|Author:||Lucy, William, 1594-1677.|
|Title:||A second part of Observations, censures, and confutations of divers errours in Mr. Hobbs his Leviathan beginning at the seventeenth chapter of that book. / By William Lucy, Bishop of S. David's.|
|Publication info:||Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library
2011 April (TCP phase 2)
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A second part of Observations, censures, and confutations of divers errours in Mr. Hobbs his Leviathan beginning at the seventeenth chapter of that book. / By William Lucy, Bishop of S. David's.
Lucy, William, 1594-1677.
London: Printed by S.G. and B.G. for Edward Man at the White Swan in S. Pauls Church-yard, 1673.
|Alternate titles:||Observations, censures, and confutations of notorious errours in Mr. Hobbes his Leviathan. Part 2|
Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679. -- Leviathan.
State, The -- Early works to 1800.
Political science -- Early works to 1800.
To the Reader.
A SECOND PART OF Observations, Censures, and Confutations OF DIVERS ERRORS IN Mr. Hobbs HIS LEVIATHAN. Beginning at the seventeenth Chap∣ter of that Book.
CHAP. 1. The Introduction to the whole Discourse.
SECT. I. This Generation censured, first from that Word only, which cannot be true.
SECT. II. A Supream cannot receive his Authority from the Peo∣ple.
SECT. III. It is impossible they should do it.
SECT. IV. The Multitude cannot make a Leviathan, because he had all their rights before.
SECT. V. Their Power is most uncertain.
SECT. VI. The People cannot give Power conjunctim.
SECT. VII. The manner of the Resignation makes it impossible.
SECT. I. This cannot be the only way to establish a Govern∣ment.
SECT. I. His definition of a Common-wealth disproved, first because not practicable.
SECT. II. Mr. Hobbs his definition inconsistent with Reason
SECT. III. Right not derived by this supposed Institution from the Consent of the People.
SECT. I. Mr. Hobbs his first Inferrence affirmed, the Sove∣raign absurdly termed the person of the People..
SECT. II. His expression, of giving the Sovereignty to him that bears their person, further censured.
SECT. III. The irrationality of Mr. Hobbs his arguing further discovered. Covenants may be made immediate∣ly with God.
SECT. IV. Mr. Hobbs his Second Inference examined, and cen∣sured. The Soveraign obliged to protect the Peo∣ple from Injuries, and Invasions. His reasons, to at∣test this Inferrence, refuted.
SECT. I. The difference between the Soveraign's making a Co∣venant, and taking his Authority upon a Covenant; A Soveraign may Covenant to Govern justly, and yet not forfeit his Soveraignty, if he breaks that Co∣venant
SECT. II. The Impiety of Mr. Hobbs his assertion, that Cove∣nants have no force but from the Vindicative Power of the Sword, Discovered.
SECT. III. The Sword hath no power but from the Covenant (ac∣cording to Mr. Hobbs his Doctrine) it may com∣pel, but is not properly the obliging cause of obedi∣ence.
SECT. I. Mr. Hobbs his third Inference examined; No man to be destroyed for his dissent to the unjust actions of others. Mr. Hobbs his Political Inquisition more severe then that for Religion.
SECT. I. Mr. Hobbs his fourth Inference censured and refuted from his own conclusions. He that impowers ano∣ther to do justly, though he make him Pleni-poten∣tiary, is not guilty of his unjust actions; his first reason refuted.
SECT. II. Mr. Hobbs his second reason invalid from the falsity of his supposition. Consent or dissent gives not the stamp of Justice or Injustice. He that gives power to do any act, may complain of ill Execution of that power.
SECT. III. A man may do an injury to himself. Mr. Hobbs his di∣stinction between Iniquity, and Injustice, or Inju∣ry, disproved and censured.
SECT. IV. A Soveraign may do injustice by himself, and by his Ministers impowred, and not punished by him.
SECT. I. Mr. Hobbs his fifth Inference. The Proposition as∣serted. The reason of this Inference weak, and invalid.
SECT. II. He that hath right to the end, hath not right to all the means to attain that end, but only to such mediums as are just and legal.
SECT. I. Mr. Hobbs his sixth Inference examined and censu∣red. The Soveraigns Commands, in point of Reli∣gion, submitted to the Commands of God.
SECT. II. Books justly examined before published. Such a Com∣mission wanting when Mr. Hobbs his Book was printed. His reason of this Proposition asserted.
SECT. III. Bishops the most competent Judges of Books (especial∣ly in Divinity) so also of Doctrines and Publick Orators, or Preachers to the people.
SECT. IV. Mr. Hobbs his Assertion affirmed; his expressions of regulating Doctrines by Peace censured; some kind of Peace among Devils.
SECT. V. The former conclusions repugnant to Mr. Hobbs his Doctrine; Peace not consonant to the Law of Na∣ture, according to his assertion; the true reason of the former conclusion.
SECT. VI. The former expression of regulating all Doctrines by peace further examined and censured: Divine Truths and Doctrines not regulated by peace. In Politicks this expression not improper.
SECT. VII. Mr. Hobbs his expression of new truths censured: Truth always the same; the object of Truth some∣times obscure: New Truths, and new Lights, phrases equally affected.
SECT. VIII. His Assertion of the busling in of truth awakes the War, examined, and shewed to be repugnant to his former Conclusions.
SECT. IX. Doctrines among Christians not to be introduced by force. Cessation of Arms not the height of Peace. Remisness, in matter of Opinion, not the only cause of Mutiny or Rebellion.
SECT. X. Mr. Hobbs his fallacies in arguing discovered. To be Judge, and to constitute Judges, are distinct; the latter more advantagious to the Commonwealth, in point of Doctrines.
SECT. I. The impossibility of the former imagined Institution of a Leviathan further discovered, from the pow∣er given him by Mr. Hobbs in the propriety of E∣states, attained before the Institution.
SECT. II. Mr. Hobbs his supposition of men met together with∣out a propriety, examined. The impossibility of this Fiction, according to his own grounds, from the contradictions which follow upon it.
SECT. III. Mr. Hobbs his illogical deductions. Propriety in the state of War. What propriety is; it may be without peace, as peace may be without propriety.
SECT. IV. Propriety not depending only upon Soveraign power. The propriety of the Soveraign independent. His consequence again redargued. Propriety the Act of Law.
SECT. V. Many things good or evil in their own Nature, and therefore not alterable by Humane Laws.
SECT. I. The Soveraign obliged to take care for the decision of Controversies, and accomptable to God as for his own, so also for his Officers neglect.
SECT. II. Mr. Hobbs ninth Inference affirmed, Soveraigns in ordinary emergencies to use ordinary means. Salus Populi Suprema Lex.
SECT. III. The choice of Councellors, &c. in the Soveraign: Mr. Hobbs his reason of this Conclusion refuted.
SECT. IV. The eleventh Inference affirmed, where there is no Law, there is no transgression, and consequently no punishment.
SECT. V. Mr. Hobbs his Objection and Answer approved. Kings more incommodated then Subjects from the bur∣then of their Crimes, and their account to the King of Kings.
SECT. I. Mr. Hobbs his expression of Representative not pro∣per, and diminutive of Soveraignty. Two Questi∣ons raised about the divisions of Commonwealths, left to the judgment of others.
SECT. II. Tyranny and Monarchy different forms of Govern∣ment. Miscalling alters not the nature of the thing. Oeconomical Government consistent with Anarchy.
SECT. III. The Authors Opinion of this division. The denomina∣tion of mixed bodies (as in natural, so in political) à principalion. The strange mixture of the Go∣vernment of Lacedaemon. The Monarchy of Darius mixed with Aristocracy.
SECT. IV. The result of the former example. No Government de facto purely Monarchical; and therefore not sus∣ceptible of all the properties of Monarchical Go∣vernment required by Mr. Hobbs. Darius bound to the execution of those Laws which himself had made.
SECT. V. The general reasons of the precedent conclusions. That Government best which is suited to the disposition of the people. Some people fit only for subjection.
SECT. VI. The former conclusion further asserted. The Ephori amongst the Lacedaemonians first introduced by Theopompus.
SECT. VII. No Government absolutely pure. Mr. Hobbs his Po∣liticks calculated for Utopia.
SECT. I. Mr. Hobbs his conclusions deduced from Principles founded in the Air. Absolute liberty not actually to be found in any people. Several petite Common∣wealths raised out of the Ruines of the Roman Em∣pire. None of these without mixture, nor durable. His exposition of Representative again redargued, as an ill foundation of Government, Religion, and Propriety. The formerly mentioned Commonwealths preserved by Laws.
SECT. II. The Barbarous Murder of King Charles the First, the direct issue of this Doctrine of Mr. Hobbs, viz. That the Soveraign is but the Representative of the People.
SECT. I. Mr. Hobbs his digression censured. His first Proposi∣tion untrue. His supposition of a General Assembly to consent to the Soveraignty of the Conqueror un∣practicable.
SECT. II. Fear not the only motive to consent to obedience in the Institution of Commonwealths. No obligation from fear, when that fear is removed. The fear of God the greatest security of obedience.
SECT. III. Mr. Hobbs his Proposition asserted. His reason of this Proposition censured. Contracts against the moral Law ipso facto void.
SECT. IV. Of Covenants arising from fear in things lawful, but against Equity. Of mixed Contracts and Actions, of just, and lighter, or unwarrantable fears in a∣voidance of Contracts.
SECT. V. The case of a conquered and instituted Kingdom not the same. The best art of a Conquerour is to se∣cure his Victory By what means such a security may be obtained.
SECT. I. Mr. Hobbs his method censured, his contradictions noted. Of the right of Dominion from Generation. Paternal Dominion not flowing from the consent of children. Infants cannot consent. Paternal Domi∣nion flowing from the Laws of God and Nature. Scripture vilified by Mr. Hobbs.
SECT. II. Mr. Hobbs his Chain of contradictions discovered.
SECT. III. Mr. Hobbs his constant abuse of Scripture noted. The command of the Mother to be obeyed in subordina∣tion to the Father, in whom the obedience of chil∣dren is terminated. His iterated quarrelling with Scripture. Rules of Government to be proportion∣able to general emergencies.
SECT. IV. The brawling of Man and Wife improperly called war. War only between Nations. VVisdom, not strength, enable to Government. VVives submit to their Hus∣bands, by the Law of God, under the first and se∣cond Adam. St. Pauls Argument from the Law of Nature explained.
SECT. V. This Paragraph contrary to Mr. Hobbs his principles, and the supposed institution of a Commonwealth; but yet most true, not from Mr. Hobbs his reason, but the Law of God. Fathers of Families have the disposition of their Families. The invalidity of Mr. Hobbs his reasons. His example of the Ama∣zons inconcludent.
SECT. VI. Mr. Hobbs his contradiction again censured. Antipo∣dial Government introduced. His conclusions not consistent one with another. Contracts (with Mr. Hobbs) but words, and advantaged by power, may lawfully be broken. Lawful Contracts sealed in Heaven.
SECT. VII. Mr. Hobbs his example of the Amazons, further shewed to be impertinent.
SECT. VIII. His supposition of the state of Nature without Matri∣mony censured. His reasons refuted. The Father of the Family hath dominion of the Child born out of Matrimony.
SECT. IX. No Law impowring the woman to expose her child. The Law of Nature favourable to Infants. Power or abi∣lity cannot give the character of Justice to unjust a∣ctions. The consequences of Mr. Hobbs his con∣clusions discovered, and the contrary asserted. The Mother gets no dominion over the Child by not ex∣posing it.
SECT. X. Mr. Hobbs his deviation from the matter proposed. Children exposed and nourished by others, owe not filial duties to them that nourish them; preservati∣on not so great a benefit as being. Romulus his re∣spect to them that nourished him, not filial duty, but gratitude and kindness.
SECT. XI. Mr. Hobbs his reasons of the former assertions weigh∣ed, and refuted. Obedience, where it crosses, first due to the Parent. The weaknese of Mr. Hobbs's inferen∣ces noted. His conclusion censured. Oecominical Laws must be submitted to National.
SECT. XII. Mr. Hobbs his immethodical procedure censured. Man∣cipia quasi manu capta. Servitude introduced by Conquest. The right of servitude abolished amongst Christians. After the heat of war, and a settlement made, commonly meliorated and erected into Te∣nures. Mr. Hobbs his conclusions contrary to Ari∣stotles Politiques. The horrid consequence of this Doctrine discovered.
SECT. I. Mr. Hobbs his fictitious contracts with the Conqueror censured. Women by his conclusion obliged to pro∣stitute themselves to the Conqueror. The horror of this Doctrine, and improbability of this contract.
SECT. II. Sense desired in this Paragraph. A Slave more a slave in Fetters then upon his Parol. Mr. Hobbs his in∣consistencies censured. Conquest gives no right where the War is not just.
SECT. I. Mr. Hobbs his harsh conditions imposed on the Conque∣rors subjects assistants in the war. Subjects newly conquered to be restrained with more severity, then those to whom custom has made their yoak more pleasant and easie. A difference to be made between those that are of a doubtful, and others who are of a known and certain obedience. The difference be∣tween Civil and Despotical Government.
SECT. II. Servitude not equally absolute in a civil or setled Go∣vernment, as in despotical. The right of servitude antiquated among Christians.
SECT. III. Mr. Hobbs his inconsequences further censured. The absurdity and iniquity of his conclusion in this Pa∣ragraph, which is yet shewed to be other where as∣serted by him.
SECT. IV. This Paragraph reserved to its proper place. Scripture honoured even by those who approve it not. Master Hobbs his inconcludent deductions from the 20th of Exodus censured.
SECT. V. The first of Sam. the 8.11, 12. explained. The diffe∣rence between the right of the King, and the right of a King. Kings of several Kingdoms may have several rights in the same Country. Divers Kings may have different rights, as the same Kings may also at several times. The genuine signification of these words cited by Mr. Hobbs.
SECT. VI. The former Text further illustrated. The force of the Hebrew word compared with other places of Scrip∣ture. Cajetans interpretation censured. The distin∣ction of ordinary and extraordinary right impro∣perly used for the clearing of this Text. The word right taken for practise. The 17 of Deuteron. 14.16, 17, 18. verse explained. The King to have two Copies of the Law, and obliged to keep it. Ezek. the 46.18. explained. The former conclusion asserted from the whole Discourse.
SECT. VII. The History of Saul quoted by Mr. Hobbs, improved a∣gainst his Novel Institution, and that other conclusi∣on of his, That a man may kill any man in right of himself. Prayers and tears the weapons of Chri∣stians.
SECT. VIII. The former conclusions illustrated from the fact of Ahab. The condition of Subjects, according to Ma∣ster Hobbs his Doctrine, the same with Slaves ta∣ken in War. The people transfer no power to the King besides that which God had given him. Sa∣muels words not positive, but menacing. God him∣self concerned in the Election of Samuels Govern∣ment. Exorbitant power, or absolute dominion, not deduceable from this Text. Mr. Hobbs his conclu∣sions fitted to the Rapine of the late Rebels in Eng∣land, whose actions he seems to approve.
SECT. IX. Solomon's Prayer (1 Kings 3.9.) explained. Master Hobbs his Logick desired in his deductions from this Text. Judges must govern or determine ac∣cording to Law.
SECT. X. The impertinencies of the remaining part of this Pa∣ragraph censured. Matth. 21.2, 3. not truly cited by Mr. Hobbs. His inferences upon this Text re∣torted upon him. The true intention of these words mistaken by Mr. Hobbs, and his argument thence invalid.
SECT. XI. Mr. Hobbs his fallacious arguing from Gen. 3.5. discovered: The difference of the case stated in respect of Divine and Humane Power. Act. 4.19. explained. Obedience to Humane Power command∣ed in licitis & honestis. Mat. 23. verse the 23. il∣lustrated from the former case of S. Peter, and S. John. Mr. Hobbs his argument from Adams discourse in Paradise not conclusive.
SECT. XII. Mr. Hobbs his conclusion not deducible from the premises. The former place of the 23. of S. Mat. further explained out of Petrus Gallatinus. Ari∣stocratical Power not vested in the Scribes and Pharisees.
SECT. XIII. Mr. Hobbs his Hyperbolical Power scarce any where to be found, and yet no such state of War, as he imagines, hath followed de facto. His subsequent question answered by another. Mr. Hobbs his Do∣ctrine the foundation of Sedition. Disputes con∣cerning Governments dangerous, but not to be pre∣vented.
SECT. XIV. Mr. Hobbs his bold censure of those who have written before him. His Principles destructive to Humane Society.
SECT. XV. The Rules in Politiques not founded upon Demonstra∣tions. The judgments and humours of men equally various. The Rule of Government must follow the present occurrences.
SECT. I. Mr Hobbs his Comment upon his own Text censured. Libertas coactionis, & necessitatis: the second proper only to men.
SECT. II. M. Hobbs his Free-man not actually to be found in the whole world. His unhandsom censures of those who have used the word Liberty or Freedom, in a sense different from himself. The activity of heat hin∣dred by cold; neither of them bodies. Spirits hin∣dred in their motion. Freedom used in a passive acception.
SECT. III. The instance of a Gift, not at all to Mr. Hobbs his purpose. A double acceptation of the word Gift. The vulgar phrase, of Gift is free, abused in either sense. Metonymies the Elegancies of common Lan∣guage.
SECT. IV. Mr. Hobbs his third instance censured. Freedom of Speech diversly accepted. His illustrations most uncertain, and deviating from his matter.
SECT. V. Of freedom and liberty again; These two contrary to his former acception of the words, now distin∣guished by Mr. Hobbs. The word will taken in a double sense, equally with understanding, by the Philosophers. The common notion justified against Mr. Hobbs. The subjectum quod, and the subje∣ctum quo of liberty in the will. A twofold act of the will (confounded by Mr. Hobbs) explained and asserted. God only can do what ever he has inclination to.
SECT. VI. Of mixed actions, will, desire, and inclination, di∣stinguished; confounded by Mr. Hobbs. Of goods cast into the Sea, for the preservation of the Ship and Passengers. The dictate of Reason often diso∣beyed, and the will violently carried by the sensual appetite. Denominations are a principaliori.
SECT. VII. The deficiency of Mr. Hobbs his instance of water passing in its channel. Libertas coactionis, & ne∣cessitatis, further explained. Liberty properly ad opposita.
SECT. VIII. Mr. Hobbs his former instance to voluntary actions. His liberty to have, or not to have written and dispersed, these impious Doctrines.
SECT. IX. Mr. Hobbs his Reason of the former Assertion inva∣lid. Of the first and second causes. Men actively, other creatures passively, capable of commands, Fools and Mad-men incapable of commands.
SECT. X. Mr. Hobbs his Supposition impossible, without a Reve∣lation. The force of the word-See.- His Hypothesis granted. His Inference would not follow. Causes not otherwise to seem, then as they are in their own Nature.
SECT. XI. Of Gods concurrence with humane actions. No man a sinner if necessitated to sin. Divine disposure necessitates not to Evil. God not the Author of those actions which are contrary to his commands. He is truly the Author of those actions he adviseth. Gods concurrence further illustrated, from the in∣flux of the Sun. Liberal Agents not necessitated by the ordinary concurrence of God.
SECT. XII. The consequence of this Paragraph examined. His meaning conjectured and refuted. Every devia∣tion contradicts not the Power and Omnipotency of God. Voluntas facere & fieri distinguished in God. Men not justly punished with Damnation, if necessitated to sin. Mr. Hobbs censured for obtru∣ding those Doctrines in Divinity amongst his Po∣litical Discourses. The actions of the King and Subject alike necessitated by Mr. Hobbs his Chain of Causes.
SECT. I. Mr. Hobbs his impious Proposition in this Para∣graph, discovered and censured. Injustice and in∣iquity the same. The Subject not Author of the a∣ctions of his Soveraign. The Soveraign, granting the former Proposition, cannot kill an Innocent justly. No man hath power to take away his own life justly. Neither Subjects nor Kings have right to any thing but from God, who gives not power to either to shed Innocent Blood. The Law of Na∣ture, deserted by Mr. Hobbs, to the murther of an Innocent. His disapprobation of Scripture cen∣sured.
SECT. II. Mr. Hobbs his Proposition in this Paragraph exami∣ned and censured. His dubious expressions disco∣vered from his former Assertions, and refuted. Scripture seldom cited by Mr. Hobbs, but to give a colour and Authority to Impiety. Jephta's rash Vow examined. The execution of that Vow impi∣ous. Jephta's Sacrifice no President for others.
CHAP. XX. SECT. III. The murther of Uriah discussed. Mr Hobbs his distin∣ction censured. Killing of an innocent contrary not only to the equitable part, but the very letter of the law of nature. The law not the executioner kills a Criminal. No power given by Uriah to David to kill him being an innocent. Mr. Hobbs his errors multiplied from his fictitious institution of So∣veraignes by popular election. Uriah not impow∣ered to dispose of his own life.
CHAP. XX. SECT. IV. Davids sin in murthering Uriah, a sin against God, because an injury to man. St. Ambrose explain∣ed. David his soveraignty freed from the punish∣ment of sin, but not from the guilt of it. Rom. 13.4. the first epistle of St. Peter 2.14. explain∣ed. The former assertions proved against Mr. Hobbs, by the authority of St. Basil, St. Chrysostome, St. Hierom, and St. Augustin The authors sence of these words, tibi soli peccavi. Mr. Hobbs his va∣riation from the authority and reading of England. The former conclusions recapitulated and asserted a∣gainst Mr. Hobbs from the meaning of this text.
CHAP. XX. SECT. V. Mr. Hobbs his instance of the Common-wealth of Athens examined.
CHAP. XX. SECT. VI. This paragraph, giving liberty to a person justly con∣demned, to resist the execution of the sentence given against him, the grand incitement to rebellion; con∣trary to the dictate of St. Paul, and practice of e∣minent Martyrs.
CHAP. XX. SECT. VII. Mr. Hobbs his institution of a Common-wealth again examined and censured. The absurdity and evil con∣sequences of his doctrine.
CHAP. XX. SECT. VIII. Mr. Hobbs his contradictions discovered and censu∣red. His conclusions tending to disloyalty.
CHAP. XXI. Liberty given to criminals to assist one another against the sword of justice, the greatest incentive to the late rebellion. The murther of Charles the first legitimated by Mr. Hobbs his conclusions.
CHAP. XXII. SECT. I. Mr. Hobs his endeavour to render the Christian re∣ligion suspected. Of the assurance we have of re∣velations. The difference of assurance from the object, from the acts. Assurance from science, from opinion, from faith. The assurance of faith greater than that of science. The assurance we have of the truth of Christian religion by divine revelation, from the things themselves revealed, from the manner of their delivery, and the persons who delivered them to us. The particulars of the crea∣tion described by Moses, not possible to be known without divine revelation. An argument from reason to confirm the former assertion.
CHAP. XXII. SECT. II. The doctrine of the new Testament, and particularly the incarnation of our blessed Saviour, and the manner of it not possible to be known without a revelation. The truth of the incarnation evicted from the miraculous Life and Actions of our blessed Saviour, and the prophecies of the Old Testament, and especially of Isaias. The Jewes witnesses of the truth of the Books of the Old Testament.
CHAP. XXII. SECT. III. The former assertion further proved from the piety of the doctrines taught in the scriptures, and excellency of the matter contained in them. The power of the word of God, and efficacy of Scripture above the reach of Philosophie.
CHAP. XXII. SECT. IV. The second Argument from the difference of the Style of the Scriptures from the books of Philosophers. The propositions and conclusions in Scripture not so much deduced from reason, as asserted from the Majesty of God, not disputing or endeavouring to perswade, but commanding to do. The rewards and punish∣ments proposed in scripture of eternal truth, impossi∣ble to be propounded, or given but by God himself.
CHAP. XXII. SECT. V. The third Argument from the sanctity and integrity of the persons who delivered these truths. The mi∣raculous conduct of the Children of Israel by Moses. The objection of his assertation, of dominion, an∣swered. The predictions of the Prophets not possi∣ble without a divine revelation. The truth and cer∣tainty of their predictions objected.
CHAP. XXII. SECT. VI. Of the doctrine of the Apostles, the efficacy of their preaching; The power of Tongues, their sufferings and patience, not possible but from divine inspira∣tion. A further assertion of the same argument à posteriori, such effect not producible but from a di∣vine law.
CHAP. XXII. SECT. VII. Another argument, ad hominem, Mr. Hobbs his assu∣rance of his being born at Malmsbury, not comparable to this of the verity of the holy scriptures. Some doubts of the place of Mr. Hobbs his birth, from the erring of his doctrines from Christianity. The attestation of the Gospel from the sufferings of the Saints and Martyrs. The encrease and continuance of it in despite of persecution. The Scriptures not possible to be written by bad men, in regard their design is to destroy the Kingdom of Satan. Good men would not obtrude a Lye upon the world. Faith resolved into divine revelation. The rest is a preparation to this faith, and conclusion of this point.
CHAP. XXII. SECT. VIII. Mr. Hobbs his answer to the first proof retorted: Miracles defined.
CHAP. XXII. SECT. IX. Miracles produced to confirm an untruth are a Lye, and blasphemy against God: This Proposition confirmed. Mr. Hobbs his confederacy with the Devil. Matth. 4.3. explained. Our blessed Saviours use of Mira∣cles, for the confirmation of his Gospel. Mr. Hobbs his Logick desired. The apprehensions of men alter not the nature of Miracles.
CHAP. XXII. SECT. X. Mr. Hobbs his second Argument examined; The truth of Divine revelation to the Apostles, asserted from the gift of Tongues.
CHAP. XXII. SECT. XI. Mr. Hobbs his third Argument from the wisdom of the Apostles confirmed: The miraculous consent of men to the revelations published by them; An Argument from the propagation of Christianity against the opposition of the whole world: A serious application and vow for Mr. Hobbs his conversion.
CHAP. XXII. SECT. XII. Mr. Hobbs his second Question propounded, and dis∣cussed; his assumption not clear; the Argument changed and the Reader eluded by him. His manifest declension of the divine positive Law, and imposure of humane Laws in opposition to them, censured. The Law of Nature commands obedience to the positive law of God. The pretensions of all Nations to divine institution, ob∣served.
CHAP. XXII. SECT. XIII. Obedience founded upon the belief, or acknowledgment of his power that commands. Mr. Hobbs his complacency in quarrelling with Religion. The want of reason in his proofs discovered, and censured. Faith commanded by God, urged by promissory and penal Laws. The dread∣ful punishment of such as believe not, or disturb other mens belief with frivolous arguments. God the search∣er of hearts and punisher of evil thoughts contrary to Mr. Hobbs his Doctrine.
CHAP. XXII. SECT. XIV. External and inferiour Acts subject to divine regulati∣on. Faith, the fulfilling of that Law which com∣manded it. Vain-glory and fear equally impeding practical Faith.
CHAP. XXII. SECT. XV. Faith a duty to God against Mr. Hobbs his assertion; his constant endeavours to asperse the duties of Chri∣stianity. Miracles the ordinate means of faith. The use of the means necessary to the attaining of the end.
CHAP. XXII. SECT. XVI. Ʋnbelief the greatest breach of Gods Law. St. John 3.18, and 19. explained. The justice of God in the con∣demnation of men for want of faith. The case of Abraham, Genesis 17.10. elucidated. The power of Parents asserted.
CHAP. XXII. SECT. XVII. The obedience of Abrahams Family to Gods Laws, depen∣ded upon that to him, as Father of the Family. Mr. Hobbs his consequences drawn from this proposition not rightly deduced. His constant varying from the English translation observed, and censured. Reason a∣gainst former deductions. The intire obedience of the Israelites to the dictates of Moses, rather from the conference of his divine inspiration, as a Prophet, than his soveraign power. The Authority of scrip∣ture depends not upon the declaration of the soveraign. The worshippers of Baal not excused from the com∣mand of the King of Israel. The reasons of Mr. Hobbs his former assertion disproved. The com∣mands of the soveraign justly opposed, when contrary to the Christian faith. Mr. Hobbs his Atheistical conclusions censured.
CHAP. XXII. SECT. XVIII. Mr. Hobbs his further reasons to prove the former as∣sertions examined and censured. His diminution of the authority of the divine positive Law, and constant vilifying of scripture censured. The Law of Nature restrained by the divine positive Law. Obedience in Religious dutyes not founded in the command of the soveraign, but of God. The perswasion of the Turks, that the Alcoran contains the Law of God, not the command of the Grand Signiour causes their confor∣mity to it. The difference betwen the commands and acts of Christian Princes, and their subjects, from those of other Religions. All other Societies, as that of Theeves, illegitimate combinations. Mr. Hobbs his doctrine abhorrent to Christianity.
Of those things which weaken or tend to the dissolution of a Common-wealth. CHAP. XXIII.
SECT. I. Mr. Hobbs his second Paragraph purged. The signi∣fication of the word, Judge. Inferiour Judges apply the determinations of Laws concerning good and evil to particular persons and facts. Private men have ju∣dicium rationis, and therefore may determine upon their own ratiocination. No man to intrude upon the office of a judge, but by deputation from the Sove∣raign.
CHAP. XXIII. SECT. II. The former assertion of private ratiocination further cleared in Acts commanded against the Law of Nature, or the positive Laws of God. Mr. Hobbs his ar∣gument retorted against himself.
CHAP. XXIII. SECT. III. Of the rule of Actions. The Law of Nature, the measure of humane Actions, in opposition to the Civil Laws, where the case is contradistinct. In∣stances of Civil Laws commanding unjust things; If the Civil Law command any thing against the Di∣vine Law, or the principles of Faith and Reason. Mr. Hobbs his arrogancy in venting principles contrary to the received opinion of the whole World noted and censured. The case stated and determi∣ned. Good Men obedient to bad Laws, not in acting according to them, but by suffering the pe∣nalties inflicted by them.
CHAP. XXIII. SECT. IV. Mr. Hobbs his proposition everted. Conscience defi∣ned and distinguished. Of conclusions secondarily or remotely deduced from the first principles. No conscience properly and strictly erroneous, but being such (according to the vulgar acception of the phrase) however obliges. The case put upon the misinterpreta∣tion of Scripture, supposed to prohibite swearing, though for the confirmation of a truth, and the er∣ror asserted to be obliging. Two objections answered and the proposition fully cleared; our Saviours com∣mand of not swearing at all, examined, and eluci∣dated. Of promissory or assertory Oaths. The para∣graph and question concluded.
CHAP. XXIII. SECT. V. Every man Judge of his own Actions, whether accord∣ing to the positive Divine Laws, or the Law of Nature. Mr. Hobbs his consequencies observed and censured. His absurd expression of a publick Conscience rejected. Opinion and Conscience distin∣guished. Thoughts not possibly to be regulated by humane Laws. The external manage of Opinion. The proper subject of Regulation. The necessity of distraction from diversity of Opinions unless ob∣truded upon others. This Argument retorted ad hominem.
CHAP. XXIII. SECT. VI. Faith and sanctity both inspired and acquired. Free∣will and grace co-operating to the salvation of Men. Mr. Hobbs his Arguments against this Opinion re∣futed. Faith and sanctity entitle not any man to go∣vernment. The means of salvation most certain. Mr. Hobbs his Arguments against the former assertion retorted.
CHAP. XXIII. SECT. VII. Soveraigns obliged by the positive Laws of God. The Laws of Nations, The Law Natural, The Royal Laws, or Laws of government obligatory to the soveraign. The soveraign free from penal Laws.
CHAP. XXIII. SECT. VIII. Propriety derived from the soveraign of soveraigns. The quiet enjoyment of Estates. The reason accord∣ing to Mr. Hobbs of the imbodying of men. The propriety of the Subjects. The foundation of the publick interest. It excludes not the prerogative of the soveraign. The title of the King of England in many cases decided by the Judges. Mr. Hobbs his indulgence to the late usurped power observed.
CHAP. XXIII. SECT. IX. The soveraign protects the subject in the enjoyment of that right and Propriety which the Law gives him. The rights of soveraignty, not of propriety necessary for the performance of the royal Office, and pro∣tection of subjects. Publick necessity justifies the invasion of propriety. The partition of the soveraign∣ty among the Optimates not destructive of it, accor∣ding to Mr. Hobbs his own tenents. The responsa prudentûm of high esteem among all Nations.
CHAP. XXIII. SECT. X. The Paragraph asserted. Not the form of Government, but the execution of good Laws makes a Nation hap∣py. The history of the Grecians and Romans vin∣dicated against Mr. Hobbs. Mr. Hobbs his Precepts in his Leviathan; much more seductive and encouraging to rebellion than the forementioned Histories. The abuse of good things ought not to take away the use of them.
CHAP. XXIII. SECT. XI. Truth desired in this Paragraph. Tyrants distinguished. An Ʋsurper justly killed by any subjects for the deliverance of his lawful Soveraign. Lawful sove∣raigns not to be deposed or murthered for their ill government, but left to the justice of God. The for∣mer conclusion asserted. A further vindication of the Books and Histories of the Grecians and Ro∣mans.
CHAP. XXIII. SECT. XII. Mr. Hobbs his impossible remedy to a supposititious dis∣ease. The learning of the Grecians and Romanes a∣gain vindicated. Mr. Hobbs his opinion of the necessity of forbidding the use of the Greek and Ro∣man Authors no where to be found but in Julian the Apostate.
CHAP. XXIII. SECT. XIII. This Paragraph of Mr. Hobbs when the powers are made contra-distinct and opposite to one another af∣firmed from the Primitive practices. The decrees of the antient Councils not passed into Laws, till they were confirmed by the Emperour. The Authors rea∣son of this truth superadded.
CHAP. XXIII. SECT. XIV. Mr. Hobbs his reflection upon the Government of England observed and censured; his parallel from the diversity of Souls not enforcing. The comparison of leavyes of money not rightly applyed to the nutri∣tive faculty. The power of conduct not well resembled to the Motive faculty in the soul.
CHAP. XXIII. SECT. XV. Mr. Hobbs his reflection upon the House of Lords and Commons in Parliament. His supposed danger for want of the consent of one or either of these refuted. All humane constitutions subject to error. Govern∣ment rightly so stiled, though without power to take away the lives or estates of Subjects. The several E∣states in Parliament termed factious by Mr. Hobbs. No government absolutely and practically pure accord∣ing to the definition of Politicians, but denominated from the predominant part. The soveraign not the representative of the Common-wealth, no more than the head is of a man. His instance of the Ʋnity in the holy Trinity impertinent. Ʋnity in subordina∣tion.
CHAP. XXIII. SECT. XVI. The house of Commons not the King representative of the People. The King only the soveraign; the Peers the Councellors of the King. Mr. Hobbs his un∣worthy expression of there soveraigns censured. The odiousness of his comparison of to men growing out of the sides of another, observed. The danger of cutting off those sprouts, assimilated to the removal of the two houses of Parliament.
CHAP. XXIII. SECT. XVII. The propriety of the subject again asserted against Mr. Hobbs. His objection of the difficulty of raising mo∣ney answered. The inconvenience of investing all propriety in the Crown. The convenience and de∣corum of raising money in a parliamentary way. His late Majestie CHARLES the First, his incompara∣ble essay to this purpose recommended to the author of the Leviathan. Mr. Hobbs his disaffection to the government of this Kingdom censured.
CHAP. XXIII. SECT. XVIII. The conclusion of all; the Authors just censure of this book of Mr. Hobbs.
To Mr. Hobs, or the Reader, or both; I de∣dicate this short POSTSCRIPT.
CAP. I. A short Introduction declaring the reason of this POSTSCRIPT.
CAP. II. Of things omitted in this Discourse.
CAP. III. The Nature of Light examined.
CAP. IV. The Nature of Hypostasis.
SECT. II. That a Particular Fire is an Hypostasis.
SECT. III. His Discourse Censured for changing his Termes.
SECT. IV. His Argument Confuted.
CAP. V. His Answer to quid est Hypostasis examined.
SECT. II. That Colour is a Real thing.
CHAP. V. His Definition of Substance by Ens Examined.
SECT. II. Many Errors in his citing Scripture for his Opinion.
SECT. III. Some other things Examined.
CAP. I. His Exordium Censur'd.
CAP. II. In which is censured his Definition of Religion.
SECT. III. The Termes are so put as cannot agree in the Definitum, with some Scriptures examined.
SECT. IV. How that Text the Fool hath said in his Heart there is no God, can be applied to his purpose.
SECT. II. His Question of our Catechisme Examined.
SECT. III. Another Answer Censur'd.
CAP. V. Joh. 1.1. Explained.
CAP. VI. Whether it be Lawful for a Faithful man to deny Christ, Examined.
SECT. II. The Canons of the Councel of Nice Examined.
SECT. III. Peters Denial of Christ Examined.
SECT. IV. A Digression to Mr. Hobs.
AN Alphabetical Table, Of the Principle CONTENTS. In which C. denotes the Chapter, and S. the Section.
The Texts of Holy Scriptures Illustrated or Cited.