Chymistry Made Easie and Useful. Or, The Agreement and Disagreement Of the Chymists and Galenists.
Daniel Sennertus, Nich. Culpeper, And Abdiah Cole. DOCTORS OF PHYSICK.
The two next Pages shew what is chiefly Treated of in this Book.
LONDON. Printed by Peter Cole, Printer and Book-seller, at the Sign of the Printing-press in Cornhil, near the Royal Exchange. 1662.
THE CONTENTS. Of the BOOK Of the Chymists & Galenists Physick.
- CHap. 1.Of the Nature of Chymistry Page 1
- Chap. 2Of the Truth and Dignity of Chymistry. Page 5
- Chap. 3Of the Inventors and U∣sers of Chymistry Page 9
- Chap. 4Concerning Paracelsus. Page 14
- Chap. 5Of the new Names and Principles by which Paracelsians are to be known Page 21
- Chap. 6Of the Analogie of the great and little World Page 25
- Chap. 7Of the first Matter Page 28
- Chap. 8Of the Elements Page 30
- Chap. 9Of the Forms, Seeds, or Page [unnumbered]Stars of Things. And Page 36
- Of the Original of Forms Page 38
- Chap 10Of the Spirit and inbred Heat Page 44
- Chap. 11Of the Principles of the Chymists Page 50
- Chap. 12Of Generation and Mix∣ture Page 64
- Chap. 13Of the Foundation of Medicine Page 76
- Chap. 14Of the strength of Ima∣gination Page 83
- Chap. 15Of the Physiological part of Physick Page 92
- Chap. 16Of Pathologie, or Disea∣ses Page 99
- Chap. 17Of that part of Physick which is called Semiotick, or of Signs Page 119
- Chap. 18Of Medicines, and the Method of Curing Page 125
- An Apendix Page 151
- Chap. 19Of the Constitution of Chymistry ibid.
••oks Printed by Peter Cole at the Exchange in London.
Several Physick Books of Nich. Culpeper, Physitian and Astrologer, and Abdiah Cole Doctor of Phy∣sick, commonly called, The Physitian's Library, containing all the Works in English of Riverius, Sennertus, Platerus, Riolanus, Bartholinus. Viz.
1. A GOLDEN Practice of Physick; plainly discove∣ring the Kinds, with the se∣veral Causes of every Disease And their most proper Cures, in respect to the Causes from whence they come: after a new, easie and plain Method of Knowing, Foretelling, Preventing, and Curing all Diseases Incident to the Bo∣dy of Man. Full of proper Observations and Reme∣dies, both of Ancient and Modern Physitians. Being the Fruit of One and Thir∣ty years Travel, and fifty years Practice of Physick. By Dr. Plater, Dr. Cole, and Nich-Culpeper.
2. Sennertus Practical Phy∣sick; the first Book in three Parts. 1. Of the Head. 2. Of the Hurt of the internal sen∣ses 3. Of the external Senses, in five Sections.
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5. Sennertus fourth Book of Practical Physick in three Parts. Part 1. Of the Dis∣eases in the Privities of wo∣men. The first Section. Of Diseases of the Privie Part, and the Neck of the Womb. The second Section. Of the Page [unnumbered]Diseases of the Womb. Part 2. Of the Symptoms in the Womb, and from the Womb. The second Section. Of the Symptoms in the Terms and other Fluxes of the Womb. The third Section. Of the Symptoms that befal al Vir∣gins and Women in their Wombs, after they are ripe of Age. The fourth Section. Of the Symptoms which are in Conception. The fifth Section. Of the Government of Women with Child, and preternatural Distempers in Women with Child. The sixth Section. Of Symptoms that happen in Childbearing The seventh Section. Of the Government of Women in Child-bed, and of the Dis∣eases that come after Travel
The first Section. Of Dis∣eases of the Breasts. The se∣cond Section. Of the Sym∣ptoms of the Breasts.
To which is added a Tra∣ctate of the Cure of Infants. Part 1. Of the Diet and Government of Infants. The second Section. Of Diseases and Symptoms in Children.
6. Sennertus fifth Book of Practical Physick, Or the Art of Chyrurgery in six Parts. 1. Of Tumors. 2. O Ulcers. 3. Of the Skin, Hair and Nails. 4. Of Wounds, with an excellent Treatise of the Weapon Salve. 5. Of Fractures. 6. Of Luxations.
7. Sennertus sixth and last Book of Practical Physick in nine Parts. 1. Of Diseases from occult Qualities in ge∣neral. 2. Of occult, ma∣lignant, and venemous Dis∣eases arising from the inter∣nal fault of the humors. 3. Or occult Diseases from water, air, and infections, and of infectious diseases. 4. Of the Venereal Pox. 5. Of outward Poysons in general. 6. Of Poysons from Mine∣rals and Metals. 7. Of Poy∣sons from Plants. 8. Of Poy∣sons that come from Living Creatures. 9. Of Diseases by Witchcraft, Incantation, and Charmes.
8. Sennertus Treatise of Chymistry, shewing the A∣greement and Disagreement of Chymists and Galenists.
9. Sennertus two Treatises. 1. Of the Pox. 2. Of the Gout.
10. Sennertus thirteen Books of Natural Philosophy: Or the Nature of all things in the world.Page [unnumbered]
11. Twenty four Books of the Practice of Physick, being the Works of that Learned and Renowned Doctor La∣zarus Riverius. Physitian and Counsellor to the late King, &c.
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14. Veslingus Anatomy of the Body of Man.
15. Riolanus Anatomy.
16. A Translation of the New Dispensatory, made by the Colledg of Physitians of London, in Folio and in O∣ctavo. Whereunto is added, The Key of Galen's Method of Physick.
17. A Directory for Mid∣wives, or a guide for women The First and Second Part.
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20. A Treatise of the Ric∣kets.
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25. A Treatise of Blood-letting, and Cures perfor∣med thereby.
26. A Treatise of Scarifi∣cation, and Cures perfor∣med thereby.
27. The English Physi∣tian enlarged.
The London Dispensatory in Folio, of a great Caracter in Latin.
28. The London Dispen∣satory in Latin, a small Book in Twelves.
29. Chymistry made easie and useful: Or the Agree∣ment and Disagreement of the Chymists and Galenists. By Dr. Cole, &c.
30. A New Art of Physick by Weight, or five hundred Aphorismes of Insensible Transpiration, Breathing or Vapor coming forth of the Body. By Dr. Cole, &c.Page [unnumbered]
To the Physical Reader.
THe greatest Reason that I could ever observe, why the Medicines prescribed in the Physick Books before men∣tioned, do not (somtimes) perform the Cures promised, is, the unskilfulness of those that make up the Medicines. I therefore advise all those that have occasion to use any Medicines, to go or send to Mr. Ralph Clarke Apothecary, at the sign of the three Crowns on Ludgate-Hill, in London; where they shall be sure to have such as are skilfully and honestly made.
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15 Of Walking by Faith, and not by Sight.
16 The Christians living to Christ upon 2 Cor. 5.15.
17 A Catechism.
18 Moses Choice.
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2 Truth and Love happi∣ly married in the Church of Christ.
3 The Spring of streng∣thening Page [unnumbered]Grace in the Rock of Ages Christ Jesus.
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5 The best and worst of Paul.
6 Gods Eternal prepara∣tion for his Dying Saints.
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12 Thankfulness requi∣in every Condition.
13 Grace for Grace.
14 The Spiritual Actings of Faith through Naturall Impossibilities.
15 Evangelical Repentance
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2 Not going to Christ for Life and Salvation, is an ex∣ceeding great sin, yet pardo∣nable.
3 Of Faith, Or, That be∣lieving is receiving Christ; and receiving Christ, is be∣lieving.Page [unnumbered]
4 Of Coveteousness.
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These Eleven New Books of Mr. Thomas Hooker made in New-England, are attest∣ed in an Epistle by Mr. Tho∣mas Goodwin and Mr. Philip Nye, to be written with the Authors own hand: None being written by himself be∣fore. One Volume being a Comment upon Christ's last Prayer, in the seventeenth of John.
Wherein is shewed,
1 That the end why the Saints receive all Glorious Grace, is, That they may be one, as the Father and Christ are one.
2 That God the Father loveth the Faithful, as he lo∣veth Jesus Christ.
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5 That there is much wanting in the Knowledg of Gods Love, in the most able Saints.
6 That the Lord Christ lends daily Direction, accor∣ding to the daily need of his Servants.
7 That it is the desire and endeavor of our Savior, that the dearest of Gods Love, which was bestowed on him∣self, should be given to his faithful Servants.
8 That our Union and Communion with God in Christ, is the top of our hap∣piness in Heaven.
Ten Books of the Applica∣tion of Redemption by the effectual Work of the Word, and Spirit of Christ, for the bringing home of lost sinners to God By Thomas Hooker of New-England. In which (besides many other seaso∣nable, and Soul-searching truths) there is also largely shewed.
1 Christ hath purchafed all spiritual good for HIS, and puts them in possession thereof.
2 The soul must be fitted for Christ before it can re∣ceive him: and a powerful Ministry is the ordinary means to prepare the heart for Christ.Page [unnumbered]
3 The heart of a Natural man is wholly unwilling to submit to the Word that would sever him from his sins.
4 God the Father by a ho∣ly kind of violence, plucks His out of their corruptions, and draws them to believe in Christ.
5 Stubborn and bloody sinners may be made broken hearted.
6 There must be true sight of sin, before the heart can be broken for it.
7 Application of special sins by the Ministry, is a means to bring men to sight of, and sorrow for them.
8 Meditation of sin a spe∣cial means to break the heart.
9 The Lord sometimes makes the word prevail most when it's most opposed.
10 Sins unrepented of, make way for piercing Ter∣rors.
11 Gross and scandalous sinners, God usually exerci∣seth with heavy breakings of Heart, before they be brought to Christ.
12 They whose hearts are pierced by the Word, are car∣ried with love and respect to the Ministers of it: And are busie to enquire, and ready to submit to the mind of God.
13 There is a secret hope wherewith the Lord supports the hearts of contrite Sin∣ners.
14 True contrition is ac∣companied with confenion of sin, when God calis there∣unto.
15 The Soul that is pier∣ced for sin is carried with a restless dislike against it.
The Kings Tryal at the High Court of Justice.
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Mr. Rogers on Naaman the Syrian his Disease and Cure discovering the Leprosie of Sin and Self love, with the Gure, viz. Self-denial and Faith.
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A BOOK Concerning the Agreement & Disagreement Of the CHYMISTS, With Aristotles and Galens Followers.
Chap. 1. Of the Nature of Chymistry.
WEE shall not stand much up∣on the Interpretation of the word Chymistry, because it is disputable whether it be deri∣ved from the Greeks, or from the Arabians or Egyptians.
Paracelsus & other modern Page 2Physitians called it Spagery from the Greek words that signifies to pull in pieces or divide, and also to unite or joyn together, as being an Art to dissolve and Unite again any natural bodies.
Some proudly call this Art Philosophy, and they who study the Philosophers-stone, are cal∣led the only true Philosophers, and Philosophers Sons; of which see the Book called Turba Phi∣losophorum.
It is called from Hermes or Mercury the Her∣metick Art, and thence come the Hermetical ves∣sels and seals, of which hereafter.
It is also called the Separating and Distilling Art.
But the distinction of Disciplines is from the end, and that of Chymistry is not onely to melt Metals, and separate one Mettle from another, but a hope to turn inferior Metals into Gold. And by use and operation, they still discovered new things, and so came to distil and separate Vegetables. So the whole Art of Chymistry consists in working of Metals, and preparing of Medicines. But they are by custom called only the true Chymists, that labour to turn the cheap Metals into Gold and Silver, or that make good Medicines of Minerals or Vegetables, or Ani∣mals; and the inferior Metal-workers are not honored with this Name of a Chymist.
Nor doth a Chymist only exercise in Natural bodies, as an Apothecary, but he dissolves com∣pounded bodies into their first principles, and se∣parates them, the good from the bad, clenseth all, alters, perfects, and exalts them, and makes them efficacious; and if need be, he again joyns them together, as when the strength of the whole compounded body is required.Page 3
Hence there are two ends in Chymistry, the internal and external. The internal end is that, whose work being perfect the operation ceaseth: and to dissolve bodies into their first principles, to clense, alter, exalt, and purifie them in particular together, and make them fit for use, is very necessary. In respect of this end, Chymistry of it self is an Art separate from Physick, because it doth not only serve the Physitian, but other Artists.
This end hath two parts, for the Chymist ei∣ther only labors in transmuting of Metals, or stu∣dies Physick. If the later, the Apothecary and the Chymist are little different; now the Physi∣tian useth the Apotehcary as a Servant therefore he ought to be skilled in Chymical operations, to direct his Apothecary: and when the Physi∣tian himself prepares Chymical medicines, he is a Chymist, as when he cures wounds and dislo∣cations, he is a Chirurgion.
The external end of Chymistry is twofold, it is either exercised in transmutation of Metals, or to cure mans body. In respect of the first end, it is a distinct Art from all others, and therefore it is called by way of eminency Alchymy, or the Art of the great Magistral, the Magistery of wis∣dom, the Art of Hermes. In respect of the latter end, Chymistry is not a peculiar Art, but belongs to Physick, and is the perfection of it, for it is the part only of the Physitian to use and apply Chy∣mical medicines for cure, and may be called then a Chymical Physitian, and the Medicines Chy∣mical, which are the perfection of Physick.
Some will have no difference between com∣mon Medicine or Physick and Chymistry, and say that the old Physitians & Apothecaries knew all the Chymical preparations, as Digestion, Sub∣limation, Page 4Distillation, Calcination, Reverberation, Extraction, and the like. We confess they knew some of them, * for Galen teacheth to make me∣dicines by long steeping. And Treacle is not good till it be sermented long, but they knew it not so wel as it is now known; & what they had was from the Refiners, * as Galen shews, and Chy∣mistry was not then brought into the Apotheca∣ries shops and Physitians house from the Refi∣ners furnace and Chymical work-houses.
Some enlarge Chymistry, and dispute princi∣ples and labour to bring in new operations into all the parts of Philosophy and Physick, but it is not for Chymists, as such, to dispute of princi∣ples, but for Physitians and Philosophers And Chymistry doth but only bring some observati∣ons and experiments by working, from which the Physitian and Philosopher makes conclu∣sions.
Therefore a Chymist is exercised about all natural bodies, to dissolve, purifie, and work them as to his internal end. But as to his exter∣nal end, he is conversant only about Metals, to transmute them. In respect of the latter end, he is conversant, not only in Metals, but all natu∣ral bodies that may be medicinable, whether Ve∣getables or Animals.
Moreover, Chymistry is an art, that is not on∣ly conversant about natural things to know them only, but to make somthing out of them. And though it hath its principles and conclusions, yet is it not a science, but an Art or factive habit ac∣cording to reason. Therefore Chymistry is nei∣ther a part of Physick, nor subordinate unto it, though it be conversant about the natural body, as Physick is, because the manner of ordering is Page 5divers from Physick, for skill only in operation or working, neither makes a Philosopher nor a Physitian, but every fool may attain to operati∣on, if he have but a good purse.
From hence we give this Definition of Chy∣mistry. It is an Art to resolve Natural compound bodies into their Principles of which they are made, and to make them pure and strong for Medicines, or to perfect or change Metals.
Therefore the Sophistical operations to make base Metals like gold or silver in colour, are not worthy of the honest name of Chymistry, though the Chymist may for tryal, do somthing therein to obtain a higher end.
Chap. 2. Of the Truth and Dignity of Chymistry.
IT is commendable; first from the transmuta∣tion of Metals: secondly from the good Me∣dicines that are found out by it. That Metals are transmuted, it is proved by experience. In Hungary by the Town called Smolnitium, in the Mountain Carpath, there are Fountains into which if iron be cast, it is turned into the best copper. The same is done at Gossaria; and the same may be done by Art, for if Iron be cast into Vitriol-water, there is a red pouder that sticks to it, which being mleted, turns to cop∣per. Also Quicksilver is turned to Lead, as John Rhenan shews in his Definition for the truth of Chymistry: although Nicolas Guibert Physiti∣an of Lotharing thinks otherwise.
But the chief question is concerning turning of other Metals into gold, which though it seems Page 6impossible to many, yet experience is again, them not to speak of the Ancients Arnold de vil∣la nova and Raymund, Lully, and others. Such things have been done in the memory of our Fa∣thers, and of our selves, and it is impudency to deny such a certain Experiment.
The chief objection is, that Metals are distinct in specie, and cannot be transmuted one into a∣nother, unless you can make a Pig of a Dog. But I answer, That the form of Iron, and the form of Lead cannot be turned into the forms of cop∣per or gold, but the form of iron departing, the form of copper may be brought in, and the form of Lead departing, the form of gold may be brought in; and this is easier in Metals, because they have one common matter: the Elements are transinuted; Wheat and other Plants are per∣fect species in their forms, yet they are turned into chyle, and blood is turned into flesh, bones, and membranes
Nor let it seem absurd, that Metals in so short a time can be turned into gold, except you are ignorant of the power of Spirits, and of Chymi∣cal operations; what force hath thunder upon Metals? What force hath Aqua fortis and other Spirits?
Nor let any say that Chymical gold is not true gold, but apparent, for the forms of things being hid from us, we know them by their proper ac∣cidents and proprieties; but Chymical gold hath all the proprieties of gold: therefore it must be acknowledged to be true gold. The proprie∣ties of gold are, that it be yellow, not ringing, malleable, so that one ounce beaten, may cover ten acres of ground; and the third part of a grain may be drawn into wyer of 134. foot long, as Page 7Cardan writes: * to be incorruptible in air and water, and to endure all tests by the assay-men.
Some, with Agrippa, say that the Chymists draw a tincture of gold, which they give to o∣ther Metals, and make them gold, but onely so much as that was from which the tincture was drawn, and so there is no profit. But experience shews the contrary, for Edward Kelley an En∣glishman at Prague, in the house of Thaddaeus Haggecius, turned a pound of Quicksilver into gold with one drop of a very red liquor; and it is stil to be seen, and the sign of the liquor sticks like a Rubie upon the Quicksilver so turned to gold, and as much more gold may be made of the same: let this one experiment serve turn: Yet though this art be true, it is very difficult, as appears by the lost labors of many; and none can easily attain to it by reading or practise.
There are many cheaters. But let none trust him that promiseth this art for money. First let them make gold for themselves, which they com∣monly want. I shall recite some of their cheats. First they carry gold or silver in a stick, with which they stir their Metals. Others dissolve gold or silver in Aqua fortis, and mix with Ink, and write upon paper, in which they put the Me∣tal they pretend to turn. Or they use the pou∣der of gold or silver, as sand upon a letter. O∣thers mix gold or silver dissolved, within char∣cole. Others have false bottoms to their cruci∣bles, into which they put gold. Others have fil∣led great coles with gold, and laid them upon the crucible. But the greatest cheat is, when they have gotten some of the true tincture, and done wonders till they have gotten money, but can go no further being ignorant.Page 8
The other end of Chymistry is for Physitians, for first the medicines Nature afford us, have of∣ten parts of divers strength and force; but by Chymistry they are ingeniously separated. The Chymists imitate the industry of the Ancients in preparing of meats, by boyling, and other prepa∣rations to make them pleasant and wholsom. And the Ancients, when the patient wanted much nourishment, and could not well concoct, found out consummate broath or cullesses, in which the unprofitable parts for nourishment were cast away, and that which nourished best was preser∣ved.
Thus are Chymical medicines made power∣ful, pleasant and safe, and the Physitian may cure by them safely quickly and pleasantly. For when the thick earth, and unprofitable parts are sepa∣rated from the profitable and spirital, the thin∣ner parts sooner pierce into the whole body, and exercise their force.
And being given in a small dose, and freed from unpleasant qualities, they are taken with∣out loathing, and so work the better. And some medicines that are rank poyson, are prepared by the Chymist, and made safe. Nature is the Chy∣mists leader, which makes us wholsom, Spaw∣waters from Minerals and Metals, by which des∣perate diseases are cured.
But observe, that we here only commend the true Chymistry, but hate the false Chymists, who when they can prepare a medicine or two, pro∣mise golden mountains, and scorn all the Gale∣nists, when they themselves are ignorant in all good Arts, chiefly in Physick and Philosophy. And will be called by no other name then Her∣mecial Physitians; when they may be more tru∣ly called Haeretical Physitians.
Chap. 3. Of the Inventors and and Users of Chymistry.
CHymistry had been no worse, if it had been found out later; for that is old enough that is good enough, and there is nothing which was not new at the first.
Some suppose that all the Chymical Books were written but three or four ages since: but they are out, for we have Greek Authors that treat of it. Some shew that Chymistry may be proved ancient, say that Adam invented it, * but this they cannot prove.
But the Rudiments of Chymistry were more probably invented by Tubalcain the Master of I∣ron and Brass. And if he shewed how to fashi∣on Metals, he must needs know how to find them out, melt and separate them, and purifie them. The Scriptures commend him for an excellent Metal-man, and his Successors were iudustrious in the same. And if they knew how to work on Iron and Brass, they questionless knew how to order Metals
After the flood, the invention or propagation of Chymistry was by many imputed to Hermes Trismegistus, and from him it is at this day called the Hermetical Art, the vessels and seals of Her∣mes are so called from him. And he was called Tresmegistus or thrice great, because he was the chief Priest, Philosopher, and King, or (as others say) the chief King, Priest, and Prophet. He lived in ancient time, about the 2000d year of the World heard Noah preach, and was (as the Learned say) the Master of Chamephis or Chusus.Page 10The Grecians as well as the Aegyptians, hono∣red him for antiquity and learning, and imputed the invention of all Arts and Sciences to him. They say he wrote 25000. Books all set forth in his Name.
Mesue mentions another, Hermes that suc∣ceeded him, and mentions a Hiera of Hermes, and Pills of Alhandal of Hermes, and so do o∣ther Physitians; but these vulgar medicines were not worth of the Name of Hermes Trisme∣gistus.
There is also a Smaragd Table esteemed by all Chymists, which was found in the Valley of E∣bron after the flood, but the Author of it is un∣known. Some say it was found in the Sepul∣cher of Trismegistus, by a woman called Sarah; it is the foundation of all Chymistry: and I shal here mention it.
The Smaragd Table.
To speak plain truth without lying, it is most true and certain, that, what is below, is as that is which is above: and that which is above, is like that which is below, to perpetuate the miracles of one thing. And as all things were from one, by the meditation and in∣vention of one, so all things are from this one thing, by adaptation or proportion. The Father of it, is the Sun, the mother the Moon, the wind carried it in its belly. The Earth is its Nurse. This is the Fa∣ther of all Talism in the world. The vertue of it is compleat; if it be turned into earth, you shall sepa∣rate the earth from the fire gently with much ingenui∣ty, and that which is subtile, from that which is gross. It ascends from earth to heaven, and descends again to the earth, and takes the power of things above and beneath. Thus you may have the glory of the whole Page 11world, and so all obscurity shall flie from thee. This is the great force of all fortitude, because it will over∣come every subtile thing, and pierce through all solid bodies. Thus was the world made. And from hence you may make wonderful adaptations. Therefore I am called Hermes Trismegistus, because I have three parts of Philosophy of the whole world. What I have said of the work of the Sun, is compleat.
They deny this to be the Table of Trismegi∣stus, because it is not in his Works: * all Chy∣mists have hitherto thought the contrary, and Albertus Magnus writes that Hermes is the Root that holds up all Philosophers.
Moses was next to Trismegistus, who was skil∣led in all the Knowledg of the Aegyptians; but it can scarce be proved clearly, that he under∣stood Chymistry: * though they burnt the Calf that Aaron made, and made it into pouder, and cast it into the water. Some say that Mary the Prophetess Sister of Moses, was a Chymist, be∣cause her Name is mentioned in some Books that teach the making of gold; but it is an usual thing in Chymists to make their Books famous by set∣ting the Names of great persons to them.
Some mention the Expedition of the Argo∣nants, for the antiquity of Chymistry. Suidas reports that the Golden Fleece which Jason and the Argonants brought together Medea the Daughter of King Aaetes from Cholchis, when they went into the Pontick Sea; was not such a Fleece as the Poets seign, but a Book written in Parchement for the making of gold. But what∣soever others imagine, there is no cause to reject the opinion of Suidas, for all things agree unto it. The watching Dragon is Mercury, which is hard to be laid a sleep, to this the gold which Page 12Phasis kept in Colchis was committed This mat∣ter is put into the Temper of Mars, that is the Philosophers furnace. The keepers thereof, are the Bulls that breath out fire, that is, heat that increaseth by degrees. The teeth of the Dragon that go to war, and wound each other, is the fighting of the matter in the vessel, till it be brought to unity. At length by Medeas art, the Jason brings the Dragon to sleep, That is, fixeth that which would flie away, and makes a good Medicine of that which was poyson. Now this is probable, because that exposition of a fable is best which agrees to truth, either in Natural or Politick things. Especially because the Names of Jason and Medea signifie a Physitian.
Also the fable of the Apples of Hesperides is spoken of Chymistry. * And that fable of Ata∣lanta and Hippomenes in Ovid And the other fable of the Dragon that Cadmus killed.
Solomon the wisest of all men, wrote beyond all the Greeks and Arabians, if his Books of na∣tural things were extant, and we may affirm with∣out absurdity, though not clearly prove that he was a Chymist. It is ridiculous with some, to fetch Chymistry out of the Canticles, and to in∣terpret the King which is the Bridgroom, to be gold, and the Queen to be silver, because they embrace each other in Chymistry. And when it is said, I am black, but comely, to understand the Crows head, which is black outwardly, and inwardly very rich. These are trifles, and the Art of Chymistry is so plainly ancient, that we need not bring these uncertainties and lies to defend it.
Since Christ, Chymistry flourished in Aegypt, so that they report all their treasure that they maintained themselves by against their enemies, was artificial Hence Dioclesian commanded all the Chymical Books for making gold in Aegypt, to be burnt, lest they should grow rich thereby, and rebel again. Thus Suidas.
Julius Firmicus in the time of Constantine the Great, in the year of Christ 320. mentions Chy∣mists, from the Astrologers Predictions.
Heliodore wrote in Greek of making of gold An. Dom. 383. and there is a notable argument for Chymistry in the History of Maximus Olibius concerning his Monument in Padua,* in which a candle was found burning in the year 1500.
In late ages Chymistry was famous among the Arabians, as you may see in Mesue, and o∣thers, and Geber, Avicen, Rhasis, Arnold de vil∣la nova, Raymund Lully, John de Rupescissa, Bo∣nus Ferrariensis, Hortulanus, Isaac Holand, Roger Bacchus, Augurellus,* and others mentioned by Andreas Libavius have written much of it.
From whence it appears false, which Nicolas Guibert wrote, and others namely that the Chy∣mical Books now extant, were made lately by Impostors and Sophists. He that wil know more of this, * may read the Preface of George Agricola to Mauritius and Augustus Dukes of Saxony and Brothers; and Andreas Libavius in his Defense of Alchymy against Nicolas Guibert.
Chap. 4. Concerning Paracel∣sus.
PHilip Theophrastus Paracelsus was born in Helvetia Ann. Domi. 1593. he had excel∣lent Masters for Chymistry, and began to raise a new Sect, with a desire to throw down that of Hippocrates and Galen. His chief Tutor was Pe∣ter Severinus, from whom there is a new Sect at this day called Severians.
Therefore this Paracelsus, when Chymistry was not vulgarly known in the Schools, obser∣ving that Medicines might better be prepared that way, began to reform Physick, but he al∣most overthrew it, together with all the Sciences. He railed at Galen & Avicen, and all the Acade∣micks; called the Doctors of Paris, Padua, and Monpelior, and all the Professors of Physick, Pro∣fessors of Lyes, and said they were Lyars, and not Doctors in his Writings. He burnt the Ca∣nonical Volume of Avicen, to shew his hatred to old Physick, and to incense his Disciples with hatred against other Physitians. Sometimes he seems to avoid, being a Novelist, and would be accounted a Galenist, better then all the rest, and to perswade the world that the Works of Galen and Avicen were not right, but counterfeit.
Nor did he onely brag himself, * but his Disci∣ples cryed him up, and Crollius wrote that none was like Paracelsus, and made Hermes Trisme∣gistus and Solomon inferiors to him in Natural Philosophy and Metaphysicks. And his Disci∣ples wrote high commendations on his Picture and Epitaph.
Hence it was, * that he was by many called the Page 15Prince of Chymists, and none was counted a true Chymist, that was not a Paracelsian: but they are deceived, as Crato shews learnedly. And there is a difference between Chymistry and Pa∣racelsian Physick, for Chymistry was used be∣fore the time of Paracelsus. And though he used it, yet it is not necessary that all Chymists should be Paracelsians, and embrace his opinions. But let us examine whether those arrogant Titles that he and his Disciples attribute to themselves, be due, or not.
He brags that he was born of an ancient and Noble family in the Wilderness of Helvetia. But Erastus saith that he heard that there were no such there, that acknowledged themselves of his kindred, not so much as an ignoble family; and that there was a strange School-master that li∣ved there, who was born at a place called the High-nest, and that he was called Paracelsus from thence.
Operine a Citizen of credit in Basil, followed him two years, of whom there are Writings by Jociscus in his Life of Operine, where it is said, That Paracelsus was drunk night and day, and could not be found one hour sober, especially after he left Basil, and went to Alsatia, and was adored as Aes∣culapius by the Nobles and Rusticks. Operine adds further, That he never heard him pray, nor did he care for the Church, but slighted the Gospel, which was then begun to be preached. Nor did Operine only write so, but told it to others, as Dr. Henry Bullinger that knew Paracelsus at Tigur, witnes∣seth whose Letters Erastus citeth. I could (saith he) find no Religion in his speeches, * but much Ma∣gick of his own making. If you had seen him, you would have taken him for a Carter, rather then a Page 16Physitian, and loved the company of Carters, with whom he eat and carroused, so drunk somtimes, that he would sleep upon any bench. For conclusion, he was a sordid, nasty Fellow, seldom went to Church, and slighted Religion.
Erastus also saith that George Vetter a godly man learned, * that loved Paracelsus, and follow∣ed him two years and three months in Austria and elswhere to learn Surgery, which he onely perfected, and honored Paracelsus for teaching him, affirmed, That Paracelsus studied Magick, and made him study it, and he called his evil Spirit his Companion. But I shall pass over this, having shewed Paracelsus was a wicked Liver.
He learned no Physick in the Schools, but had his knowledg from Chymical Books and opera∣tions. For about that time, and a little before, Isaac Holland and Basilius Valentine wrote, and practised Chymistry, and others; and it was wel known in Germany, as Books written before Pa∣racelsus, do declare. And he himself writes that he studied Negromancy in the end of his Books of occult Philosophy, where it is thus written. A Physitian cannot learn what he ought in the u∣niversities, but must somtimes ask old Women, Con∣jurers, and Negromancers, and old Mountebanks, and the like, and learn of them; and speaking of Diseases from Witchcraft, * he saith, They have more knowledg of such things, then all the Universi∣ties. And let any men judg if he wrote wisely, when he said that he had Letters sent out of Hell from Galen, and disputed with Avicen at Hell∣gates concerning his Potable Gold, the Tincture of Physick, Quintessences, and the Philosophers Stone.
If any observe his Travels, of which he writes Page 17in his Praeface to his great Surgery, he may judge how ill they hang together, and how unlike to be true. Therefore it is more probable that he had no skill in Languages or Philosophy, and therefore he travelled and consulted with Moun∣tebanks and Negromancers.
* These being so, I cannot consent to Crollius that none was above or equal to Paracelsus, who had the absolute knowledg of all divine and hu∣mane Sciences; * for we must believe the Scrip∣tures that say of Solomon, Behold I have granted thy request and given thee a wise and understanding heart, that none before thee had, nor after shal have the like. Moreover, if Paracelsus were so wise, why led he no better life? * He writes from the Apostle, That he which lacks wisdom must ask it of God, and that the beginning of his Physick is to seek first the Kingdom of Heaven. But what I said shews whether he did or not.
That he had not an absolute knowledg of all divine and humane things appears by his ab∣surd and wicked opinions: * for he writes that the Night is not the absence of the Sun, but is from the arising of the nocturnal Stars, which cause darkness. And that some Stars are like Gourds and Glasses that hold Salt, Sulphur and Mercury, from whence by the operation of the airy fire, the winds were sent, as wind bred in mans body is sent out by the lower throat. Ma∣ny absurd things are in the same Book that shew his ignorance, but his followers admire them, not searching into the truth of them, but admi∣ring Paracelsus that wrote them and taking eve∣ry absurdity for a Mystery. *
He wrote not only absurd but wicked things, Page 18shewing how a little man may be made by Chy∣mistry without a Father or Mother, and saith it is not a great secret; * and that in the new I∣lands men are not from the true Adam, parent of all, but from another Adam; in his Book Azoth, or of the wood and line of life Chap. 2. He writes, That Adam and Eve before the Fall had no Stones, Reins, or Womb, but received them after the Fall. From which and many other im∣pieties you may see that Crollius wrote falsly that Paracelsus was the most knowing man in divine and humane things. *Quercetan writes better, saying I never intended to maintain Para∣celsus his divinity, * nor to believe him in all things. He that will know more of this, let him read E∣rastus who condemns Paracelsus for seven horri∣ble blasphemies.
Let us see what he did in Chymistry and Cu∣ring where his chief worth lay, which so re∣nowned him. As for the transmutation of me∣tals, * I deny not but he did somthing therein, for Operine writes thus. He spent money prodigally, and was somtimes so poor that he had not a half-pen∣ny to my knowledg, yet he would shew the next day a purse full, and I wondered whence he had it. And Michael Neander saith he made Gold of Lead and Quick-silver, * and Franciscus in his Epistle which Andrew Labavius brings against Guibert in his defence for transmutation by Alchymy. But how he did it, and whether he made the me∣dicine or had it from another it is not known. Evaldus Vagelius a Dutch-man in his Preface to his Book of the Philosopher-stone writes thus of Paracelsus. I dare affirm that Paracelsus never knew the Philolosopher-stone, and that he under∣stood neither Raymond, Lully, nor other Authors Page 19in that Art, and besides certain reasons, I was perswaded to this belief by an Epistle from a no∣ble man, whose Father knew Paracelsus very wel, for he had had the Philosophers-stone, & could make it when he pleased, he had not so railed at Philip Marquess of Banden for ingratitude, in not paying his bargain.
As for Chymical Medicines, he brought ma∣ny to light, but not without envy, and he com∣municated not faithful such as he found out: for contemning all the ancient Chymists besides himself, he is to be suspected. I wil not here ac∣cuse him, least I seem partial. But Bernard Pe∣not learned in Chymistry, writes thus of him. *If the Works of John Isaac Holland were extant, the Works of Paracelsus would be of no worth. This is he of whom Paracelsus prophesied, saying, Elias the Artist shall come after me, who shall reveal hid∣den things. Penot hath much more, which though I believe not, yet are not contemptible. And John Crato writes to Erastus, That the Remedies he used were not his own, for I saw a Book written 200. years since by a Monk at Ulme, in which are the same Medicines which Paracelus hath here and there in his Works. * Andernachus the great Chy∣mist writes, That there was one Paracelsus a fa∣mous Master in Chymistry, but he wrote many vain and false things, and so dark, that few can benefit by reading him.
His Epitaph shews what diseases he cured, as the Leprosie, the Gout, and other incurable ma∣ladies in the body by a wonderful art. And O∣porine saith that he had an excellent activity and success in composing of remedies against all dis∣eases, and that he wrought miracles in curing of all sorts of desparate ulcers, without any prescri∣bed Page 20or observed course of diet, but he drank nights and daies with his patients, and cured them upon a full stomach and diet.
He mentions the Medicines he used, * as the Philosophical Tincture, for curing the French pox, Leprosie, Dropsie, Colick, Apoplexy, Estio∣mene, Cancer, Fistulaes, and all inward Mala∣dies, but let them believe it that please. Oporine witnesseth that he used Praecipitate, Treacle, or Mithridate, or juyce of Cherries in pills in all kind of diseases for a purge. He often bragged he raised the dead to life by his Laudanum only. A certain learned Chymical Physitian, to distin∣guish the truth of this matter; and after he had read the Chyrurgery of Paracelsus, he concluded that he cured all diseases onely with Mercury, sublimated and calcined, and give it divers names that it might not be discovered.
Many consess that he cured the most stubborn ulcers, but say that he did not perform what the Vulgar say he did in the cure of the Dropsie, Gout, Leprosie, Epilepsie, and the like, and prove by plain arguments, that he did not cure all dis∣eases. And some doubt it, because he used such diversity of remedies against the Epilepsie. Som∣times he saith it is to be cured onely by black Hellebore, somtimes by Antimony, somtimes by the liquor of Gold, somtimes by the Tincture of Coral, somtimes by Vitriol, or by Mans blood prepared, or by Mans skull. And they think that he wrote down certain Medicines promiscuosly for his memory, that in time when occasion was offered, he might make tryal of them all, and knew not which was best. And the diet of Pa∣racelsus himself seems to confirm this, which was such that he could not have such knowledge in Page 21the cure of so many desparate diseases. Nor could he cure himself, who was not only long a∣fore his death in a convulsion, but lived not a∣bove 47. years when he had promised long life unto others: when the Universal medicine, if he had had it, would have preserved, and freed him from all contagion.
Hence any may judge that Paracelsus had a good wit, and if he had been endowed accord∣ingly with the knowledg of Languages and solid Hippocratical and Galenical Philosophy, and could have used it in Chymistry, he had advan∣ced Physick, and had been famous among Phy∣sitians and Philosophers For the want of which, he divulged so many absurdities in Divinity, Philosophy, and Physick without any reason, but sate like a Dictator or Emperor in Learning, and wrote many things so soolish and confused, that his Writings are not methodical, so that he is blind with the love of Paracelsus that shall ap∣prove of his mad Doctrine. His dissolute life she∣wed that he was not a fit Reformer of Physick, much less a man absolute in the knowledg of Di∣vine and Humane things.
Chap. 5. Of the new Names and Principles by which Para∣celsians are to be known.
IT is proper to this Sect to deceive by Names and Titles, and to get the opinion of being wise thereby, witness the Titles of Paracelsus his Books, as Paragranum, Paramirum: and these words, Ens, Pagoicum, Castagricum, Iliastrum, Achaeus, Relloleum, Cherionium, Ylech. Trara∣mes, Page 22Turban, Leffas, and six hundered other words never heard in any age: and none of the followers of Paracelsus hath shewed their origi∣nal, or to what language they belong, and when they use other, they give another sense, and use parables.
But the goodness of every thing consists in that for whose cause it was made. Speech is a great gift of God given to men, that one might de∣clare their meaning to another, and that which doth not so, is not worthy the name of a speech; for the knowledg of things follows the know∣ledg of their Names.
Peter Severinus is to be blamed for this, whom the Paracelsians follow at this day, as Paracelsus himself, he useth the word Anatomy often accor∣ding to nature and constitution of things; and somtimes he useth the same word for the reso∣lution and dissolving of things. Somtimes for the place, as when he saith, The seed is anatomi∣zed to the stones, that is flows to them. Also he useth the word Tincture, to signifie the propriety from whence the force of acting proceedeth, and repeats improperly almost in every leaf, the Tin∣cture of the Pleurisie, meaning the cause of the plourisie; and the invalid Tincture of diseases, that is, the beginning of diseases.
So Paracelsus from whom Severinus had this trick, calls ancient things by new Names, but improperly. For the Hippocratical 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, and Cheirionia of Paracelsus are the same. (Ro∣rollaceum) is the same with that which is weak, and without power. Archaeus is the same with the natural spirit among Physitians and Philoso∣phers, as if Paracelsus and Severinus were such, as they ought to leave the usual words, and use Page 23new unheard of expressions. Nor is Chymistry a new thing, or first found out by Paracelsus, so that he was bound to give new names unto things when he might well have used the language and words of the old Chymists very properly. There is darkness sufficient in Nature, so that he need∣ed not to have increased it with monstrous words. It may be they spake so that they might not be understood, and to get the Name of being wise among the ignorant, and that they might not easily be confuted by any.
The conclusion is as Galen saith, That Speech is the Character of the mind, and a monstrous speech is the sign of a monstrous mind. And therefore it is intolerable to insinuate words into an ancient Discipline, and to change the custom of an art, and to desire to bind up the art to such terms: rather let the words be retained, which use hath approved, which is to judg of the force and form of speaking.
Let us come to the new way of teaching and knowing which they propound. Hitherto rea∣son and experience were the original of all know∣ledg, and whatsoever agreed with them, was ac∣counted true, and what differed from them, was rejected. And therefore the Works of Hippo∣crates, Aristotle and Galen are highly esteemed. But Paracelsus and his followers, propound all their opinions without foundation, and begin a new way of knowing, * of which Crollius speaks at large. A Physitian (saith he) must have the light of Nature and grace, from the internal and visible Man, an internal Angel, and light of Nature And if you ask what this light of Nature is, he saith, It is the Firmament that gives man all things naturally. If it be asked again, Why they who Page 24teach in the Universities, have not the light of Nature alike? He answers nothing clearly, but flies to the light of grace, and speaks of Paracel∣sus, That he was undoubtedly by the favour of Hea∣ven made the Prince and Monarch of all Physick, but shews not how.
Therefore false Chymistry hath its peculiar Religion, for because they think they have refor∣med or perfected all Philosophy & Physick, they stay not there, but proceed to Divinity, and mix prophane and holy things together: and so, they bring in any absurdity, and dispute wonderfully of the Kingdom of the Blessed, the Angels Mira∣cles, Faith, and the Resurrection.
But to come to our purpose, natural all know∣ledge is so far true, as it agrees with things, for things measure our knowledg, but not on the cō∣trary, nor are things so, because we think the so; but because they are so, we think them to be so, when we know rightly: and this being not natu∣rally in us, must come from without. Before the Fall, Adam had that knowledg, but none hath it since. Therefore whatsoever men know, is either immediately revealed from God by revelation, or learned another way. Since therfore the words of Paracelsus cannot challeng to themselves a pe∣culiar illumination, nor can we grant it; they must needs learn as other men did, and do, and learn knowledg from things.
There is a twofold faculty of knowing in man, sense and understanding. Things are presented by the external senses to the fancy, and by that to the understanding. And the soul while it is in the body, understands not without a phan∣tasm, and the beginning of knowledg is from the senses; and we make principles from those things Page 25that senses have comprehended without error. From principles we go to things unknown, which may be concluded from them. This is the ordi∣nary way of knowing and learning, by which the unlearned learn from the wise, and are instruct∣ed either by speech or books. Thus were all the Paracelsians taught: for this cause Paracelsus took such long journies. Crollius writes that he got his Chymistry by long travel, pains, and watchings, and observations. This may be spo∣ken of others of that gang.
Chap. 6. Of the Analogie of the great and little World.
THe whole Philosophy of Paracelsus is built upon the Analogie of the great and little World which they extend largely. And they of Marpurg write the opinion of the Chymists thus. The Chymists call Man a little World, * not from a su∣perficial likeness, but because he comprehends indeed, and according to the species (though invisibly) all things in himself that are contained in a visible form, in the three Kingdoms, Vegetal, Animal, and Mi∣neral, and in the whole World. This is gathered from divers places in Paracelsus his Works. Crol∣lius in his Preface writes thus. A man is a circle that contains in it all creatures. Man carries all things about him, the whole Firmament, and all the Stars, and Planets. Man hath the parts of all the world, and there is nothing in it that is not really in him. He communicates with God in his mind, with Angels in his reasonable soul, and his invisible star∣like body, and with the Stars with the same invisible body, and with the Elements by his visible earthly body.Page 26
They say there are two bodies in every man, the one physical, elementary, visible, and to be touched, made of earth, which the first man had from the earth. Another invisible, insensible from the Stars. Crollius pag. 36. calls this the Genius, Houshold God, shadow of Man, the little Man that the wise knew, Evester, and I know not what. Se∣verinus speaks warier of this, and dissents not from it.
On the contrary the Aristotelians and the Ga∣lenists use the same words with a divers mean∣ing. * And though man be called often a Micro∣cosm, yet they render another reason, why he is so called, as saith Erastus. He hath a visible E∣lementary body, a Heavenly soul, that hath po∣wer to grow and nourish as in Plants, sensible as in Brutes, and the mind is Angelical. Also he is like the World in the position of his members, and rise of them. For there are three parts of the great World, The Elementary, Coelestial, and Su∣percaelestial To these three, man answers by the head, breast, and belly; the last, Religion an∣swers the Elementary, in which there is perpetu∣al generation and corruption. By the breast in which the fountain of vital heat, he answers to the Heavens, in which is the Sun, the original of heat to the world. In his head, where the mind abides, and from which all senses come; he is not only like the Coelestial and Angelical world, but in that particular the image of God.
Hence we may gather that the Analogie of the great and little World, * is extended too large by the Chymists, because they make not an Analo∣gie, but an identity, or the same thing. For Pa∣racelsus requires in a true Physitian, that he say this is a Saphire in man, this is Quicksilver, this Page 27Cypress, this a Walflower, but no Paracelsian ever shewed this.
In this great world, not only are the Heavens and Elements, Metals and Minerals, but Plants and Beasts. Therefore Paracelsus and Severinus are out, saying, There is no flegm, choler, or me∣lancholy in the great World, therefore not in Man, for humors are found in Beasts as in Men. Also I grant there are many hidden properties in man, that agree with many natural things, not only in general, but with their species or kinds, and also with their individuals, and dissent also from them wonderfully. Hence comes the Sympathy and Antipathy of many things with mans body. The Astrologers affirm that peculiar Stars have agreement with the peculiar parts of our bodies. But the sublunary things are better known, Pio∣ny hung about the neck, cures the Epilepsie, Cantharides hurt the bladder, and no other part, the Saphire agrees with the heart, also Bezoar and Pearl, but the causes of this consent and dis∣sent, and whence these hidden qualities arise, are hard to be found. And it is more hard to find out individuals in man, as Balm and Walflo∣wers. If Paracelsus could have done it, he had done well for profit; for as cold and heat, moi∣sture and driness are in man, because the Ele∣ments are in him: and as the vital heat in the heart like that in the Heavens, is sent to the whole body; therefore because they say the pro∣perties of Balm and other plants are in man, let them shew in what subject they are, and where they lie.
They are also, because the knowledg of man is only from outward things; for there is more in the species then in the genus, or general, and Page 28there is more in man who is the end of Natural things, then in other Naturals, and what man hath in him, he hath as a man.
Therefore the soul that loves truth, is not sa∣tisfied with similitudes onely, but desires solid demonstrations; and volves things from their own, not from the principles of another. And as they who think they have demonstrative argu∣ments, are often deceived, much more may they who use only comparisons. There is nothing so like, but in some part it is unlike. Moreover, the Chymists know not the great World all o∣ver, how then can they bring us to the know∣ledg of the little World thereby? If they know it perfectly, let them examine themselves, if they can arrogate that unto themselves truly.
Chap. 7. Of the first Matter.
THe Modern Chymists call Aristotles first matter a changing Protous, a lustful Thais, and a deformed Monster.
Paracelsus cals the first Matter of all things a great Mystery, and saies thus of it. As a Child is born of its Mother, * so are all things from the great Mystery; and this is the Mother of all corruptible and mortal things. But these are but trifles being without reason, and to be rejected: or they are taken from the Greeks, and involved with hard Names.
That some Paracelsians are forgers, appears in that Paracelsus speaks otherwise of the first Ma•ter then his followers, and both without rea∣son. For Paracelsus and Dornaeus say all creat∣ed things are from the first Matter and great My∣stery Page 29stery. But the late Chymists say the first Matter was put into rude mass which was before it.
By Mystery, Paracelsus means nothing but the Matter which invisibly contains somthing in it self, or that out of which somthing comes that was not observed to be in it. So Dung is the My∣stery of Beetles, Milk of Cheese, and Butter and Whey, Cheese of Worms or Mites. And to explain him. It is an Idea or Platonick Soul of the World, or the Chaos which many Philosophers mentioned. For Pa∣racelsus his great Mystery is like the Idea of Pla∣to, for Plato writes thus. If this World be beautiful, * and the Maker good, it is plain that it was made by an eternal and permanent Pattern.* And Paracel∣sus calls this Idea, The great uncreated Mystery, and saith all things came from it, and as it is un∣created, it agrees with Plato's Idea. * In others it is the Chaos that ancient Philosophers men∣tioned. Therefore Paracelsus told us no news, but to make us think he did, he gives strange names. And he is out, when he calls the great Mystery uncreated; for it is against Scripture and reason, that any thing should be uncreated besides God.
Therefore the Chymists ought not to inveigh against the first Matter of Aristotle so much: let them take heed, lest they speak against the Crea∣tor of all things, and dispraise that which he saw to be good. For in regard there is a difference between the Matter and the form, and the gene∣ration, and corruption, and transmutation of na∣tural things cannot be denied, we cannot deny the first Matter. The form only in the Elements is not the whole Essence; nor is it from the form that a thing is of such a quantity: therefore there is somthing in material things, that with the Page 30form makes up the whole, and sustains the form, and in the Elements it is nothing but the first Matter. And because all natural bodies are ma∣terial, they must needs partake of the common matter. Let them that deny the first Matter, con∣sider that it is one thing to be begotten, another to be created, another to be corrupted, another to be reduced to nothing. Those are from som∣thing to somthing; these from nothing to no∣thing. And because one thing is made of ano∣ther, and the form is abolished there must som∣thing remain, that is the subject of the change. This Plato and Aristotle call the first Matter.
And though its Essence distinct from its form, cannot be comprehended by sense, but only by reason, yet it is not a being only of reason, or a meer figment, but a real being, and a substance or being distinct from an accident. But it hath of it self properly no existence, which is proper only to compound bodies. But it is wholly a power not as to its being, which it hath by its Es∣sence, but as to its being thus or thus: nor was it created of God as a definite and distinct species of a natural thing, but it is rather created toge∣ther with natural things, and is as it were a Ru∣diment and Principle: nor doth it remain ex∣tant any time without a form, but lies under it.
Chap. 8. Of the Elements.
Such is the confusion of the Chymists in ex∣plaining of the Elements, that we need an Oedipus to interpret. And which is worst, they go contrary to the old Philosophers, that is, from known things to unknown, by shewing of rea∣sons. Page 31And seem to command all men to believe what they say, as if they were Gods, and so wise that they might determine what they please.
Paracelsus denies not the Elements, nor his Disciples, but they speak of them otherwise then the old Philosophers do. They say the Elements are visible and invisible. The visible are the fire, air, water, and earth, which they scarce think worthy of the names of Elements, but call them dead bodies without secrets,* and that they are but shells of the Nuc-kernel contained in them, having none but relolling qualities.
But they say their Elements are invisible, and they are the essence, life and act of all beings. Paracelsus calls them the Matrices that bear and nourish fruit. Nor, say they, can generations be made from these Elements, but there are seeds in them all, which at certain times do generate. So his Element is whatsoever produceth and nourisheth fruit, or any created species. Severi∣nus divides the Elements into two Globes, to each he allows two Elements; to the upper, the Firmament, Heaven, Fire and Air: to the lower, the Earth, Water. And he saith each Element pro∣duceth its fruit. The fruits of the Firmament are Manna, and Dew-waters, Minerals, Metals, Sto∣nes, and these Elements are not mixed.
The modern Chymists follow Severinus, and Crollius saith they are lighter, but they are more dark. Thus he writes: *Our visible Elements are only the bodies and houses of others and keep off their force. The Earth is twofold, the outward visible, the inward invisible. The outward is not an Element, but the body of the Element, and is Salt, Sulphur, and Mercury: but the Element of the Earth is Life and Spirit, in which the Stars of the Earth lie, which Page 32by the body of the Earth produce all growing things: and so of the rest. In which he follows the Do∣ctrine of Paracelsus, but differs from Severinus and other Chymists.
But many things here cannot be proved. First they abuse the word Element contrary to the cu∣stom of all ages: for it properly signifies the least part of that, from which the thing is made as from its matter. But their Elements are only places, matrices, receptacles. And the place differs much from the matter.
The wiser Chymists have three principles that come from the Elements, or are joyned in the composing of natural bodies. But Paracelsus puts his principles before the Elements, and from one mixture of Salt, Sulphur and Mercury, and makes Fire;* from another Air, another Water and Earth, which no Philosophy can allow.
Others make the Elements vile and servile Bo∣dies, in disgrace of God and Nature, who made all very good. They serve God and man, and all sublunary creatures, and so are to be commend∣ed; nor are they by that of no value, or relol∣ling as they say. For the Chymists know their actions, who can do nothing with heat and cold.
They erre also in making the Elements gross Bodies, though the Earth be. Also they erre in calling them visible, they may see Earth and Wa∣ter, but when they will see air or fire, I know not. They foolishly say they are dead, because they never were alive. And it is worse that they say, The Earth is cursed.
As for their invisible Elements, * we shal believe it when they prove any such hidden under these: for their affirmations only cannot creat new be∣ings. Page 33Libavius writes well of Severinus: The good man saith he speaks well, as if he came from the treasure of Nature, and saw all open, but he proves nothing.
Severinus his Eloments being without bodies and dimensions, are not to be allowed; for all learned men say the principles of bodies are cor∣poreal. He saies they are not infinite, therefore they have dimensions and bounds. Nor doth it hang together, when he calls these incorporeal Elements, empty and void, and allows to them contrariety and resistence, and explains their in∣visible Nature. It may be that Paracelsus put one Element within another, for the form and begin∣ning of action, and original of all qualities: for when the external visible Elements, which are inferior to their internal, have noble qualities, their Elements must have more noble qualities and actions; but they never shewed us any yet. They say in general, only that they are vital and strong to nourish the seed of generation.
Nor do they prove that seeds are without their species in the Elements as they say. Nor did God put seeds in the Elements in the Creation, but into the species of natural things in the Elements. Nor are seeds seen out of the individuals in the Elements, but only in the individuals of their species. Nor did God say in the Creation, Let the seeds of Plants be in the Elements, the same rea∣son is in Animals. All things have their seed in themselves, and multiply by force of the Divine Word, and so the species are preserved.
And to that they say from Orpheus and Hippo∣crates, We know they spake often from the opinion of the Vulgar and themselves, and many things are at∣tributed to Hippocrates which were not his. And Page 34many absurdities are among the Ancients, most from ignorance of the Creation. Erastus exa∣mines their Doctrine at large.
As for the first qualities which they value not but call relolling and dead. It is foolish to fight against the experience of fense, by which it is plain, that the first qualities have great force for generation and corruption of natural things, and are as considerable as scent, savor and colour.
While we desend the Elements, we must not adhere to them alone, as some, Aristotle knew a∣bove the Elemēts, as in his Books of the Soul. And when he saith; *The vertue and power of every soul partakes of another body, which is more Divine then the Elements; and as the souls are more or less no∣ble, so is the Nature of that body. For there is in all seeds which makes them fruitful, which is heat, not a fire, but a Spirit which is contained in the seed or froathy body. And the Nature in that Spirit is like the Element of the Stars, &c.
Alexander Aphrodisaeus saith many things are in Nature that are known only by experience, * and are called by Physitians secret proprieties, and accuseth them that say the causes of such ef∣fects come from the Elements or their qualities. Galen accuseth Pelops his Master, * because he would bring all things to manifest qualities, and Scaliger saith it is great impudency to Cardan, thus. What evil genius hath lead thee to say that iron may draw the Loadstone only by mixture of E∣lements? Hence we see that Galenists and Ari∣stotelians are not drowned in the qualities of the Elements.
Also they knew the Sympathy and Antipathy of things, and we defend not them that know nothing but the first qualities. For alteration or Page 35hurt from manifest qualities, cannot kill a man so soon as poyson. Secondly, the first qualities have not very great force in a smal quantity, but poyson hath: & a little spittle of a mad Dog ly∣eth somtimes above six months in the body and then offends grievously, * which elementary qua∣lities cannot do; and so of other things, as the Loadstone, and Purgers, and Antidotes. Nor do occult qualities arise from a singular temper of things mixed unknown to us, * called Idiosynora∣sia, for occult qualities cannot arise from the first qualities. For as Scaliger saith: There is no sa∣vor or tast in any Element, as it is an Element, nor can it be in a compound from the Elements. And if occult qualities are from a singular mixture of E∣lements, may not life, laughter, sense, and vo∣luntary motion, and the soul come from the same? And to what they say, the strange actions come from the form; though the qualities are the instruments of forms, and are directed by them, yet they never loose their strength or Na∣ture, but only exercise them. If any more no∣ble action be done, it is from other faculties and qualities meeting. And while they are directed by their forms, they act not beyond the strength of their species. As things differ in essence, so they differ in operations and instruments. For heat, the instrument of a vegetative soul, * only heats; but chyle is made in the stomach, not from heat, but the chyle-making faculty. So heat in the liver makes blood by sanguification: but the soul never useth heat to cool, or moisture to heat and dry, or any thing to act beyond its strength. And the first qualities by what unspeakable way soever mixed, are not poyson in venemous beasts, but the Nature of poyson is from another princi∣ple. Page 36And as divers actions are from divers forms, so Nature hath given divers instruments to di∣vers forms, for divers actions. Therefore we must confess that the vertues in Natural things transcend the condition of the Elements, and are to be ascribed, not to the Elements or matter of things, but to the forms and their qualities.
Chap. 9. Of the Forms, Seeds, or Stars of Things.
THey say the Seeds or Stars of all things that are Natural, to be generated or corrupted, are in the empty Elements, Abyss, Hippocrates Hells, Night of Orpheus, Ilias, or Iliastrum, of Pa∣racelsus; hence all things are bred, and all acti∣ons of life and qualities came from them. And these seeds lie invisibly in the Elements pure, and are defiled by the mixture of bodies; they call them Seeds,* because they perpetually produce fruit in their season.
And Stars, because they keep the laws of mo∣tion in all natural actions. And Roots, because in them all the fruitfulness of the Tree of the World is contained. And they say every Ele∣ment hath its seeds.
And though the inserior Elements have not such perfect individuals, yet they have bodies to last for ever in their treasury, by which the per∣pertuity of the seeds and species, is kept from de∣struction.
They say the Starrie Bodies of the lower Ele∣ments are twofold; some are purer, like those coelestial, and are not seen but by the industry of Artists: and as the seeds differ in their offices Page 37and proprieties, so do the bodies.
All these are not new, but contain the vulgar Doctrine of forms, therefore they only put new names to things known.
All famous Philosophers thought that the sorms of Natural things were a Divine and un∣changeable principle, * and an instrument or hand of God the Creator. Galen calls the wonder∣ful works of generation, a great Art or Wisdom, and the Christian Philosophers say they have not their power from themselves, but their Crea∣tor at first when he said, Let Earth bring forth the herbs bearing seed, and the tree in its kind bear∣ing fruit which hath its seed. The form or soul of things, Star or Root, is the act of a thing, and the cause why the matter is actually what it is, the perfection, quiddity, and the cause of all mo∣tion in a body, and the image of a Divine essence. Therefore the modern Chymists call the Souls (Stars) for as Stars end their motions at cer∣tain times, so do the souls observe laws of mo∣tion. Black Hellebore flourisheth in Winter, the Daffodil in the beginning of the Spring, Vio∣lets in March, Roses in May, the Elder in June, the Vine and Hops in July, then they are ripe at a set time, and their motion ended, they rest till the next year. And if we knew more of the Soul, we would declare it. Though Severinus braggs he knows more, saying; I have laid the Rudiments of this Nature, and it is not fit to deolare all. But he was ignorant without doubt, as all men are.
Moreover Severinus saies that qualities, num∣bers, conformation, and other signatures come from these forms or seeds, and right, for while the inward form makes her body, she makes al∣so Page 38forms which Libavius needs not admire, for they do not by their own force, but as they are instruments in the hand of the Creator, who gives them this force, not immediately, but from his first blessing.
Therefore Severinus was not the first that taught this, but Sealiger before him, saith, That qualities, quantities, number, and order, and situati∣on are from the Soul, and she made the body for her Temple. But for truth sake, let us consider this opinion farther, and speak of the Original of Forms.
Of the Original of Forms.
THe Philosopers did not only admire gene∣ration, but labored to find out the form∣ing cause, which made the matter so perfect, and and greatness, number, figure, and order, and other things in bodies that live.
* Some despaired, Galen asketh all the Philoso∣phers, that if they have found any truth, they should communicate it, for nothing was yet known that could satisfie a learning Soul. The inquirers have divers opinions. For though neither the form, nor the matter is generated properly asunder, but the co∣pound; yet because generation cannot be with∣out the form, it is demanded whence that is.
Fernel saith the form is sent from without and shews that strength is sent to the seed with heat and spirit, * which by force of the womb, and a gentle heat, prepare the matter, that the form may be received; which done perfectly, the form comes from without by a natural mevitable ne∣cessity, and from whence forms come: he saith, That Heaven brings forth many creatures and plants Page 39from no seed, * and all the forms are contained in the form of Heaven in power, and Heaven being as it were great with child of many forms, begets al things. But he brings no probability to establish this his opinion. The Heavens help the producing of things, and nourish them, as a remote cause ex∣ternal: but give not the species to things, and if all forms should flow from Heaven, there would be no univocal generation in inferior things, and the Trees and Beasts were only the progeny of Heaven.
Secondly, it is a common opinion of the Pe∣ripateticks, that forms are raised from the power of the matter, but if the matter should contain forms in it self, and they came from it, the mat∣ter would be the most noble being, and a more noble principle then the form, and forms would be scarce worthy of the name of a principle.
Some say the matter doth not actually con∣tain the form, but there is in it a disposition to a form, which being compleated, then it is actual, what it was before in power. And the Nature of seed is, that when there is an adequate or fit ef∣ficient cause, it comes from power to be in act or form; and so this power is only a certain deter∣mination, that this, & not that, should be made of this matter. As for Example, a Chicken comes of an egg, not a Horse. But whence is this act or form or substance? doth that power and dis∣position, which is a quality, turn into a substance? or is the form made of nothing, so that the agent gives nothing of its essence unto it, * besides acti∣on? But both these are absurd and contrary to truth; namely, either that the form is made of nothing or the act is produced from the matter, and the substance brought forth from an accident. Page 40Therefore Zabarella writes better. saying, Thae when living Creatures beget their like, they commu∣nicate some of their own matter, and some of their own form; as they send forth animated seed, having the same vital faculty which is in the begetter.
From this opinion, it follows that a Living creature begets not its like, and forms do not multiply, which all the old Philophers affirm. For to a true generation and production of the like essence, a matter is not sufficient with a propen∣sity to receive the form, for then the agent and the accident of heat would conferre more to ge∣neration then the begetter, because it maketh the form be in act, which by the begetter was only in power. And so it is not explained, whence the substantial form of a thing, or the more Di∣vine and chief part cometh.
And if we grant that every form wil multiply, we need not flie to the production of forms, from the power of the matter, for the species is pre∣served by the multiplication.
So we must determine, that forms were made at the first Creatiō by a divine benediction, when God said. Let the Earth bring forth fruit and herbs bearing seed, &c. and increase and multiply by the begetter, by the help of the seed as one light is from another kindled, and manifests it self, when it hath a fit matter and instruments fit for operations. But of this we have spoken at large in Hypomn. 4. Cap. 6.
To return to our purpose. The modern Chy∣mists call that the Star, Seed, and Root of things, which the Philosophers and Physitians cal forms and Souls; but let me tel them, they make things more dark then plain, and bring Roots and Seeds into Heaven without a cause. Yet they teach Page 41right, that these forms of themselves are neither great, nor have distance of parts, nor bound to the dimensions of the living creature, only they have quantity and dimensions from the matter which they inform: as all turns of generation, and live it self, force of action and power come from the forms.
Hence what they say of the progression of seeds into a clean Scene, may be taken in a good sense. For they say that every seed takes a body and fit qualities for its nature and use; as one to go u∣pon a stage, takes a fit garment to act in: it is right, so that mean seeds coming from the Indi∣viduals of their species, not from Hell or the in∣visible Elements, nor can any Peripatetick deny it, for a plant when it first groweth from the seed hath only two smal leaves, and not a perfect stru∣cture, but daily increaseth to perfection, and so the soul of the plant makes it self a body agree∣able to its Nature.
Nor do we differ from them, when they say that hitherto many Philosophers have ascribed all actions almost to the firmament only, and the change in the Elements, is not from the stars born in them, but from the Stars in Heaven: and that seminal vertues and fruitfulness come from hea∣ven. Many Philosophers have erred in this; first because they saw inferior things to be cheri∣shed with the benigne heat of Heaven, and rai∣sed up, therefore they thought to bring the forms of things from Heaven, when indeed every thing hath its form in it self that can be multiplied. Se∣condly, because they observed the motions of the Heavens to be most orderly; when they saw any thing orderly, and to return, and certain periods beneath, they said the cause of this or∣derly Page 42motion was from Heaven, when indeed that constancy and orderly change comes from the force of things within.
But we differ from the Chymists in this, be∣cause they say that the Seeds & Stars are in their invisible Elements, and dwell there as in a pure Countrey, and rest blessedly, and then are sent into bodies. For the forms of Natural things are no where, but in the individuals of their species, by which alone they are preserved and propaga∣ted. Nor doth Severinus speak right of this, say∣ing, That the Seeds in the Celestial Element produ∣ced the Individuals, that were to endure for an age, as the Sun, Moon and Stars, for the most perfect bo∣dies have their Seeds. For we know from the Scri∣pture that God created the Lights and the Stars, as & placed them in Heaven, which cannot grow Plants do out of the Earth.
And observe the modern Chymists abuse the Name of life, and extend it too large, when they give life to the stars, and say they have vital seed, when indeed nothing can truly be said to live, in which there appears no operation of any soul, at lest of a vegetative or growing soul. They say, Me∣tals, Minerals, Gemms and Stones do live, but life in them is nothing but an Energy or operation, which is in all things, Salt, Sulphur and Mercu∣ry, Vitriol, Arsenick, Metals, Gemms and Stones do live, because they have a scent, are to be tast∣ed, and have other powers. For they say, that which hath no force or efficacy is dead: but they are out, for to act, is more general then to live, and none wil say that a withered dead plant is alive, but that which hath power to act; other∣wise by the opinion of Paracelsians, dead plants might be said to be alive, and the same thing Page 43might be at the same time dead and alive.
Aristotle and his Followers are more sound, who say that Natural things are either animated or vital, and not vital, and the principle of life is only the soul, and where there is no soul, there is no life, and therefore the parts of Plants and Animals being dead, though they have some force to act, yet can live longer.
Concerning the life of Metals, Gemms,* and Stones, not only Chymists, but Cardan and o∣thers attribute life to Metals. I say that they erre commonly in that they take Metals, Mine∣rals, and Gemms, and Stones for mixed bodies, only and simply, and teach that they have no∣thing in them besides the Elements mixed, and the form by which one Metal differs from ano∣ther, is only the form of mixture. For the effects of Minerals and Metals shew otherwise, especial∣ly the more noble, that they cannot be ascribed only to the Elements. Moreover their peculiar colours, properties and shapes shew the same, for Crystal is of one figure, the Diamond of a∣nother; some Jewels grow, and are congealed, which cannot be from only heat or cold, but from an internal form, which makes its habita∣tion as in Plants and Animals.
Therefore I shall not say that Metal, Gemms, and Stones live and are nourished, for in their in∣crease, parts only grow to parts, but they increase not in all dimensions, yet every one hath its spe∣cifick form, besides the form of mixture, out of which as in Vegetables and Animals the figure & qualities arise. And I think it not absurd, to say that every form hath its force to multiply it self. For it is most certain, that the Veins of Allum, Vitriol and Metals, being exhausted, after some Page 44time have been filled again; * of which see John Conradus Gerhard Doctor of Physick.
Nor is it absurd in Minerals, to say that the Spirit that makes gold or silver, wil grow with a sit matter, and being gold or silver, and this gold and silver before it grow solid, and be boyled out can send from it self gold and silver-making spi∣rits, which may turn a fit matter into gold or sil∣ver, and so the Mines are kept still full.
But the doubt is, * whether they grow proper∣ly. Scaliger denies Stones to grow: yet some allow a seed to Metals and Minerals, if not uni∣vocal or proper, yet Analogical or like. This I take to be certain, that these forms or seeds were first created of God, to be the principles of their kinds. And this seminal principle or spirit that formeth, * is in an hidden manner in Metals and Stones: see Anselme Boetius concerning this.
Chap. 10. Of the Spirit and inbred Heat.
SEverinus and other modern Chymists men∣tion a Natural Balsom, a vital Sulphur, a vi∣tal Mummy, and they mean nothing but the in∣bred Spirit, and natural heat, mentioned by Ga∣len and the Peripateticks.
For this natural heat, the question is not con∣cerning the bare heat or quality, but the body; for Aristotle calls it a Body, others a Spirit. And Galen saith that the natural heat is the active Spirit: * and it is better with Aristotle to call this substance a Spirit, then with the Physitians (a Natural Heat) although it signifies not only a naked quality, but a substance. Yet this appel∣lation Page 45came frō the perfectest animals, which are hot when touched, and act by a heat that may be felt: for in plants there is the same spirit, but it is not to be felt, though it is in the coldest wea∣ther in them.
The word Spirit is used diversly, but here for a substance thin and subtile that belongs to the constitution of animals, vegetables, and other things, which the form or soul useth as a princi∣ple instrument to act by.
But whether is this Spirit of Aristoles of an e∣lementary Nature? We deny not that it is joy∣ned with elementary heat, so that it can scarce be found without it, as the animal faculty is not found without the natural. But if you ask if that Spirit have nothing in it but what is elementary, we answer with Fernel, Variola, Schenkius, and others, that there is somthing spiritual in natural things besides the Elements.
To prove this, take Scaligers arguments, * say∣ing, Every form of a perfect mixture, though it be not a soul as in a Diamond, hath a fifth Nature di∣stinct far from the four Elements. From whence there is a strong argument against Alexander that made the soul to be composed of the four Elements. There is in the powers of the soul which never was in the powers of any Elements. But there is nothing contained in any thing that was not actual in its principles: for the princi∣ples are the acts of those things of which they are principles. But in the soul there is faculty to move forward, backward, to the right or left, which is not in any Element; also there are ma∣ny powers in the soul which are not in the Ele∣ments.
This strong argument we apply thus to our Page 46purpose: There is that in the powers of this Spirit or heat, which never was in the powers of any Ele∣ments, and the powers are more excellent. Therefore this Spirit is not only from the Elements. Another is from Aristotle, though he only applies it to Seeds. *That which partakes of a Spirit, in which there is a Nature that answers in a certain proporti∣on to the heavenly heat, hath a body better then the Elements. But every soul hath such a Spirit, ther∣fore it partakes of a body better then the Ele∣ments. For certainly there is a more divine ver∣tue then the Elements, in a body that is better then the Elements. For the vertue and the sub∣ject must answer each other; hence it is that ac∣cording to the noblenss and ignobleness of the soul, the begetter of those vertues, and the sub∣ject body, are different. And because this Spi∣rit makes fruitful seeds, like the coelestial heat in proportion, I thus argue. A heat like the caele∣stial, is more divine then an elementary heat, but the heat of the seed is such, therefore it is more divine. I prove the major from the efficacy of both heats: That heat is more like coelestial heat, whose ope∣ration comes nearer to the efficacy of a coeleitial heat: but the heat of the seed comes nearer the acting to the coelestial heat then the heat of the Elements; and therefore is more like the coele∣stial heat: * for the heat of the fire is not so sweet and benigne, as that of the Heavens. Therefore Libavius writes that neither the common Ele∣ments, nor the vertue of them all, nor any con∣junction of them, can effect that Rhubarb should purge, or that a flie should not be bred. The heat of Animals is from the Elements, as it is heat, but as it is fruitful, it is from a nobler cause. As for examples the hammer makes a pot, not as it is Page 47iron, but as it hath a power from the Artificer.
If they say this heat is elementary, but it acts more powerfully in a mixt body then when it is simple, we say that it cannot act beyond its strength in a mixt body, and nothing can do what is not in its own nor in the Elements pow∣er with which it is mixed. And if these noble actions may be from the mixture of Elements & temper of the first qualities, why may not life, voluntary motion sight, and all animal actions, and the Soul it self as Alexander saith be fetcht from the same mixture?
We grant that heat doth much as it is the in∣strument of the Soul, which alone it cannot do, as it hath divers effects, as to make chyle in the Stomach, blood in the Liver, but these actions are not to be attributed to heat alone, but to the Soul that useth the heat. Yet it followeth not hence that all actions which are nobler then those of the Elements come from the Soul, for the dead parts of beasts have some operations and force which cannot be reduced to the Ele∣ments, Why then may there not be actions in li∣ving creatures and accidents which come not from the Soul? what is common to the Soul with Scents, Savors, Colours? Therefore do they that deny this heat to be like that of the E∣lement of the Stars, in vain flie to the Soul: For the divers distinct qualities, affections and actions in natural things are to be refer'd to the distinct principles from whence they flow, for e∣very species hath its proper qualities and powers as reason is in a man, heat, cold, moisture, dri∣ness, come from the Elements, and divers tem∣peraments that arise from them, also lightness and heaviness, and what cannot be referr'd to Page 48these, comes from another principle.
To this belong the intentional qualities, as the visible species known to all, and others like: hence are many hidden consents and dissents of things which have their subjects, in which they are and from whence they come, as for exam∣ple, many cannot abide the presence of a Cat though she be in a Cupboard, and they neither see nor hear her. So there are many hidden in∣fluences of heavenly bodies, which affect a man, and yet they are not perceived either by sight, hearing or scent, or any other sense, but only by the affect: we confess that somthing doth flie out of the Load-stone to the Iron by which it comes to it, but sense cannot comprehend it.
And this is the chief foundation of natural magick (if there be any) some say it is the perfection of Natural Philosophy which doth wonders by the fit application of Agents and Patients, others deny it. First, because Physick is a Science, but this Magick is an operation, therefore it cannot be the end and perfection of Natural Philosophy. Secondly, what is delive∣red by Baptista Porta concerning Natural Ma∣gick are not above and besides the condition of Nature. * They think best of this, that say some Magick is from the Devil by an open and ex∣press league; another which is honoured of ma∣ny as being Natural, which comes from a silent bargain with the Devil, and to this belongs that which Plato writes of in his Alcibiades: thus the Magick of Zoraster is in the worship of Gods which were Devils. It was famous among the Aegyptians and Chaldaeans, and the Paracel∣sians at this day commend it highly. We de∣ny not that Magick Natural, which goes be∣yond Page 49the bounds of Nature, and which consists in a Sympathy of Natural things.
But to the business. The conditions of Natu∣ral heat are different from those of the Elemen∣tary: for in cold Animals and Plants cold in re∣spect of their elementary temper, the inbred Heat is the cause of all attraction, excretion, in∣crease, generation and life, this is not in the Ele∣mentary, and the heat there is not contrary to the cold, for Plants and their seeds and roots in winter and frost keep their strength, and often they grow under the Snow, and if that heat were Elementary, it would be easily overcome of the cold.
Moreover, that Spirit and body like the Air is swifter and lighter then any Element, and hath fit heat to perform all actions agreable to its kind, from whence it hath its denomination in Animals: * Also this body hath great piercing force, and Aristotle calls it a Spirit.
Nor is it absurd for Spirits to pierce each o∣ther, for the Animal, Vital, and Natural pass through each other without confusion; as may be observed in the Eye, which lives, feels and fees, which actions are performed by divers mo∣tions.
It is not hard to answer Zabarells argument concerning the heat like the Airy Element. He thinks there are not two heats in a living crea∣ture, one Elementary the other Vital, because two accidents cannot be in one subject, of the same species distinct in number. First I deny that they are of the same species. Secondly, that they are in the same subject, the Elementa∣ry heat hath fire for its subject, the vital or coe∣lestial hath the spirit or body like the Element of Page 50Stars. and if the subjects be mixed, there is no∣thing hinders that these two heats should be u∣nited.
To conclude, * To know the nature of Spirits, read Quercetans History, where he shews that a Rose or Marigold in a Glass sealed up by Her∣mas his Seal, may revive by their Spirit, like the Resurrection. Libavius saith the same which the haters of Chymistry have not observed.
Chap. 11. Of the Principles of the Chymists.
ISaac Holland, Basil Valentine, and after them Paracelsus and Severinus make three Princi∣ples of Chymistry, and also Quercetan, they are Salt, Sulphur and Mercury, they give the names of the Species in which the faculties are most flourishing, liquors of Mercury, oyls of Sulphur, thicker bodies are called Salt, not that they are the principles of things, but because the diffe∣rences of three substances of which all bodies are made, with the properties and conditions are not explained more in any species of Nature. And being there are three orders of the bodies of the lower world, Animals, Vegetables and Mine∣rals. *Severinus shews that these three principles are to be found in every individual of them. And they say a Physitian must resolve all bodies into these principles, and all the properties of all bodies are found either in the Salt, Sulphur, or Mercury: nor do they plainly declare their offices in the constitution of things. Severine saith Salt gives the consistence of solidity and coagu∣lation, Sulphur with his oyl tempers the congelation Page 51of the Salt. And Mercury by dewing it with a fluid substance, makes the mixture more easie.
Quercetan saith the divers tast is from Salts, * sent from Sulphur, and colour from both, especially from Mercury. And Hermes called these three, the Spirit, Soul, and Body; Mercury the Spirit, Sul∣phur the Soul, Salt the Body.
Begwin saith, * falt is the bond of the other bo∣dies, that Mercury and Sulphur flie not away. Sulphur is like the Sun, digests, concocts, nou∣risheth, generateth, pleaseth the scent, consumes superfluities in the body, attracts. That Mercu∣ry is the Spirit of the World from the great My∣stery: so they are not fixed in delivering their principle, and explain not what they are, nor di∣stinguish them, for they say they are in each o∣ther, as Sulphur and Mercury in Salt, in Mercury Salt and Sulphur, in Sulphur Salt, Mercury.
They call these Vital Principles, because they give strength, faculty and power to things, and are the causes of actions. They call them also formal Principles, because they give power of a∣ction to things, and open the hidden waies of a∣ction, and supply the explication of occult qua∣lities.
Now are there such principles; How, and of what things are they principles? * I reject their opinion, because they say they were before the Elements and Heaven is made of them. For they have not proved them to be the principles of things subject to generation and resolution.
The Learned modern Chymists dare not de∣fend this, but say the Elements were before these principles in order of natural bodies. Therefore let us see whether there are other principles be∣sides the Elements, of natural sublunary bodies, Page 52Metals, Minerals, Gemms, Stones, Flants, and Animals? I say Chymical principles were not before the Elements as simple bodies, but either mixed or peculiar natures made at the first Crea∣tion, with other kinds of natural things, as the principles of their kind, which among themselves and mixed with the Elements, give convenient matter to other natural things subject to genera∣tion and corruption, as Metals, Minerals, Gems, Stones, Plants and Animals.
When I say they were mixed, I deny not the concurrence of other Elements to their constitu∣tion: as resolving of them doth prove to the Chymists. Moreover, I suppose that they have their peculiar forms from God in the first Crea∣tion, as was given to other kinds of natural things as Scaliger saith: *The form of every perfectly mix∣ed body, though it be not a Soul, as in a Diamond, is of a fifth Nature, and far differing from the four E∣lements. And I suppose that from these diversly mixed, by concurrence of the Elements, the di∣vers bodies of natural things are made, and that the divers qualities and accidents come imme∣diately from the same, as from their first and pro∣per subjects, which others in vain bring from the Elements only: for there is no force in the Ele∣ments to produce scents, savors and colours. And if there be any, it is that Spirit which Aristotle saith is like the Element of the Stars.
And let none think that there is a matter re∣quired for mixture from the regions of the four Elements: for when God created the Elements, he mixed them by his Word, and gave them their peculiar forms, and seminal, and essential rea∣sons, like those of Heaven, and so he keeps on still the course of Nature by propagation of the Page 53species in the Individuals. And now since the Creation those principles are to be seen in the Water and the Earth from divers corruptions.
For as the order in Nature is that inferior things should serve the superior, so it is in bodies the Elements are first: thence Salt, Sulphur and Mercury, or the first mixture by what Name so∣ever termed; which though made of Elements, yet have they forms by which they differ, that a∣rise not from the forms of the Elements mixed together, but from the first Creation. Then from these being diversly mixed, by concurrence of the Elements, Minerals, Metals, Stones, and Gemms, Plants, and Animals receive their mat∣ter and bodies; in which by the form of every species, they are diversly bounded: as we see Salt drawn from the Earth, may be taken out of the Plants that drew it, and Creatures feed∣ing upon plants, are changed, but never plainly change their Nature.
And this is not against the Ancients, though these names are not mentioned, it is sufficient that the thing is stil extant, and we may put new names to things newly known, because words are at mens disposing.
Hippocrates saith, *That Plants drew not only heat and cold, moisture and driness, or that which was mixed of them, but whatsoever was in the Earth agreeable to their Nature, whether four or bitter, sweet or salt. And man is nourished of them, and every living creature also, and therefore they are in man and them, and natural bodies are made of them being mixed; and when they are well tempered together, they cannot be seen, nor be troublesom to man. But when they are not well tempered, they offend: he writes thus. Heat Page 54alone is not the cause of a disease, * but heat and bitter∣ness, or heat and sharpness, or heat and saltness, and many more are the causes of diseases. Hence the cure of pestilent, malignant and venemous diseases is divers, and hence are the divers Symptomes in malignant and pestilent Feavers and constituti∣ons which cannot be from only putrefaction or distemper.
And though Hippocrates names not plainly Salt, Sulphur and Mercury, yet the Chymists cal them four, bitter and salt.
But by what arguments we may prove there are such Principles? First, wheresoever the same affects and qualities are in many, they must be in them by some common principle, as all things are heavy by reason of the earth, and hot by rea∣son of the fire: but colours, scents savors and the like, are in Minerals, Metals Stones, Jewels and Plants Therefore they are in them by some common principle and subject but the Elements are not such a principle because they have no power to produce such qualities. Therefore we must search for some other principles. And they are deceived who think to prove colours, scents and savors to come from the Elements.
The next is the argument of Galen and Ari∣stotle.* Natural bodies are made of such things as they are resolved into, but they are resolved into those three principles, therefore they are made of them. It is evident that Salt is in all things, and may be drawn from them, as from Plants and Animals. And though Chymists say that Metals are made only of Sulphur and Mer∣cury, yet they speak of the next principles, as Physitians when they say that seed and blood are the principles of mans body, deny not the four Page 55Elements. And he that knows Metals right, and can make Crystals of thē, may easily find Salt in them. And though all mixed bodies tast not Salt, yet it doth not thence follow that there is no salt in them: nor can we deny fire to be in all mix∣tures, though all things are not felt to be hot: nor is this Salt to be accounted earth, because Salt is hot and dry and clensing, but earth is cold and dry.
What I have said of Salt, may be said of Sul∣phur, it is plain to be found not only in Plants, * but Metals and Minerals, and as Cornelius Mar∣tin writes, Sulphur is in all Metals except gold, I mean combustible Sulphur that will flame and smell as the ordinary Brimstone. Nor are they bound to shew the pure principles, it is enough to shew the bodies in which they excel.
The forms of Chymical Elements or Princi∣ples do not their duty then, * but since forms are made for a more active composition, the superi∣ors are made subject, and are instead of matter, and are called hot or dry, as they are mixed by the predominate Element. So from these prin∣ciples are four, salt, combustible and scented things, and when a mixed body is corrupted, some parts turn to fire, earth and air, others in∣to Salt, others into Sulphur, and to be plain and short, the Chymical principles are in other mix∣tures, as the Elements are in them, and are so brought forth: now in the next Chapter we shal shew how Elements are in mixed bodies: but for the matter in hand, I am of their side that hold the Elements are whole in mixed bodies according to their forms; and when a mixed bo∣dy is resolved again into the Elements, the Ele∣ments return not again in specie or kind, but in Page 56number, I shal stand to this, till I am convinced by solid reason.
Nor is the same quantity of Salt or Sulphur drawn by the same fire out of any body, for much Salt is drawn from Wormwood, Fennel, Vine-branches, but very little from the Gourd or Cowcumber.
But they object that the resolution is artificial not natural, and the axiome that all things are made of such things as they are resolved into, is ment of natural, not artificial resolution. But we deny that Chymical resolutions are not na∣tural, if we consider the immediate agent though the Artificer be joyned, for they are from heat and fire, which are natural causes; as for exam∣ple: When a plant is burnt to make Salt, the a∣ction is plainly natural, not in respect of the plant which is destroyed, but in respect of the a∣gent. When the spirit of Wine is raised by heat, the action is as natural as when the same spirit is sent to the brain by the heat of the stomach and liver, or when a thing is evaporated by the heat of the Sun. Therefore we say, the thing made by the Chymists is natural in its being, the action of heat by which it is made is natural, and the motion of the thing is natural. But it is artifi∣cial in respect of the Chymists putting it into a vessel, and applying fire to it: nor is it any o∣therwise artificial then health, which is recover∣ed by the help of a Physitian.
The use of Chymical principles is, that the proprieties which are in mixed bodies, and can∣not be immediately shewed from the Elements, may be shewed from them, as the next and pro∣per principles; as it is plain in the searching out of the faculties of Medicines. For though ErastusPage 57thinks that all these may be fetcht from the Ele∣ments, he proves it not; let them tell me why, when Opiats are distilled, the vapors cause sleep, so that the servants are many times sound asleep, other vapors do not the same? Why doth the fume of Lead and Quicksilver corrode gold, not the fume of Vitriol and other things? Why doth only a flegm distil from spirit of Vitriol and seal∣ed Earth? These questions cannot be answered without the Principles of the Chymists, onely from the Doctrine of the Elements and Mete∣ors.
Nor do I think all the proprieties of bodies are to be reduced to the Chymical principles, for some come from nobler forms, as I shewed. Nor am I of opinion in all things, and I dispute not here whether the force of purging be from Salt; only in general I say some properties are from Salt, others from Sulphur, and in what mixture soever such a property is found, there you must seek for the principle, hence arise the profitable separations of Chymists.
But note, these common Principles as such, are not proper and next principles of particular affects; nor is force of purging from Salt, nor is a narcotick force from Sulphur as Sulphur, for then all Salts would purge, and all Sulphur would be narcotick. But these principles as they are common, are only the principles of common affects, but the special affects come from deter∣minate principles.
So we have shewed in general, that besides the Elements, there are other principles of mixed things, nor is the generation made immediately from the Elements, but there are other bodies which as the first subjects, some qualities do Page 58flow, which cannot come from the Elements, which Hippocrates acknowledged, and the Chy∣mists have given them names: and I care not what the names are, so the thing be true.
But as for the species, number and nature of particulars, it is not clear, I will pin my self up∣on no mans sleeve, but give my judgment, not to dissent, but consent with the Aristotelians and Galenists, if it may be.
The three Principles are, Salt, Sulphur, and Mercury, I'le give my judgment of every one. First for Salt, * it is so plainly in every natural bo∣dy, that Pliny saith, Salt is a necessary Element, only consider the growth of Plants, what makes them fruitful and flourish: the chief cause is piss which hath much Salt, and consider that there is no art used.
As for the properties of Salt. It is first a thing to be tasted, and all things to be tasted are so from Salt; nor is Kitchin-salt the only Salt, but that in Mustard, Rhadish, Garlick, Vinegar, Choler, Allum, Vitriol, and the like. And be∣cause tast and feeling are senses united, and have objects alike, acrimony is ascribed also to Salt, and that which twitcheth the feeling is Salt. Hence there is in smoak, Radishes, Watercres∣ses, Onions, and the like force to twitch the eyes from the volatile Salt in them, Secondly, Salt will melt in moisture, and be hard in a dry place which earth will not, and though earth dissolve in water, yet it melts not in it as Salt, much less will earth melt in a moist air as Salt wil. Thirdly, from Salt is the coagulation of all things, the Crystal and Diamond are hard from Salt, the Metals are strong, also Bones, Herbs, and Trees consist by it.Page 59
Also the stone in the bladder and kidnies grow together from Salt. The Chymists prove this by many things in the Sea that grow, as Coral and Waters that make stones, the growing of Vitriol and Allum, and other Salts in the water. More∣over they who have the stone, piss like snot or the white of an egg, which taken into a clout, turns to a stone, and it hath much Salt, because it is sharp and corroding, and causeth pain in pis∣sing, the cause of these cannot be heat, cold, or driness. For stones bred in the bladder in cold and membranous parts, and in infants in whom there is no excess of heat, but manifest signs of crudity. And how can a stone-making juyce be caused of heat in a cold Well that turns, sticks into stones? Nor can cold be the cause, because stones are found in the arteries of the heart, and in the heart and lungs. Nor are these causes by accident, or by drying up the moisture; for in some waters things turn to stone, of which An∣shelme Boetius speaks. * Also stones breed in the kidnies and bladder, where moisture is never wanting, and there can be no such drying.
Hence they think it in vain to seek for the cause of concretion in external causes, but to consider the internal matter and disposition, by which stones are made hard: nor are they against Philosophy.
I shall deliver my opinion in short. First there are many equivocations by which they are bafled in the causes of coagulation and concretion, for concretion and coagulation are not the same, for juyces and gums, and water, and many other things may be concreted, as ice by cold, and clay by the Sun. There is Crystal and glass, and so∣lid Metal, but they are not concreted from the Page 60same cause; nor is water or Crystal hard or con∣creted from the same cause. To speak distinctly, the question is not here of things which are coa∣gulated, and made hard only by driness, after the moisture is consumed, by which they were soft before, or by nature were concreted, and made fluid by heat, and then concreted again by cold. But in regard many things congeal in moi∣sture, and grow together hard, whose cause is neither heat nor cold nor driness, we must think of another internal cause.
Two kinds of concretion are to be here consi∣dered, which are when no part of the matter is taken away, or any other added, but the whole taking its consistence and concrescence from moi∣sture, which we want fit words to distinguish. The Chymists call one of these by the High∣dutch word Schiessen: this coagulation is pro∣perly of Salts, as Vitriol, Allum, Niter; Salts of Herbs, come from a moisture to a consistence. This is of Salt properly, and they by nature tend to this by their form. But being there is one form by nature of Niter, another of Vitriol, another of Allum, another of common Salt. Every Salt according to its form and proper spirit, coagula∣teth and grows together in this or that figure, so do Gemms concrete in certain figures, * for every form makes bounds to the bigness and quantity and sigure, as Zabarel shews.
Another sort of concretion is called Lapides∣centia or turning to stone, the next and adequate cause of this, is not the Elements, nor the princi∣ples of Chymistry only, but a stone making juyce or spirit, which is not without Salt, and contains more then Salt, as the order of nature is, to go from simples to things more compound. This Page 61is in all Jewels and Stones, but according to their special forms. We said it was a spirit and a juyce, but the chief force is in the spirit, and the juyce hath it from the spirit, because that stone-make∣ing force is found in the spirit without the juice.
As for the differences of Salts, they are alte∣red in divers Plants and Animals, as in corrupti∣on of humors there are divers differences. There is Salt in Vitriol, Allum, Sal Armoniack, Iron. There is a volatile Salt in a Nettle, Arsmart, Co∣kow-pints, smal Celandine, Mustard. There is a salt in humors that causeth the Itch, Scab, Can∣cer, and other corroding Ulcers. There are made Salts, as Borax, Sal Armoniack, and the like.
Sulphur is another Principle of the Chymists, which is properly to burn, and nothing burns without it. The Elements of themselves are not inflamed, and if they seem to burn, it is from the sulphurous vapors in them. Therefore Sulphur is the first scented thing, and other things are smelt by their Sulphur, many things that are ve∣ry sweet, being whole, scent not, but when they are burnt or bruised. Hence it is that Sulphur and Fats scent not much but when they are burnt or smoak.
Some joyn scents and savors in a subject, and say the scent is of the savory part, but experience shews otherwise; for there are many most savo∣ry, and sharp things which have little or no scent as Arsenick, Sublimate, Mercury, and other cor∣roding Minerals that have little or no scent.
Some impute colours to Sulphur, and more probably then to Salt, but in colours the matter is more difficult. Aristotles Interpreters that bring colours from the mixture of the Elements, proye nothing. Therefore let the principle of Page 62colours be Sulphur, or as Anshelme Boetius saith, God himself who gives colours as well as shape to Jewels, and the like, for they come from the proper seminary of every thing.
Common Sulphur, Petroleum or Naphtha, Amber and Sea-coal have much Sulphur. Gums and Rosins of fat Trees, as Pine, Fir tree, Pitch, Oyl, and the like. Fats of Beasts, of which see Libavius.* He useth the word Bitumen general∣ly, as the Chymists use Sulphur.
The third Principle is Mercury somtimes ta∣ken for Quicksilver, * somtimes for a Principle Salt and Sulphur. Severinus saith it is added to the other Principles, that by daily moistning of them, to nourish them from decay by often acti∣on. *Quercetan saith it is a liquor sharp and pe∣netrable, pure and aetherial, and so saith Beguin. But they agree not, therefore Libavius writes that the modern Chymists describe Salt. Sulphur and Mercury by Notes, but when we ask what it is, they consound all, and say that Salt is in Sul∣phur and Mercury, * and Sulphur and Mercury in Salt, and Mercury and Salt in Sulphur, and then he gives this definition. Mercury is an essential Liquor drawn by the Chymists from a mixed body af∣ter the elementary impurities are separated, opposite to the Sulphur and Salt of the same mixed body.
To speak my mind, if there be any such Mer∣cury, it is a spiriful Liquor or Spirit, which can scarce be separated from subtile Sulphur and vo∣latile Salt to be seen by it self: and though it be not seen, it is no matter, for pure fire is not seen, nor air, nor the spirit in Animals, which are true parts of the Nature of things, and the best. Such things (saith Scaliger) deceive the vulgar eyes, but wise men see them. But I appeal to the Learned, Page 63whether I be absurd in making these principles mixed with the Elements, the common matter for the habitation of forms of the Natural bo∣dies.
To conclude Metals, Minerals, Stones, and Gemms, and Plants are not simply mixed, and have not only their forms from the forms of the Elements, much less from a double exhalation which maketh the next matter of Meteors, be∣cause they have better actions, then are from E∣lementary qualities and a double exhalation. But the Elements give them matter with the chy∣mical. Principles, and may hence be better by the causes of many things, then from the doctrine of Meteors. We can clearly shew Salt and Sulphur from a Chymical separation, though they are not manifest before.
We desire to know more of Mercury, not of the Metal, but of the Principle. Aristotle attri∣butes all to a Spirit, which the Chymists do to Mercury, for Quercetan and Beguin call it a sub∣stance, or body to be passed through penetrated, aethereal, pure, subtile, quickning, and the next instrument of the form, and call it the Spirit of ancient Hermes.
The Chymists call that vital Sulphur, which Aristotle calls the Natural heat, and describe their Mercury as that it is in the Natural heat. And this Sulphur and Mercury are so united in Na∣ture, that they cannot wel be separated, but when the Sulphur is on fire, Mercury flies away. Also the actions from the whole substance, and the hidden qualities are attributed to this Spirit, as to the proper subject; this in poysons is a vene∣mous spirit, in purges a purging spirit.
As for the original of these Principles, some Page 64think them to be the first mixtures: others to be peculiar natures in the first Creation concreted with other species of natural things, to be of the Nature of the Elements. He that will embrace the first opinion, must hold that these bodies have nobler forms, by which they are more no∣ble then the Elements, and from which other qualities flow that are not in the Elements: * so that is true of Scaliger. Every form of any perfect mixture, though it be not a soul, is of a fifth Nature far different from the four Elements. For God crea∣ted forms and substances like that of Heaven, & put them into natutal bodies. These opinions whether they be mine, or other learned men, do no whit diminish the splendor of Aristotelean Philosophy, and Galenical Physick, for he that supplies a defect, overthrows not the former.
Chap. 12. Of Generation and Mixture.
THe former Principles being granted, the modern Chymists lay down Generation & Mixture, thus. They place the groud of generati∣on in seeds, and define generation thus. It is the progression of seeds from their fountains and abysse, and vital Principles, into this scene of the world, by which from invisible things they become visible, and produce all the ornaments of all bodies; and by this renovation of individuals, they preserve the perpe∣tuity of all species or kinds.* And they add many things out of Severinus; as that seeds have this power, that they acquire to themselves things consen∣taneous or agreeable, and that they are not in every subject, but in such a hot, cold, moist, or dry body, or Page 65this or that Salt, Sulphur or Mercury. For the con∣firmation of which they quote Hippocrates,* say∣ing: That nothing wholly perisheth, nor doth any thing arise that was not before, &c. And after he saith thus, Light goes, and is transmuted into Jupi∣ter, darkness into hell, and light into hell, and dark∣ness into Jupiter, &c.
For say they, bodies being adorned with the signa∣tures of seeds, and clothed with comeliness, represent the image of light; but when they wither and loose the vigor of their seeds, they are covered with dark∣ness, and therefore are called dark. And Severinus saith, That Operations are by mechanick Spirits, which being not armed with knowledg, are dispersed into naked vapors and smoak.
They assign three kinds of generation to the in∣ferior globe, namely of Animals, Vegetables and Minerals. They say that in Animals there is a seminal matter, in the animal Balsom, the vital Sul∣phur, in the vital Spirit and Mummy, which is al∣waies in man. Perfect creatures beget, and are begotten onely of their own proper seeds. O∣thers from seed and putrefaction, as Mice. But Plants have a thicker body, more slimy, in res∣pect of the seed of Animals, and in them some parts resemble the testicles or stones, by which the seed is prepared more perfect, and more safe∣ly kept, and such parts by that do propagate the seminal matter. Hence it is that some plants pro∣pagate by their seed, others by their roots, others by other waies.
They make the generation of Minerals much different from the former. Their seeds and species∣flourish in the seminal reasons of the matter, and are kept in the Night of Orpheus, and the Hell of Hip∣pocrates, or the Iliastrum of Paracelsus, and there Page 66they expect their fate which is destinated, and at times appointed, they enter into the world with vital Prin∣ciples and mechanick Spirits. They deny not life to be in Minerals, but prove it to be from the times of maturity, from the fixed Periods of Pa∣roxisms, by orderly running of the veins from the agreeable compositions of their bodies, from their tast and colour. Also they acknowledg no greater art in living forms, then what is in the variety of their colour, scent and tast, and that the colour of a Saphire, and hardness of a Dia∣mond are as wonderful as the organs of a Bat.
As for the upper Globe, there are in it certain distinct generations. For in the Celestial Elements (they say) there are perfect Individuals that last with admirable vigor. And that they flourish with aboundance of vital spirit, which being fermented to a due exaltation and maturity, go into the air with a spiritual invisible, but abundant fertility; and having acquired bodies as fit garments, they produce their fruits.
They say some Stars are made to produce winds, some Eastern, some Western, some Sou∣thern, some Northern. And these Stars have not only the first qualities, but other vertues and properties. And that there are Stars for rain, hail, snow, lightning, fair weather, and for o∣ther Meteors. That every month the Moon by a new generation produceth fruits, and that there are vital principles of generation in the air, that at appointed times are hot with the dispensation of their fruits.
They deny that the change of times are from the lower or higher position of the Sun, or from the obliquity of its beams, or from the direct in∣fluence of them: but they say some Stars are for Page 67Summer, others for Winter. The Sun is the chief Summer star, but if it should be without the rest, there would be a perpetual Winter. That the Moon is the chief Winter-star, and that the Sum∣mer-stars do spring up as plants in the Spring, and die again. And that as Trees are not every year alike fruitful, * so those Stars are somtimes barren, somtimes fertile. Paracelsus makes the like generation of Winds, Rain, Snow, Lightning, Thun∣der, the Rain-bow, and the Morning, &c.
This is their opinion of generation, and they make a mixture accordingly: they say the mo∣ver of mixture is a vital Principle, adorned with Knowledg by the power of which, the Divine of∣fices of mixture are performed. *
They say that Transplantation is an accident of generation, as the faculty of the seed is strong or weak, and as the spirits of seeds are subject. That transplantations are seldom in perfect crea∣tures, and not in any but such as are alike in seed and Nature; as Wolves and Dogs may mingle. Horses and Asses: but in such as the difference of Sexes is not apparent, there are usual Trans∣plantations. They say that in Vegetables and Minerals, Transplantations are companions of generation; so Calamints turns into Mints, be∣cause the seed is equivocal: so there is the form of Darnel in Wheat, but as a servant or compa∣nion, which if it get outward, aid will turn Ma∣ster, and bring in its own signatures. See Severi∣nus for more of this.
Of all these we thus think. When they say that generation is the progression of seeds from their fountain and abyss into the stage of the World, they tell us no news, for it is the opinion of the most ancient Greeks, not only of Hippocrates but Page 68of Hermes Tresmegistus, Dionysius, Aropagita, Apollonius, Thyaneus. And this error came from their ignorance of the Worlds Creation, from which every thing hath its Nature and Being. Therefore they supposed that all things came forth into light from night, hell, and an invisible abyss, and returned thither again. But the Scri∣pture teacheth otherwise, * for God said, Let the Earth bring forth fruit. The herb that brings seed, and the Tree fruit after their kind, and it was so. Let the Water bring forth living creeping things, and let the Birds flie over the Earth in the air. Let the Earth produce Creatures after their kinds, beasts and creeping things, and it was so. And that God blessed the Creation, saying: Increase and mul∣tiply. Hence it appears that God by his power created the kinds of all natural things, and gave them their forms and bodies. He that made the Elements, mixed them according to his Wise∣dom, and joyned them with those close Princi∣ples. Thus all things are multiplied by the di∣vine blessing, and preserved to this time, so that the species of Plants and all living Creatures are only in their Individuals. God at the Creation gave forms to all things, and made them not of the Elements, as some modern Writers say, that know nothing but the Elements.
Therefore the forms of things come not from an abyss, and take fit bodies by their Mechanick spirits, but God in the Creation gave every thing its form, * which multiply by his blessing. The o∣ther opinions are bawbles, like the gate by which Aeneas came from Hell. Libavius and Erastus have written at large against them.
What they say of the superior Globe, and its fruits, and generations, is absurd and ridiculous, Page 69against both reason and experience, the Stories of Lucian are more probable; and Erastus saith right of Paracelsus. The Principle upon which all his Doctrine of Meteors stands, besides its prophane∣ness against Scriptures, is so foolish and simple, ab∣surd and ridiculous, and false, that a man cannot without fear of disgrace, rehearse them, or speak of the confutation of them among wise men.
What they say of the generation of Plants and Animals, may agree with Aristotle, if they would allow that the species came not from an abyss or Hippocrates his Hell, but the propagation came from seeds; as that corporal things are made of incorporeal, and incorporeal of corporal. For they differ rather in words then sense from Ari∣stotle and Galen, because spirits somtimes are con∣densed into bodies, and bodies are turned into spirits, when vital and animal spirits are made of blood.
Their Doctrine of Transplantation, is not to be disallowed altogether, for it is probable by many things in Nature, that the same form may be in a divers body, or many forms, may be in one seed, but subordinate, so that one be chief, the other servants, as appears in the silk-worm: but every worm doth not breed from every plant and the forms of such worms are subordinate to the forms of the Plants and other Animals. *Sca∣liger and others shew what worms are from such and such Plants.
I spake in my Hypomnema Chap. 5.8. of Scotch Geese, and also of the degenerating of Plants in∣to other; for it is certain that they are changed, but not every one into any: if that be observed, there may be a cause given of many generations.
Some flie to an equivocal generation and pu∣trefaction, Page 70therefore it is questionable whether there be any generation truly equivocal, without any seed? Therefore consider that for the propa∣gation of all Plants and Animals, there is requi∣site an inbred matter rightly disposed, by which the form may propagate it self, but this prepara∣tion of matter is greater in some then others. Most of the perfect Animals are generated from the womb by the mixture of the male and female seed. Others lay eggs from which by heat ex∣ternal, the chickens are hatched. In ignobler Creatures and Plants, generation is not tied to such straight conditions. Some Plants onely by seeds sown in the earth do grow; others by the roots onely planted, others both waies, others by slips and siences. In some the seminal humor is throughout the whole plant, so that any branch or root being taken off, and set in the earth, they will grow as Willows and Vines. I heard from a credible person that from the foam of a mad Dog cleaving to a garment, there arose little creatures like Dogs. For this seminal prin∣ciple of ignoble things, lies long hidden in a tough clammy matter, and resists external inju∣ries and impressions, and at length gets up and acteth. Let this seed be called Analogical, if not Univocal, so long as the thing generated be not from putrefaction only.
Moreover, it is not against reason and experi∣ence altogether that some seeds are ambiguous, and have many forms, so that one be chief, the other subservient, or that some seeds are dispo∣sed to divers forms, as appears in silk-worms.
Therefore Averroes and his Disciples speak against reason, saying that Animals from putre∣faction, are different in species, from those that Page 71are from seed, for they are not wholly destitute of seed, nor can putrefaction alone produce any creature.
Since then no generation is without mixture, things do not arise from a contention between the Elements, but in the first Creation every thing receaved from God, not only its proper form, but also a body fitted thereunto, and they keep this their Nature by the wil and blessing of the Crea∣tor to the last. Therefore in the propagation of things, a specifick form is required, which the concourse of Elements, and that rash mixture cannot make. Therefore the form and soul is the architect, and the first mover of every thing in mixture is that soul and form. The common operator and instrument of Nature to nourish the vertues of things, is the innate and imbred heat and spirit: but the operator of mixture is the Divine command which was given to the E∣lements in the Creation, namely that they should agree exactly among themselves for the genera∣tion of every particular, as Erastus saith, but he had said better, if he had said that convenient matter had been attracted (from the Divine com∣mād) by the vegetative soul of every creature: for since natural things are not onely first produced in the Creation, but stil mixed by the vicissitudes of generation and corruption, he should have ad∣ded that still in generation of things, all things are directed by the form, not by the mixture of Elements that agree for the constitution of every thing. For the forms are the Divine and unchan∣geable Principle, that determines all the actions and passions of natural things, and they are as the instrument or hand of the wise Creator that gave them that efficacy at the first Creation, Page 72then which nothing can be more wonderful.
The next thing to be considered, is whether alwaies in the generation of things, there be a re∣solution to the first Elements, so that nothing is mixed but the Elements? And whether no sour, salt or bitter things be mixed? *Hippocrates writes, That a salt and sharp humor is made thick by concoction and mixture. And this is so certain, that even Vegetables partake of the Nature of Minerals, as you may see in the Leaves of Oak and Bayberries, Pomegranate peels green, which dye a black colour from the Vitriol that is in them: so that the Chymists offer to draw Vi∣triol from green Walnut-shells.
Lastly, it may be doubted whether the first qualities are immediately causes of mixtures? For the force of hidden qualities is such, to alter a body, and of the spirits, that they may not be excluded. The Works of the Chymists shew this, for when the spirit of Vitriol and Tartar are mixed, there is presently a great change, and they that have written so much for the first qualities, dare not bring all the qualities of mixture from the first qualities, to which Erastus ascribes all, except position, number and figure, and the like.
Also we may doubt whether all other affecti∣ons of mixture, besides conformation, may be referred to cold and heat? But there are many affections in mixture, which cannot be drawn from the first qualities; and lest any should flie to the soul, the Loadstone draws iron; Rhubarb purgeth choler; but this comes not in the Load∣stone from the form or soul.
The Philosophers dispute much of the Nature of mixture, and how the Elements remain in a mixture. * I confess I am of Scaligers judgment, Page 73who defines mixture to be the motion of the least bodies to a mutual contraction to make an union. For to the Nature of mixture it is requisite, that by it a body be made one, not only by continuation, but by the form. But it is very hard in this dark∣ness of man, to see how the union of the smallest things is made, whether by breaking or mixture, or whether they be quite abolished. I think it fit that in mixture, that the things mixed, being u∣nited in small parts, should act, and suffer toge∣ther by contrary qualities, but not loose their forms wholly (which if they be abolished, there would not be an union of things mixable, being changed, but a corruption) but that one form is made of all, or rather all being mixed, and made one, abide under the Dominion of one su∣perior form, from which it is a species. I leave it to others to dispute whether the forms remain whole, or are broken: this is certain, that eve∣ry mixed body may be changed into that of which it was first made; and therefore the forms of the Elements are not abolished, otherwise in resolution or putrefaction there would be a ge∣neration of new Elements. Notwithstanding we must not think that the specifical form of every thing that gives its name and being, comes from the Elements only: for there is in every natural thing a more Divine Principle and Nature, by which they are what they are, and belong to such a species. The Elements are only the matter of bodies, and therefore cannot give the act or acti∣on. This is the old opinion of the Ancients, and chiefly of Democritus that said all things were made of atomes. * Nor can we think that this ex∣cellent Interpreter of the World (as Hippocrates calls him) thought absurdly of atomes and the Page 74generation of things, as we shewed at large in our Hypomnema 3. For the ancient Philosophers gave their opinions in dark sentences, and there∣fore their Adversaries thought they said what they never thought, and disputed Logically a∣gainst Democritus, who would have been perswa∣ded by natural reason as Aristotle saith, * for what∣soever is brought against the opinion of Atomes, is not Physical but Mathematical, as that of con∣tinuities, of lines not to be cut, and the like. For Domocritus saith atomes are bodies, nor doth he deny in thē the proprieties of Mathematical bo∣dies, nor by them doth he take off the Natural or Physical proprieties: and when he saies, That generation is by the concretion of those little bodies he denies not mixture, but only will have either the Elements not to penetrate themselves, or that we must not dispute mixture flie alwaies to the Ele∣ments and first matter; but that of small bodies mixed before, and constituted in their essence, new mixtures may be made. *Hippocrates taught this when he wrote, that not only Elements, but salt, bitter, and four were mixed.
Now let us consider, if such be the Nature, ei∣ther in respect of generation or corruption. For when any thing putrefies or is burnt, a smoak a∣riseth, which the sight at a distance takes to be a continued body, but it is many thousands of a∣tomes confused as judgment shews. Chymical operations shew the same, especially sublimation, where these atomes are gathered together in the a∣lembick. You may see the same in Spaws & sharp waters, where there are as it were Ice-sickles, whē the water that flows from the pipe is very clear; and how can so thick a body be from so clear a water? In such Mineral waters the stony matter Page 75was resolved into the smallest bodies, which by meeting together, make a hard body. And tru∣ly digestions and concoctions in Plants and A∣nimals is only a resolution of bodies to be mix∣ed, and a concretion of them again, for the use of Nature of every one: but the superior form directs all by the instrument of heat.
And here since we spake of resolution and con∣cretion, let us speak of fixation and flying away usually in Chymistry, as it is said. Make that which is fixed, volatile, and that which is volatile, fixed, and you have the whole matter; this is chief∣ly good in Physick, when the same thing being volatile is poyson, and being fixed, doth no hurt but is a safe medicine, as Antimony, Mercury, Arsenick.
That is fixed which holds in the fire, that vo∣latile which endures it not, but flies up by heat, and fixation and flying differ from coagulation and rarefaction, though they are somtimes con∣fused. That is coagulated, which from a spiri∣tual thin body, becomes thick and touchable, which every fixed body is not. A rarefied resol∣ved body is, that which from a touchable thick body, becomes spiritual and subtile: for Chy∣mists can make bodies of spirits and spirits of bodies.
There is also a difference of mixed bodies, some are simply fixed, as gold that flies not with the fire, but grows finer by it and better. Others are fixed respectively in comparison of spirits, such as in a gentle fire are fixed, but fly in a strong, as iron. Of this we shall speak at large, when we shew how to fix.
Chap. 13. Of the Foundation of Medicine.
HItherto we have examined the Chymists Doctrine of the Nature of things: now we that treat of their Philosophy which they endea∣vor to establish upon the aforesaid principles. They call their Philosophy Vital, because it is not taken from the Elementary, material, dead principles; but is conversant about the explica∣tion of seeds and powers. And this kind of Phy∣sick they prefer before Galens: for he calls Ga∣lenists Elementary Philosophers, and say they look through Nature. Though there are many Peripateticks and Galenists that look not above the Elements, yet all are not so, as Scaliger, Fer∣nel, Shenkius, and others: let them brag, we wil examine how they agree with truth and expe∣rience.
For the foundations •f Physick, they require many things in a Physitian. Paracelsus requires four things in him, * Philosophy, A s;tronomy, Chy∣mistry, and their properties.
First for his Chymistry, whence he would have his Physick called Paracelsian, we say no more, but by this he cannot now be accounted a good Physitian, that is ignorant of Chymistry.
Paracelsus makes the second foundation of Physick to be Magick and its parts. He shews, *That the Magick Art is the Anatomy of Physick, and the Teacher and Doctoress to cure diseases. We shall not here say what Magick is Natural, and what is Diabolical: read Picus Mirandula and Peucer.
We shall shew what Paracelsas saies of it, but Page 77speak all he hath written of it in his Labyrinth, * in his Error of Physitians, he saith: Magick is the Art of Arts, and the Inventor of all hidden things, and we must learn from it, and not from Ga∣len and Avicen. And he saith; *A Physitian must learn Magick and Astronomy, Pyromancy, Chyro∣mancy, Hydromancy: and he saith that St. John the Evangelist, and all the Prophets were Magicians. And in the end of his Book of occult Philoso∣phy, he saith that Magick is a hidden Art, and the chiefest knowledg of supernatural things. And there was no Divine that without Magick ever cast out a Devil and the like blasphemies.
And to conclude, * his whole foundation of Ma∣gick, he writes thus. It is the safety from our ene∣mies, and keeps us from the hands of them that hate us; and he concludes: That the effects of Ma∣gick depend upon the Heavens, or from Spirits good or evil. That Heaven or the Stars, and Spirits are subordinate to man, and the force of the Heavens and Stars may be brought into Characters, that words, and wax, and other things, and the Spirits themselves may be constrained to serve man; so he thinks Ma∣gick to be very lawful, and to be as that of the Wise∣men, and that a true Magician doth that by faith and imagination, that a Witch doth by conjuration. Read Paracelsus of wise Philosophy, Archidox, and of occult Philosophy: and his Labyrinth of erring Physitians.
He makes six kinds of Magick. The first is, *the Interpretation of preternatural signs such was the Interpretation of the Star that brought the Magician or Wisemen from the East to Judaea: and to this be∣longs the Interpretation of the Prophets and the Re∣velation.
The second kind is, the Transformation of Li∣ving Page 78creatures, as was in the time of Moses and Pha∣raoh.
By the third, are made words, which have all strength, and whatsoever a Physitian can do by Me∣dicines, may be done by words. This kind of Ma∣gick he calls Characteral.
By the fourth he shews how to make Hama∣chyes, that is, Images and Sculptures, upon which the strength of the Heavens is impressed, and which do all things which instruments made of Natural things can perform, as a key opens a lock, or a sword wounds.
The fifth sort is, when images are made like the people for whom they are, and whatsoever is done to them, they suffer whose pictures they are, and he saith that in an image of wax, any may be roasted, made blind, wounded, or have a Palsie.
The last kind he saith is Cabalistical, now the Cabal among the Ancients was a kind of Mysti∣cal, Symbolical and Aenigmatical Divinity, and the Cabalists did believe the Tradition of their Ancestors, and examined no opinions. This was threefold. The first was that by which Adam de∣livered the Knowledg he had from God to his Chil∣dren. The second was that by which God explain∣ed the Law to Moses in Mount Sinai, when he was with him forty daies, and by which he again taught Joshua. The third was invented by the Rab∣bies, who turned the letters and syllables into num∣bers, and brought hidden meanings out of them.
But Paracelsus speaks not of this Cabal who calls the Jews stupid Asses. * But the Cabal of Pa∣racelsus shews the way how wonders are wrought by Characters, Seals, Figures and Words. By this a voice may be heard from beyond Sea, and one Page 79dwelling in the West may talk with him that dwells in the East. And a Horse may do that in one day, which by Natural strength cannot be done in a month: that the Wise-men of the East had such Horses, and they came to Bethlehem by Magick, not Natural force. * And Trithemus fetch his Supper out of France or Italy, saying this word, Affer, that is, Bring to me.
Crollius consents with what is said, saying, * Whatsoever we see in the greater World, may be produced in the imaginary World; so all herbs and things that grow, and Metals, may be pro∣duced by imagination, and the true Cabal. Crol∣lius calls this kind of Magick Gabalistical, from the Gabal, or internal Heavenly or Starry Man, who by the affinity of Magnetick vertues, can at∣tract to himself all the strength of the Stars, and apprehend by his Starlick spirit, the knowledge of all things.
He saith this Cabalistical Magick stands upon three pillars; the first upon the prayer in spirit and truth, when there is Union with God in the Holy of Holies and the created Spirit: where God is worshiped by a sacred silence. The second is Faith, not saving, but natural, as he calls it, which is that wisdom which is equally given to all men at the first Creation, which is common to men and Devils, * this he calls enchanting Faith. The third is the I∣magination strongly lifted up: of which Crollius speaks. Ernestus Burgravius saies the same in his Book called Achilles Revived. And he pro∣miseth his lamp of life and death, in which as in a fatal light, the fortune, diseases and death of every man may be seen. See more of this in Bur∣grave and Roger Bacon his Book of the wonder∣ful power of Art and Nature, and Paracelsus in Page 80his Books of Archidox Magick, and others.
Now Andreas Libavius in short mentions whatsoever the Paracelsians promise by Magick. * And if they be wel examined, they are almost all ungodly and blasphemous. And though Para∣celsus seems to condemn that infamous Magick which is from the Devil, and to commend that which is natural and lawful, yet you may know by what hath been said alleadged, and from his Writings what he followed. * Especially by his upholding that infamous Conjurer Judaeus Tec∣hel, and there was scarce any Magician in any age but he commends him. He saith the Magici∣ans of Pharaoh had their Art from God, and is offended that the Scripture gives them such harsh language. From whence, and from many other arguments, it is manifest that his Magick was from the Devil. And he makes only this diffe∣rence between lawful and unlawful Magick, that one doth flatter the Devil by Incantations & ce∣remonies. And the other by force commands his Arts, and makes him serve by faith and strong imagination: yet it is never lawful to ask any things of the Devil, or expect his help. Nor is there any Example in Scripture that ever the Devil did any man good. Certainly Crollius is very wicked in saying, That true prayers in spirit and truth, are the foundation of Cabalistical Ma∣gick. For prayers are the worship of God, accor∣ding to the 5. of John, and they must be accor∣ding to his promises and will, and this worship ought not to be prophaned with such wicked Speeches.
Now that natural saith he speaks of, which is a power to do miracles, and given equally to all men in the Creation, is a meer lye. For true mi∣racles Page 81onely belong to the Church; and those done by Infidels and Conjurers, are from the Devil, and are not true, but lying wonders.
What Crollius writes of Imagination, * are dreams of Enthusiasts: none deny but there is great force in imagination, but that it can do what Crollius mentions, it is a meer fable; and if Crollius could have cured diseases by imagina∣on, why did he spend so much time in prepara∣tion of Chymical medicines.
In a word, concerning Crollius his Magick, a∣void it, there is knavery in the Baker, and under the honey of Chymical medicines, there is a ve∣nemous gall. Therefore beware least under the pretence of Natural Magick, and Divine Philo∣sophy, and light of Nature, you do not use Dia∣bolical Magick which may be, though you make no contract with the Devil: for it may be made not only explicitely, but implicitely. An expli∣cite contract is, when one makes a Covenant with the Devil. An implicite is, when any useth such means with another who hath contracted with the Devil explicitely, and plainly hath be∣fore used.
For though there are examples in Scripture that the Apostles ruled over the Devil, and cast him out, yet there is no example, that any Saint used the help of the Devil for a good end to pro∣fit man. And though it may be objected for Pa∣racelsus, that it is no inconvenience for any to get better medicines then are known from the Devil, to cure incurable diseases: yet I suppose it is neither safe nor religious, and St. Chryso∣stome saies well, That a man had better die, then re∣cover by such remedies. God that wounded can heal, therefore seek help from him alone. There Page 82is a famous Example that it is not lawful to seek help from the Devil, * in Ahazia 2 Kings c. 1. by which we are taught to seek for cure from God alone, not from the Devil: and we can expect no good from that great Deceiver.
Moreover, the means in Magick are not ordi∣nary nor natural, as you may see in Paracelsus, but are words, characters, waxed images, and superstitious inventions of the Devil. And that we may not use such superstitions that are suspe∣cted to have an occult contract from the Devil, observe what follows. For where there is nei∣ther miracle nor force of Nature, nor Arts inge∣nuity, there is a contract with the Devil, whoso∣ever he was that made it. And when characters and unknown words are used, that are obscure, and do not cohere or agree, or are holy, but ap∣plied to another meaning, or when Ceremonies of no force are used, or the like, there is a strong suspicion. * As when Paracelsus saies a man may be freed from diseases from inchantment, if he put on an old shirt with the wrong side out∣wards.
He makes Astrologie the third piller of Phy∣sick, * but he extends it too large, comprehend∣ing all Magick under Astronomy, and dividing it strangely. As for Astrology, if it be right, and upon Natural principles, we hold it necessary for a Physitian, as Hippocrates shews. And there are many reasons why a Physitian should not be ig∣norant of it. Therefore I consent to the modern Physitians, that say the Stars work upon inferior bodies, not only by heat and light, but by oc∣cult influences. But here we are to seek, and the strength of the purest Stars is not known. And Paracelsus and Crollius should engage us, if Page 83they would explain the consent between the up∣per and lower World more plainly. But here they are at a loss with the Aristotelians and Ga∣lenists, many whereof were good Astrologers, and studied the force of Stars very much, but in∣geniously confessed their imperfections of whom Cardan saies well, *That Astrologie as it is most excellent, so it is most difficult. And the motions of the Stars can never be known perfectly, nor the judgments from them, &c.
Chap. 14. Of the strength of Imagination.
BEcause the effects of Natural Magick seem to the Paracelsians to depend upon Imagina∣tion, not onely to cause diseases, but to cure them, and they shew wonders done by imagina∣tion from Philosophers and Physitians: we shal here shew what the strength of it is.
But note first, that those effects which are at∣tributed to imagination, do not immediately de∣pend upon it, nor doth the soul produce such ef∣fects by imagination. For imagination is only a knowing power, that hath an immanent action which goeth not forth to other things, and ima∣gination doth nothing effectually but know, but the other powers vegetative and moving, do act upon others. And though the phansie concurs to local motiō as knowing it, yet is it not the im∣mediate cause of motion, therefore it doth not act upon any body, of its own or anothers, nor doth it by any sort of motion alter, move, or change it. But appetite or desire follows know∣ledge and then there is a prosecution or flight Page 84which is by a local motion. Whose cause is a place moving power distinct from the imagina∣tion.
Therefore the humors are not moved of them∣selves, or immediately by the imagination, but only by accident, stirring up the natural powers, whose office is to move the humors and spirits to nourish the body. The imagination directeth the humors and spirits, to move towards this or that part, and it determines the moving faculty, that it may move the spirits and humors to this or that part: as when one is lasciviously mind∣ed, the spirits and humors go to the privities, by which motion the body is altered, not by the phansie of it self, nor can the species of the phan∣sie produce a real quality, nor formality make an alteration, because the formal and essential rea∣son of it is only in representation, and it cannot act beyond its force and perfection. Therefore when some are loose bodied from the conceit of a purging medicine not taken; it is not because the species of the purging medicine hath a purg∣ing force, but because the moving natural facul∣ty is drawn to consent with the imagination, and stirs the humors, which being stirred, do provoke the expulsie faculty to stool, especially if humors abound.
First, it moves the desiring faculty or appetite, and by the passions of the mind affects the body: for the passions follow knowledg, which causeth gladness at what is pleasant, and sorrow at what is unpleasant, these passions have great power to alter the body. But phansie doth not immedi∣ately alter the body by the appetite, but as the appetite moves the natural moving faculties in the members, and chiefly in the heart, these be∣ing Page 85moved, do move the humors and spirits, and the spirits comming and going to the part, do change them. Therefore the remote cause of al∣teration is the phansie, and so it affects its own body, and causeth divers diseases in it: but of it self it causeth none. And if it should, the dis∣ease would be but imaginary, not real. So some melancholick people have thought they had great noses or bodies, and yet were not so.
And though some fall into diseases by imagi∣nation, yet the phansie doth not of it self, but by accident, by reason of fear which moves the ma∣lignant humors lurking in the body, and these being moved, cause the plague. One Vincent thought his body so big, that he could not pass through the door, and when the Physitian com∣manded him to be carried through, he complain∣ed that he was very much bruised, and soon after died. But this is not, because the patient ima∣gineth, but because he is diseased. And if ima∣gination doth any thing, it is by accident, from sorrow or fear, and the like passions.
Many diseases come by accident, by means of the spirits and humors, as they are different in nature and motion. And imagination being the cause of divers passions, as anger, sorrow, much joy, they have such force to corrupt and change humors, that we need not prove it. Moreover, strong imagination draws the spirits and humors strongly to the head, and the heat is taken from the parts ordained for nourishment.
Thus imagination may cure diseases, namely, by accident, not of it self, for confidence makes the patient obey orders, because imagination brings passions, by which the humors and spirits are moved, by which motion they oppose the dis∣ease. Page 86Therefore confidence begets chearfulness, and this stirs up the natural heat and spirits, and so there is better concoction, and the bad humors are overcome, and the disease opposed. Hence it is that they who are alwaies sad, have many crudities and soul humors, from the constant loss of heat and spirits. From the same cause if pa∣tients have some meats they longed for, they re∣cover, though they be not wholsom. And Hip∣pocrates saith that the best meats, * if not affected, cause loathing, and the stomach doth not right∣ly embrace and concoct them, hence come wind and crudities, and the disease increaseth, or the patient is longer sick.
〈◊〉••at taken in with pleasure, somtimes cu∣rethe because either by the joy, the spirits which were dull by the disease, are raised and refresh∣ed, which are the fittest instrument to conquer soul humors and the disease: or because when then the patient hath his desire, ceaseth from that imagination, and the disease which was fals∣ly supposed. There are many Histories of this in Thomas á Vega and Alexander Trallian,* who speaks of a Woman that thought she had swal∣lowed a Serpent.
Therefore if imagination of it self cannot af∣flict its own body, it cannot change, or hurt any other body. For the soul cannot act upon exter∣nals, but by means of the body, because the phan∣sie is an immanent action, not transient.
But by accident it may do somwhat, for what is said of Witchcraft, is not to be wholly despi∣sed. They say the Baselisk kils a man by the poy∣sonous beams from his eyes. These come from spirits and vapors, by which the occult Sympa∣thies and contracts of things are. And the ima∣gination Page 87may somwhat direct these spirits, as we said by moving the natural faculties, or stirring up the passions, so in envy, hatred, anger, vene∣mous humors which are moved in the body, are carried to the eyes, and flow from thence.
But a certain distance is required, and it is ab∣surd to think that any can be afflicted at many miles distance: and it is worse to ascribe to ima∣gination things beyond its force, and to which it no waies concurs, as when they say a man may fall from a horse by imagination, or corn be car∣ried from one field into another.
Lastly, let us consider what imagination can do in child-bearing? * of which there are many Observations, so that it is simple to doubt them. Hippocrates, Galen and Avicen. and many other Authors prove it, and that of the Patriach Jacob is well known.
But it is hard to know how imagination could change a child. It is certain, that the phansie being known, and an immanent power doth not of it self change the child, and the forming fa∣culty is the immediate cause of quantity, figure, number, position and heat, and not the imagi∣nation.
Nor is the child changed by a species of the phansie, because of it self it cannot produce any real quality, nor hath it any force but to move imagination, and to represent to its object; and if this species had any force, there would be more changes in children.
It is therefore more probable to reason, that the child is changed by the phansie, either through the passions and motions of the spirits and humors, or by directing the forming facul∣ty.Page 88
The changes and hurts in children are of two sorts; common and determinate. The com∣mon are abortion, death, inward sickness, and weakness, smalness or greatness of some part, defect or abundance in number. The determi∣nate are changes and signatures which have a determinate similitude to some outward thing, as for Example, when they long for Cherries, the impression of a Cherry will be upon the child.
The first changes may be from phansie, by means of the passions and motion of the humors and spirits, but the determinate signatures which answer to external things that are offered to the imagination, cannot be by motion of the humors and spirits by the imagination. For the passions stirs the spirits and humors, which stirred, are carried with force or in plenty to the child which troubles it, and cause abortion by stirring up of the expulsive faculty of the womb. Somtimes the forming faculty is disturbed from the same cause in its operation, or is overwhelmed, or the spirits and humors being sent another way, the parts are not rightly formed, or they are greater or less. But these are not determinate faults, nor have they any resemblance with external things, because they are made by an accidental motion of the humors onely stirred by the passi∣ons: and they are not determinated by a pecu∣liar manner, according to the species received in the imagination. Therefore these errors are to be attributed rather to the passions of the mind •hen to imagination: nor doth the phansie truly and effectually conduce to them, nor otherwise then as it stirs up the appetite.
But when these signatures are determinated and peculiar according to the species received Page 89by the imagination, they are ascribed to the phansie: nor can the passions of the mind of them∣selves produce them, as when Mulberries, Warts, and the like come from the imagination upon the child. And it may fall out that the same sig∣nature may be upon the child from divers passi∣ons: and a woman may bear a child somwhat like an Ape, if she either loved an Ape and plaid with it, or was frighted by one, which is a sign that somthing else goes with determinate signa∣tures, namely the imagination which directs the conformation. For the forming faculty alone immediately makes the whole child, whether well, or ill fashioned. But the phansie somtimes seduceth the forming faculty, and directs it, to make such a thing as is not conformable to the nature of the seed but like that which is imagi∣ned. And so it is said to be the cause of these marks concurring to determine them: but this is hard to be explained, and some are of another mind. It is safest to conclude that the forming faculty is directed by the imagination by the spe∣cies exemplarily or objectively as they say, by objecting the species conceived, to which as to an example or rule, the forming faculty doth her work. But if any wonder, that the forming fa∣culty which belongs to the vegetative, should know this exemplary species, let him under∣stand that all the faculties in a man, are powers of the same soul, and have some communicati∣on among themselves, although the manner how is not known plainly. Then let him know that the soul doth not this by its own power, but a power given by the Creator. And though the knowing faculty differs from the forming, yet they are in some things agreable, for so all parts Page 90know, and attract the nourishment.
But how the species being conceived in the brain, should be carried to the womb, is hard to be understood. We may say that while the child grows to the mother, and partakes of her life, those things that move the powers of the soul in the mother, may stir up the faculties in the seed also, and more affect the child then the mother, because her body is so perfect, that it needs no∣thing but nourishment, but the soul is still busie in forming the body of the insant, therefore any external thing may easily be admitted to direct it or seduce it to do this or that. Many arguments are for this, so as the passions of the soul are not alwaies necessary, but a fixed intention and ima∣gination is sufficient to mark the child. The Queen of Aethiopia conceived of a white child by only viewing the picture of Andromeda. So Ja∣cobs sheep marked their lambs by beholding and imagining the party-coloured rods, and we see the same in other beasts.
These changes are in the time of conception and child-bearing, but more usually when they are gone some time, in which time the forming faculty is at work, and busie to make the parts after conception. But all marks are not made at all times, at the end of the colours may change, and the whole figure, the foot may be like that of a Horse, the head like a Dog or Hog, in the last month this cannot, because all parts are fa∣shioned. For when Nature hath once fashioned the child she cannot alter the figure, divide or change the number of parts.
Nor can the imagination make impression of any changes, but only such as the matter of the body is disposed to, and the forming faculty is Page 91apt to make by Natures order: she cannot pro∣duce true feathers, scales or horns; and the rea∣son why these are rather stamped upon the child then the womb, is because the forming faculty is not busie about the womb, but the child.
Hence it appears, that the phansie cannot act upon a strange body, and although the imagina∣tion of the mother affects the child, yet is it so joyned to her, that it seems as a part of her. * Therefore they all are out, that think the fancy can affect strange bodies, and they that would shew causes disagree among themselves: Para∣celsus is of their opinion, and heaps one absur∣dity upon another, and give reasons as weak as the rest.
They should have shewed that Phantasmes move another way then by representation, nor doth the phansie do any thing but receive the species of things from the senses, to judge and bring them to the understanding. And how can the species and representation that onely are to represent the thing from which they came, change or move any thing without a man? Especially seeing the action of the phansie is immanent. And as for the imagination of women with child, and the marks upon their children by the fancy, they only prove that the soul any way moved by the imagination, may be the cause of peculiar moti∣ons in its own body.
Therefore what Paracelsus and Crollius have written concerning the imagination, is not worth the refuting, and to speak short, the foundation of all Magical operations, and the great Wheel of all Crollius his Magick is false; and it is this opinion of the strength of imagination, and sew modern Writers follow them.Page 92
This Magick is old (nor is it better for that) because it came from Plato,* and the Aegyptians given to Idolatry; the foundation of this was laid by Marcus Ficinus, when he writes, that by the application of our spirit, to the spirit of the world, by the Art of Physick and affection that deeds are cast upon the soul, and heavenly good upon our affection. But this union of the soul of man with the Angels and Spirits which is by imagination, and the calling upon Spirits to do man service, is the work and invention of Con∣jurers.
Chap. 15. of the Physiologi∣cal part of Physick.
THough Severinus and the Chymists seem in many things to dissent from the Gale∣nists, yet they disser not much, but teach almost the same things, only they deliver themselves in other language.
First, * they make three Principles in man, and Quercetan placeth thē in the three principle parts of the body. He saith that the natural faculty which is seated in the liver, hath its conservati∣on and nourishment from salt, which is the first radical Principle, and the foundation of the rest. That the vital faculty in the heart is sustained by a sulphurous liquor. And the animal faculty is preserved by Mercury, which is altogether aethe∣rial and spiritual.
Then they make a twofold body in man; the one visible of the four Elements and blood, the other invisible. This last is called by them, The Starlick Man, within, incorporeal, a kind of Gabal Page 93man, a houshold God, a visible shadow of the body, a familiar a shade, a little wise man, a Demon, or good genius. The internal Adech of Paracelsus, A ghost the Euestrum or presaging light of Nature which is a Prophet; also the imagination which con∣tains all the Stars in it self, and knows all Stars, and keeps the same course of Nature and power with the Heavens.
Concerning the Creation of Man Severinus saith, Man is a quintessence extracted from the Fir∣mament and Elements; or a subtile Essence of the whole World extracted and concreted into one body. And so is the compleat image of the Universe; and he adds that God in creating the World, plaid the Spagyrist or Chymist.
These things plainly taken, are not to be en∣dured, because there are two parts that consti∣tute man, the soul and the body, neither of which being alone, can be called man. There are also spirits in the body which are the principal instru∣ments of the soul, and the soul useth them im∣mediately in the actions of life.
These spirits are invisible, but corporeal: if the Chymists take these for the invisible man, they tell us no news: onely they speak impro∣perly, when they give the name of the whole to a part of man. If they mean any thing besides spirits to be the invisible man, they multiply be∣ings; or they must prove that besides the body, soul and spirit, there is an other substance in man; and I shall not yeild to them till they do.
Then in describing the Creation of man, Crol∣lius is very rash; for God by his power created man of clay, and gave him strength as he pleased, nor had he need of the Spagyrick Art to give him Page 94strength, and we read that man was made accor∣ding to Gods image, and we read not that that clay or dust of which he was made, was the quin∣tessence of the whole World: therefore the Pa∣racelsians are out.
What they say of generation, nourishment and rule of mans body, is according to Hippocrates and Galen: only a little coloured with other fi∣ctions, yet some things are false. When they say that generation is from mechanical spirits, and that after generation the body being compleat, all natural actions are administred, they say true, but it is no news. But they erre in two points. First for rejecting the temperament to be from the first qualities, as though it availed not for a∣ctions for an animated part, having its temper and full of natural heat, and spirits is the ade∣quate or fit organ for every action: therefore none of these must be wanting. Then they erre, in that they give knowledg to act, simply to the spirits, for they act not by their own strength, but are directed by the soul, and this knowledg is belonging to the soul, which is the first cause of all actions in a living body.
Fourthly, they think not right concerning blood, when they deny it to be the nourishment of the body, and place it above the dignity of the parts: for experience teacheth that the chyle is turned into blood, as the meat into chyle, for no other end, but that the whole body should be nourished with blood. Therefore since Severinus hath questioned so plainly a matter, and brought no reasons against it, we may with as much ease deny what he saies.
Fiftly, when he saith the spirits are hungry and filled, it is absurd; for it is the creatures pro∣perly, Page 95but the spirits are refreshed and restored: it is one thing to indicate, and another to defire. Consumed spirits indicate restauration, but the appetite desires to be preserved by its like, and to have what is troublesom removed.
Sixthly, they make blood one of the parts, and and it may be allowed, but let them understand parts as Hippocrates did when he divided the bo∣dy into parts cōtaining contained, and such as do force: otherwise blood is no part but nourish∣ment. They do ill to give the government of the body to blood, because it is only for nourishmēt, but the spirits govern the body under the soul.
Seventhly, they do ill to accuse the Galenists of idleness. Nor are they ignorant of that of Hip∣pocrates, of places in men, which Severinus quo∣red, nor are they ignorant that the diseases in the joynts are worst, when humors flow from other parts under them. This they call by a new name Synovia, and they know not what to determine about it. But Hippocrates only attributes that humor to the joynts, that they may move bet∣ter.
Paracelsus thought otherwise of Synovia, when he said, It is a nourishment of its part.* And they since say, it is an internal vertue and agility, or a sweet Milk which nourisheth the parts: all these hang not well together.
Eightly, Severinus doth undeservedly accuse Galen, because he reckoned not the gall among the parts of the body; for it ought to be cast out as an excrement, it is so far from being a part that constitutes a body.
Ninthly, when Severinus makes a stomach in the liver and other parts, it is simple to quible so upon the word Stomach, as Paracelsus did when Page 96he said the pleurisie was in the head. The 10. Chapter of Severinus is Galen in other words. *
The Paracelsians toss the humors strangely, and say they are but bare words, and call the Galenists Humorists, because saith Paracelsus, Neither Heaven nor Earth knows flegm, choler, or melancholy, therefore they are not in man. And why should we prove the humors from the Analogy between the great and little World? It is foolish without sense or experience, to flie to such Ana∣logical proofs. For as in other creatures, so in man there is blood which nourisheth: now sense teacheth that blood is made of meats received, but not Salt, Sulphur or Mercury, and when a vein is opened, blood is let out, not Salt, Sul∣phur or Mercury; and in all bodies, in all times, ages, places and countries, blood is found. But Paracelsus differs in this from himself, and men∣tions blood and humors in many of his Books.
But they will answer that it is manifest to the senses, that blood is in the veins, but they will shew by an artificial dissolving of it, that it hath three Principles, as they shew from what foun∣tain actions proceed: but here they seem wise, for while we speak of blood and humors, the question is not touching the first Principles of things, but of the immediate in mans body, and perfect animals. Suppose we grant that blood and humors are made of Salt, Sulphur and Mer∣cury, therefore must the ancient names of choler, blood, flegm and melancholy be rejected? by the same reason you may reject the appellations of bones membranes, flesh, and of all parts: for by the principles of Chymists, these are made of their three principles as well as blood.
Therefore it is fit that ancient should be kept, Page 97to which Galen, Hippocrates, Aristotle, Avicen, Mefue and the rest have agreed, both Chymists and others: For it is not for every one to give names to things, nor was Paracelsus so great a man that he ought so to do. The names of the humors are not insignificant without essence and properties. Seed, Flesh and Bone are made of Blood as the rest, but because they have a new form, they take new names. And that which was before called Bread may be called Chyle, then Blood, Choler or Flegm, &c.
Severinus is out when he saith there is blood in Balsom, with spirit, flesh, bones, ligaments and nerves, and that these are seperated from it by help of the mechanick spirits. There is in all sood somthing familiar to us that turns nou∣rishment, and may have divers forms, as the parts are to which it comes; call it Balsom or Mummy, I am indifferent; but I allow not that the things mentioned should be contained in them, and be only made known and separated by the mechanick spirits. Thus we should say with Anaxagoras that all things are in al things, and there is no true generation. But when chyle is made of bread, blood of chyle, bones, mem∣branes, flesh of blood, in every change there is a new form. And every part hath force to turn its nourishment into its own nature, which is the peculiar faculty of the vegetative soul: what we have spoken of blood and humors is meant of alimentary humors that make blood. We shall speak of excrementitious humors in the next Chapter, in the Causes of Dis∣eases.
Lastly, They make two Anatomies, the one local which they esteem little, as the dissecting Page 98of bodies to see the shape, figure and position, and number of parts, this they called a dead A∣natomy for Butchers, by which the Carcass is only seen, but not the secrets of the nature of man.
The other they cal essential, vital, formal, by by which every body is dissolved into its princi∣ples, * he that wil try this must first know the na∣ture of seeds and properties, the offices of the elements, and of the principles, the roots of ge∣neration and transplantation, the laws of Astro∣nomy, and the disposition not of the dead but of the whole living body. Therefore they say the heart is wheresoever there is vital heat. The Stomach is every cavity or place of conco∣ction. The womb is every place where there is seed of any fruit, and they think the considera∣tion of the great world is chiefly to be had in this Anatomy. They say whatsoever is in the great world is also in man, not according to a superficial likeness, but indeed, and according to the species, and that man contains all things in himself, though invisibly.
As to the local Anatomy, they speak of, they dishonor it, for Anatomy is much beyond a Butchers work; for by it all parts are artifici∣ally found out, and their constitution, and use. Thus did Galen in his Book of the use of parts, and others, which if Paracelsus had read, he had not written so absurdly.
They arrogate to themselves only the vital A∣natomy, but the Galenists had it as you may see in Galens Books of the faculties of nature, of the Seed, of the sorming of the Infant, of Breath∣ing, temperaments, Elements, &c. in which he speaks of the faculties of the soul which govern Page 99the body, and of the instruments thereof in a∣ction. Yet if the Chymists by their Principles can give it more light, we wil accept of it thank∣fully. But they here rather quible with words, and with new terms they sell the opinions of the Ancients as their own, and do little discover them, or clear them up; as when they say the heart is wheresoever there is vital heat. It is the part of a wise Philosopher to call things by their own names, and not so to quible with names as to confound things that are distinct.
Chap. 16. of Pathologie, or Diseases.
THe Chymists seem also to enlarge the Pa∣thological part of Physick, * when they sup∣pose that the antecedent cause, the Disease and the Symptom differ not in kind, essence or specifical pro∣preties, but only in power and act. Thus Severinus, and that they differ no otherwise then a sleeping Physitian doth, from the same being awake; brimstone not burning, from that which burn∣eth; salt not dissolved, from that which is dissol∣ved; therefore he supposeth names are to be gi∣ven from the roots, as from the hidden roots of diseases in intermitting feavers, when no heat is fired in the heart, while the feaver lies close in the body, and not from the antecedent cause. But Galen doth better divide all things that are besides nature in mans body into three, * that is, the disease, the cause, and the symptom, and there is no Discipline that makes no difference be∣tween the causes and the effects; therfore it must be in Physick, for the humors are the causes, the Page 100diseases the effects; and again the symptoms are effects of them both, and all these differ in their whole essence and nature. Therefore Severinus writes foolishly, saying, That which is most remote from producing of an effect, is a genus, that which is nearest to the individual, is the species, and the effect is the individual. He makes the most general ge∣nus or kind to be the stony tartarous Mucilages in fruits, and those in the stomach and guts to be the sudordinate genus. But when they cause dis∣eases and symptoms, they are species; and the last actions being hurt or hindered, are the indi∣viduals. But every true Philosopher may per∣ceive this absurdity. He writes like a fool, when he saith he saw a feaver vomited forth; for he saw the cause, but not the feaver. And more simply, when he saies that matter so vomited up, shaked for a time like an ague. But either he read not, or observed not what Galen and Galenists have written concerning the shaking of feavers.
But these Severinians are offended, that the names of diseases are not given from the causes. But they are unreasonable to think names must be given as they please, and that fit names may be rejected. Therefore it is not bad to define a feaver from its essence, then let them enquire in∣to the nature of the cause, and whether the cause of a feaver may be called Choler or Sulphur.
Nor do the Galenists allows eye the disease a∣lone, but look often more at the cause; much less do they only observe the symptoms, for ma∣ny of them come often from the same cause, and one somtimes from divers causes, and if these be not diligently disting dished, he plaies the Empe∣rick, and will be deceived; and if the Chymists will help us in curing, we shall thank them.Page 101
As for the nature of a disease, Paracelsus errs exceedingly, when he saith a disease is a sub∣stance, and that the disease is a whole man, and hath an invisible body, and this he shews by the Jaundies. But every disease is nothing else but a quality in the body besides Nature, * by which the body is so disposed, that it is unfit for its proper acti∣ons. Now all error is from this, that as plants come from their seeds, so they think diseases do also; and the true cure of a disease is nothing else but the taking away of those seeds, and if they be not taken away by changing of cold and heat, and ther qualities, and evacuation of humors, no dis∣ease can be truly cured. He illustrates this by an Example, as saith he, he that labours to keep fruit from growing in his garden, doth not e∣nough to pull off the fruit every year, or lop off a branch or two from a Tree, much less if he die the leaves or the fruit of another colour, but he must take up the Tree by the roots. So to take away heat or cold, and the like qualities by their contraries, is to take away the fruits onely and leave the root.
Concerning the original of the seeds of disea∣ses, they say, That though in the first Creation when by divine power, the seeds took their force to generate and multiply, & all things else were without corruption: yet after the Fall, there came new tinctures by the curse upon those pure seeds (as Severinus saith) by the mixture of which the beauty of the Creation was transplanted into a cala∣mitous condition, and these pure seeds were covered with unfortunate new garments (and he adds) that man who useth all sublunary things, and lives upon Plants and Animals, is defiled with universal im∣purity, and hath many sorts of diseases and deaths.Page 102
Severine brings the rise of hereditary diseases from hence: so that they may be to the fourth Generation. And hence he saith is the reason why people not having the Gout or Falling-sick∣ness beget children that have: For the inbred im∣purities of the Parent not being ripe in thē, may be increased in the children, and bring unexpect∣ed symptoms. He saith on the contrary that they which have the Gout may beget children that have not. Either because the seeds of those dis∣eases are not fixed in the root and Balsom of man, but cleave only superficially, or because they are overcome in the womb by the power of its natural Balsom, or because the seeds grew old and barren, For (say they) those seeds which are not united in species, but individuals have their ages, and when their root is exhausted they are bar∣ren and unfruitful.
They allow not the first qualities to be causes of Diseases; and when they are convinced, they say they are so inconsiderable that they require not the help of a Physitiā. They regard not com∣pound Diseases, and say they are but a certain hinderance to actions: For they affirm that the desect of Instruments and Figures, and Cavities, and Solution of Continuity come not as Disea∣ses from Seeds, but they say the Diseases of the Similary parts have their seeds.
They say humors are but Phansies, * and though Paracelsus allow them, yet he denies that they are causes of diseases, and saith the humors come from diseases, not diseases from humors. But many of these opinions are not to be belie∣ved, for in the generation of diseases it is other∣wise, for the good humors are altered, corrupt∣ed, and infected from the bad, as from Leaven, Page 103and do hurt the parts, and bring preternatural qualities. But we cannot find any forming force in the causes of diseases, as in the seeds of Plants which may produce such a body. And they are like the doting Manichaes when they say, Those seeds and evil matters of diseases were made by God. First they make God the Author and Creator of evil and diseases, as if he had made any substan∣tial, which is wicked. For God saw what he had made, and they were very good; for all substance as a substance is good, and evil is not consub∣stantially but accidentally joyned unto it.
Then they make a double creation, the first which was by the blessing of God in six daies, the other was by the curse of God upon the pure seeds and roots of things, by which the evil roots of Diseases and Death were added. But God rested from all his labour the seventh day, and the Curse of God only declared punish∣ment.
Severine doth ill in bringing hereditary dis∣eases from seeds. It is true, that the diseases of Parents come to the children by the seed and mothers blood; but an hereditary evil is a viti∣ous disposition in some part by which in time, humors of the same kind are gathered, and so produce the like diseases.
It is against experience to leave the first qua∣lities out of diseases and their causes, for all a∣ges have allowed them: for as soon as any pre∣ternatural distemper is in any part all acknow∣ledge that its actions are hurt, nor can it do its duty till the natural temper be restored; * this is dayly observed in the Stomach, and there are thousands of Examples of this in Hippocrates and Galen.Page 104
Nor can we admit of the new interpretation of Hippocrates made by Severine, saying that the South Wind makes not dull hearing nor other symptoms mentioned by Hippocrates. First he should prove that absurd opinion, that wind, rain and snow, are the fruits of the Stars, nor need they fly to occult qualities, powers and tinctures, when a manifest cause may be shewed as appears in Hippocrates.
They are out also in Diseases of conformatiō, saying they are only impediments of actions, as if all diseases were not such; they reject the hu∣mors erroneously, because it is manifest to sense that divers humors are evacuated in divers dis∣eases by vomit and stool by Nature or Art; when they cannot deny this, Severine thinks that excrementitious humors are to be called by o∣ther names; and leaving the phantastick names of Vitelline, eruginous, salt and crude flegm, he flies to the kinds of Salts, nitrous, aluminous, vi∣trlolate, and to the properties of salts in Plants, as in Cookowpints, Nettles, Celandine, &c. That the names of Choler, Melancholy and Flegm are to be rejected: but there is no reason or cause why these ancient names should be rejected, no more then the names of a Feaver, Apoplexy, Dropsie. If they can find out more proper names, we shal admit them, provided they ex∣pound the intrinsical nature of the things: For to speak plainly, the difference and nature of humors cannot only be explained by the first qualities, but they may be more specially deter∣mined by their more proper qualities, which Hippocrates teacheth saying, *It is heat, moisture, cold or driness that hath much force, but sourness, sharpness and bitterness, &c. The Cancer is an Page 105example in which he that acknowledgeth not a corrosive sait, is blind. And the same may be seen in the itch, scab and ulcers that corrode and creep. Therefore I deny not but such humors the causes of such diseases, may be so called from the Salt or other Chymical principle; although I denied when I spake of blood and natural hu∣mors, that such humors in which such excess appear not, ought to receive denomination from the Chymical principles. Nor do I think that the excrementitious humors in which a manifest excess doth not appear, should be denominated from the Chymical principles, but keep their ancient names. Yet it is not unfit that the dif∣ferences of strong corroding humors, which are divers, should be distinguished with names ta∣ken from Sulphur or Salt, when there appears any remarkable excess of any one humor. For Hippocrates calls a defluxion from the head, * hot and nitrous, and writes, That men are not only fe∣vorish from heat alone, nor can that alone cause a disease, but bitterness and heat, and sharpness or salt∣ness with heat, and the like.
Nor is it strange, that such things should be in the body, when a man is fed with Plants, and Animals which are nourished with plants, and these have from the earth their nourishment, which contains in it salt, bitter, and the like juy∣ces, and Mineral spirits, which are derived into man, whose altering force changeth them as much as it can, but they can never be overcome by our nature. Nature indeed labors to void them be∣ing unfit for nourishment: and if they be retain∣ed, and separated from the good blood, and a∣bide alone, they hurt the body divers waies. Ga∣len and other Physitians own this, who mention Page 106salt and nitrous humors, and the effects of Salt are manifest in Catarrhs or Defluxions. Some humors are called Aeruginous, not that they are like Verdigreece as Erastus thinks, but because there is the tast and force of corroding, as in Verdigreece and other qualities.
Nor is it unprofitable to observe these diffe∣rences of humors, for they are of concernment for cures; therefore there being great difference of humors, as to their colours, tast, consistence, and essence, and they cannot be called at by the same name. If the Chymists can here help us, there is no cause why we should not observe them, yet we must not cast off the old names of the humors: for Rhubarb doth alwaies purge choler, not Salt or Sulphur.
The Chymists speak diversly of the differences of diseases; *Paracelsus saich, that there are two kinds of seeds, the Iliastrum, Cagastrum. The Iliastrum is when the feed of the disease is from the beginning, as of Apples, Pears, Nuts. Ca∣gastrum is that which is from corruption. The diseases from the Iliastrum are the Dropsie, Jaun∣dies, Gout, &c. Of the Cagastrum, Plague, Feavers, Pleurisies, But as I said, diseases do not spring up from seeds, but from preternatural causes in the body, either bred therein, or gathered.
Paracelsus hath another difference, by which he constituteth five Beings of diseases. First, the Ens or Being of God,* for he saith some diseases come from God. The second being is an Astral Ens, under which he comprehends not only dis∣eases from the Stars of Heaven, but such as come from the stars in Man that depend upon the stars of Heaven. The third is a Natural Being, when a disease by a fault in Nature, and they consider Page 107Nature by their three Principles. The fourth is a Mental Ens, under which are comprehended all diseases from imagination in our selves or o∣thers, and under this they comprehend Incan∣tations. The fifth kind is a Being of Poyson na∣tural or artificial.
Here Paracelsus shews his ignorance in Logick and Philosophy, and he never learned from the Metaphysicks what Ens or a Being is. It is un∣godly to say that any disease is from a Being of God. And he speaks improperly in all the rest of his differences. But we may bear with impro∣per speeches, so good things be under them. * Nor can we suffer what Severine saith in referring all diseases and cures to four Monarches, The Epi∣lepsie, Dropsie, Gout and Leprosie, to every one of these he reduced certain diseases; under the Epilepsie he placeth Catarrhs, Palsies, Cramps, Megrims, Melancholies, Apoplexies, and Suffocations of the Womb. Under the Dropsie, Aposthems, Jaundies, Cachexy. Under the Leprosie all Ulcers. Under the Gout, the Cholick, Stone, Toothach and Headach. But it is evil to refer diseases, that differ so in es∣sence and causes to the same head.
Nor is this division to be admitted into coagu∣lation and resolved diseases. They say that some impurities come from the seeds, whose fruit doth coa∣gulate. Others come from seeds whose fruit ends in flowing resolution, those they cal coagulated, these re∣solved diseases.
What Severine saith of the disease and fruits of the superior Globe, hath many absurdities, ex∣cept they are explained otherwise then the words sound. We grant that the causes of Epidemick diseases depend in a great part upon the Stars and their influence, and arise from the air and Page 108spirits that we attract and breath in. But that there should be any Opiate, Arsenick, Orpiment, or the like, or fruits of celestial bodies, or resolutions of celestial seeds, I cannot admit, because matter of such corruptions which is in the air, and drawn in by the breath to infect the body, comes not from Heaven, but is contained in the inferior World, and the coelestial bodies may diversly stir, dispose, and mingle, and alter them. The mo∣dern Chymists dare not defend this Doctrine of Severine. Quercetan searce mentioneth any seeds, but saith, *That Mercury, Salt and Sulphur have all sorts of vertues, faculties and properties: from whence come infinite varieties, colours, tasts and scents, and the like, which produce divers disea∣ses from their distemper, and the company of o∣ther things. If Sulphur abound, it brings di∣vers inflammations and feavers, besides other narcotick effects, which the sleepy Sulphur pro∣duceth by its narcotick spirits, which do the same thing that wine or the like doth, which cause sleep, not by cold, but a narcotick Sulphur. From mercurial, sour and sharp vapors, come Epilepsies, Apoplexies, Palsies, and all kinds of Catarrhs. From Salts, he saith come corrosions inwardly, Im∣posthumes, Ulcers, Dysenteries, Bleeding, and from the dissolving of them come heat of Urin, and Stran∣gury. And from the variety of Salts, come divers Ulcers, Imposthumes, Corrosions, by their sharp and sour spirits, also divers kinds of Colicks. From Salts coagulated, he brings Nodes, Scirrhus Tu∣mors, and swollen Joynts, and infinite sorts of Ob∣structions.
The best distinction of the Chymists, is that from the three principles and causes of diseases, if they would be constant therein, or explain Page 109themselves, for the matter is very intricate con∣cerning Mercury. For if they say every humor is not Mercury, but the first and substantial hu∣mor which gives sense and motion to all parts, it cannot be the cause of diseases. But if Mercury be taken for the cause of a disease, who will say that it is an excrement of natural Mercury and flegm. And I see not how they can distinguish it from Tartar (from which Severine saith Ca∣tarrhs do arise.)
The differences of Salt and Sulphûr are mani∣fest, because sour, bitter and falt matter is gathe∣red in the body, and vomited up. Somtimes the humor is so sour in the stomach, that before it is vomited up, the teeth are set on edg by it. The differences of Salts are plain in divers Ulcers, as in the Scab, Cancer, heat of Urin, and the like.
To this division belong tartarous Diseases, of which they speak often, and many flie to that in time of ignorance; they say then the disease is from Tartar, but few explain what Tartar is. *Pa∣racelsus rails against the Galenists, because they call tartarous diseases, sand or the stone, because it is a Metaphorical appellation, but in Physick we must speak properly, and things must de de∣nominated from their Nature, which he doth not observe. He saith the cause of this appellation, is because an oyl, and a water, and a tincture, are made of it, which burns the sick as the Tartar of Hell; therefore if the name be from the likeness of Hell fire, it is taken from a similitude, and is not proper.
Others extend the word Tartar larger then that it should be given only to the stone, for they call a slimy humor by the same name, which cau∣seth the Colick, corrosions, and divers pains in Page 110the stomach. Thus they cal divers things by the name of Tartar, to which it doth not equally in reason belong, and so is not proper.
But to the purpose (agreeing about names) let us see whether the Chymists and Dogmatists may be reconciled in this. The Chymists have no clear definition of Tartar. * Paracelsus defines it thus, It is stony disease, or a bole, or between a bole and a stone, which hinders the effect and vertue of Nature. Other Chymists say, Tartar is that impurity in the nourishment, under a resolved form that cannot be discerned, but yet tends to coagulation and a stony Nature. Some from Paracelsus say, It is an excrement coagulated by its spirit.
Some Chymists seem to agree with the Gale∣nists, who say, Tartar is a stone-making juyce, or a matter by Nature apt to coagulate. And this juyce is drawn from Plants with the nourishment, and sent from Plants into Animals, and then it hurts much when Nature is weak to concoct and void it. They make four kinds of this Tartarous juyce. Vis∣cous, bolare, or like bole, sandy and stony: and hence come divers diseases in divers parts of the body.
First, they bring most diseases of the stomach from Tartarous impurities, when such a matter covers the sides of the stomach, the vital spirits are obstructed, which are the Author of all natu∣ral actions: hence comes slow concoction, com∣pression, loathing, and the like, and as the tin∣ctures of the Tartarous spirits are stronger to wholly overcome the inbred spirits, there fol∣lows want of concoction and nourishment. But if these impurities have strange spirits with them, they turn the nourishment into a strange nature, and there is belching and stink, and if they have vomiting properties, as of Hellebore or Antimo∣ny, Page 111they cause loathing and vomiting. If they have the tinctures of Salts, there is burning of the stomach, gnawing, and the like. If of vitrio∣lated Salt, there is a Dog-like appetite.
Let us grant all this, that we be not so unjust against the Chymists as Erastus.* Yet this tarta∣rous matter is not the onely cause of the hurt a∣ctions of the stomach, for a hot or a cold distem∣per often hurts it. Moreover, from the opinion of Severine diseases breed from those tartarous impurities mixed or alone; from the mixed come sulphurous stinking diseases, thirst, heat, bitter∣ness of mouth, headach, with cold and shaking, called ordinary feavers. But he thinks they come rather from their roots, which are Niter with Sulphur. Because he saith feavers have seeds and roots, in which slimy and salt spirits with Niter, are mixed with impure, stinking, dissolved Sul∣phur. Therefore at set times when the mineral or matter of the disease begins to spring, being nitrous Sulphur, there is horror, chilness, pant∣ing, and the like, as the nitrous Sulphur dif∣fers.
As we are not in this enemies to them, so let them be milder against the opinions of Galenists for first we must distinguish the seaver from the cause. The cause is that matter which they call Nitrous Sulphur, from the accession of which there is a hot distemper in the whole body, by which all the parts are unfit for their offices, and this preternatural disposition is called a feaver. Nor must the name of humors be rejected, for Ni∣ter or Sulphur are never vomited up, or purged forth, or sweat out, but only humors. Though we grant that the humors are set on fire by Sul∣phur, we will not therefore reject the name of humors.Page 112
Scheunemamnus his opinion of the original of feavers is ridiculous, he saith that a globe or bal of many Sphaeres, like a Bezoar-stone, is bred in the stomach or liver, and thence come seavers and fits; and when this ball is struck from Hea∣ven, it flames and smoaks, and infects the air, hence comes a little cold and trembling, and then heat. But this globe and its circles of which it is made, ought to be very great, because he writes that the patient shall have so many fits as are circles in it.
Against Severine I say the Colick cannot breed from a slimy Tartar mixed with stiptick, or bin∣ding, four spirits, because he made one cause on∣ly of the pain of the Colick. I agree with him about the name, for the case is plain, that the co∣lick is from glass like flegm as Galen taught. But if he make that the only cause, he errs exceeding∣ly, because there are great pains from wind that extends the guts, nor doth sharpness or wind cause pains but by stretching, which being made to pass by a Clyster or two the pain ceaseth bet∣ter then by the laborious Chymical medicines. * It is false that he saith, the sharpest pains are on∣ly from the sharpest spirits of Salts: he calls the pains from cuts, burnings and stroaks Relolls. But all men living do witness by sense, that there is no greater pain then that from cutting and bur∣ning, &c.
Severine proceeds, and saies, and describes the generations and differences of inflammations, saying, That the seeds of these diseases come to the matrixes, not only in a liquid form dissolved, but in a spiritual vapor, and continual nutrication, and dige∣sted fermentation, and except the time of neaturity and separation, which coming, the spirits break forth and Page 113boyl. And then the signatures that lay hid before in the spirits are explained colours, tasts, scents, heat and other qualities. And by nourishment daily at∣tracted, they make bodies agreable to the principles, mattery, slimy, bloody, coagulated, dissolved, stink∣ing, red, black. He brings the kinds of inflam∣mations from the proprieties of the sulphurous spirits. And Arsenick spirits make plague sores. Orpiment spirits make Pleurisies, not only in the breast, but in the brain, lungs, heart, liver, spleen and stomach.
He accuseth Galen and other Doctors for say∣ing, That inflammations come from much blood, vio∣lent exercise, falls, contusions. And denies that these effects can come from these causes, except some Arsenical seed cause the Plague, or other the Pleurisie lying in the blood, till it get an occasion to boyl.
For the breeding of ulcers, he saith thus. If from the inbred Balsom weakned from error by im∣moderate diet in the mummy of the blood, the Syno∣viae of flesh defect of separation come from impure matter: the impurity being left, which is full of cor∣rosive salts; if this happen often, and then tincture be strong of the corrosive seeds, and the mummy of the blood be transplanted, they will bring in the roots of the flesh or Synovia, and by constant nourishment, from things of like impurity, at a digested time they will produce fruit agreable to the roots. He saith that salts of iron breed the roots and fruits of a Cancer in the flesh, veins and members, resembling the Anato∣my of Mars, and they dwell in the face, lips, papps, breast, and somtimes the womb. The Herpes and Wolf have aeruginous roots, near of kin to the Cancer, and place themselves in the musculous flesh in the joynts and breast, &c. I shall not repeat more for bre∣vity sake.Page 114
But many of these are false and absurd. First, he denies the causes alledged by the Galenists, but every one may see them daily, especially if they be in an impure body. Moreover, inflam∣mations rise not as plants out of seeds, but when bad humors are heaped up in the body, if nature cannot expel them by usual waies, she sends them to ignoble places, where, with blood gathered out of the vessels, they are hot and putrefie: hence comes pain and inflammation, the skin discolo∣red according to the variety of the humor. And that which Nature doth every where, she doth here also, that is, she makes divers quittors ac∣cording to the humor: the same is to be thought of the breeding of ulcers. Nor are the Chymists to be totally rejected for their explaining of the differences of inflammations and ulcers, though it may be objected against them, there are divers effects of Arsenick, Orpiment, Vitriol, if they be applied outwardly, by things that appear in in∣flammations; for animal Salt and Sulphur differ from vegetable Salt and Sulphur, and things ta∣ken from the earth, have a kind of alteration, and the greater in Animals, though they do ne∣ver wholly change their Nature, as you may see in Bubo'es, Carbuncles, Cancers, and the like.
* Concerning the cause of pain, they say that the spirits of Salt dissolved, causeth pain, this we allow, but it is also from burning, cutting, stretching, as I said. But I take it ill, that he should reprove Galen, because he denied that the names of tasts should be applied to pains. Ga∣len saies right, That every sense hath its proper sensible, therefore as colours cannot be perceiv∣ed by the ears, so tasts cannot be apprehended Page 115by the touch, as they are such; yet Galen de∣nies not that things that are tastable, as they are salt and sharp, do diversly afflict the touching, but this is not from a savor as it is tastable, but as it is sharp, which may be tasted also: which Severine confessed, therefore he unjustly accuseth Galen.
Also it is evident, that differences of pain come from the nerves in the part, being more or fewer. Severine saies, Those parts are most pain∣ed in which are the sharpest spirits of Salt, which go outwardly at the mouth of the stomach, the guts. But he is out, for parts covered with nerves and membranes, have the sharpest pains.
Scheuneman in his Book called Reformed Phy∣sick or his Hermetical Penny: laies down ten chief Causes of diseases: as spiritual Mercury, burnt Mer∣cury, sublimate Mercury, praecipitate Mercury, Sul∣phur coagulated, Salt calcined, Salt dissolved, and Salt reverberated. But he shews no cause of these Principles; they are new beings, which he no waies proves, and therefore he useth new words, nor plain Greek nor Latin, as Pneumosus, or spi∣ritual Mercury, Cremosus, which is we suppose from Cremare to burn.
At last he propounds an aetherial Spirit-like fire the governor of all actions, the radical moisture that bedews the whole body, the spirit of the radical humor, the quickning substance, and immediate instrument of actions, the aetherial spirit author of concoction and digestion. But these being not sufficient, he adds a fourth, the most pure, white, sweet pleasant, pant∣ing, the cherisher of the heat of the whole body, &c. which he calls congealed Sulphur, the first moisture or Virgins milk, that bedews the body, and re∣fresheth it, the first subject of generation, also a Page 116moist and soft substance, a fifth spirit, which he calls Sulphur dissolved.
But here we admire. He propounds so many Spirits and Principles, and proves not in the least whether they are in being, or be so many. He brings inflammations from Sulphur congealed and burned; but in the fifth Chapter he brings the Quinzy and Pleurisie from Mercury sublima∣ted. Then he brings Feavers from Sulphur fired. So Hippocrates and Galen call them by the name of Fire, but he mixeth false things with them.
What he saies of dissolved Sulphur, is not wholly to be rejected, for the Galenists say that pleasant vapors sent to the brain, cause sleep: nor when he saies, That Narcoticks cause sleep, not from cold, but from Sulphur. But he errs in say∣ing all sleep is from a moist Nature and soft sub∣stance, that bedews all the parts; for who will say that the venemous quality in the Plague which produceth deep sleep, is such? In that he brings Fluxes and Dysenteries from congealed Sulphur and dissolved; he differs from other Pa∣racelsians, that say they come from Salt, which is more probable.
But he accuseth the Galenists false, for saying excrements are diseases. For the Paracelsians do so, and Severine that saith he saw a Feaver cast out by vomit. Then he makes diseases of Salt threefold: calcined, dissolved and reverberated Salt. He saith the calcined Salt is the Balsom of life; and if it melt in the body, it causeth Drop∣sies, Oedema and Cachexy.
He saith dissolved Salt is a liquid body, of a fat tast, that coagulateth and astringeth, that nourisheth all with its good relish, and preserves all, and is therefore called the meat and drink of the Gods &c. Page 117and whatsoever wants this Salt, is quite unsavory.
He saith the reverberated Salt, is the Lixivium or Clenser of all Nature that takes away filth. To this Salt he brings the Itch, Scurse, Morphew, Pox Scurvey.
Though we disown not the Salts of the Chy∣mists, which the resolution of bodies shews. Scheuneman did well in a few things, but adding some falsities, he made the rest suspected. He gives no reason why so many Salts, nor is it needful that what compounds the body, should cause diseases. Moreover, he is not constant in describing the kinds of Salts, as appears when he derives all tasts from calcined Salt, and that it is now bitter, then salt, now four, and then sweet: yet in another place he brings the tast from dis∣solved Salt, & saies nothing is savory that wants dissolved Salt. Other Chymists are more right, as we have shewed in the Chapter of Salts.
Moreover, he errs much in shewing the cau∣ses of Sweat, Cachexy, Dropsie, and the like. That Sweat hath Salt, is not to be denied, but is not only Salt: for in us it stinks often, which the Chymists say is from Sulphur; nor is sweat a dis∣solved Salt coming from the substance of the bo∣dy: we sometimes allow it to Diaphoretick sweats, but not to others. But the serous mat∣ter is the sweat, and that sweat and urin have the same matter. And if sweat were thus made, fea∣vers would not be gone with sweating, which we see. It is as absurd when he brings Cachexy and Dropsie from resolved Salt, for the Dropsie is o∣therwise caused, as in Lib. 3. Pract. Cap. 1. you may see.
Nor had Paracelsus or Severine any cause to bring the Dropsie from the resolution of parts or Page 118their Salts, for there is water and Salt enough in our meats and drinks, which if it be not well se∣parated, it breeds a Dropsie by degrees. Nor doth a Scirrhus of the liver or spleen alwaies fol∣low a Dropsie, and never go before it, for expe∣rience shews the contrary.
To what he faies of Tartar, I grant that many difeases come from Tartar and Salt, or being mi∣xed with slimy humors But he errs, saying that such Salt is the nourishment of the body, and the meat and drink of the Gods, and when it doth not its duty, it breeds cartarous diseases. This Tartar is rather an excrement unfit to nourish the body, * as Hippocrates saith, and wine which hath little Tartar, is best.
As for his reverberated Salt, I commend him for bringing the Itch, Scab, Scurse, and Teter, and Ulcers that creep, from Salt, and the Gale∣nists say that salt humors cause them; but I see not what he doth more then others. For these diseases differ in their causes, & cure very much, and the kind of Salt or salt humor is different in a Cancer, and a Teter, or Scab, and if he had ex∣plained them, he had sound favor from all Phi∣losophers. For there is great difference of dis∣eases from salt humors and the French pox, the Scurvey, Cancer and Carbuncle differ not on∣ly in respect of the part affected, and the greater or lesser heat of the salt Spirits, or the kinds of Salts, which the best Chymists confess, and ther∣fore they apply divers medicines to divers disea∣ses that arise from Salts: nor do I believe that Scheuneman cured the Leprosie, French pox, Can∣cer, Teter, Scurvey, and all corroding Ulcers with one only Salt.
What he speaks besides, is not considerable, Page 119and I should loose time to treat concerning it.
Chap. 17. Of that part of Phy∣sick which is called Semiotick, or of Signs.
PAracelsus varied in his Doctrine of Signs, * as Eraslus shews, sometimes he allows them, somtimes he rejects them. But when he saies we must not regard Signs and Symptoms, he there erreth; for Signs and Symptoms are considered of Physitians, not for themselves, but that they may bring us to the knowledg of hidden diseases and causes. Nor can we commend the Paracel∣sians for slighting them, for there is no curing of that disease which is unknown.
He speaks nothing in general of Signs, let us consider what he saies in particular, and first of the Pulse. The modern Physitians think that he was well skilled in pulses, as appears in his Book of the Plague Tract. 1. where he saith, The pulse is the measure of the temper of the body, according to the propriety of the six places, which the Planets pos∣sess, &c. And wrote more of pulses, * as you may see. And he saith the pulse continues till death, and somtimes a quarter of an hour after.
If he had no more to say of pulses, he had but little, and what could be more simple, then to write that the gall, reins, liver have their pecu∣liar pulses? and the feet and other members, to attribute anger to the pulse? And that is most simple when he saies, A pulse may beat a quarter of an hour after death: for how can there be vital actions when the soul is gone?
He was larger concerning urin, which he de∣sines Page 120thus:It is a salt separated from the nourish∣ment, and some of the three first Principles neglected by Nature, namely the stomach, liver and reins send forth the urin. He is not to be despised for refer∣ring urin to salt, * which is not in things by adu∣stion only, for the volatile salt of urin is without any adustion, and in that part which it first comes forth, of which we spake elswhere.
He divides the urin into the external, internal, and mixed. The first he will have to come from the Elements, and to shew no more then what be∣longs to the stomach, reins and liver. And saith it is of Tartar, which shews that the separation from the pure and the impure, is made in the three chief parts, the stomach, liver and reins, and in this urin, Salt, Sulphur and Mercury may be known.
The internal urin which is of blood, comes not from the nourishment, but from the excrements of all parts, and the Minerals that are in Nature. He calls that a mixed urin which is compounded of the internal and external. But Paracelsus did not much regard this distinction, as appears in the Life of Oporinus, who brought an urin to him, and desi∣red the Doctors opinion, but he brake the glass against the wall, and called him fool.
He errs in making the internal urin of blood, not from nourishment, but from the excrements of parts and Minerals in mans Nature: for in a part constituted, there are no Minerals that send forth a peculiar excrement. John Rhenavus men∣tions other differences of urin from Paracelsus in his Vrocriterium Chymiatricum, where you may see strange opinions of urin, but let every man beware of them.
Some Chymists have spoken well of troubled Page 121urins, but not they alone, nor are they the first, for in a troubled urin, many things may be known which are not to be seen in a clear, chief∣ly in feavers; for in some somthing sticks so to the glass, that it is hard to be scoured off. In o∣thers, though it stand long, there is none. This is easily known when the urinal lies on one side: therefore in such diseases I suppose from experi∣ence, that you may judge as well from troubled as clear urin.
Some Chymasts in Epidemick diseases distin∣guish urins from Arsenick, Orpiment and Mer∣cury. They say Arsenick is like unslaked Lime, and cleaves to the urinal, and corrodes it: that Orpiment is like Okar in colour, and sticks fast also, but doth not corrode the glass so much; that Mercury is sky-coloured, and is first seen in the circle.
Others teach that you may judg of diseases by distilling the urin, but Paracelsus tried it not, * I suppose, (but this is my opinion) in great dis∣eases if any will distil it, I am not against it, that they may know better what is in it, as you do in Spaw-waters. Whatsoever he saies more of the part affected, the disease and the event, is foo∣lish What doth a furnace as high as a man con∣cern the coustitution of the urin? Why should the bigness of the vessels in a certain part answer to the just stature of a man? All men are not of one stature, and therefore this proportion will not fit all, and you must make other furnaces and glasses for others: but these are trifles.
Moreover, Severine thought otherwise then Galen concerning the place affected, and know∣ing the times of diseases: but Severine jesteth at the word, and distinguisheth not the disease from Page 122the cause, nor the place from the cause, nor the part affected by it self from that by consent. And he unjustly accuseth Galen for making the brain the part affected in an Epilepsie, because the be∣ginning of sense and motion, is from the brain: Nor was Galen ignorant that the cause which twitcheth the brain, and produceth it, was not al∣waies in the brain: but he willingly taught, and all other Physitians after him, that it came often from the womb, stomach, and other remote parts, as in other diseases.
The Galenists knew, and taught that the root and fountain of the disease was to be found out. And it is very hard to find out the part that af∣fords matter to the disease. Moreover, the way of finding out the seeds of diseases, is uncertain, for the relation of the patient (which Paracelsus slights) shews us somtimes best to know the dis∣ease, as for example, in the Epilepsie by consent from the leg, may be known best by the relation of the patient, which cannot be known by giving medicines; let them shew it otherwise, not by promises, and till then, let us retain the old way of finding out the parts affected. And let us not imitate the rash Chymists, who write little of the part affected, and not say, That medicines of them∣selves know how to find the center of a disease, which is meer folly.
Severine saith, the times and periods of disea∣ses come not from numbers, or the peculiar Na∣ture of man, the motion of the Moon, the flux of excrements, and certain motion of the expulsive faculty, but from the seeds and stars of the mem∣bers, and that in diseases, the offices of Nature cease, and all things are governed by the seeds of diseases.Page 123
And though it be true, that concoctions and excretions are at certain times, we must not de∣ny that these inferior things are governed by su∣perior causes, which the very Countrey-swayns know from the motion of the Moon: for all men are equally affected by the same coelestial influ∣ence and motion.
It is false, that hereditary diseases, as Epilep∣sie, Gout, and the like, grow like Plants from their seeds (as Severine writes) which have their time of digestion, and bringing forth fruit, some in the seventh, tenth or fourteenth year, &c. for there is another cause which is the vicious dispo∣sition of the parts. And the reason why they seize not on all at one time, but upon some in in∣fancy, others in youth, is, because the cause that produceth. diseases, is not easily bred in all ages. The Epilepsie seizeth upon infants, the Gout u∣pon old folk, but commonly the hereditary dis∣ease comes at thirty, because that age useth to heap up the causes of that disease.
But it is against experience, when Severine brings the continuity of diseases from Homoge∣neal roots, and the intermission of them from he∣terogeneal roots. For the cause of continuity and intermission, is divers, as we shewed in Fea∣vers. But this cast him into many absurdities by supposing that diseases arise onely as fruit from Trees. He hath many absurdities, but this is worst, because in diseases he takes from Nature the go∣vernment of the body: but he speaks contrary to himself and to experience. Thus, It is the pro∣per faculty of all vital Elements, not to endure any strange thing in their Region, but they expel all con∣traries by force. Right, for Nature doth not only her duty in health, but in sickness. Therefore Page 124Hippocrates saith well, * that Nature is the Physi∣tianess which is not ment of the Nature of Me∣dicines, as Chymists interpret, but of the body. For while Nature opposeth a disease as an ene∣my, we must not despair of cure, and the Crisis comes by Natures benefit, which to impute to Medicines, is foolish.
Nor is Paracelsus constant in Prognosticks, * for he saith all diseases without exception are cura∣ble, though they be from the birth, because if ve∣nom be in Nature, it is to be cured. Elswhere he saith some diseases are uncurable, as the Leprosie.
Therefore this is the question, whether all dis∣eases are curable? First, it is a wonder that Pa∣racelsians should die so soon, when they defend all diseases to be curable, why do they not prove it in themselves? The vulgar is governed by o∣pinion and fair promises, but not the Learned. Moreover, they erre in counting the Leprosie, Epilepsie, Dropsie and Gout curable, which Ga∣len saies are uncurable. For they are not alwaies curable nor uncurable, but some are of them∣selves so, others by accident. Of themselves they are uncurable, when their Nature is such, that no art of man can help in any patient, and when there never was an example of cure. They are uncurable by accident, when there are remedies, and by Nature they are curable, and in some they are cured, though in this or that patient they are not cured, because somthing happens which makes it impossible. Therefore the Epilepsie, Dropsie and Gout, are not well referred to dis∣cases of themselves uncurable. Galen mentions some Lepers that were cured with Vipers and Treacle. * And Galenists have cured the other, as Erastus shews, and daily experience confirms, and only by Galenical Physick.Page 125
Yet I deny not that there is great power in Chymical Physick in such difficult diseases, but it is as impossible for the Chymists as for the Ga∣lenists, to cure all Leprosies, Epilepsies, and Dropsies, and it is as impossible, as to raise the dead.
The reasons they bring for the cure of all dis∣eases, are of no force. For though there are in Nature all things necessary for pleasure and ne∣cessity, and God could make Medicines against all diseases, as our Savior cured them that were otherwise incurable, and raised the dead, yet it follows not that God is envious for not making them. Nor doth it follow that though God gave a remedy against eternal death, that he also hath given a remedy against all diseases: diseases and death are the punishment of sin; therefore though God of his mercy hath given a remedy against eternal death, yet he is not enviious nor unjust, that he hath not given remedies against the first death and all diseases. Read Bruno Sei∣delius of incurable Diseases.
Chap. 18. Of Medicines, and the Method of Curing.
PAracelsus valued not diet, as appears by his Practise; for he drank with his patients nights and daies, and said he cured them with a full belly. But here he did ill, for all Physitians have acknowledged diet to be necessary to the cure of all diseases, and he that neglects it, finds it by experience. In feavers it is plain, for if the patient eat too freely, or that which is improper he relapseth. And in many diseases good diet is half the cure.Page 126
As for Physick, let us consider the universal Medicine which the Chymists so commend, by which a man may be preserved from diseases to the determinated time of his life, as Robert Va∣lensis writes. * This as Arnold de Vill a nova faith, Hath vertue and force above all Medicines, to cure all diseases both hot and cold, because it is of an oc∣cult and subtile Nature, it keeps Nature in health, strengthens its vertues, and makes the old young, and expels all infirmities, &c. But many Chymists think there is no such universal Medicine that can cure all diseases in similary and organical parts, in excess and defect and in conformation. They confess that wounds, fractures, and luxa∣tions, Ruptures, and the like which require Chy∣rurgery, are not ment here. They except also the stone, hereditary diseases, hecticks, and diseases in number deficient, fixed Cancers and Gan∣grenes, because God alone, not man, can cure all diseases: only they are only curable with this universal Medicine that come from the inward fault of the humors, or as they say, Which spring from an internal Root. And they call it a Medi∣cine of much use, as the Ancients called it a Pa∣nacea.
But the Chymists brag of this, but few or none have explained it. They say it is enough to know the patient to be sick, and that next to the Word of God, by which eternal life is promi∣sed, there is nothing more precious: but this Me∣dicine is rather to be wished then hoped for; nor was that yet found that hath done that which the Philosophers stone doth in transmutation of Me∣tals, it is plain, and many of our age have had it, but it is not evident what it hath done in cu∣ring diseases, nor yet any thing proved by good witness.Page 127
If this Philosophers-stone can trāsmute ignoble Metals, yet it follows not that it is an universal medicine, for they should first prove it upon thē∣selves, as Paracelsus and others that bragged of the Philosophers-stone, and yet died all young.
But they which have this universal Medicine, and do hide it, have no mercy like Christians, when they see so many men tormented, and will not help them. Nor are good things to be con∣cealed, because they are abused. I doubt whe∣ther a Christian Physitian can with a safe consci∣ence conceal a Medicine that can cure great dis∣eases, and if he do, he doth not like a Christian that must love his neighbor as himself.
They agree not among themselves in deter∣minating this Medicine, for many take it for the Philosophers-stone, yet Scheunaman makes the leaves of black Hellebore almost equal to the Philosophers-stone, and saith that they being brought into a Balsom, make a man live a second age, and do purge beyond all.
There are three opinions of the universal Me∣dicine. The first is of them that think that it cures all diseases, not primarily, but secondarily, by strengthening Nature wonderfully, for accord∣ing to Hippocrates, Nature is the Physitian, she concocts, separates, voideth, and takes away all faintness. And here the Chymists extol their Quintessence and Balsom, and their incompara∣ble vital Sulphur, they call the secret flower the Sun and the Heaven. They say their Quintes∣sence and aetherial Spirit diffused through all na∣tural things, is the fountain of all vigor and acti∣ons. In Animals it gives soul, in Vegetables it gives growth and vegetation, in Minerals and Metals it doth according to them. In men it Page 128makes concoction and Crisis, and then triumphs over his conquered enemy.
They say this Spirit and Quincessence and Bal∣somick Medicine, comes from the great World to the less, that the spirit in the body of man be∣ing helped by external aid, that is by this streng∣thener, may oppose diseases more valiantly, and either change what is foul in the body to a natu∣ral state, and expel it. Some say this is to be done by Chymistry, so that it may easily agree, and be united to our natural heat, and radical moisture, and spirit, and increase it, and raise it to the height of purity. And though this quin∣tessence be in all things, yet it is more in some then in others. And the universal Medicine is to be made of that in which this Quintessence doth most abound, but what, and what kind of matter it is, they do not explain.
Of this first opinion I think thus. First, I admit of what they say touching the strength of inbred spirit. The Galenists teach this, only let us have the soul to be the principle agent & this inbred spirit, * to be only an instrument of it. Nor do I wholly reject their Quintessence, but admit it so as I shewed in my Institutions; namely, to be somthing like to the Element of the Heavens, a spirit such as is in wine, by which it so streng∣thens the body, and refresheth the spirits: and by Chymical resolution you may shew it in all plants. And many Galenists confess that there is in Medicines, not onely that which works by the first qualities, * but by a nobler force. There∣fore Erastus speaks too rash to call the Quintes∣sence a Dream of idle persons that desire to cheat.
But let us grant them this, and that there is Page 129Nature that which abounds with this Quintes∣sence and Spirit, which being artificially prepa∣red, hath great power to strengthen, and there∣fore may be called an universal Medicine. Yet they prove not that it can cure all diseases with∣out purgers, alterers and openers, and the like. And it cannot be that Nature should purge wa∣ter in a Dropsie, with Medicines that move the belly, or discuss the nodes in the Gout, or the Stone without help of Medicines. And though all diseases should come from the hurt of the vi∣tal spirit, yet the cause of that hurt may be ma∣nifold; therefore to restore the spirits, divers Me∣dicines must be given according to the variety of causes that hinder it. Therefore it is not suffici∣ent that the spirit which governs the whole body be strengthened, but the strength of every privat part must be preserved.
The second opinion is of those that allow not only force to the universal Medicine to streng∣then the inbred Balsom and Spirit, but to dis∣solve, consume and dissipate the seminary tin∣ctures and impurities, or diseases and causes thereof. But let us consider if this may be to de∣fend their opinion, they say that fire burns all things, Antimony consumes all Metals mixed with gold, and hurts not that, therefore the same may be by the universal Medicine, which like a purging fire, consumes all the impurities of our bodies. Secondly, they say as there are poysons as Arsenick, and that of a mad Dog which hurts all men, so there may be Medicines that do all good, and cute all diseases. But these do not e∣vince. For fire doth not consume all things, but only combustible things, for it doth no hurt to earth or gold. What they say of Antimony is Page 130not agreable here, nor doth he prove that the same thing may be done by the universal Medi∣cine in mans body. Therefore they should prove that such a Medicine may be as may resist all the distempers of the body, and consume all causes of diseases, and hurts not the body as Antimony doth all but gold which is safe.
To the similitude of poysons, I say that every poyson hath its own Nature, and man hath his; therefore it is the action of a determinate thing upon a determinate; nor is every poyson a poyso to every creature. And there are many things wch hurt men, & do no hurt to other creatures. But if all diseases are to be cured by a medicine, there would be an universal action upon a determi∣nate, because there are divers diseases and hu∣mors which have their peculiar nature, all which an universal nature ought to resist.
They who think there is no such universal Medicine have sounder principles. First, the cure of a disease is a changing of the body into a contrary to the disease, But all change is be∣tween contraries, and from the contrary. There are many differences of diseases and bad humors. Some diseases are from manifest qualities, some from occult, and there is a great difference in these, as appears by variety of poysons: and e∣very disease and humor requires a peculiar reme∣dy, nor doth one Medicine cure diseases from cold, heat, nor doth it moisten, and dry, and op∣pose all poysons. If they say this universal Me∣dicine is so tempered that it can resist all, how then being so tempered in the first qualities, can∣not amend the great excess of cold and heat at once. And to speak Chymically, if Sulphur a∣bound, and Salt be wanting, how can a tempe∣rate Page 131Medicine, supply the defect of Salt, and take away the abundance of Sulphur.
God therefore alone cures all diseases, but the strength of natural things is determinate and di∣stinct, and the medicinal vertue is dispersed into many things; nor is their strength given natu∣rally to one Medicine to do all things: hence is the great variety of Medicines, that every disease hath its peculiar remedy. And this variety had been in vain given by God, if all diseases could be cured by one simple universal Medicine. And all Apothecaries would break, and Physitians might burn their books, if that Medicine were sufficient.
Hence it sollows, that this soundation of Phy∣sick is unshaken. That which is besides Nature, is to be taken away, and that which is according to Na∣ture, is to be preserved, like things are preserved by their like, and contraries are cured by their contra∣ries. The Chymists themselves admit of these general Indications. And therefore they give a force of strengthening the natural Balsom to their universal Medicine, and to comfort and consume diseases breeding impurities, and so of curing all diseases: but they have not proved that one Me∣dicine should do both.
The Author of the Natural Physick of the round Vision and Cabalistical Chymistry in his Book called, The open Chest of the most Artificial Secret, hath so many absurdities as words. And the learned Chymists approve it not, whether he worte it in earnest or in jest. There is such ano∣ther Book called, The New Knowledg of the Uni∣versal Medicine, set out by a Professor of Physick of Fribury in Brisgoy called Wolfang. And though he promiseth much concerning this Medicine, no Page 132man yet can hear what he hath done, though many enquire. Therefore the Chymists do ra∣ther wish and hope for this universal Mendicine then enjoy it.
In the matter of Physick they differ little from the Galenists; first in finding out the faculties of Medicines, they go another way, which they call by Signatures, and say that the Plants that represent Animals, or any parts of them, or are like any way, are good to strengthen those parts or to expel diseases. To these they add the Do∣minion of the Planets, and the Plants that are subject to such a Dominiō, are dedicated to those parts as are under those Planets. Under Saturn they place Plants that are rough and unpleasant, black, swarthy pale, and Lead-coloured, thin and dry slalks, binding, stinking, moorish: these have an Antipathy with the Plants of the Sun, and are dedicated to the Spleen.
Plants of Jupiter are oyly, pleasant in scent and tast, with red and skie-colour'd flowers, these belong to the Liver; as Balsom, Oyl, Clove-giliflowers, Bettony, Avens, Lillies, Centaury.
Plants of Mars are reddish, sharp, and rough, Corrosives, and such as grow in dry places, as Net∣tles, Carduus.
Those under the Sun are sweet in scent and tast, yellow flower'd, or gold-Colour'd, that grow in the South Sun; to these they refer Wine, Saffron, Ci∣trons, Oranges, Balm, Rosemary.
Under Venus are Plants of a sweet tast, and an amurous scent, with a white flower, as the Dog-stone; Plants, all Lillies, and Lilly Convals, Daffodils.
They say Mercury governs Plants of divers co∣lours that grow in sandy grounds, bare Cods, have a subtile scent, as Pellitory, Chamomil, Columbines, Page 133Beans, Dasies, three-leaved Grass, &c.
The Moon governs the Plants with soft leaves thick and full of juyce, as Gourds, Cowcumbers, Me∣lons, Musk melons, Pompions, Lettice, Garlick, Onions, Leeks, &c.
The modern Chymists from these made Me∣dicine peculiar to every humor and part; they thought that these have great relation to the blood, as Gilliflowers, Roses, Piony, Bugloss, Bo∣rage, Violets, and therefore serve for Sanguification. And that Bugloss and Borage purge the blood from melancholy, Fumitory from choler, the Peach-leaves from flegm, and all Plants that are like blood do stop blood, as Tormentil, Snake∣weed, Herb Robert, with the red Root, red Roses, the Bloodstone, red Coral. They say that these sol∣lowing are like to choler, and do purge it, as Rhubarb, Agrimony, yellow Mirobalans. They are such as are black or duskie, are like melancho∣ly, and such as are bitter or astringent, as Poly∣pody, black Hellebore, Senna, Asarabacca. These are proper to evacuate flegm, as wild Cowcum∣bers, Mercury, Arage, all these are under the Moon, and belong to the stomach and brain, and purge them, are good against flegm, and the moist scab, and the like.
As to the parts of the body: the brain, be∣cause it is governed by the Moon, hath relation to the Medicines under its Dominion, and against all diseases of the brain, Moonwort, Silver, and Pearl are good. Finally, they ascribe proper Me∣dicines to every part of the body, either from the signature or colour, or from the Dominion of the Planet over the part.
They say the Herbs with pointed Leaves, as Carduus Mariae and Benedictus, Eryngus, Juniper, Page 134&c. are good against pricking pains. That plants that have knotty roots, are good against tumors and pustles. They which are persorated, or are like an axe or saw, or any thing that wil wound are good against wounds. That plants that have slimy and glutinous juyce, and have gums and rosin heal wounds: those that are spotted and scaly leaved, cure the scab and all defilements of the skin. Those like Serpents and other vene∣mous beasts, are good against their bitings and stings. * See Baptista Porta, Quercetan, and Crollius.
All these are not to be rejected, nor do I think with Libavius that it is by chance that things answer to their external forms. For experience witnesseth the external figures are the signs of the internal vertue. And let Signature have its place among the rest, for finding out the faculties of Medicines and diseases. The Galenists have long approved that Medicines are proper to such parts as they resemble, as Piony and Poppy are good for the head and brain, but we must not trust only signature, though it is the chiefest, and let experience be yeilded unto.
Nor is it to be contemned, that every plant is under a peculiar Planet, because Heaven (by ex∣perience) acteth not upon things below only by heat and light, but by an occult influence. But this was not the Chymists Invention, but the Astrologers of old.
Here's a question: * Whether there be any force in Words and Characters in Physick? Paracelsus caused it, when he said Characters would cure diseases otherwise uncurable, and he saith it is lawful to fetch remedies from the Devil, if they will cure a man. We answer as for words they Page 135signifie from a compact and convention of men. For thoughts are the same in all men, but the words or notes by which they are expressed, are divers, and the same words signifie divers things in divers Nations. * Therefore words do only de∣clare the sense of the mind, and work no further, for all principle of operation by which bodies are changed, is a quality and a natural power, and things have their efficacy by their qualities. Paracelsus saith that words have an hidden for•e and vertue as Roots and Plants, but because he proves it not we ought not to believe it. The Devils in old time shewed their worshippers by what words, signs and images they would be worshipped and called upon, and so from a Co∣venant they are of power. Hence it happens that they which read such words and conjurations, though they understand them not, yet do raise the Devil: Martin Delrio hath an example of this. * There is great abuse in holy words, which the Devils and Conjurers use often to delude the simple.
There is the same reason for Characters and Seals; nor did Paracelsus and the Chymists first give power to them, * but the Astrologers and Physitians, and the Magicians chiefly, as Pliny writes. It is an ancient trick to grave a Dragon upon a Jasper-stone, and put it in a ring. Pa∣racelsus propounds many Characters out of Ga∣len in his Book of Archidox Magick, and in that of occult Philosophy, he prefers two before all Sigus and Characters: the one in which the word Adonai is written in a figure, the other in which the word Tetragrammaton is written (as if it were the Name of God) he writes these are good a∣gainst Devils and diseases from Incantation; nor Page 136is the Name of God profaned so, because it is u∣sed for mans good, and against diseases of incan∣tation, but evil is not to be done that good may come thereof
But neither Paracelsus nor others that allow Power to Characters and Seals agree in giving a cause of the effects they produce. Some bring their strength from Heaven, * as the Concilia∣tor out of that of Ptolomy. The countenance of sublunary things is subject to the heavenly counte∣nances, so that the coelestial Scorpion governs the in∣ferior; which being granted, what doth it con∣cern a Scorpion graven upon a Jewel, nor are they under the same kind. Others say there is a force instilled into them from Heaven, and the Stars. Others say that Individuals beginning to be under a determinate constellation, receive an admirable faculty to work or suffer, besides what they have from their species. But a Jewel or Me∣tal doth not then begin to be when it is graven, but it was before. Others think otherwise, but none could yet bring any probabilities for the vertue of them, much less have any of them po∣wer to get favor to men, or knowledg, wit, me∣mory, or love of a King, or Victory in War and Law, or good success in hunting, or merchan∣dize, or make faithful friends, or raise a man to honor, and the like.
Two things are in Seals, the Matter and the Character, to neither of which can this force be ascribed: not to the Matter which is from nature, nor hath it that strength as they confess, and if it had, it would have it without a figure or Cha∣racter, as a Loadstone under what figure soever, hath pover to draw iron without a Character. The Characters are from the Artificer, and from Page 137the Idea in his mind, which cannot work upon external things, therefore cannot have force from themselves or from the Artificer; of them∣selves they are nothing but figures, but a figure is not active being but a quality of the quantity: nor do artificial things act upon natural, and change them, or affect them, as being such, but they act upon them as they have natural matter, and on the contrary, natural things do not alter nor affect articificial, as such, but as they are of a natural matter. Therefore images or names graven upon Matter, can do nothing of them∣selves.
Nor can they take their strength from Heaven, for if the matter of which they are made, can re∣ceive any strength from Heaven, it may receive it as well without Characters; nor have they yet proved the contrary: therefore if any effica∣cy be found in these, it must be ascribed either to imagination, which is of great force, or to the Devil, who by secret signs is invited by such cha∣racters, by way of compact made of old with his worshippers. For these came from the Gentils that were subject to Superstition and Idolatry, and the Devils gave these Characters from a bargain either explicite or implicite, by which only they prevail from the Devil who made a co∣venant with him that first learned them.
Nor is it sufficient what they say, that such things are without the invocation of the Devil, or adjuration, or any unlawful way, but work naturally. For first they must prove that there is such a peculiar vertue in such Seals, which Me∣tals and Gemms have not of themselves; for though it be not an explicite bargain or conju∣ration, yet it may be implicite, and the Devil Page 138knows the dice he gave his worshippers before. Therefore the Primitive Church ordered the converted Gentils to abstain from things conse∣crated to the Devil. *
But Paracelsus saith therefore that the patient be forsaken and lie without help, when remedies that work by nature cannot cure him being in∣chanted? We say first that it is false, that disea∣ses brought by Magick, cannot be cured by na∣tural means, of which we have many examples. For such diseases are often produced by natural means, and when such things are removed as causes, they are cured by natural means, by a strong faith in God. So Medicines that purge melancholy have been given with good success to such as have been possessed of the Devil. See in Rulands Centuries, for a melancholy humor is the Devils bath. Also by purges, and vomits, hair, needles, wood, iron, and other strange things have been voided, that have caused suspicion of Witchcraft: and the patients have recovered. Therefore we must never flie to the help of the Devil, because it is deceitful, he cures the body to get the soul, and any disease or death it self, ought to be more desired, then health from the Devil.
To this is like the magnetick cure by amulets, for many things work naturally by a vertual con∣tract as Galen confesseth, * when he writes that Piony hung about the neck, cures the Epilepsie, and the best Physitians confirm it. This force is called Magnetick, from the Load-stone that draws iron, and turns to the Pole without a cor∣poral contract. * He that denies such things, is to be accounted very unskil'd in natural things, or rash to deny what is proved by experience. Though Erastus thinks otherwise.Page 139
Now if any cure be done by these occult con∣sents and dissents of natural things; I allow them such are given in the Plague and approved by experience, as the great Dukes Oyl, the Oyl of Scorpions of Mathiolus. So Feavers are som∣times cured by Amulets and Vesicatories.
Only take heed that no superstitions nor Ma∣gick by an explicite or implicite bargain with the Devil be sold to you. for Seals and Cha∣racters cannot be referr'd to Magnetick operati∣ons, nor what Paracelsus allows of Images, nor can all effects in nature be palliated by the ex∣ample of magnetick operations.
There is another question here. * Whether ought Plants to be gathered at a certain time according to the aspects of the Stars for Physick? Erastus and others deny it, and think the Scrip∣ture forbids it, but where I know not. Trees to build with are hewen down rather at the in∣crease then decrease of the Moon. * Therefore I think with Mathiolus and many learned men, that the Aspects of Stars are to be observed in gathering some Plants, for these inferior things are governed by the superior, and consent with them, and many learned men think, that Piony so famous against the Epilepsie doth not please all men, for no other reason then because it was not gathered at the due time; and it were good in Physick to observe this.
The Chymists also differ from the Galenists, because the Chymists make nothing of the first qualities against experience, by which it appears that the body is distempered by the excess in the first qualities, and by the contrary is cured, yet they do little good who are so intent on the first qualities, regard not the occult; moreover ma∣ny Page 140Chymists proclaim all Apothecaries medi∣cines as malignant and venemous, and willh ave none but such as have bin clensed and prepared by Chymistry, This they labor to prove in all Physick.
First for Purgers, * nor Pills, nor Potions, nor Electuaries, but they tax as poyson, from the consent of Galen, the Greeks and Arabians, and Galen saith, The Nature of Purges ought to be contrary to the nature of our bodies.* They say our Alterers are as bad, so they say from Dios∣corides that Saffron is deadly, Also Poppy, Hen∣bane, Hemlock, and many others.
Some are more moderate and say all our me∣dicines are not poyson, but have much impurity that hinders their profitable force; and they who give whole medicines do like them that boyl the birds in their nests, and eat Oyster∣shels and all. But Alchymy is that only Instru∣ment by which the malignant quality given by God for sin is taken away; Let the impurities which hinder the force of the vital spirit, and break it, be cast away. Here they inveigh a∣gainst the vulgar way of preparing of medicines, and first they argue that there are too many sim∣ples in a medicine: because one disease hath but one nature, and requires but one proper remedy. And as simple diet is best for a man, and variety hurteth, much more doth a compound medicine offend a sick person.
And to contract all in a word that they al∣leadg against Galenists, they disallow the ordi∣nary way of cure and making medicines, say∣ing, that borh Purgers and Altererers are poysonous, corrosives, impure, unpleasant, un∣efficacious, confused and strange. Hence they Page 141cast off the ordinary Dispensatory; they inveigh against forreign medicines and say they are Ara∣bian fooleries, and inventions of Apothecaries.
Then they carp at the Galenists, because they use not Stones, Metals or Minerals, or very sel∣dom, being as they say the best of medicines, and vegetables are not sufficient to root out dis∣eases; because they have a fugitive spirit and make not a fixed Balsom, and preserve not from putrefaction, as Metals do which last long; therfore the Galenists send patients to the Spaw waters, which have all their power from the spi∣rits of minerals and metals. Therefore the Chy∣mists having a better physical matter and bet∣ter prepared, they say they cure diseases by the Galenists uncurable.
These accusations are not a few, nor weak, and if they could clearly prove them the medi∣cines we use were to be totally rejected: But it is not hard to vindicate the Galenists, for what they say of poyson put into creatures by the curse is without reason, and is refuted Chap 16. and the Chymists themselves think otherwise as Rulandus observes. *
Moreover it is foolish to say that all purges have the nature of poyson, we grant some that are vehement are adverse in nature to our bo∣dies: But what is that against the Galenists or for the Chymists? They have their Cauteries and Sections, and Vomits that are adverse, and yet they are not alwaies to be rejected. So if the strong purgers molest in some way the pati∣ent, yet the profit they bring by purging bad humors is greater. Albeit the hurt they bring is from the want of right preparation and admi∣nistration.Page 142
But no Chymical preparation or separation takes away the poyson from a venemous body, or can make it a good Medicine: nor do purgers, prepare them how you please, lay aside their na∣ture wholly. Nor have the Chymists given any purge that hath not some way disturbed the pa∣tient, therefore purging extracts are to be given with as much caution as others.
What they bring against the vulgar composi∣tion of Medicines, is of little weight; so that the way of composition used, is not to be abolished, and their arguments are most from the Galenists that allow them not: and all Doctors disallow the crowding in of divers Simples without a cause, and they think it rashness to use Com∣pounds when Simples will do, and that it is bad to put many Simples of the same faculty into one Compound.
But many may be mixed when diseases are complicate, both in the affects and the causes, when Medicines are to be directed by many ends which cannot be done by one simple Medicine, for one simple Medicine can scarce be found that hath so many faculties joyned together, as the Doctor hath ends propounded.
Therefore let Chymical preparations have their due praise and place, and the Vulgar pre∣parations theirs. But it is the part of an idle and too curious person to prepare all things Chymi∣cally, and when a Conserve or a Pouder wil serve to give an Oyl or a Spirit. Nor is the commen∣dation of a Chymical medicine for its smal dose sufficient, because it causeth no disgust, for so you may commend poysons. This is the error of many, who to please the palate only, give the Extract of Scammony, Cambugia, or a little Page 143Pouder, but great in operation, but consider not whether it hit the disease, and evacuate the pec∣cant humor. To conclude, it is the part of a pru∣dent Physitian somtimes to use Chymical, som∣times whole Medicines, according to the circum∣stances of the diseases, place and time.
They also are not wise, who reject exotick or outlandish Medicines, for neither wine nor spi∣ces that grow from home, being used every day, are enemies: Every Land doth not produce every thing. Therefore there is commerce that one Na∣tion should supply the other. It is true that the Galenists say if home-bred Physick, it were in vain to get forraign, but if not, there is no rea∣son why exotick Medicines may not be used.
We reject not wholly Physick made of Mine∣rals and Metals, * being perswaded by the Spaw∣waters that cure desparate diseases. The ancient Physitians gave them inwardly as well as out∣wardly, as Steel, Sulphur vive, scales of Brass, burnt Brass, and the like. Therefore we may better use them Chymically prepared. Niter pre∣pared called Sal Prunellae, is used happily against Quinzies and Feavers. Antimony and Mercu∣ry, if well given, do what other Medicines can∣not. A Girl of twelve years old used Antimony Diaphoretick every day, who had many ulcers a∣bout the joynts, when other remedies were of no force, and was cured. But because these have of∣ten done hurt, you must be wary in using them, least Mercury of life so called, become Mercury, or a messenger of death.
It may be objected that Metals are enemies to Nature, but we must labor to take away that en∣mity by Chymistry, you may see this in Arse∣•••• which being present poyson, laies aside all Page 144its venom by Chymical preparation. Yet we commend not them that include all Medicines in a few Metals, as if God had made Vegetables in vain. It is known to all how Medicines made of Vegetables and Animals, refresh both the sound and the sick with their pleasant tast and scent, and it is not yet proved that Minerals can do the same.
Hence the question is easily decided, whether Chymical or Galenical Medicines are best? To speak my thoughts, they both have their places and praises, but if you ask which is to be prefer∣red, the one simply cannot be preferred before the other. For though the Chymists have a cer∣tain prerogative, yet indeed they are not better then Galenists, but the Medicines excel in res∣pect of preparation, nor are they simply to be preferred for this cause, for I said both have their place, and it is the part of an unexperienced man never to desire to use Chymical medicines, or not to use whole medicines, but all Extracts or Essences For some medicines so disperse their vertue through the whole body, that if their parts should be separated, they would partly or whol∣ly loose it. Others have their strength in other parts, where consider in what part it is. There∣fore use whole medicines, when the force desired is in the whole body, and vanisheth when it is dissolved: But use dissolved or separated medi∣cines, when the strength of them is divers, and comes from divers parts; or when the force of the medicine may be brought into a small quan∣tity by taking away what is unprofitable.
Here observe, that which way soever Antimo∣ny and Mercury are prepared, they never wil be so good and safe, as Cassia, Manna, Tamarinds, Page 145Senna, Rhubarb, and the like, and from one grain of them, more hurt may come, then from an ounce of ordinary Physick. And which way soever they are prepared, they are alwaies ac∣counted vehement medicines. Though some brag of secrets and singular preparations, they have not yet discovered them. Therefore let the Chymists prove that the volatile purging Spirit that passeth through the whole body, remains such in Antimony and Mercury after preparati∣on, so that it may be so benigne and familiar to our Nature, as Cassia and Tamarinds, and the rest. This they will scarce do, for that Spirit is easier to the fixed or thrown away, then to be qualified as to loose its nature. *Mathiolus saies well on the other side: When the whole mass of blood is all over corrupt, and filled with the seeds of diseases, these cannot be cured but by Minerals.
Therefore a wise Physitian must use somtimes this, and somtimes that, as the nature of the dis∣eases and circumstances requires, as Pouders, Decoctions, Infusions or Extracts, Minerals, and domestick and forraign Medicines. As for Ex∣ample, when you will strengthen and bind, Con∣serve of Roses doth that which a Spirit, or Water, or Salt of the same cannot do: on the other side, the strength of medicines is greater in Chymistry, as in Oyls and Spirits. For the Physical part is separated from what is unprofitable that hinders its operation, and so it is given pure. Therfore we conclude, that Chymical medicines considered simply, are nobler of themselves, because purer and more active, but they are not alwaies and every where to be preferred before Galenical.
Nor is the objection against Chymical medi∣cines of force, when they say, that what ariseth Page 146from the solution of the mixture, is not specifi∣cal, and the Chymists while they dissolve the mixture, * destroy the essence. For Galen shews that all medicines, though to sense simple, yet are in nature compounds, and so have divers fa∣culties in the parts, and afford divers uses for divers things. Moreover, the solution is not al∣waies into the first Elements, as we shewed, ther∣fore when the Chymists dissolve such bodies by art, and dissolve dissimilary bodies into similary parts, they are so far from destroying the strength of the medicine, that they rather separate them frō all heterogeneal mixture. Nor doth the Chy∣mist transmute the thing, but makes one thing of another by the power of nature. As that which is extracted from Rhubarb in the Spirit of Wine or other liquor, is the same in number and spe∣cies with that in which the force of purging de∣pends in Rhubarb being whole And so we grant that as he that gives butter, doth not give all the milk, so he that gives the Extract of Rhubarb, gives it not all, but onely that part in which the force of purging lieth. Therefore medicines made by solution, are not of the same species with the whole, but are of the same kind with the parts of the whole, from which they were made.
Let us conclude thus, he that will be a true Physitian needs not only medicines to cure as an Emperick, but he must follow method and his in∣dications, otherwise he will do more hurt then good, for the abuse of the best thing is the worst. Therefore Erastus saith well: He doth least hurt in most diseases, * that useth vulgarly prepared Me∣dicines, but he doth much hurt, that gives Chymical Physick where it is not needful, or gives them not a∣right. This is to teach young Physitians that Page 147think themselves wiser then others, and neglect all vulgar remedies approved by long experi∣ence, and use only Chymical medicines lately invented, and not well approved, and so get a fame. And to teach some Galenists that being ignorant of Chymistry, yet to seem inseriour to none, give dangerous Chymical medicines, not knowing their strength and preparation. The Chymists offend in this at this time, who being ignorant of all other parts of Physick, yet having a little skil in Chymical operations, contemn o∣ther Physitians, and proclame their own perfe∣ction: and so with the Cobler, they go beyond their last.
Let us now discuss the Controversie, whether we must use contraries or things like, for curing diseases? It is an old Axiom, Contraries are cu∣red by contraries: whence Hippocrates defines Physick to be addition and substraction, that is, to add things defective by the like; and to substract or take away what aboundeth, and happens to the body besides nature by the contrary. For curing is a motion from a disease to health, * and motion is respect of a contrary.
The modern Chymists say that like cures like, and when there may be a twofold similitude, with the disease and with nature, they under∣stand both, because Hippocrates saith, Nature is the Physitianess of diseases, and remedies are in vain when she resisteth. Hence Galen shews that the vital indication is to be preferred before all, therefore things are to be given which are like and familiar with nature. Then they think that things alike are to be given in respect of the dis∣ease and its causes, for purges attract vitious hu∣mors by the similitude of the whole substance, Page 148and Alterers must be like to the part to which they are applied, and there are proper medicines for every part, some for the heart, others for the brain and liver. Then they say that diseases ari∣sing from Salt, are cured by Salts, and those from Sulphur by Sulphur. But this Controversie is rather in words then things. First, they agree in this, that alwaies there is a care to be had of the strength, and it must be preserved by its like: nor doth the other Axiom oppose this, namely, That contraries are cured by contraries. For here we must distinguish between a vital and a curing in∣dication in species. And when Hippocrates saith, Contraries are cured by contraries, he speaks not of a vital Indication, but of taking away what is preternatural, and must be only ment so. Hence it is that the patient desires contrary things to the disease, as when he thirsteth, he desires drink which is the cure of thirst; for it is not the dis∣ease that desires remedies, as the thirst doth not require drink, but the thirsty: and so by this ge∣neral rule, whatsoever is besides nature, is to be taken away.
Nor do the Galenists deny that medicines are to be chosen, which are familiar and proper to the part affected, which familiarity is in simili∣tude and an occult Sympathy.
Thirdly, I suppose the Dispute is not of the contrariety of Alterers, nor is there any Paracel∣sian so simple, that will give a hot remedy as hot against a hot disease as so, or thinks that a dri∣ed body as such, is to be more dried. For expe∣rience is against them, and sense, not onely in men but beasts, who in great heat require to be cooled, and in cold to be warmed. Therefore the Axiom of Hippocrates remains unshaken, Page 149which Galen confirms, *That the Remedies of con∣traries are contrary.
And though the Galenists contend among themselves about this, and some would over∣throw it, yet hitherto they have not.
Therefore the Controversie remains about the causes, whether remedies must be like or contra∣ry unto them? If by contrary, we understand whatsoever is effectively so, or that can produce an effect contrary to the preternatural affect; I suppose the Chymists will not be against us, for they give their medicines for that end, namely, that the cause and the disease may be taken a∣way, and not increased. Nor do any of them de∣ny that of Hippocrates, * That diseases from fulness must be cured by evacuation. The question then is, How ought medicines to be against the causes of diseases, according to internal strength, and nature, and substance? Here lies the great wheel of the Controversie, for the Paracelsian Chy∣mists refer diseases or the causes of them to their Principles, and cal some Sulphurous, some Salt, and some Mercurial, the Sulphurous they say are to be cured by Sulphur, the Salt by Salt, and the Mercurial by Mercury; if Sulphur be on fire, it must be quenched, and in this they admit of con∣trarieties, but only by sulphurous medicines, and so they think of salt and tartarous diseases, as the stone which is to be cured by Tartar. Hence the stones in Cattel and other Creatures, are good to break it, and the Jew-stone in the stone of the kidnies & bladder, and roots of Butchers-broom, Smallage, Marshmallows, and so they say that the disease alwaies denotes the remedy.
In this the Galenists and Paracelsians seem to differ, let us labor to reconcile them. And first Page 150most Galenists to allow that Purges do attract foul humors by a familiarity of substance, which doth not overthrow that old Axiom, that contra∣ries are cured by contraries. For they are al∣waies effectively contrary, for the disease is al∣wales taken away by contraries mediately or im∣mediately, by it self or by accident; and though Rhubarb attract choler by the likeness of its sub∣stance, yet it causeth choler to be purged, there∣fore Aristotle writes well, * the patient and the a∣gent are the same in general and alike, but un∣like in species, and such are contrary.
Nor do the Chymists deny contrariety, when •hey say Salt cures Salt, for some Salts have po∣wer to dissolve, others to coagulate, therefore they say that humors coagulated by Salt, are to be cured by Salt dissolveth. And they say that a feaver from burning Sulphur is not cured by burning Sulphur, but by sharp Sulphur that may coagulate these Spirits that are on fire, and allay them, * and keep them burning. Quercetan proves this by gun-powder, for though Salt-peeter and Sulphur are easily set on fire, yet both have a sharp Spirit, with which if you touch the pouder, it will flame no more. Therefore in one respect the like cures the like, and in another the con∣trary the contrary; for between humors and things that dissolve humors, there is a familiari∣ty. But in respect of the taking away of the dis∣ease and the causes, contraries are required.
And thus much of the consent and dissent be∣tween the Chymists and the Galenists. He that considers this wisely, * wil find that Chymical me∣dicines are not to be neglected for Galenical, nor Galenical for Chymical; for as Mathiolus writes. None can be an ordinary Physitian, that knows no Page 151Chymistry, and he is admirable that knows what is Divine in Diseases, in Medicines and Nature, and finds out the fountains of actions, all which may be done by Chymistry; but he that cleaves onely to the first qualities in things, cannot come to this. Other things that respect the constitution, faculties, and actions, the causes and differences of Disea∣ses and Symptoms, the Signs, Prognosticks, and Method of Curing, may be found in Hippocra∣tes and Galen, and their Interpreters. He that neglects these, is an Emperick, and no Physitian.
Chap. 19. Of the Constituti∣on of Chymistry.
IN this Appendix, we suppose what Libavius wrote at large, and Be∣guin in short, and what we mentio∣ned in the fifth Book of Instituti∣ons. That though Chymical Ope∣perations and Medicines are there added, yet here I will plainly lay down as in a Table, the Page 152whole Nature of Chymistry, and its Constituti∣on from the places alleadged, and add some ad∣monishments. This I shall do without calum∣niating any, or detracting from them.
All Sciences and Arts, as they are found, ought to stand upon some Principles, that rea∣sons may be given of things done in them, other∣wise it is rather an ignorance then a science, yet Chymistry the most noble & useful Art, hath few things fortified with reason, and brought from certain Principles; for there are many proceed∣ings and Forms of Operation, of which few teach the causes and Principles, so that it seems to be an Art without an Art. But as Physick so Chymistry is wholly subject to the natural Sci∣ence, and must follow the Laws of Nature, in working, so that there may be a mutual consent between them both.
In the first Chapter of this Tractate, there is the Subject, Definition, and a twofold end of Chymistry. But laying aside the former end, we shall here speak onely of the Constitution of Chymistry, as it serves a Physitian, and helps him to good Medicines; and we shal propound some things in Operations which may serve for the last end.
A Chymist to obtain his end, must have some means or Mediums, which are Chymical opera∣tions and instruments by which he worketh. Of which we shall speak in order.
As for the instruments, the chief are fire or heat, the Menstruum, air and water; but that a∣gents Page 153may be applied to the patients, there are required furnaces, glasses, and many other ves∣sels. We spake elswhere of furnaces, glasses, and other vessels, and of luting, * and we added instru∣ments for other operations. And Chap. 2. we spake of fire and heat.
The Menstrua are whatsoever things serve for solution, extraction and separation of bodies: and this name is commonly given to liquors, which cast upon bodies, have an actual force to dissolve or extract somthing out, as common Water, distilled Waters, Dew, Spirit of Wine, Turpentine, distilled Vinegar, and things distil∣led in it, Spirit of Salt, Niter, Vitriol, Aqua for∣tis, and Regia, of which in the place of my In∣stitutions cited.
We may bring all these liquors into three heads, some are watery, some have Salt, others are oyly, bodies are not dissolved, but by their proper dissolvers that answer to their nature. The watery bodies are like water, and are dissolved and extracted by watery Menstrua, Sugar and Salt, which melt in water, dissolve salt bodies, and no other. Things spiritual are dissolved by Spirits, salt things by salt Spirits, and extracted by oyl and fats. Metals and Stones by Aqua for∣tis, and Regia, and the like liquors. And with∣out Salt no Metal is dissolved, because all Metals are of a salt nature; therefore the first melting must needs be by Salts. Mercury dissolveth gold, not so much by corrosion as by similitude, or an occult quality. And Aqua fortis, though it be very corrosive, dissolves not Rosin, Wax or Pitch, but they are dissolved in oyls and fats. There∣fore get the proper Menstruum for dissolving of very thing.Page 154
Some understand by the word Menstruum, not only liquors, but other dry bodies, which dissolve things, as Salt, Niter, Sulphur, which being added to Metals or Stones, and resolved in a fire of reverberation, insinuate into the bo∣dies applied, and dissolve them.
Thirdly, Chymists must have air which con∣duceth two waies, namely as it is moist, and hath waterish vapors, and as it is cold; as it is moist, it serves a Chymist, when it is mixed with things by nature dry, and makes them of a moist consi∣stence; this is when air gets into Salts in moist places, and makes them melt. And in some di∣stillations the moist air causeth the Spirits that are by nature dry, and come forth like clouds, to turn moist, as in Oyl of Sal Gem made by a bell, in Spirit of Salt and Vitriol, and the like.
Also air serveth in respect of its coldness, for cold by accident and binding of Homogeneal bodies, doth congregate; therefore Salts sooner grow together in water, then in heat.
Fourthly, water is an instrument of the Chy∣mists, not only as a Menstruum to dissolve and wash, but to mix it self with dry Spirits in a moist air.
I should add Earth, and the like, but for of∣fence, therefore in making Spirit of Salt and Ni∣ter, Poters Earth, Bole, and sealed Earth, are u∣sed. In distilling some Oyls, the pouder of Bricks, Sand and Ashes are used. First, that the body to be distilled, may be as fine and small as may be, and be better healed. Secondly, least the glass should be broken by things that easily dissolve (as Niter) another body is added to make it dissolve gently. Also the Chymists use other instruments for some operations, as Oyl of Tartar, to preci∣pitate Page 155Pearl and Coral being dissolved, and other for others, but I doubt whether these may be ad∣ded to the former instruments.
As for Chymical operations, they are divers∣ly divided, and I let every man use his own way: I divide them into a Diacrisis, and Syncrisis, and Immutation.
Diacrisis is, when the Fabrick of the Body is re∣solved, and that which was one, is divided. This is done three waies 1. When the impure or strange bodies are separated. 2. When the body is dis∣solved into Homogeneal parts. 3. When it is dissolved into Heterogeneal parts. In which o∣perations let the Chymists take this proposition, let all things be made as pure, and subtile, and efficacious as may be.
To the Diacrisis belong Purification, Calcina∣tion, Sublimation, Resolution, Extraction, the Es∣sence, the Tincture, Putrefaction, and Distillation.
Purification is by washing, and often dissol∣ving, and coagulating, and filtration, * of which elswhere. To this belongs drying or exsiccation, which is by evaporation and exhalation, also burning, as when the sulphurous parts and wa∣ter which are not required to stay, do flie away, and that remains which you desire.
Calcination is either by actual or potential fire, that is, by a liquor that hath power to corrode and dissolve, as distilled Vinegar, Spirit of Salt, * Niter, or Vitriol, of which Chap. 6. Also Me∣tals, Minerals, and Stones, and other hard things are calcined.
Sublimation is, to separate impurities, and to bring bodies to the least Atomes. By all these waies the body is dissolved into Homogeneal parts, and that which is dissolved is homogeneal.Page 156
Resolution is, when a body is dissolved into di∣vers Heterogeneal parts. In this Diacrisis note, that the properties are in the whole, or in the parts, therefore when you desire the force which is in the whole, you need not this operation, but when you need the force that is in a part that de∣pends upon the whole, observe in what part it is. So Conserve of Roses is good in a Dysentery, not Spirit of Roses. To this belong Tinctures and Essences, * of which elswhere.
Concerning Tinctures observe, that there is no true Tincture which doth not remain after the Menstruum, is abstracted. If many Tinctures were examined by this rule, they were not true, but that colour is from the mixture of the Menstruum with the body dissolved.
Diacrisis is also by Putrefaction, which tend∣eth to a kind of separation, as parts by nature somwhat separated, may be better separated by art, * therefore as we shewed, it is often used be∣fore distillation.
To this head, we refer all distillations by des∣cent, by the side, by ascent in a moist bath, dry, or vaporous, * in ashes, sand, or open fire.
The second kind of Chymical operation, is the Syncrisis, when divers things separated, are joyned together. This is done first by precipi∣tation, when the body dissolved in some Men∣struum, and dispersed by a liquor, is again sepa∣rated from the liquor, and goes to the body, and unites it self. And he that considers all precipi∣tations, * may observe that precipitation is uni∣versally made when any thing is cast in for solu∣tion, or infused, by whose force the liquor dissol∣ving, or that which in the liquor, is the cause or solution, is separated from the body dissolved.Page 157
To this may Reduction be referred, by which a body brought to a pouder or liquor, or the like, is restored to its first form: yet reduction is not in all bodies that are dissolved by their Men∣struum, or put on another shape by the mixture of other things. For though these may be sepa∣rated from their Menstruum, yet they are brought only into the form of a pouder, not into their first form. This is done best by Precipitation. Re∣duction is used in Metals, which being brought into divers forms, may still be reduced. Now reduction is by taking away the Menstruum, and that which brought another form into the body. The Salt of Tartar is an usual instrument for re∣duction, not that it is contrary to all corrosives, and breaks their force, but because it is a friend to all Salts, and therefore attracts them, and u∣nites them to it self by its likeness, and so the bo∣dy being freed from the Salt of the Menstruum that dissolved it, is restored to its own nature.
Metals when melted or mixed with dissolving waters, are filthy, separated from their Menstru∣um by precipitation, sometimes warm water is sufficient to separate a Metal from its Men∣struum.
To Syncrisis also belongs coagulation and concretion, of which in my Institutions. *
To this you may refer Digestion and Circula∣tion, which is for this end, that the liquid parts which are not sufficiently mixed, may be united by the least bodies, of which elswhere. *
To this belongs Cohobation, or an often distil∣ling of the liquor cast into the matter let in the vessel; this is, that what was not separated in the first distillation, may be drawn out in the se∣cond or third, yet sometimes that the matter Page 158which is volatile in the liquor, may be joyned to the fixed.
The third kind of Chymical operation, is Im∣mutation, as when we bring a new manner of sub∣stance upon a thing. To this belongs first the changing of a dry thing into a liquid form, this operation is called Deliquium, of which before. For though the moist air is then joyned to that body, * yet nothing is added that gives it peculiar strength, but the consistence is only changed.
To this belongs that operation whereby solid bodies are made drinkable, where we shall que∣stion whether gold may be made potable? Of which hereafter. Secondly, to this belongs the contrary operation, as when a solid body is made of a liquid, as Precipitate of Quicksilver, of which before. * Thirdly, Fixation or Volatilsation belong to this, as when no part of the thing is taken a∣way, nor other thing added, and a fixed body is made of a volatile, and a volatile of a fixed. It is called fixed or volatile, in respect of the fire or heat, the thing in its own nature is such, but the heat or fire makes it manifest, for that is fixed which endureth the first, volatile is that which flies away by heat. This is done by the addition of an Homogeneal body: for fixed Salts may be made volatile by digestion, and also sublimed.
Vitrification or turning into glass, is the end of transmutation of natural bodies, after they are melted by the strongest fire.
We have mentioned the operations which the Chymists use as means to obtain their end. As for Chymical works, they are under two heads, according to the twofold nature of Chymical bodies Some are Homogeneal, some are Hete∣rogeneal, but there are no words to express it: Page 159Some cal the first work an Extract,* the last a Ma∣gistery. And in the special explaining of these, there are divers appellations, as Ens, Essence, Quintessence, the Secret, Magisterium, Panacaea, and the like, but these are not used alike of all: but let us not fall out about words but things.
There are three sorts of Chymical works. The first is when nothing is separated from the whole but a thing is changed and made more useful, and a new manner of substance or quality is in∣duced, they call this a Magistery, but it may be called unchanged or impersect. The second sort is when that which is separated from the whole, or extracted, which may be called a Secret, or se∣parated body, or an Extract by the name of the species. The third is that which holds the Com∣pounds: for the Chymist doth not only prepare Simples, but Compounds, some as Elixirs Bal∣soms, and the like.
To the first kind belong first things that of so∣lid become liquid as Oyls made by a deliquium, the making of which is in my Institutions. * As the Oyl or Liquor of Tartar, and other Salts, which are not properly Oyls, but whole bodies impregnated with their salt Menstruum; and therefore melt in the moist air: to this is drin∣kable gold referred, and other potable Metals.
The Chymists dispute whether Metals may be reduced into a liquid form of themselves? I sup∣pose the liquidity is from the Menstruum mixed, because all Metals are of a dry nature, and they that think otherwise, let them shew that there is any moisture in them, if not, it is not in the po∣wer of art, that these dry parts of Metals, and their dry fumes, should be turned into water. And though the Chymists add nothing, yet if it Page 160be left in the moist air, it gets into it, as appears by Vitriol calcined.
Of this kind are, the dissolvings of Pearl, Co∣ral, Crabs-eyes. White vomiting Vitriol and pouder, and chalks of Metals. The golden Sul∣phur of Antimony, Crocus of Mars, and other Metals, which is made only of the substance of Metal resolved. But here we understand things plainly Homogeneal, and from which nothing is separated, but only a new kind of substance is induced.
The second kind of Chymical works is called the Secret or separated Body, where the whole bo∣dy is not presented, but a part To this belong purified Bodies, burnt and calcined, all the chalks of combustible things, and Salts drawn from them. Also Extracts and Tinctures, or Essences. Also Distillations, as Waters, Spirits, Oyls properly or improperly so called, Sublimates and Flowers, when the whole body is not sublimed, but part of it remains.
But it is absurd to make Extracts or Quintes∣sences or Oyls of all things, especially of sub∣stances plainly subtile or Homogeneal. There is an example in Pepper whose corns in a cold sto∣mach, when the liver is hot are good, because they heat the stomach, and hurt not the liver, but the Extract or Oyl of Pepper is not good, because it goes presently to the liver, and hurts it.
The third kind of Chymical work is of Com∣pounds, * to this belongs the Elixir, of which in my Institutes.
These are the differences in general of Chy∣mical operations, of which there is great variety according to the variety of bodies, as Vegeta∣bles, Animals, Minerals and Metals, for every Page 161thing is not made of every thing, but one thing of another: therefore the Chymists must under∣stand, what may be made of every thing. For Vegetables to this belong whole Plants and their parts: as of herbs, shurbs, trees, leaves, flowers, seeds, &c. of these are made depurated Juyces, Spirits, Oyls, Extracts, and Tinctures, and Salts, you may ad juyces to these in the preparing that they may last better, as Wine, or a little Spirit of Wine.
We shewed in our Institutes the way of mak∣ing simple and compound Waters and Spirits. * These are made of green or dry Plants, green Plants we distil in Balneo, or if they be juycy, we make juyces, and clarifie them in the embers, and distil them; if they be less juycy, we add water, and distil them in a still, or add water, and press out the juyce, and then distil it. But when we make Spirits, fermentation is made first.
A question may arise whether Oyls and Spi∣rits differ in Essence? This we leave to every mans judgment.
Grosser Oyls made by burning of bodies, are of woods and barks, as of Box, Guajacum: be∣cause in these the oyly substance cleaves so close to the wood, that if you boyl it, it cannot be drawn out.
Then observe in Extracts, that every Simple will not afford an Extract, for little is extracted from things that have spiritual parts, and that have spiritual and oyly Waters, as Rosemary, Mints; but they whose strength is in a slimy juyce and are not volatile, have more extract, as Gen∣tian, Calamus Aromaticus, Carduus, and the like.
We said that Salts are made of Plants, but some Page 162do it only to delight the eyes, * and not increase the strength. They make Salts in Crystals, and somtimes they pour Aqua fortis upon Salts vul∣garly prepared as in making Tartar vitriolate this is reprehended; from Salts of Plants there is also a Spirit as we shewed to be made. * Things called Faeculae belong to separations made of Plants.
Of Drops, and Rosins, and Gums are made Spirits and Oyls, and an Extract of Scammony called a Rosin, and it is pure Scammony separa∣ted from all its impurity, as the Extract or Bal∣som of Aloes Also there is flour of Benzoin sublimed.
From Tartar there is a cream of Crystal, a Li∣quor, Spirit and Oyl, Salt, & the Secret or great Magistery is made the same way, as the Magistery only instead of spirit of Wine we use distil'd Vi∣negar. Moreover the cream and Crystal of Tartar is not a pure Salt, because it dissolves not in cold water, and if it be distilled in a Retort it affords oyl also. That called oyl of Tartar is not its pro∣per Oyl, but its Salt dissolved by Deliquium.
From Coral a Magistery is made, and many talk of a tincture of Coral: but if it be consi∣dered the best Chymists dare not promise it to be true, but it is the Solution or Magistery of Coral mixed with some Menstruum.
Chymists work also upon Animals and their parts, as Blood, Flesh, Horns, Bones, Stones, Pearls, Perch stones, Crabs eyes, Galls.
Of Honey is made a Water or Spirit, of Wax there is made an Oyl, and from Butter. From fats of Beasts an Oyl is distilled which is hotter and drier then they. Of Urine is made Salt; Page 163from Blood only a fixed and volatile salt, water and oyl: but they are not safely given in∣wardly by reason of their stink, nor out∣wardly, for other things may supply. Some make Mummy of blood which is nothing but that fibrous part of the blood, and the beginning of flesh separated from the serous and dried in the Sun. Also Mummy is made of Mans flesh. And a Water is distilled from hearts of Beasts, and from Horns. There is Physick made also, of Mans Skull and other bones burnt: or a Li∣quor, Oyl, or Volatile Salt; by a Retort.
From Stones bred in mans body there is made a Salt and Oyl; and a Magistery from Pearl, Crabs eyes, Perch stones; but I doubt that the spirit of Pearl is mixed with a Menstrual Salt, therefore I suppose that Pearl vulgarly prepared is wholsomer in many diseases.
As for Minerals and Metals they are objects of Chymistry. Of Amber there is an oyl. Of Sea salt or other, a Spirit or Oyl. Of Niter is made Sal Prunellae.
From Sulphur there is flour by sublimation, of this flour there is a Tincture and Balsom of Sulphur with spirit of Turpentine and Wine, and of the same flour is Lac Sulphuris made.
The Chymists talk much of the oyl of Talk, but of it self it is not made into a liquor, but being calcined with a strong fire or with Niter and Vinegar sprinkled upon it, the volatile Salt in the Vinegar unites it self with the caclined Talcum, and then melts, he that can shew bet∣ter let him.
From Gemms are made Magisteries, then Tinctures, but if any coloured Liquor be from Gems, it is rather the dissolving of the Gemms Page 164then an extracted Tincture.
Things made of Minerals and other metals are not so easie, we shall speak a little of some of them.
From Vitriol by distillation is first drawn a Flegm and Spirit. Spirit of Vitriol is thus made. Take Vitriol as much as you please, cal∣cine it yellow, pour enough of the spirit of Wine up∣on it to make it like a Paste, distil it, rectifie the spi∣rit when it is extracted; thence make a salt of Vi∣triol by pouring hot water upon the Caput mortuum or Lees. I see no cause why this may not be counted a Salt. Some labour to make a green spirit of Vitriol.
Antimony first may be calcined, and then it is called Crocus metallorum from its Saffron∣colour. You may make flour of the same by cal∣cination. There is also a Stone or Glass made of Antimony. Some make a Tincture, a Regu∣lus, and a Butter. Antimony is made Diapho∣retick, and loseth its purging quality by the mix∣ture of fixed Salts: this is done when Antimony is often melted with Niter, for Niter gives ano∣ther kind of substance to Antimony, and makes it of volatile fixed, this is so hard as Crollius writes wittily, the art of Fire cannot take away the force of causing Vomit from Antimony, though many have attempted it: because they abhor that quality of vomiting, nor hath any Chymist this preparation, though many brag of it; for if the vomiting quality be gone, the purging quality must go with it: Nor is it an argument because some vomit not after Anti∣mony is taken by them, for that is from the strength of the stomach, or the disposition of the humors to be evacuated.Page 165
Let us speak a little of the Physical use of Quick-silver, this only shews that one thing keeping the same internal form and nature, may have divers external forms; it may be dissol∣ved, sublimed, precipitated, poudered, made to flour-like silver, into glass to be like a metal, co∣agulated and changed, and many waies trans∣formed in divers liquors: yet so that it easily comes to its old nature, flies away, and is fixed, nor is there any heterogeneal part that may be separated, of it are made first many precipitates, of which there are many descriptions, some call it Turbith, others distinguish it. Also there is Mercurius vitae, Crollius cal'd it the flour of the butter of Antimony, but wrong. Of the same is made a Bezoard Mineral, then there is an or∣dinary Sublimate, and a Mercurius dulcis, the secret of Coral is a kind of Sublimate. Also there is a Silver flour made of Mercury, * and wa∣ters, oyls and spirits: Libavius hath described the Mercury waters.
As for other metals some are fixed, others not, the fixed are Gold (which alone loseth nothing though long in the fire) and Silver, which because it is more fixed then others, is counted fixed as Gold, we shewed in our Insti∣tutes the calcination of metals by fire and a Menstruum. *
From Lead is made Saccharum Saturni, if this be put into a Retort and distilled, there is made a liquor called oyl of Lead. Of Tinn is made a Crystal and oyl or liquor. Of Steel is made Crocus martis of which there are divers descrip∣tions and tinctures. If Vitriol be dissolved in water and spirit of Vitriol, it is after coagulated into Vitriol. Vitriol is made of Copper, called Page 166Vitriolum veneris. Of Silver is made a Tincture.
There are many disputes of drinkable Gold, but I suppose that what is sould for potable Gold is only the Magisteries mentioned and Gold dissolved into the smallest parts and mix∣ed with a menstruum, divers menstruums are car∣ried about; the force of dissolving in all which, lies in the Salt. And Gold is to be brought to that pass, that it may be dissolved in spirit of Wine or other liquor, which may be done by divers Menstruums. And in all the end is that the body of Gold being thick and compact may be resolved into very fine atomes, that being taken in it may with more ease exercise its force upon the body. Therefore first they use stronger, then weaker menstruums, and if any menstruum be an enemy to nature, it is separated by the fire or by washing. But then the Gold doth not of it self dissolve into a liquor, but by reason of Salt that is mixed with it from the menstruum.