The anatomy of Arminianisme: or The opening of the controuersies lately handled in the Low-Countryes, concerning the doctrine of prouidence, of predestination, of the death of Christ, of nature and grace. By Peter Moulin, pastor of the church at Paris. Carefully translated out of the originall Latine copy

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The anatomy of Arminianisme: or The opening of the controuersies lately handled in the Low-Countryes, concerning the doctrine of prouidence, of predestination, of the death of Christ, of nature and grace. By Peter Moulin, pastor of the church at Paris. Carefully translated out of the originall Latine copy
Du Moulin, Pierre, 1568-1658.
London :: Printed by T[homas] S[nodham] for Nathaniel Newbery, and are to be sold at the signe of the Starre vnder Saint Peters Church in Cornehill, and in Popes head Alley,

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Subject terms
Synod of Dort (1618-1619) -- Early works to 1800.
Arminianism -- Early works to 1800.
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"The anatomy of Arminianisme: or The opening of the controuersies lately handled in the Low-Countryes, concerning the doctrine of prouidence, of predestination, of the death of Christ, of nature and grace. By Peter Moulin, pastor of the church at Paris. Carefully translated out of the originall Latine copy." In the digital collection Early English Books Online 2. University of Michigan Library Digital Collections. Accessed May 23, 2024.



It is proued out of the holy Scripture, that an vnregenerate man, is altogether destitute of the power and liberty of his will, in those things which pertaine to faith and sal∣uation.

I. IF they stand here to the iudgement of the holy Scripture, there will be no place of doubting. Of a man that is vnregenerate, and in his meere natu∣rals, the Scripture speaketh thus. Gen. 6.5. Euery thought of the heart of man is onely euill continually. The same is repeated, Chap. 8. Ver. 21. Iere∣my in his seauenteenth chapter consenteth to this; The heart of man is wicked, and vnsearchable. And Rom. 3. There is none righteous, no not one: They are all gone out of the way, and are become vnprofitable: there is none that doth good, no not one. And Rom 7.18. I know that in me, that is, in my flesh, dwelleth no good thing. And Chap. 8. ver. 8 The wisdome of the flesh, that is, whatsoeuer a

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carnall man vnderstandeth or perceiueth, is enmity a∣gainst God, for it is not subiect to the law of God, neither indeede can be. Compare these things with the do∣ctrine of Arminius, who is of opimon, that a man that is an infidell and vnregenerate hath sufficient power to beleeue, and to fulfill the law: For the A∣postle is of opinion, that our flesh, not onely is not subiect to the law of God, but that it cannot be. The same Apostle, 1. Cor. 2.14. saith, that the naturall man receiueth not the things of the spirit of God, for they are foolishnesse vnto him, neither can he know them. Hitherto pertaineth that which the Scripture saith, Ezech. 36. That the heart of man is stony, and therefore of its owne nature vnapt and vncapable to receiue the im∣pression of the law of God, vnlesse God (as hee did of old) write it on that stone with his finger. Also that which Saint Paul saith, Ephes. 2.1.5. that not onely the Ephesians before their calling, but that all of vs were dead in sinnes. Hee hath the same words, Coloss. 2.13. And that which Christ saith, Iohn 14.17. The spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receiue, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him. Christ in these words doth plainely acknowledge that there is no free will of man, no power to receiue the spirit of truth, but a naturall auersion and disability.

II. Wherefore the Scripture doth call the change of man, by the spirit of regeneration, sometimes ano∣ther birth, Iohn 3. sometimes the creation of the new man, Ephes. 4.24. It calleth it, another resurrection from the dead, Reucl. 20.6. Luke 15.32. Iohn 5.25. Not that creation and resurrection is in all things like to regeneration and the change of the soule; but only

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in this thing of which it is here spoken, to wit, as the Carkasse cannot dispose nor prepare it selfe to the resurrection, and a thing that is not created, can∣not further any thing to the creation of it: So man in the state of sinne, and before his regeneration, hath nothing whereby he may dispose himselfe, or further his regeneration and spirituall new birth.

III. The Arminian conferrers at the Hage, Page 279. doe roundly confesse, that by our spiritu∣all death, the liberty of doing well or ill, is separated from the soule. I demand therefore whether an vn∣regenerate man, furnished with that sufficient and vniuersall grace, which is giuen euen to Reprobates, hath free-will of doing well or ill in those things which belong to saluation? If he haue not, why doe the Ar∣minians contend he hath? If hee hath it is plaine by their owne confession, that he is not dead in sinne.

But there is a speciall force in the word borne: For if there were any seeds and reliques of spirituall life in an vnregenerate man, as Arnoldus is of opinion, there were no neede to be borne againe, and that the new man should be formed, but God were to be pray∣ed to, that he would againe raise vp those sparkes and reliques of spirituall life, and would vouchsafe to kindle and increase it, as it were, by adding fuell to it.

IV. Adde to these, those places which teach vs, that without faith it is impossible to please God, Heb. 11. That all men haue not faith, 2. Thess. 3. because it is the gift of God, Philip. 1.19. Ephes. 2.8. Seeing therefore what soeuer is not of faith is sinne, Rom. 14.25. it is plain that in things which belong to saluation and to the worship of God, hee doth nothing but

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sinne that wants faith, such as are all the heathen and vnregenerate men. In which place to the Romanes, it is to be noted, that the Apostle speaketh of the vse of meates, which he will haue vs to eate with faith, that is, with a certaine knowledge that the vse of meates is allowed by God, and is agreeable to his word. Seeing therefore that, euen in things which are of their owne nature indifferent wee sinne, when we vse them without such a faith, how much more are we to thinke that the heathens sinne in euery acti∣on that pertaineth to saluation and the worship of God, because they are altogether destitute of this faith?

Hitherto pertaine those places which teach vs that God is the author of euery vertue, and euery good worke that is done by vs. We are not sufficient of our selues to thinke any thing, as of our selues; but our suf∣ficiency is of God, 2. Cor. 3.5. And Christ himselfe, Iohn 15.5. Without me ye can doe nothing. And in the same place, we are compared to branches cut off and appointed to the fire, vnlesse wee haue beene engraf∣ted into Christ, by whom wee liue and beare fruit. The Apostle, Ephes. 2.8. doth teach, that saluation and faith is not of our selues, but of the gift of God: For by grace ye are saued through faith, and that not of your selues, it is the gift of God. How farre is this from Arminius, who will haue the totall cause of faith, not to be grace alone, but grace and free-will. And least any of Arminius followers should seeke a refuge, and should say that the power of beleeuing is giuen to all vnresistably, but that the act of beleeuing is so helped by grace, that it is also from free-wil, the Apostle doth

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fitly preuent such a weake subtilty, Phil. 1.29. where he saith, It is giuen to you, in the behalfe of Christ, not one∣ly to beleeue on him, but also to suffer for his sake. You see that not onely the power of beleeuing is giuen vs; but also the act it selfe, to beleeue. Agreeable to this is that, Iohn 6. No man can come to me vnlesse my fa∣ther draw him: Where to come, is to beleeue in act, and not to haue the power and faculty of beleeuing which is brought into act by free-will. No lesse direct is that of the Apostle, Philip. 2.13. It is God which wor∣keth in you both to will, and to doe, of his good pleasure. Now to will, is to will in act, and not to haue the power of willing. God himselfe, Ezechiel 36.27. saith, I will put my spirit within you, and will cause you to walke in my statutes. Therefore hee doth not onely giue the power of walking in his statutes, but also doth cause that we really walke, and doth worke in vs the very act. After what manner and how farre the elect may resist the efficacy of the spirit shall hereafter be seene. It is sufficient to the present question, if we winne this of them, that God doth not onely giue the power whereby we may beleeue, but also that hee doth giue and worke in vs the act of beleeuing, to beleeue it selfe.

We meete sometimes with places where the Ar∣minians say that not onely the power of beleeuing, but that also the act of beleeuing, to beleeue it selfe, is giuen by God. But they will haue this act so to be giuen by God, in as much as he giueth knowledge to the minde, and doth raise vp the fainting affections which doe put forward the will to beleeue, and that this is done by a morall perswasion, and after the

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same manner that wee are moued by obiects: But this is not to giue faith and the act of beleeuing. For surely hee that doth perswade, that doth propound obiects, and doth inuite the appetite to runne, doth not giue the act of running, to runne it selfe: Where∣fore the Arminians doe deny that faith it selfe is infu∣sed, or imprinted on the heart by God, but that the will is inuited to beleeue onely by a morall perswasi∣on, and by a courteous allurement.

With a like fraud (that they might seeme to at∣tribute some great thing to God) they say that God doth giue the power of beleeuing, and that vnresista∣bly: But when they come to explane the manner whereby these powers are supplied, it is manifest that they deny that the power of beleeuing is giuen to man by God: For they thinke that God doth giue these powers no otherwise then by enlightning the vnderstanding with knowledge, and by stirring vp the appetites, which certainely is not to giue the po∣wer of beleeuing: For hee which in the darke doth with a torch giue light to the wandring traueller, and doth stirre him vp to goe, doth not thereby giue him the power of going.

VI. And least any man should in any part arrogate to himself the prayse, eyther of that knowledge which he hath obtained, or of that loue wherewith he feeles himselfe to be affected, Christ doth beate downe all pride, in speaking thus to Peter, Matth. 16.17. Blessed art thou Symon Bar-Iona, for flesh and blood hath not reuealed this vnto thee, but my father which is in heauen. And, Chap. 11.25. he doth giue thanks to his father, that hee hath hidden these things from the wise

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and men of vnderstanding, and hath reuealed them to babes.

VII. And especially when it is spoken of the loue of God, and of obedience to his commande∣ments; the Scripture will haue vs to acknowledge that whatsoeuer is done well by vs, is receiued from God: We loue God because he hath loued vs first, Iohn. 4.19. For this is one of the effects of the loue of God towards vs, that it doth put into our hearts a loue of him: God himselfe thus speaketh, Ier. 31. I will put my Law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts. And Chapter 32. I will put my feare into their hearts, that they shall not depart from me. And Moses bringeth this reason, as the cause why the Israelites did not re∣pent at the law of God, ratified with so many threat∣nings, and confirmed with so many miracles, Deut. 29.4. The Lord hath not giuen you a heart to perceiue, nor eyes to see. Let Arminius tell mee whether these men had sufficient power to beleeue, or sufficient grace, which with the helpe of free-will, they might haue rightly vsed if they would. Fie on this forgerie. And yet was not God the cause of the impenitency and blindnesse of that people: For hee that will not heale him that is blinde, is not the cause of his blinde∣nesse: God did not put this wickednesse in man, but he knoweth who they are on whom hee will haue mercy, and he hath reason for his actions, to enquire into which were not onely rash, but also dangerous.

VIII. Saint Paul, Galath. 3.26. saith, That wee are the sonnes of God, by faith in Christ. If therefore it be in the power of mans free-will, being helped with grace to beleeue, or not to beleeue, to vse that grace

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or not to vse it, it must needes also be in the power of free-will, helped with grace, to effect, that we may be the sonnes of God, or may not: Which is contrary not onely to piety, but also to common sence; for who euer effected that he was the sonne of his father? or who is beholding to himselfe for any part of his generation?

IX. The same Apostle saith, Rom. 9. It is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of him that sheweth mercy. By him that willeth and him that run∣neth, hee vnderstandeth him that worketh, for the consideration of workes is excluded from the electi∣on, or (as Arminius had rather) from the iustificati∣on of man, that this benefit might be acknowledged to be receiued from the mercy of God alone. Armi∣nius offendeth against this rule: For by his doctrine, the conuersion of a man by faith, and therefore both his righteousnesse and saluation, is of him that wil∣leth, and of him that runneth, & of him that worketh, that is, of him who by the helpe of his free-will, doth vse vniuersall grace well, and who doth therefore be∣leeue, because to the helpe of grace, hee hath brought the power of free-will, by which hee hath obtained Faith. For (as I haue said) the Arminians make the cause of faith, to be these two ioyned together, to wit, grace and free-will; to vse which free-will to the ob∣taining of saith, and to the conuerting of himselfe, is certainely to will and to runne: The Apostle ther∣fore ought to haue said, It is of man that willeth and runneth, and of God which sheweth mercy, that free-will might be ioyned with the mercy of God. And if (as Saint Austin saith fitly, Lib. 1. ad Simplic. Quaest. 2. It

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may be said, That it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, because conuersion and saluation, is not by the free-will of man alone; why may it not also be said, that it is not of God that sheweth mercy, be∣cause conuersion is not made by the grace of God alone, but also by free-will? It skilleth nothing that Saint Austin vsed this argument against Pelagius, who denied that we were preuented by grace, for it hath the same force against the Semipelagians, who ioyne free-will to grace: Seeing that Saint Paul doth not say, That it is not alone of him that willeth, but doth altogether exclude free-will.

X. Finally, this argument hath so tormented Arnoldus, Page 445. that he would seeme to yeeld to our part; for he saith, It is not placed in our will, that we should obey the calling of God, but this thing it selfe is also from the mercy of God. But the scoffing and crafty man, is very wary least hee should say somewhat that should hurt his owne cause: For when he saith that it is not placed in our will, he vnderstandeth alone: Ther∣fore he would not say, that this is wholy placed in the mercy of God alone, but tenderly and with a flou∣ting speech he saith, that it is placed in the mercy of God: He might, yea he ought to say so much of free-will, that he might agree to himselfe; for he thinketh that it is not placed in the grace of God alone, nor in free∣will alone.

XI. That man cannot be conuerted vnlesse God conuert him, and that the whole praise of our conuer∣sion is due to God, Ieremy teacheth, Chap. 31. v. 18. Conuert me, and I shall be conuerted; which is also repea∣ted in the last Chapter of the Lamentations. I am

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ashamed of the weake interpretation of the Armini∣an conferrers at the Hage, who pag. 266. by conuerted, would haue corrected to be vnderstood: There is no∣thing so cleare and direct in the holy Scripture, which may not be corrupted with a foolish and rash inter∣pretation: who hauing but little skill in the Hebrew, is ignorant that the Verbe shub, signifieth to be turned, and not to punish; and therefore in the contugation Hiphil, it is to cause that one be conuerted, and not that he be punished. Or who doth not see how ridiculous a thing it were, if men bruised with afflictions, should pray that they might be still afflicted? As if any one that were grieuously whipped, should desire more∣ouer that he might be buffeted? But Ieremy expoun∣deth himselfe, and doth teach what it is to be conuer∣ted: for he addeth, being conuerted, I will repent and ac∣knowledge my selfe: this indeede is to be conuerted. Seeing therefore that men, who are already conuer∣ted, say; Conuert me, and I shall be conuerted, Ier. 31. Draw me, and I will runne, Cant. 1. And doe ascribe the progresse and the proceeding of their conuersion to God alone: how much more is the beginning of our conuersion to be attributed to God alone? For if they that are already willing, doe confesse that they owe to God whatsoeuer good they doe, and that without his grace, they cannot moue a foote fur∣ther; how much more is it to be determined, that of being vnwilling, wee cannot be made willing, of dead, aliue, vnlesse God draw vs, and make vs aliue?

XII. And to ouerthrow those preparations, by which the sectaries thinke, that an vnregenerate man

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well vsing vniuersall grace and naturall light, doth dis∣pose and prepare himselfe to regeneration; that which God saith, Ezech. 36. doth greatly preuaile; I will giue you a new heart, and a new spirit will I put within you, and I will take away the stony heart out of you, and I will giue you an heart of flesh; I will put my spirit within you, and cause you to walke in my statutes. For seeing that God himselfe witnesseth, that in those things which belong to the worship of God and to saluation, man hath naturally a stony heart, which hath neede to be ta∣ken away, and another to be giuen by God, in which God should imprint the character of faith and repen∣tance: it manifestly appeareth, that an vnregenerate man cannot prepare himselfe to his regeneration: For that which must be taken away, and must be changed for another, that we may be regenerated; certainely, that doth not further regeneration, nor doth prepare vs to it, for otherwise we should be helped by the im∣pediments themselues.

XIII. Arnoldus, pag. 461. doth answere, that this phrase of a stony and fleshly heart is figuratiue and Symbolicall diuinitie cannot proue any thing. I an∣swere, that figuratiue speeches haue the force of those that are properly spoken, when they are expounded by the Scripture it selfe; & when it is euident to what end, and in what sence they are vsed: Now in the same place of Ezechiel, there are many words that are plaine, and not figuratiue, which doe make cleare this figure; for in the same place, God doth promise that hee will giue them a new spirit, by which he would cause that they should walke in his waies.

XIV. Wherefore Arnoldus with a superfluous

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diligence, and nothing to the purpose, doth heape to∣gether the differences betweene the heart and a stone. A stone hath not life, the heart hath; a stone cannot be softned without the taking away of the substantiall forme, the hart may; the stone cānot resist his own soft∣ning, the heart may: All besides the matter, for in that one thing of which it is spoken here, the comparison is most apt: For euen as the stone cannot soften it selfe, but it is softned onely by the power of an outward a∣gent: so the vnregenerate heart cannot conuert it selfe, or dispose it selfe to regeneration, but it is done one∣ly by the efficacy of the spirit of God: He that with∣out this shall seeke comparisons, shall finde infinite differences; as that a stone may be engrauen, and bro∣ken, may be taken out of the quarries, and be laid on the building, &c. but the heart cannot.

XV. The words of Saint Paul doe vexe these Se∣mipelagians, when he saith, that man is dead in sinne, and he speaketh of the vnregenerate man: The point of which dart, that they might auoide and make fru∣strate, they doe laboriously heape together differen∣ces betweene a dead corps, and an vnregenerate man; which doe tend thither, that they might proue that an vnregenerate man, is not altogether dead in sinne, and as Arnoldus saith, hath some reliques of the spirituall life: To which naturall reliques and remainds of vni∣uersall and sufficient grace, he added, which they say is giuen to all men, euen vnregenerates and repro∣bates, by which there is no man, but may fulfill the law and obtaine faith; certainely, there will be found in an vnregenerate man, very much life, and there will be none or very little conueniency or similitude, with

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him that is dead. It is well therefore, that these secta∣ries doe thither apply all their force, that they might shew that Saint Paul doth not speake so properly as he should. Arnoldus layeth downe these differences, pag 466. and 468. In resurrection the soule is insu∣sed, in regeneration it is onely changed: in resurrecti∣on there doth no dispositions and preparations goe before, but regeneration is made after some fore-go∣ing dispositions: Also our resurrection is done in an instant, but our regeneration by degrees. Resurrecti∣on is done necessarily, but regeneration is wrought, our free will remaining. In the dead carkasse, there are no reliques of life, but in an vnregenerate man, there are some reliques of spirituall life: God doth not speake to a dead carkas, but he speaketh to them that are dead in sinne, and doth propound his word to them. He that is dead, cannot resist his resurrecti∣on, the vnregenerate man may. I doe not deny, but that this similitude doth not square in all things: there is no doubt, but that Arnoldus could haue found ma∣ny other differences: as that the resurrection of the body shall not be till the last day, that it shall be at the trumpe of the Angell. &c. But it is sufficient, that this similitude doth well square in that which is the principall of the matter, and in that, concerning which the controuersie is betweene vs: to wit, in this, that as the dead corps is altogether vnapt to motion, and cannot dispose nor prepare it selfe to the resurrection; so the soule of a man that is vnregenerate and dead in sinne, doth want in things spirituall and pertaining to sauation all sense and motion, and cannot prepare, nor dispose it selfe to regeneration, vntill the spirit of

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regeneration descend into the heart, stirre vp new motions, and doth worke the first beginnings of the new life: By sense in spirituall things, I vnderstand zeale, by motion, good workes. And surely, these things seeme to me to be repugnant; vz. to be dead in sinne, as Saint Paul saith, and to haue reliques and remainds of spirituall life, as Arnoldus saith. For death in spirituall things, doth altogether exclude spirituall life: I willingly acknowledge, that there are some mo∣tions of truth, and spurkes of light in an vnregenerate man, & some obscure prints of the Image of God: But these reliques are not any part of spirituall life & rege∣ration: the diuels themselues haue much more light & derstanding, and yet they are altogether dead in sins.

XVI. Neither are all those differences true, which they doe bring! First, we deny that God hath respect to the dispositions of free-will, or that a man by free∣will can prepure himselfe to regeneration. God in∣deede, doth by a mans calamities, and by his free∣dome out of them, and by the examples of the ven∣gance that he taketh of the wicked, sometimes make way to himselfe for his regeneration: Also a man by a seruile feare, and dread of punishment, may profita∣bly be troubled: but I maintaine, that those inward motions doe then begin to be laudable and accepta∣ble to God, when they are produced by the holy spi∣rit, and not before: which when it is done, then I say, such morions are a part of regeneration, and the first motions & pulses of the new man, & although weake, yet sure beginnings of the new life; & not preparations of the free-will, which goe before regeneration, and by which God is moued to gine a greater measure of grace: But it is so farre, that God in beginning rege∣neration

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should haue respect to fore-going dispositi∣ons; that on the contrary, they are called, who are the greatest strangers from the kingdome of heauen, and who are ouer whelmed in greatest darknesse. Let the Thiefe on the crosse be an example, also the Romanes, the people of Alexandria, of Antioch, the Corinthians, and the Ephesians, then which people, there were ne∣uer any more wicked in lust, nor more effeminate in luxurie, of greater ignorance, or of more prodigious idolatry; whom yet so euill affected and dispoled, God called by an effectuall calling, and hauing sent his Apostles to them, gained them to Christ, that where sinne did more abound, there grace also might more abound.

XVII. And that regeneration is not alwayes wrought by degrees, the example of the conuerted Thiefe doth shew, who in the extreame inuasion of spirituall agony, in one moment passed ouer an vn∣measurable space: and o the contrary, that the resur∣rection of the body may be done by degrees, Ezechiel teacheth, Chap. 37.

XVIII. That is no truer which they say, that re∣generation is wrought, free-will remayning. For if free-will doth remaine in regeneration, it must needes be, that it goeth before regeneration: but in things that are spirituall, and which belong to saluation, there was no free-will before regeneration.

XIX. It is of the same sort, yea farre worse, which they adde, that in an vnregenerate man, there are some reliques of the spirituall life: for so they aske that to be granted to them, which is the question, and which we haue already proued to be false.

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XX. Neither yet is that true which they say, that God doth not speake to a dead corps; for Christ spake these words to Lazarus that was dead, Laza∣rus come forth, Luk. 11. And Eze. 37.4. God doth thus speake to the bones that were long before withered: Oye dry bones, heare the word of the Lord. God calleth those who are not, as if they were; but in that he cal∣leth them, he causeth that they may be: The words of Christ, Iohn 5.25. are direct to this purpose; The dead shall heare the voice of the sonne of God, and they that heare shall liue. For as God with his light, doth so enlighten the blinde, that he also giueth them eyes; so by his word, he doth so speake to the dead, that by that word he doth make them aliue.

XXI. Maruailous is the wittinesse of the Armini∣an conferrers at the Hage, who doe thence proue, that there is some ability left in man, that is spiritually dead: because we acknowledge that man may resist grace. Passing well spoken; for they proue, that a man is not dead in sinne, because he can resist the spi∣rit of God; as if the remainds of our spirituall life were placed in the faculty of resisting God; when on the contrary, a man is therefore dead in sinne, because he can doe nothing but resist. They doe therefore as much as if they should say, that a man is not therefore dead in sinne, because he is dead in sinne.

XXII. And that which they say, that he which is dead, cannot resist his resurrection, but hee that is vnregenerated, may resist his viuification; maketh for vs, and doth burden the cause of these innoua∣tors: For thence it followeth that the death in sinne, is farre the worse death, and that he that is dead in

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sinne is bound with stronger bonds, if he resist his owne resurrection, not onely in the beginnings of his regeneration, but also in the progresse of it: Yea, that very inclination to resist God, is the chiefest part of that death and naturall corruption.

XXIII. In the meane while, the Reader shall obserue, how artificiall a couert Arnoldus doth vse, while he saith, that he which is dead, cannot resist his resurrection, but he that is dead in sinne, may resist his viuification. The opinion of the Arminians is, that an vnregenerate man hath free-will, by which he may vse sufficient grace, or not vse it, beleeue, or not be∣leeue. Arnoldus therefore ought thus to haue framed his comparison, saying, he that is dead, cannot hin∣der or further his owne resurrection: but hee that is vnregenerate, may hinder or further his regeneration. But Arnoldus doth not here make mention of that helpe, that he might put by the enuie and susption of Semipelagianisme. Thus they are wont to doe that are ashamed of their owne opinion.

XXIV. That is not to be passed ouer with si∣lence, which the Arminians of the conference at the Hage, pag. 81. doe say. For there they make two kindes of vnregenerate men: some, who being left without any calling of God, doe walke in the vanity of their minde and thoughts. These they confesse are dead in sinne; but there are some, who are already called and stirred vp by the grace of God, whose vnderstandings being enlightned, and their affections being enflamed, doe stirre vp the will to the apprehension of the truth. They deny that those are dead in sinne, because their vnderstandings and appetites are viuified, although

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the will is not yet drawne; here are many absurdities. First, because they thinke that some are vnregenerate, who are already viuified and made aliue, when yet viuification and regeneration are the same thing. For if ones minde be quickned, it must needes also be re∣generated. Secondly; With the like error they place viuification there where there is not faith, seeing (as the Apostle witnesseth) the iust doth liue by faith, and it is impious to acknowledge any viuification to be in an infidell and vnregenerate man. Thirdly; And they dispute vntowardly, when they iudge it to be possible, the vnderstanding being enlightned with the knowledge of the truth, and the appetite enfla∣med with the loue of it, that the will should be auerse from this truth. And that a man may be quickned in his minde and affections, and yet his will remaines without life. For what should turne away the will when they two doe instigate and stirre it vp, seeing that the will is moued by these two alone? Nor doth the will euer stand in doubt, but when reason stirreth it vp one way, and the appetites draw it another way, and the will is forced hither and thither, by the contrary suggestions of the minde and the appetites. Fourthly; Nor doe they agree to themselues, when they say that there are some left without any calling of God, seeing that they maintaine with great con∣tention that all men are called to saluation, not onely by an outward, but also by an inward calling, and that sufficient grace is administred to all. Fiftly; Finally I demand whence they haue these two kindes of vn∣regenerate persons; If out of the Scripture, let them shew the place; If out of their owne con∣iecture,

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wee doe not beleeue them.

XXV. Arnoldus against Tilenus, Page 134. doth say that it may come to passe, that of two men furni∣shed with an equall helpe of grace, one may be con∣uerted, one not: But he ought also to shew whether it may come to passe, that of two that are equally e∣uill, and furnished with the like helpe of grace (that is, hauing alike sufficient and vniuersall grace, and being alike called by the Gospell) whether it can come to passe that one should be conuerted, and another not. If it can come to passe; I demand whence is the dif∣ference? Was greater grace giuen to the one? No, he said the grace was equall: Or is it because one is better then another? No, the question is, of them that are equally euill: Also if it were so, the conuer∣sion of the one should not be of grace alone, but of free-will: Neither is Arnoldus vnwilling to this, for he addes, Although God, who doth principally worke faith in man, doth separate the faithfull man from the vn∣beleeuer, yet because he doth not worke faith and conuersi∣on in man without the will of man, hee doth not separate man without man. And a little after he addeth, That man doth separate himselfe by his owne will. You heare that God is the principall cause of faith, but not the totall, and that man doth separate himselfe by his owne will, when yet the Apostle saith, Who separates thee? attributing this praise to God alone: And that the cause why of two that are alike called, one followeth, the other refuseth, is in the one free-will, in the other grace indeede, but yet so that the vse of it dependeth on mans free-will, in the power whereof it is to vse grace or not to vse it. So that in the one,

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free-will is the totall cause of incredulitie, and in the other, it is the part-cause of faith and conuersion: So that now man hath whereof he may boast; it is he that separates himselfe, and saluation is of man that willeth and runneth, and of God that sheweth mercy.

These innouators, that they might defend them∣selues against that saying of Saint Paul; Who separa∣teth thee? doe contend that Paul speaketh of that sepa∣ration, by which they that haue receiued many gifts, are separated from them who haue receiued fewer, which I willingly receiue: For if by the grace of God alone, they which are indued with greater gifts, are separated from the faithfull, who haue receiued fewer gifts, how much more are they who are furnished with many gifts separated, by the mercy of God a∣lone, from them who are altogether voide of Faith, and of the knowledge of God?

XXVI. That therefore of Saint Paul, Tit. 3. standeth vnmoueable: Vnto them that are defiled and vnbeleeuing, is nothing pure, but euen their minde and con∣science is defiled. And hee speaketh not onely of meates, but also of the vse of meates, which is pure according to the purity of conscience; least any one should thinke that it is here spoken of the puritie of meates, and not of the purity of actions.

XXVII. Finally, all Christian vertues, Faith, Charity, &c. are eyther in vs by nature, or are ob∣tained by vse and diligence, or they are put and wrought in our hearts by God. That they are natu∣rally ingrafted, Pelagius himselfe hath not dared to say: That they are not obtained by vse and diligence, the example of the theefe doth proue, who in one mo∣ment,

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without vse or exercise, obtained faith. It re∣mainteth therefore, that they are put into vs by God, and that faith is from the meere gift and grace of God, and not from free-will.

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