The first Dynastie.
*1. PEerses, the Conqueror of Sardanapalus, who Reigned Anno Mundi 3059. suc∣ceeded by his Son.
2. Achaemenes, from whom his Successors were termed Achaemenides, and his Subjects Achaemenii, as Propertius witnesses, where he writes, Non tot Achaemeniis armantur Susa sagittis where by Achae∣meniae sagittae he means Persian Arrow; he left the Royal Seat to
3. Cambyses, by Herodotus sometimes call'd Darius.
4. Cyrus, the Ancestor of Darius Histaspis, as we will shew anon.
5. Cambyses the Second, the Son of Cyrus.
6. Cyrus surnam'd the Great, [ 3421] Son of Cambyses and Mandane, the Daughter of Astyages King of Media, who overthrew the Babylonian Monarchy, and translated it to the Medes and Persians. Of his strange preservation from his Grandfathers cru∣elty. Education amongst Rusticks, acting the King among his Playfellows, with several other re∣marks, we have at large in Herodotus and Justine. His first Expedition was against his Grandfather Astyages, whom having vanquish'd, he march'd against rich Craesus of Lydia, whom he overthrew, took, and made one of his Council; then fell up∣on the Greeks of Ionia; afterwards set upon Baby∣lon, as we said before; and lastly going against the S•ythians, was by Tomyris slain, as most Histories agree;* yet Xenophon gives him a peaceable depar∣ture in his Bed, with an excellent Farewel to those about him. His Successor was his Son
7. Cambyses the Third,* who overthrew the Egyptians, with their King Psamniticus, the Son of Amasis. His deriding and wounding Apis their God,* worshipp'd in the likeness of a Calf, and the flaying of Sisamnis, an unjust Judge, and hanging his Skin over the Tribunal, to be a warning to his Son Othanes (whom he put in his Place) to do better, are Passages worth the taking notice of. His Death came by a wound in the Thigh from his own Sword falling out of the Scabbard as he was taking Horse to go against the Magi, who had rebell'd against him. He dying without issue, the seven Counsellors of State or Magi, resolv'd to chuse one from amongst themselves, and by that consent, and the timely neighing of his Horse at Sun-rising, the Scepter was obtain'd by
8. Darius Histaspis, [ 3431] descended from Cyrus the fourth King of Persia. He Marry'd Atossa, Cyrus's Daughter, for the strengthning of his Title, re∣cover'd Babylon by the Stratagem of Zopyrus, over∣ran a great part of Asia, and assail'd the Greeks, who by their General Miltiades, totally routed him at the Battel of Marathon,* registred (as Plu∣tarch saith) by almost three hundred Historians; which Loss while he study'd to repair, the Quar∣rel of his Sons about the Succession broke his Heart, and the youngest Son carry'd it, viz.
9. Xerxes, [ 3446] the Grandchild of Cyrus by his Daughter Atossa. This was that Emperor, whose Queen was Vasthi, who made that great Feast mention'd in the Book of Hester. He went to re∣venge his Fathers Quarrel upon Greece with an Army of seventeen hundred thousand Men,* but was so terrifi'd by several Defeats, that he return'd towards his Countrey over Hellespont in a Cock-Boat,* and at last was slain in his Bed by Artabanus his Uncle, leaving to succeed him the Son he had by Queen Hester, nam'd
10. Artaxerxes, surnam'd Longimanus. [ 3487] His entrance was good, doing Justice on his Uncle for the Death of his Father and Brother. His Gene∣rosity likewise is much commended to that great Captain Themistocles, who was forc'd by his un∣grateful Citizens, to cast himself upon such an Enemy. Though he was more favorable to the Jews in regard of his Mother, yet such strong op∣position was made by the Faction against them, that the building of the Temple was by his De∣cree prohibited. After him follow'd
11 Darius Nothus, Son-in-law to Longimanus, [ 3527] by Marrying his Daughter Parysitades. In his time Amyrteus the Egyptian rebell'd, and deliver'd his Countrey-men from the Persian Servitude. He is noted in Scripture for setting forward the building of the Temple,* which by his Father had been interrupted. By his Wife Parysitades he had two Sons, of which the elder
12 Artaxerxes Mnemon (so call'd for his great Memory) succeeded. [ 3546] He slew in Battel his Bro∣thee Cyrus, surnam'd the Younger, who affecting the Empire, had made War upon him, and call'd in the Greeks to his aid, whose memorable Retreat back to their own Countrey is describ'd by Xeno∣phon, a principal Commander in this Expedition.* This Mnemon is said by Plutarch to have had a hundred and sixty Sons by Concubines; onely three in Matrimony, of which Darius was Exe∣cuted for Rebellion, with fifty more of his Bre∣thren, whom he had drawn into the Conspiracy: This breaks the Father's Heart; his youngest Son
13. Ochus takes Place. [ 3589] He recover'd Egypt by his Generals Mentor and Bagoas, and subdu'd Assy∣ria, Cyprus, and some part of India: But his Ty∣ranny growing intolerable, he was slain by Bagoas, who set up in his Throne
14. Arses, one of his Sons, otherwise Arsames, [ 3612] who was in a short time sent after his Father by the same Hand; and was succeeded by
15. Darius the Third, surnam'd Codomannus, [ 3615] Cousin-german to Arses, who being set upon by Alexander the Great, and vanquish'd in three pitch'd Battels, viz. at Granwick, Issus, and Arbela, was the last of this Race of Persian Kings.
After this the Name of the Persians was almost forgotten; how it was reviv'd you may read in Herodian in these words: After Darius had lost his Kingdom to Alexander, and the Victor himself was dead also, the more potent Captains shared Asia amongst them, till at length Arsaces, of the Parthian Nobility, perswaded the People of the East, and amongst them the Persians, to cast off the Grecian Yoke: To which purpose he took upon him the Title of King, and became the Head of the Arsacidan Family of Par∣thia, who successively held the Crown in this fol∣lowing Order.