not risen from it's being the Metro∣polis, of the Brigantes. Ninius calls it Caer-Ebrauc, the Bri∣tains Caer-Effroc, the Saxons Euor ƿic, and Eofor-ƿic, and we at this day York. The British History derives its name from the first founder, King Ebraucus. But with submission to other mens judgments, my opini∣on is that the word Eburacum comes from the river Ure; implying its situation to be upon that river. Thus the Eburovices in France, were seated by the ri∣ver Ure, near Eureux in Normandy; the Eburones in the Netherlands, near the river Ourt, in the Diocese of Liege; and Eb-lana in Ireland, by the river Lefny. York is the second city in England, the finest in this County, and the great fence and ornament to those Northern parts. 'Tis both pleasant, large, and strong, adorn'd with fine buildings (both publick and pri∣vate) populous, rich, and an Arch-bishop's See. The river Ure, which now takes the name Ouse, runs gently (as I said) from North to South, quite through this Ci∣ty, and so divides it into two parts, joyn'd by a Stone-bridge, which has one of the largest Arches that e∣ver I saw. The West part of the City is less popu∣lous, and lies in a square form, enclosed partly with stately walls, and partly by the river, and has but one way to it, namely by Mikell-barr, which signifies a great Gate, from whence a broad fair built street on both sides leads to the very bridge, with fine Gardens be∣hind them, and the fields for exercise extended to the very walls. In the South part of the fields, where the river forms an angle, I saw a mount which has probably been cast up for some Castle to be built there, now call'd the old Bale, which William Melton the Arch-bishop (as we find it in the lives of the Arch-bishops) fortified first with thick planks eighteen foot long, and afterwards with a stone wall; whereof there remains nothing now visible.
The East part of the City (where the buildings are thick, and the streets but narrow) is shap'd like a lentil, and strongly wall'd. On the South-east 'tis defended by a Foss or Ditch,* very deep and muddy, which runs by obs•ure ways into the very heart of the City, and has a bridge over it so throng'd with buildings on both sides, that a stranger would mistake it for a street: after which it falls into the Ouse. At the confluence, over against the Mount before men∣tion'd, William the Conquerour built a prodigious strong Castle, to keep the Citizens in awe. But this, without any care, has been left to the mercy of time, ever since fortified places have grown in disre∣pute among us, as only fit for those who want cou∣rage to face an enemy in the open field [ll]. Towards the North-east, on this side also, stands the Cathe∣dral, dedicated to St. Peter, a magnificent and curious fabrick; near which, without the walls, was ap no∣ble Monastery, surrounded with the river and its own walls, nam'd St. Maries. It was founded by Alan the third, Earl of Bretaign in Armorica, and of Richmond here in England; and plentifully endow'd. But now 'tis converted into a Royal Palace, and is com∣monly call'd the Manour.*
As for the original of York, I cannot tell whence to derive it, but from the Romans; seeing the Bri∣tish towns before the coming in of the Romans were only woods fortified with a ditch and rampire, as Caesar and Strabo (who are evidence beyond excep∣tion) assure us. Without insisting upon the story of King Ebraucus (a word formed from the name Ebo∣racum) who is grosly feigned to be the founder of it; this is certain, that the sixth Legion, call'd Victrix, was sent out of Germany into Britain by Hadrian, and garison'd here: and that this was a Roman Co∣lony, we are assur'd both by Antoninus and Ptolemy, and an old Inscription, which I my self have seen in the house of a certain Alderman of this City:
From all this, it may be inferr'd what figure Ebo∣racum then made in the world; seeing it was the Seat of the Roman Emperours. Our own Historians tell uspp, that it was made an Episcopal See by Constan∣tius. But that Taurinus the Martyr, Bishop of the Eburovices or Eureux presided here, I am not inclin'd, with others,* to believe; for Vincentius, by whom they were tainted with this errour, would confute me with his own words. When the Romans withdrew them∣selves, and left Britain a prey to barbarous Nations; such a weighty share of miseries fell to this City, that towards the end of the Scotch and Saxon wars, it was nothing but the mere fame and Echo of what it had been. For when Paulinus preached Christianity to the Saxons of this Province, it was reduced so low, that the whole City could not afford so much as a small Church wherein to baptize King Edwin, who, in the year 627. rais'd a fabrick of wood for Divine Service; and after that, intending to build another of stone, he had hardly laid the foundation but he died, leaving the work to be finisht by his suc∣cessor King Oswald. From this time the City began to be great in Ecclesiastical affairs. Pope Honorius sent it a Pall,* and it was made a Metropolitan City, en∣dowed with soveraignty not only over twelve Sees here in England, but over all the Bishopricks of Scot∣land. But Scotland hath disown'd her Prerogative many years since, and she her self hath swallowed up several small inconsiderable Bishopricks hereabouts, so that the whole Province is now reduc'd to the four Sees of Durham, Chester, Carlisle, and Man or Sodor, in the Isle of Man. Egbert an Arch-bishop of this See, who lived about the year 740. founded a noble Library*here (these are the words of Malmsbury) a Treasury and Cabinet, if I may so express my self, enrich'd with all Arts and Sciences. Of which also, Alcuinus of York, (who was Tutor to Charles the great, the first Author of an Academy at Paris, as also the great glory of this City) makes mention of it in his Epistle to the said Charles the great:*Give me such excellent and learn∣ed Books for Scholastick Divinity, as I have seen in my own Country collected by the useful and pious industry of Egbert, Arch-bishop. And if it seem proper to your Wis∣dom, I will send some of your own servants, who may co∣py out of them such things as be necessary, and so transport the flowers of Britain into France, that this garden may no longer be confined to York, but somethirg of that Para∣dise may be transplanted toqTours. The Church of York was by the Princes of that time endow'd with many large possessions, especially by Ulphus the son •f Toraldus: which I the rather note, from an old b•ok, that a strange way of endowing heretofore may be took notice of. This Ulphus govern'd in the west parts of Deira, and by reason of a difference like to happen be∣tween his eldest son and his youngest, about the Lordships after his death, he presently took this course to make them equal. Without delay he went to York, and taking the horn wherein he was wont to drink, with him, he fill'd it with wine, and kneeling upon his knees before the Altar, bestow'd upon God and the blessed S. Peter, Prince of the Apostles, all his Lands and Tenements. This horn was kept there to the last age, as I have been informed.
It would seem to reflect upon the Clergy, if I should relate the emulations and scuffles which ambition has raised between the two Sees of York and Canterbu∣ry, whilst with great expence of money, but more of reputation, they warmly contended for pre-emi∣nence.*r For (as one relates it) the See of York was equal in dignity, tho' it was the younger, and the poorer sister; and this being raised to the same power that the See of Canterbury was, and endowed with the same Apostolical privileges, took it very heinously to be made subject, by the decree of P. Alexander, declaring that the Arch-bishoprick of York ought to yield to that of Canterbury, and pay an obedience to her, as Primate of all Britain, in all her Constitutions relating to the Christian Religion. It falls not within the compass of my design, to treat of the Arch-bishops of this See, many of whom have been men of great virtue and holiness. 'Tis enough for me to observe, that from the year 625. when Paulinus the first Arch-bishop was consecrated, there have suc∣ceeded in it threescore and five Arch-bishops,* to the year 1606. in which D. Tobias Matthews, Venerable for his virtue and piety, for his learned eloquence, and for his indefatigable industry in teaching, was translated hither from the Bishoprick of Dur∣ham [mm].
This City very much flourish'd for some time un∣der the Saxon Government, till the Danish storms from the North began to rush on, and spoil'd its beau∣ty again by great ruins and dismal slaughter. Which Alcuin in his Epistle to Egelred King of the Nor∣thumbrians seems to have foretold. For he says, What can be the meaning of that shower of blood, which in Lent we saw at York, the Metropolis of the Kingdom, near St. Peter's Church, descending with great horrour from the roof of the North part of the House in a clear day? May not one imagine that this forebodes destruction and blood among us from that quarter? For in the following age, when the Danes laid every thing they came at waste and desolate, this City was destroy'd with con∣tinual sufferings. In the year 867. the walls of it were so shaken by the many assaults made upon them, that Osbright and Ella, Kings of Northumberland, as they pursued the Danes in these parts, easily broke into the City, and after a bloody conflict in the midst of it, were both slain, leaving the victory to the Danes, who had retired hither. Hence that of William of Malmesbury; York, ever most obnoxious to the fury of the northern nations, hath sustained the barba∣rous assaults of the Danes, and groaned under the miseries it hath suffered. But, as the same author informs us, King Athelstan took it from the Danes, and de∣molish'd that castle wherewith they had fortified it. Nor in after-ages was it quite rid of those wars, in that especially, which was so fatal for the subversion of Cities.
But the Normans, as they put an end to these mi∣series, so they almost brought destruction to York. For when the sons of Sueno the Dane arrived here with a fleet of two hundred and forty sail,* and landed hard Page 721-722 by; the Normans, who kept garrison in two castles in the city, fearing lest the houses in the suburbs might be serviceable to the enemy in filling up the trenches, set them on fire; which was so encrea∣sed and dispersed by the wind, that it presently spread about the whole city, and set it all on fire. In this disorder and hurry the Danes took the town, putting the Townsmen and the Normans to the sword with great slaughter; yet sparing William Mallet and Gilbert Gant, the principal men among them, for a Decima∣tion* among the soldiers afterwards. For every tenth prisoner of the Normans on whom the lot fell, was executed. Which so exasperated William the Con∣querour, that (as if the citize•s had sided with the Danes) he cut them all off, and set the City again on fire: and (as Malmesbury says) so spoiled all the adjacent territory, that a fruitful Province was quite dis∣abled and useless; that the country for sixty miles together lay so much neglected, that a stranger would have lament∣ed at the sight of it (considering that formerly here had been fine cities, high towers, and rich pastures;) and that no former inhabitant would so much as know it. The an∣cient greatness of the place may appear from Domes∣day. In the time of Edward the Confessor, the City of York contained six Shires or Divisions, besides the Shire of the Archbishop. One was wasted for the castles; in the five remaining Shires there were 1428 houses inhabited, and in the Shire of the Archbishop two hundred houses in∣habited. After all these overthrows, Necham sings thus of it:
For in his days, these troublesome times being fol¦lowed with a long and happy peace, this city began to revive, and continued flourishing, notwithstand∣ing it was often marked out for destruction by our own Rebels and the Scotch. Yet in King Stephen's time, it was most sadly ruined again by a casual fire, which burnt down the Cathedral, St. Mary's Mona∣stery, and other Religious houses; and also, as 'tis supposed, that excellent Library which Alcuin tells us was founded by his Master, Archbishop Egelred. The Monastery did not lye long till it rose again; but the Cathedral lay neglected till Edw. 1.'s time, and then it was begun by John Roman, Treasurer of this Church, and brought to that stately pitch we now see it of, by his son John, William Melton, and John Thoresby, all Archbishops [nn], together with the contributions of the Gentry thereabouts: especi∣ally of the Percies and the Vavasors; as the Arms of those families in the Church, and their portraictures in the gate, do shew. The Percies are cut out with a piece of timber, and the Vavasors with a stone, in their hands; in memory of the one's having contributed stone, and the other timber,* to this new fabrick. The church (as we are told by the Author of the Life of Aeneas Silvius, or Pope Pius 2. as he had it from his own mouth) is famous for its magnificence and workmanship all the world over, and for a lightsome Chapel with shining walls, and small thin-wasted pillars quite round. This is the beautiful Chapter-house, where the following verse is writ in golden Letters:
About the same time the Citizens began to fortifie themselves with new walls, adding many towers for a farther security; and made excellent laws for their government. King Rich. 2. made it a County incorpo∣rate, and Rich. 3. began to raise a new Castle in it from the ground. That nothing might be wanting, in the last age K. Hen. 8. established a Council or Senate here, not unlike the Parliaments in France,* who were to judge of all suits arising within these northern parts, and to decide them by the rules of right and equity. This Court consists of a Presi∣dent, and what number of Counsellors the King pleases, with a Secretary and under-Officers. Our Mathematicians have defined the Longitude of York to be 22 deg. and 25 scr. the Latitude 54 degr. and 10 scr.
Thus far we have been describing the west part of this County, and the City of York, which neither belongs to this nor any other part of the Shire, but enjoys its own Liberties, and a jurisdiction over the neighbourhood on the west-side, called the liberty of Ansty:* which some derive from Ancienty, to denote its antiquity; others more plausibly from the Ger∣man word Anstossen, implying a bound or limit. I will conclude what I have said of this City with these verses written by J. Jonston of Aberdeen not long since.
The Ouse being past York, begins to be disturb'd with eddies, or that whirl of waters which we call Higra, and so marches by Bishops-Thorp,* that is, the Bishop's Village; formerly called S. Andrew's Thorpe, till Walter Grey Archbishop of York purchased it; and, to bilk the King's Officers (who are always ready to seise the Temporalities of Bishops when a See is vacant) gave it to the Dean and Chapter of York, upon condition they should always yield it to his successors. Of whom, Richard le Scrope, Arch-bishop of York (a hot man, and still hankering after novelty and change) was in this very place condemn∣ed of high treason by King Henry the fourth for his seditious practices [oo]. [ 1405] Upon the same river stands Cawood,* the castle of the Archbishops, which King Athelstan gave to the Church, as I have been told. Over against it, on the other side the river, is seated Rical, where Harold Haardread arrived with a nume∣rous fleet of the Danes. From hence the Ouse runs to Selby, a pretty populous little town, and remark∣able for Henry the first's being born in it. Here William the first, his father, built a Church in me∣mory of St. German, who quash'd the Pelagian He∣resie, notwithstanding like a Hydra, it had frequent∣ly revived and struggl'd for life, here in Britain. The Abbots of this, and of St. Maries at York, were the only Abbots of these northern parts that could sit in Parliament [pp]. At last the Ouse runs directly to the Humber14, passing in it's way by Drax,* a little village, formerly famous for a Monastery15, where Philip de Tollevilla (William Newbrigensis is my Author) had a castle strongly situated in the midst of rivers, woods, and marshes; and defended it against K. Ste∣phen, relying on the courage of his men, and the great store of arms and provisions in the place: how∣ever, it was soon reduced into the King's power [qq].
ADDITIONS to the West-riding of YORKSHIRE.
YORKSHIRE (without any angular ad∣vantages) extends into a square of four∣score and ten miles,* adequate in all its dimensions to the Dukedom of W•rtenberg in Germany.
[a] Following the river Don, we first come to Wortley:* the Issue-male of the family of which name expir'd in Sir Francis Wortley,† who devis'd the great∣est part of his estate to Anne Newcomen, supposed to be his natural daughter, the present wife of the Ho∣nourable Sidney Wortley Esq (‖ second son of Edward Mountague Earl of Sandwich, slain in the Dutch wars 28 May, 1672.) who in right of his said wife is Lord of Wortley.
[b] Not far from hence is Wentworth.* Of the fa∣mily of that name and place, was the Right Honou∣rable Thomas Viscount Wentworth, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, created Earl of Strafford 15 Car. 1. and Knight of the most noble order of the Garter: who being beheaded on Tower-hill 12 May, 1641. lyeth here interr'd, and was succeeded in his Honours by his son William the present E. of Strafford, and Knight of the said noble Order.
[c] The Don carries us next to Sheafield,* the Staple∣town for Knives, and has been so these three hun∣dred years. Witness that Verse of Chaucer's,
Before the river Don comes to Rotheram, it passes close by a fair Roman fortification, call'd Temple-Brough.* The North-east corner of it is worn away by the river: the area is about 200 paces long, and 120 broad, besides the agger; and without it is a very large Trench, •37. paces deep from the middle of the Rampire to the bottom. On the outside of it is another large bench, upon which are huge trees; and upon the side of the bench of the high-way, there grew a Chesnut-tree, that had scarce any bark upon it, but only upon some top-branches, which bore leaves. It was not tall; but the Bole could scarcely be fa∣thom'd by three men.
On the North-side of the river, over aginst Temple∣brough, is a high Hill call'd Winco-bank,* from which a large bank is continu'd without interruption almost five miles; being in one place call'd Danes-bank. And about a quarter of a mile South from Kemp-bank (over which this Bank runs) there is another agger, which runs parallel with that from a place call'd Birchwood, running towards Mexburgh, and termina∣ting within half a mile of its West-end; as Kemp-bank runs by Swinton to Mexburg more North.
[d] Below, upon the same river, lyes Rothe∣ram,* famous as for the birth of Thomas Rotheram so also for that of the learned and judicious Dr. Robert Sanderson, late Bishop of Lincoln. Near which is Thribergh, the Seat of Sir William Reresby,* Baro∣net.
[e] Not far from hence is Connisborough**, the birth-place of Richard Plantagene: Duke of York, grandson to King Edward 3. and grandfather to King Edw 4. who tampering too soon for the Crown, was beheaded by King Henry 5. The Castle here hath been a large strong built Pile, whereof the out-walls are sta•ding, situate on a pleasant ascent f•om the river, but m•ch over-topp'd by a high hill on which the town stands. Before the gate is an agger, by tradition said to be the burying place of Hengist. In the Church-yard, un∣der the wall, lyes a very ancient stone of blue mar∣ble, with antique figures upon it; one representing a man with a target encount•ing a vast winged Serpent, with a man bearing a target behind him. It is ridg'd like a Coffin, on which is engraven a man on horse∣back, curiously cut, but very ancient.
[g] Going along with the river,* we come to Don∣caster, where in St. George's Church, the only one in the town, is interr'd Thomas Ellis, five times Mayor, and a Benefactor, founder of an Hospital call'd St. Thomas the Apostle: and one Byrks that gave Rossing∣ton-wood to the publick, with this uncouth Inscrip∣tion upon his Tomb. Howe. Howe. Who is heare, I Robin of Doncastere and Margaret my feare, that I spent that I had, that I gave that I have, that I left that I lost. A. D. 1579. Quoth Robertus Byrkes, who in this world did reign threescore years and seven, and yet lived not one.
This place, since our Author's time, hath afford∣ed the title of Viscount to James Hay Baron of Sau∣ley, created 16 Jac. 1. and afterwards in the 20th year of the same King, made Earl of Carlisle, and was succeeded in his estate and titles by James his son, who dy'd without issue. Whereupon, in the 15th of Car. 2. James Fitz-Roy Baron of Tindale, was created Earl of Doncaster, and Duke of Monmouth.
[h] Thence Done runneth by Wh•atley,* the Seat of Sir George Cook Baronet, whose uncle Bryan Co•k E•• gave by Will A. 1660. the whole Rectory of Ark••y to five Trustees for the payment of so much to the Vicar there, as with his ancient stipend of 12 l. 13 s. 4 d. will amount to 100 l. per Ann. He gave also 40 l. per An. to a School-master to instruct the poor of the Parish, and 60 l. for the building of a Hospital for twelve of the ancientest poor, which receive each 5 l. per An. His brother Sir George Cook Baronet, gave by Will (1683.) 200 l. and two Cottages for building of a fair School-house.
Scarce two miles from Arksey,* lyes Adwick in the street, memorable on this account, that Mrs. Anne Sa∣vill (a Virgin Benefactor yet living) daughter of John Savill of Medley Esq purchas'd the Rectory thereof, for which she gave about 900 l. and has settl'd it in the hands of Trustees for the use of the Church for ever: and this from a generous and pi∣ous principle, upon the reading of Sir Henry Spelman's noted Treatise, De non temerandis Ecclesiis. Mr. Joshua Page [unnumbered] Brook, the present Incumbent, has erected this In∣scription over the door of the Parsonage-house, built from the foundation at his own charge: Rectoria de Adwick accessit Clero ex donatione Dnae Annae Savile ex prosapiâ Savillorum de M•thley oriundae.
[i] The next place of note is Hatfield-chace, where Cadwallin King of the Britains (the* printed Bede calls him Carduella, but Ceadwalla seems to be the right, as it is in a MS. Bede now in the hands of Mr. Thoresby of Leeds) with Penda Pagan King of Mercia, in a bloody battel slew Edwyn, the first Chri∣stian King of Northumberland, and Prince Offride his eldest son in the year 633. Here are many Firr-trees found in the ground: and here was also the birth place of Prince William, second son of K. Ed. 3. A. 1335. which the rather deserves our mention, because by most Historians, it is misplac'd at Hatfield in Hertfordshire; but that it is an errour, plainly appears by the Rolls, which tell us that Queen Philippa gave 5 marks per An. to the neighbouring Abbot of Roch, and 5 nobles to the Monks there, to pray for the soul of this her son William de Hatfield, which summs are transferr'd to the Church of York, where he was buried, and are to this day paid by the Earl of Devonshire to the Bishop, and Dean and Chapter of York▪ out of the Impro∣priation of the Rectory of Hatfield. Near the town are many entrenchments, as if some great army had been there encampt. 'Tis said that no Rats have ever been seen in this town; nor any Sparrows at a place call'd Lindham, in the Moors below it; tho' it is a good earth for corn or pasture, but encompast with a morass.
*[k] Near the confluence of Don and Are, is Cowick, the pleasant Seat of the ancient family of the Dawneys (which name occurs frequently amongst the Sheriffs of this County) of which Sir John Dawney was by King Charles 2. advanc'd to the degree of Viscount Downe in the Kingdom of Ireland.
*[l] Not far from Nosthill is Hemsworth, where Robert Holgate Arch-bishop of York (depriv'd in the first of Queen Mary for being marry'd) did An. 1544. found an Hospital for ten poor aged men, and as many wo∣men, who have each about 10 l. per An. and the Ma∣ster who is to read Prayers to them, betwixt 50 and 60 l. per An. He was likewise a Benefactor to, if not Founder of, the School there.
*The Levels or Marshes mention'd by our Author, especially eastward, and north-east of Thorn (a mar∣ket town) are generally a Turf-moor; in other pla∣ces intermix'd with arable and pasture grounds. By reason of the many Meres, it was formerly well-stor'd with f esh-water fish (especially Eels) and Fowl. But in the reign of King Charles 1. several Gentlemen undertook to drain this morish and fenny country, by drawing some large rivers, with other smaller cuts. There is an angle cut from about Thorne to Gowle, which is ten miles in length, and extraordinary broad. As to what our Author observes of the ground being heav'd up, Dr. Johnston affirms he has spoke with several old men, who told him, that the Turf-moor betwixt Thorn and Gowle was so much higher before the draining (especially in winter-time) than they are now; that before, they could see little of the Church-steeple, whereas now they can see the Church-yard wall.
Under the Turf-earth and other grounds, from one yard to two yards deep, are frequently dug up great quantities of firr-wood, and some oaks: the wood of the latter being very black. At low water, the foresaid learned Doctor has often observ'd in the great cut to Gowle-sluce, several roots of trees; some very large standing upright, others inclining to the east: some of the trees have been found lying along with their roots fasten'd, others seem'd as if cut or burnt, and broke off from the roots. Upon the dig∣ging of these large rivers, there were found gates, lad∣ders, hammers, shoes, nuts, &c. and the land in some places was observ'd to lay in ridges and furrows, as if it had been plow'd. Under some part of the Turf-more, firm earth was found; but in other places nothing but sand.
About thirty years since they met with the entire body of a man at the bottom of a Turf-pit, about four yards deep, with his head northward, his hair and nails not decay'd. Dr. Johns••on has the hand, and the arm to the elbow; who by laying it in warm water, softned it so (tho' otherwise like tann'd lea∣ther) that he took out the bones, which were spun∣gy. 'Tis said that in the cut-river to Gowle, there was found a Roman Coyn, either of Domitian or Trajan.
[m] After the river Don, our next direction is the river Calder, near which lyes Bradley,* famous for the nativity of Sir Henry Savil (brother to Sir John, men∣tion'd by Mr. Camden) Warden of Merton-College, and Provost of Eaton, the noble editor of St. Chryso∣stome.
[n] At some distance from this river is Halifax,* to which town and parish Mr. Nathaniel Waterhouse, by Will dated the first of July 1642. was an eminent Benefactor†, by providing an House for the Lecturer, an Hospital for 12 aged poor, and a Work-house for 20 children (the Overseer whereof is to have 45 l. per An.) and a yearly Salary to the preaching Mini∣sters of the 12 Chapelries, which, with moneys for repair of the banks, amounts to 300 l. per Ann. Brian Crowther Clothier, gave also 10 l. per An. to the poor, and 20 l. per An. to the Free-school of Queen Elizabeth in the Vicarage of Halifax. In this Church is interr'd the heart of William Rokeby (of the Rokebys of Kirk-Sandal by Doncaster, where he was born) Vicar of Halifax, and person of Sandall, afterwards Bishop of Meath and Arch-bi•hop of Dublin, where dying the 29th of Nov. 1521. he order'd his bowels to be bury'd at Dublin, his heart at Halifax, and his body at San∣dall, and over each a Chapel to be built; which was perform'd accordingly.
The vast growth and increase of this town may be guess'd at from this instance, which appears in a MS. of Mr. John Brearcliff's, of one John Waterhouse Esq born An. 1443. He was Lord of the Manour, and liv'd nigh a hundred years; in the beginning of whose time, there were in Halifax but 13 houses, which in 123 years were increas'd to above 520 house∣holders that kept fires, and answer'd the Vicar An. 1566.
It is honour'd by giving title to the Right Honou∣rable George Lord Savile of Eland, Earl and Mar∣quiss of Halifax: and with the nativity of Dr. John Tillotson, Arch-bishop of Canterbury. So that this West-riding of Yorkshire has the honour of both the Metropolitans of our Nation, Dr. John Sharp Arch∣bishop of York, being born in the neighbouring town and contiguous parish of Bradford; where Mr. Peter Sunderland (of an ancient family at High-Sunderland nigh Halifax) besides other benefactions, founded a Lecture, and endow'd it with 40 l. per An.
But nothing is more remarkable than their me∣thods of proceeding against Felons;* which in short was this: That if a Felon was taken within the Li∣berty with Goods stoln out of the Liberties or Pre∣cincts of the Forest of Hardwick, he should after three Markets or Meeting-days within the town of Halifax, next after his apprehension, be taken to the Gibbet there, and have his head cut off from his body. But then the fact must be certain; for he must either be taken hand-habend, i.e. having his hand in, or being in the very act of stealing; or back-berond, i.e. having the thing stoln either upon his back, or somewhere about him, without giving any probable account how he came by it; or lastly confesson'd, owning that he stole the thing for which he was accused.
The cause therefore must be only theft, and that manner of theft only which is call'd furtum manifestum, grounded upon some of the foresaid evidences. The value of the thing stoln must likewise amount to a∣bove 13 d. ob. for if the value was found only so much, and no more, by this Custom he should not dye for it.
He was first brought before the Bailiff of Halifax, who presently summon'd the Frithborgers within the several Towns of the Forest; and being found guil∣ty, within a week was brought to the Scaffold. The Ax was drawn up by a pulley, and fasten'd with a pin to the side of the Scaffold. If it was an horse, an ox, or any other creature, that was stoln; it was brought along Page [unnumbered] with him to the place of execution, and fasten'd to the cord by a pin that stay'd the block. So that when the time of execution came (which was known by the Jurors holding up one of their hands) the Bailiff or his Servant whipping the beast, the pin was pluckt out, and execution done. But if it was not done by a beast, then the Bailiff or his Servant cut the rope.
But the manner of execution will be better appre∣hended by the following draught of it.
- A A. The Scaffold.
- B. The piece of wood wherein the Axe is fix'd.
- C. The Axe.
- D. The Pulley by which the Axe is drawn up.
- E. The Malefactor who lyes to be beheaded.
- F. The pin to which the Rope is ty'd that draws up the Axe.
[o] On the other side of the Calder, is Cambodu∣num,* which probably was built most of wood, there being no manner of appearance of stone or brick. The fire that burnt it down seems to have been ex∣ceeding vehement, from the cinders which are strangely solder'd together. One lump was found of above 2 foot every way, the earth being melted rather than burnt. But Mr. Camden's guess at a burning there from the blackness of the stones in the buildings, is groundless: for the edges of them are so in the Quar∣ry which is half a mile off; and so deep, that for fire to reach them there, is impossible.
[p] Next, the Calder goes to Wakefield,* where by the noble charity of the pious Lady Campden, is a weekly Lecture, endow'd with fourscore pounds per An. The other (for she left three thousand pounds to Trustees for the founding two Lectures in the north of England) is at Grantham. Upon the light hand of the high-way leading from Wakefield to Sandal, there is a small square plot of ground hedg'd in from a Close, within which (before the war between K. Charles and the Parliament) there stood a Cross of stone, where Richard Duke of York was slain. The owners are oblig'd by the tenure of the land to hedge it in from the Close. The carved work of stone upon the Chapel, built by King Edward 4. on the bridge, hath been very beautiful, but is now much defac'd. The whole structure is artificially wrought about ten yards long and six broad.
*At some distance from hence is Darton of the Beau∣monts, of which Mr. George Beaumont a Merchant left 500 l. for the founding a Free-school in this place of his nativity, as much to poor Ministers, 150 l. to the poor of London, 50 l. to York, 30 l. to Hull, with a considerable estate amongst his relations.
Farther from the Calder, lyes Burton-grange,* where the no less religious than honourable Lady Mary Tal∣bot, second daughter and coheir of Henry Talbot, fourth son of the illustrious George Talbot Earl of Shrewsbury, erected an Hospital for six poor widows, each of which have 40 s. and a Gown every year. She built also and endow'd two other Hospitals in other Counties during her life, and at her death (An. 1675.) left 40 l. per An. for 99 years, to be put to such like uses.
More to the south is Stainbrough,* where Henry Ed∣munds Esq has generously built a good house for the Minister; and Mr. Walker, late Master of Univer∣sity-College, has annex'd a Library to the school.
Two miles from Howley is Drighlington,* memora∣ble only for the nativity of Dr. James Margetson late Archbishop of Armagh, who founded here a school, and endow'd it with 60 l. per An.
[q] The river Are, our next guide, runs to Skip∣ton,* where lye interr'd several of the Cliffords, parti∣cularly, George third Earl of Cumberland, honour'd with the Garter by Queen Elizabeth, and famous for his sea-services, performing* nine Voyages in his own person, most of them to the West-Indies, being the best born Englishman that ever hazarded himself in that kind. He died 30 Oct. 1605. leaving one only daughter Anne, Countess of Pembroke, Dorset, and Montgomery, an eminent benefactor, born 30 Jan. 1589/90. at Skipton-Castle in Yorkshire, wherein I am the more particular, because Dr. Fuller in his Wor∣thies (Com. West. p. 140.) out of a mistake, says 'twas in Hertfordshire. She built from the ground, or considerably repair'd, six ancient Castles; one of which, Brough, had lain 140 years desolate after the fire had consum'd it, An. 1520. Another,*Pendragon-castle (of which our Author tells us, nothing remain'd in his time but the bare name and an heap of stones,) 320 years after the invading Scots, under their King David, had wasted it An. 1341. She built also seven Chapels or Churches, with two stately Hospitals richly endow'd; and died 22 March A. D. 1675. This Country (Craven) hath given the title of Earl to William Craven, Baron of Hampsted Marshal, created Earl of Craven Mari 16. An. 16 Car. 2.
From hence the Are passeth by Thornton, the seat of Richard Thornton Esq, to Rawdon,* famous for Sir George Rawdon, a most accomplish'd person, who with 200, or fewer British, most valiantly repulsed Sir Philim o Neile, at the head of an army of about 7000 rebels assault∣ing Lisnegarvy (now Lisburn) in Ireland, in that grand massacre 1641. wherein thousands of Protestants were most cruelly murder'd. There now resideth Henry (son of Francis) Layton Esquire; who, in pursuance of his said father's will, has built there, and endow'd with 20 l. per an. a Chapel, which was consecrated by Archbishop Dolben, 4 May 1684.
[r] Upon the same river is Leeds,* (possibly from the Saxon Leod, gens, natio; implying it to have been very populous in the Saxon times;) which town and parish King Charles 1. by Letters Patents 13 July, second of his reign, incorporated under the govern∣ment of one chief Alderman, nine Burgesses, and twenty Assistants; Sir John Savil, afterwards Lord Savil, being the first Alderman, and his office execu∣ted by John Harrison Esquire, a most noble benefa∣ctor, and a pattern to succeeding ages. 1. He found∣ed a Hospital for relief of indigent persons of good conversation, and formerly industrious; which he endowed with 80 l. per an. and a Chapel, endowed with 10 l. per an. for a Master to read Prayers, and to instruct them. 2. He built the Free-school (to which Godfrey Lawson Esquire, Mayor of the Bur∣rough of Leeds An. 1669. has added a Library) pla∣ced it upon his own ground, and enclos'd it with a beautiful wall. 3. He built a most noble Church, dedicated to S. John the Evangelist, and endowed it with 80 l. per an. with 10 l. per an. to keep it in re∣pair; and provided a house for the Minister. 4. He erected a stately Cross for the conveniency of the market. When his estate was almost exhausted in acts of charity, he left the remainder for relief of Page 729-730 such of his relations as by the frowns of the world should unhappily be reduced to poverty, bequeath∣ing 30 l. per an. to be managed by four Trustees, to put out the males to trades, and to prefer the females in marriage. And as these are instances of his cha∣rity, so in a Codicil annex'd to his Will, there is a fair testimony of his strict justice and integrity. Whereas I heretofore bought of Richard Falkingham Esq divers lands and tenements, part of which I endow'd the New Church withal, and part I since sold to several per∣sons for a good sum of money more than I purchas'd the same for, I thought my self bound to bestow upon the eldest son of John Green, and the eldest son of John Hamerton, who marry'd the coheirs of the said Richard Falkingham, the surplus of all such moneys as I sold the lands for, over and above what indeed they cost me: together with a large addition thereunto: the product of the whole sum amounting to 1600 l. which upon a strict esti∣mate of his whole estate, appears to be a full half.
He was baptiz'd in S. Peter's Church at Leeds, the 16. of Aug. 1579. was chief Alderman 1626. and again 1634. in which year the new Church of his own foundation was consecrated 21. Sept. by Richard Neile; then Archbishop of York. He dy'd Oct. 29. A. D. 1656. aet. 77. and lyes interr'd under an Altar-tomb of black marble in the said Church; over which is the well-painted effigies of this Benefactor (in his sca••et-gown,) the gift of the reverend Mr. Henry Rob•nson, the present incumbent, who is per∣haps the single instance of one that enjoys a Church both founded and endow'd by his own Uncle, and from whom there is a fair and near prospect of some exemplary act of publick piety.
By a second Patent, bearing date 2. Nov. 13 Car. 2. the government of Leeds was alter'd to a Mayor, 12 Aldermen, and 24 Assistants. This place is now ho∣nour'd by giving the title of Duke to the right ho∣nourable Thomas Lord Marquis of Caermarthen, President of their Majesties Council.
*[s] From Leeds, Are passeth by Temple Newsome, of old a Commandary belonging to the Knights Tem∣plars, now the seat of the right honourable Arthur Ingram, Lord Viscount Irwing in the Kingdom of Scotland.
*[t] Near the confluence of Are and Calder is Castle∣ford, a history whereof, Thomas de Castleford (who was bred a Benedictine in Pontfract, and flourish'd An. 1326.) wrote,* from Ask a Saxon, first owner thereof, to the Lacies, from whom that large Lord∣ship descended to the Earls of Lancaster.
*Not far from hence is Ledston-Hall, formerly the seat of the ancient family of the Withams, but late of Sir John Lewis Baronet, who having got a vast estate during his nine years factorship for the East-India-Company (much augmented by the Jewels presented him by the King of Persia, who much delighted in his company) dy'd here without issue-male, 14. Aug. 1671. He erected a curious Hospital (which cost 400 l. building) and endow'd it with 60 l. per an. for the yearly maintenance of 10 aged poor people, who by his Will are requir'd religiously to observe the Sabbath-day, and to be present at Church in time of Divine-Service and Sermon.
[u] The occasion upon which Polydore Virgil and our Author say Pontefract had its name, is by Dr. Johnston observ'd to be altogether inconsistent with the Records of the place, especially in point of time. At first it was call'd Kirkby: for in the Charter made by Robert de Lacy son of Hildebert to the Monks of St. John the Evangelist, they are stil'd De dominio suo de Kirkby;* and this he says, he did by advice of T. Archbishop of York. Yet the same Robert by ano∣ther Charter (to which are the same witnesses, ex∣cept that T. Archbishop of York is added) confirms other Lands and Churches Deo & S. Johanni & Mo∣nachis meis de Pontefract. So that by this account, it is plain that in the time of T. Archbishop of York, it had both the names of Kirkby and Pontefract. Now this T. could be no other than the first Thomas, who came to the Archbishoprick about the eighth of the Conquerour, and continu'd in it till about the begin∣ning of Henry 1. whom he crown'd, and soon after dy'd. For Robert, who granted these Charters, was banish'd in the 6. of Hen. 1. for being at the battel of Tenercebray on behalf of Robert Duke of Normandy against K. Henry, and dy'd the year after; which was before any other Archbishop succeeded in that See, to whose name the initial T. will agree. Thomas the second indeed came presently after (An. 1109.) but this S. William (to whom the miracle is attributed) was not possess'd of it before 1153. From which it is evident, that the town was call'd Pontefract at least 52 years before the miracle; and how much longer, we know not.
Below the Church and a water-mill (call'd Bon∣gate-mill) there is a level ground nam'd the Wash, the road from Pontefract to Knottingley, and the directest way from Doncaster to Castleford. By this Wash the current of waters flowing from the springs above and supplying two mills, passes into the river at Knotting∣ley. But it retains not that name above a large bow-shot, being terminated by a place called Bubwith-houses, where, by an Inquisition taken in the reign of Edw. 2. it appears that one John Bubwith held the eighteenth part of a Knights fee juxta veterem pontem de Pontefract, i.e. near the old bridge of Pontefract. Which must have been over this Wash; as will be made more probable, if we consider that even now upon any violent rains, or the melting of snow, it is so overflow'd as to be scarce passable; and that for∣merly, before the conveyance of the waters into cha∣nels to serve the mills, and the dreins made from hence to Knottingley, the passage must have been much more difficult, and by consequence the rather requir'd a bridge. So then, the probability of a bridge over this Wash, the Record making the Pons de Pontefract to be near Bubwith-houses hard by, and there appear∣ing no necessity of a bridge in any other part of the town; it follows, that the bridge which was broken must have been here. And the occasion of it being, no doubt, very considerable, it was natural enough for the Norman Lords (who knew what numbers of places took their name from Bridges in their own country) to lay hold upon this opportunity of chan∣ging the name; especially when that former one of Kirkby, upon the building of more Churches round it, grew less emphatical, and less distinguishing.
Whether the Castle was first built by Alric the Sa∣xon, or by Hildebert, does not appear.* In the histo∣ry of the Lacies indeed, the latter is said to have caus'd a Chapel to be erected in the Castle of Pontfract, which he had built. But since it's being demolish'd of late years (among several others throughout Eng∣land,) 'tis observ'd that the round-tower stood upon a rais'd hill of very hard stiff clay: which looks as if it had been of those sort of fortifications the Saxons call'd Keeps; and might from a fortification of earth be built of stone by the said Hildebert.
[w] Next is Shirburn,* now chiefly famous for the benefaction of Robert Hungale Esquire, a most zealous Protestant, who by Will ordain'd the erection of an Hospital and School, with convenient Lodgings, &c. for 24 Orphans, who have each 5 l. per an. allow'd for their maintenance there from 7 to 15 years of age, and then a provision for binding them Apprentices, or sending them to the University; which, with 30 l. per an. to the Master (who is also to catechize them,) 20 marks for the Usher, and as much to a man and his wife for making suitable provisions of meat and appa∣rel for the Orphans, and 40 marks per an. for 4 poor scholars in S. John's Coll. Cambridge, &c. amounts to 250 l. per an.
[x] Not far from hence is Haslewood,* which has a pleasant prospect; the two Cathedrals of York and Lincoln, 60 miles asunder, may thence be discover'd. The Country within 10 miles, Dr. Tonstal Bishop of Durham affirm'd to King Hen. 8. (when he made his progress to York, An. 1548.) to be the richest valley that ever he found in all his travels through Europe, there being 165 manour-houses of Lords, Knights, and Gentlemen of the best quality, 275 several woods, (whereof some contain 500 acres) 32 parks, and 2 cha∣ses of deer; 120 rivers and brooks, whereof 5 are na∣vigable, well-stor'd with Salmon and other fish, 76 water-mills for corn, 25 cole-mines, 3 forges for ma∣king of iron, and stone enough for the same; within Page 731-732 those limits also as much sport and pleasure for hunt∣ing, hawking, fishing, and fowling, as in any place of England besides.
[y] The river Wherf is the next in this Riding; upon the banks of it stands Burnsall,* where Sir Wil∣liam Craven not only built a School, but endow'd it. He built also a Church there, and encompass'd it with a wall that cost 600 l. He built in all four Bridges, one of which cost 500 l. another 250 l. and a Cause-way that cost 200 l. He gave 1000 l. to Christ's Hospital in London, and the Royalties of Creek, with the perpetual donation of the Parsonage to St. John's College in Oxford. William, his eldest Son, much affecting Military Discipline, was sent to the wars of Germany under Gustavus Adolphus, the famous King of Sweden, and after into the Netherlands under Hen∣ry Prince of Orange by King Charles 1. who also advanc'd him to the dignity of a Baron by the title of Lord Craven of Hamsted; and 16 Car. 2. he was dignify'd with the title of Viscount Craven of Uffing∣ton in Berkshire, and Earl of Craven in York∣shire.
[z] The Wherf goes from hence to Bolton,* now honour'd by giving title of Duke to the Right Noble Charles Pawlet Marquiss of Winchester, and Duke of Bolton.
[aa] Next, to Ilkley,* which Mr. Camden proves from an Altar to have been the Seat of the second Cohort of the Lingones; but it seems rather to have been that of the first Cohort, the last line of that Inscription being not II LINGON. but P. LINGON. in the original, as appears from Mr. John Thoresby's Papers late of Leeds, an eminent Antiquary, who accurately transcrib'd it, being very critical in his observations upon Inscripti∣ons and original coins, of which he had a valuable Col∣lection, besides his own having purchas'd those of the Reverend Mr. Stonehouse, and the Right Honourable Thomas Lord Fairfax. This Musaeum is very much im∣prov'd, and still growing, by the curiosity and indu∣stry of Mr. Ralph Thoresby, an excellent Antiquary, who has a great variety of Manuscripts, with other Curiosities, and possibly the best Collection of Coyns (particularly Roman and Saxon) that is in the King∣dom.
The original Altar, mention'd by Mr. Camden is remov'd to Stubham;* the new one erected at Ilkley, has this Inscription added upon the Reverse:
ARM: ME: FECIT AD
QVISS: LAPIDIS HIC
[bb] At some distance from hence is Bramhope,* the Seat of the ancient family of the Dinelys; of which, Robert Dinely Esq (lately deceas'd in a good old age, having seen four generations of most of the neighbouring nobility and gentry) erected a Chapel with a competent endowment.
[cc] And upon the Wherf is Harewood-castle,* reduc'd to a skeleton in the late Civil-wars. In the Church are several curious Monuments for the owners of it, and the Gascoyns, of whom, the famous Judge Sir William Gascoyne, is the most memorable, for com∣mitting the Prince (afterwards King Henry 5.) pri∣soner to the King's Bench, till his Father's pleasure was known; who being inform'd of it, gave God thanks that at the same instant had given him a Judge who could administer, and a son who could obe• justice. He was made Judge A. D. 1401. and dy'd 17 Dec. 1412. as appears by their Pedigree curiously drawn by that accomplish'd Antiquary Mr. Richard Gascoyne; and is the rather mention'd, because most Histories are either deficient, or mistaken therein.
[dd] Thence Wherf passeth by Wighill,* the Seat of an ancient family of the Stapletons, of which, Sir Ro∣bert being Sheriff 23 Eliz. met the Judges with seven∣score men in suitable Liveries. For a person well-spoken, comely, and skill'd in the Languages, he had scarce an equal (except Sir Philip Sidney) and no su∣periour in England.
Not far from it is Helaugh-manour,* which belongs to the honourable and ancient family of the Whartons, in the Church whereof is the Monument of Sir Tho∣mas Wharton, Lord Warden of the West-marches, who gave so great a defeat to the Scots at Solemn-moss, A. 1542. Nov. 24. that their King, James the fifth, soon after dy'd for grief. With 300. men, he not only defeated their Army, but took* above a thousand prisoners, for which good service he receiv'd several marks of ho∣nour. At Kirkby-Stephen he founded and endow'd a Free-school.
[ee] Lower down upon the river is Tadcaster,* where Dr. Owen Oglethorp (a native of Newton-Kime) Bishop of Carlisle, who crown'd Queen Elizabeth (the See of Canterbury being then void, and York refusing it,) founded a Free-school, and endow'd it with 40 l. per An. as also an Hospital for twelve poor people with good revenues. Here our Antiquary settles the Roman Calcaria,† tho' Mr. Dodsworth pla∣ces it at Newton-Kime in the Water-fields, near S. He∣len's-ford: for many Roman coyns have been plow'd up there; particularly of Constantius, Helena, and Con∣stantine; also an urn or box of Alabaster with only ashes in it: melted lead; Rings, one whereof had a Key of the same piece joyn'd with it. Dr. Johnston agrees with him; and Mr. Henry Fairfax, a very learn∣ed Antiquary, was of the same opinion; who, among many other coyns dug up here, was possest of one with this Inscription, DOMITIANVS CALCA∣RAVCI, and on the Reverse, He is on horse-back sub∣scrib'd COS. VI. which he imagin'd might be coyn'd here by Julius Agricola, about the year of Christ 85. when he was Propraetor in Britain. Add to this, that the Inhabitants call them Langborrow-pennies; which should seem to point out to us some large Town or Burrow.
And as the Coyns, so the Roman High way makes for this opinion. For it goes directly to Roadgate and crosses the river Wharfe at St. Helensford, undoubtedly so call'd from Helena mother of Constantine the Great. And the passage from that to York, is firmer ground by much than that from Tadcaster; which would hardly be passable, were it not for the Causey made over the Common between Tadcaster and Bilburgh. Now this Ford dividing the Roman Agger, may give one just reason to expect a Roman City or Station ra∣ther near this than any other place. Nor ought it to be objected, that there is at present no passage: for it had formerly a bridge of wood, the sills whereof yet remain; but when that was broken down, and the Wharf was not fordable, they found a way by Wetherby.
Nor is there any thing our Author has said in fa∣vour of Tadcaster, but what is equally, if not more ap∣plicable to Newton-Kyme. The distance holds more exactly; the hill call'd Kelc-bar is at Smawe, which is nearer Newton than Tadcaster. And as to Heina, who remov'd to Calca-cester; 'tis possible enough there might in those early times be a Religious House con∣secrated to the memory of the pious Helena, about St. Helen's-ford. At Calcaria liv'd also Adaman (who was afterward Abbot of Hue, or Huensis, and dy'd Oct. 23. An. 704.) of whose name there seem to be some remains, in that place at Newton-Kyme call'd Adaman-grove.
The present name (which carries in it something of modern) ought not to be any prejudice to it. For since it is back'd with such infallible proofs of Anti∣quity; this conclusion is very natural, that it was call'd New-town, when new buildings began to be erected upon the foundations of the old town.
[ff] Let us next betake our seves to the river Nid, upon which stands Ripley,* the birth-place of Sir George Ripley, famous for his study after the Philosopher's stone; whom I the rather mention, because by Dr. Hol∣land, in an unwarrantable interpolation, he is falsly plac'd at Ripley in Surrey.
[gg] From hence the Nid carries us to Knares∣brough,* the Castle whereof is now demolish'd; so that 'tis chiefly famous for four medicinal Springs nigh un∣to it; and possibly all England cannot produce a place that may truly boast of four so near in situation, and yet of a very different operation. 1. The Sweet-spawPage 733-734 or Vitrioline-well, discover'd by Mr. Slingsby about the year 1620. 2. The Stinking or Sulphur-well, said to cure the Dropsie, Spleen, Scurvy, Gout, &c. so that what formerly was call'd Dedecus Medicinae, may be call'd Decus Fontis Knaresburgensis, the late way of ba∣thing being esteem'd very soveraign. 3. St. Mongahs (not Magnus, amangus, mungus or mugnus, as frequently miscall'd) or Kentigern's, a Scotish Saint, much honour'd in these parts; whom his Tutor Servanus Bishop of Orkney, lov'd beyond others, and us'd to call him Mon∣gah‖, in the Norish tongue, a dear friend.
In the Church there (i.e. at Copgrave) is a memo∣rable Epitaph for John Wincupp Rector thereof for 54 years,* pious, charitable and peaceable, never su'd any, nor was su'd, liv'd 52 years with his wife, had six children, and a numerous family (boarding and teaching many of the Gentry) out of which not one dy'd in all that time; himself was the first 8 July, A. D. 1637. aetat. 86. In the first particular he was far out-done by his Country-man Mr. Moore, the good old Puritanical Minister, who was Rector of Guiseley 63 years.
Two miles Northward, Sir Edward Blacket has built a most noble Hall, with delicate Gardens adorn'd with statues.
The fourth Medicinal Spring is call'd the Dropping-well,* the most famous of all the petrifying Wells in England; and the ground upon which it drops from the spungy porous rock above twelve yards long, is all become a solid Rock; from whence it runs into Nid, where the spring-water has made a rock, that stretches some yards into the river. Yet it must be confess'd to fall short of that stupendous Spring at Clar∣mont in Auverne, a Province in France, where the Lapidescent is so strong, that it turns all its substance into stone, and being put into a glass will turn present∣ly into a stone of the same form. And*Petrus Jo∣annes Faber, a French Physician, reports, that they make bridges of it to pass into their gardens over the rivulet that comes from it: for by placing timber, and then pumping up the water upon it, they have a com∣plete stone-bridge in 24 hours.
Nor must Robert's Chapel* be forgot, being a Cell hewn out of an entire Rock, part of which is form'd into an Altar which yet remains, and three heads, which (according to the devotion of that age) might be design'd for the Holy Trinity. The said Robert Foun∣der of the Order of the Robertines, was the son of one Flower, who was twice Mayor of York;† where he was born, and forsaking his fair Lands, betook him∣self to a solitary life among the Rocks here, where he dy'd about the year 1216.
Upon the adjoyning Forest, was lately found a large stately Medal inscrib'd, JO. KENDAL. RHODI TVRCVPELLERIVS. Rev. TEMPORE OBSIDIONIS TVRCHORVM. MCCCCLXXX. ✚. Which is the more remarkable, because it ex∣presseth the presence of our Country-man Kendall (with his image and arms) in that famous siege of Rhodes, when the great Mahomet was worsted. It is now in the hands of Mr. Ralph Thoresby of Leeds.
East from Knaresbrough stands Ribston-hall,* the plea∣sant Seat of the Right Honourable Sir Henry Good∣rick Baronet, Ambassadour from King Charles the second to the King of Spain, now Privy-Councellor and Lieutenant of the Ordnance of the Tower of London.
[hh] Another river call'd Ure must be our next direction, carrying us to Rippon,* where in the Min∣ster-yard is this modest Inscription for a two thou∣sand pound Benefactor: Hic jacet Zacharias Jepson, cujus aetas fuit 49. perpaucos tantum annos vixit.
[ii] It brings us next to Burrowbridge,* where the Pyramids, call'd by the common people the De∣vil's Arrows, are most remarkable. That they are artificial, we have the opinion of Mr. Camden; and the Devil's Coits in Oxofrdshire confirm it, which Dr.* Plot affirms to be made of a small kind of stones ce∣mented together, whereof there are great numbers in the fields thereabout. But whether our Author's conje∣cture of their being set up as Trophies by the Romans may be allow'd, is not so certain. A* later Antiquary seems inclin'd to conclude them to be a British work; supposing that they might be erected in memory of some battel fought there, but is rather of opinion that they were British Deities, agreeing with the Learned Dr. Stillingfleet, and grounding upon the custom of the Phoenicians and Greeks (Nations undoubtedly acquainted with Britain before the arrival of the Romans) who set up unpolish'd stones instead of images to the honour of their Gods.
[kk] Hard by this is Aldburrow, confirm'd to be the Is-urium* of the Ancients from several Roman Coyns and chequer'd Pavements digg'd up there, some of which are now in the Musaeum of the ingeni∣ous Mr. Thoresby.
But to be a little more particular upon the remains of Antiquity, they meet with; take the following ac∣count, which is the substance of a Letter from Mr. Morris, Minister of the place. Here are some frag∣ments of Aquiducts cut in great stones, and cover'd with Roman tyle. In the late Civil wars, as they were digging a Cellar, they met with a sort of Vault, leading, as 'tis said, to the river: if of Roman work (for it has not yet met with any one curious enough to search it) it might probably be a Repository for the Dead. The Coyns (generally of brass, but some few of silver) are mostly of Constantine and Carausius; tho' there are two of Maximian, Dioclesian, Valerian, Severus, Pertinax, Aurelius, and of other Emperours; as also of Faustina and Julia. They meet with little Roman heads of brass; and have formerly also found coyn'd pieces of gold, with chains of the same me∣tal; but none of late. About two years ago were found four signet polisht stones, three whereof were Cornelians. The first had a horse upon it, and a stamp of Laurel shooting out five branches: the se∣cond, a Roman sitting, with a sacrificing dish in one hand, and resting his other on a spear: the third a Roman (if not Pallas) with a spear in one hand, wearing a helmet, with a shield on the back, or on the other arm; and under that something like a qui∣ver hanging to the knee: the fourth (of a purple colour) has a Roman head like Severus or Antonine. Several Pavements have been found about a foot under-ground, and compass'd about with stones of about an inch square; but within are little stones of a quarter that bigness, wrought into knots and flow∣ers, after the Mosaick-fashion. No Altars are met with; but pieces of Urns and old Glass are common. In the Vestry-wall of the Church is plac'd a figure of Pan or Silvanus, in one rough stone nyched.
[ll] From hence the Ure or Ouse runs to York,* in the Antiquities whereof our Author has been so par∣ticular, that we have little to add. This ancient and noble City might have had an agreeable light, if Sir Thomas Widdrington, a person accomplisht in all Arts, as well as his own profession of the Laws, after he had wrote an entire History of it, had not upon some disgust, prohibited the publication. The origi∣nal Manuscript is now in the possession of Thomas Fairfax of Menston Esq.
Near the Castle stands the shell of Clifford's Tower, which was blown up the 24th of April, 1684.
In the year 1638. in a house near Bishop-hill, was found this Altar, which is now at the Duke of Buck∣ingham's house in York:
NATIBVSQ. OB. CON
P. AEL. MARCIAN
VS. PRAEF. COH. ARAM. SAC. f. NCD.
[mm] Dr. Tobias Matthews was Archbishop of this place,* whose wife Frances, a prudent Matron, daughter of Bishop Barlow (a Confessor in Queen Mary's time) was a great Benefactress to the Church, bestowing upon it the Library of her husband, which consisted of above 3000 Books. She is memorable likewise for having a Bishop to her father, an Arch∣bishop (Matthew Parker of Canterbury) to her father-in-law, Page 735-736 four Bishops to her brethren, and an Arch∣bishop to her husband.
[nn] The Cathedral Church, after it had been burnt down in K. Stephen's time, by little and little reviv'd. The Thoresby mention'd by our Author was a great benefactor to it; and the 29th of July 1631. laid the first stone of the new Quire, to which, at 16 payments, he gave so many hundred pounds, be∣sides many other less sums for particular uses towards c•••ing on that work. As he was Archbishop of 〈◊〉 so also was he Lord Chancellour of England, and Cardinal,* (which I the rather take notice of here, because he is omitted by Onuphrius,) as the In∣scription of his seal testifies. S. Johis & Sci P. ad vin∣cula presbyteri Cardinalis.
The dimensions of this Cathedral were exactly ta∣ken by an ingenious Architect, and are as follows:
|Length beside the buttresses||524 ½|
|breadth of the east-end||105|
|breadth of the west-end||109|
|breadth of the Cross from north to south||222|
|breadth of the Chapter-house||058 ½|
|he••ht of the Chapter-house to the Canopy||086 ½|
|height of the body of the Minster||099|
|height of the Lanthorn to the Vault||188|
|height to the top-leads||213|
[oo] Southward from York is Nun-Apleton,* so call'd from a Nunnery founded there by the Ancestors of the Earls of Northumberland; afterwards the seat of Thomas Lord Fairfax, General of the Parliament-army, who merits a memorial here upon account of the peculiar respect he had for Antiquities. As an instance whereof, he allow'd a considerable pension to that industrious Antiquary Mr. Dodsworth, to col∣lect those of this County, which else had irrecover∣ably perish'd in the late wars. For he had but just finish'd the transcript of the Charters and other Ma∣nuscripts then lying in St. Mary's tower in York, be∣fore the same was blown up, and all those sacred re∣mains mix'd with common dust.* And when that garrison was surrender'd to the Parliament, he took great care for the preservation of the publick Library, and bequeathed to it many MSS. with the Collecti∣ons aforesaid, which of themselves† amounted to 122 Volumes at least.
[pp] Our next place upon the river is Selby, part of which ancient and beautiful Church, with half of the steeple, fell down suddenly, about 6 a clock on Sunday morning, 30 March 1690.
From hence our Author carries us to Escricke,* which gave the title of Baron to Sir Thomas Knivet. He was Gentleman of the Privy-Chamber to King James 1. and the person intrusted to search the vaults under the Parliament-house, where he discover'd the 36 barrels of gun-powder and the person who was to have fir'd the train.
[qq] Afterwards the Ouse passeth by Drax, where the benefaction of Charles Read Esq (a native of the place, and Judge in Ireland) ought not to be omitted. He erected here a Hospital, as also a School-house, and endow'd them with 100 l. per an.