Asia. The first part being an accurate description of Persia, and the several provinces thereof : the vast empire of the Great Mogol, and other parts of India, and their several kingdoms and regions : with the denominations and descriptions of the cities, towns, and places of remark therein contain'd : the various customs, habits, religion, and languages of the inhabitants : their political governments, and way of commerce : also the plants and animals peculiar to each country
Ogilby, John, 1600-1676.

Of the Chief Rivers of Asia.

THERE are many Rivers of Principal note in Asia, as Euphrates, Tigris, Jor∣dan, Indus, Ganges, Ob, &c.

Euphrates riseth in Great Armenia, and is call'd by the Inhabitants generally Phrat: But in its Progress through several Countries, it changeth its Name; for, some space from its first rising it is call'd Pyxirates; towards its entrance into the Mountain Taurus, Omira; again, coming forth from out of the said Mountain, it takes the Name of Euphrates; afterwards it toucheth upon Mesopotamia on the Left Hand, and Syria, Arabia, and Babylonia on the Right, and then divides it self into several Arms, one whereof takes its Course to Seleucia, and falls into the River Tigris; ano∣ther runs through Babylon, and loseth it self in cer∣tain Lakes of Chaldaea, but afterwards shoots it self forth again, and from thenceforth anciently it ran directly towards the Sea, where it disem∣bogu'd it self with a great Mouth; but since, ha∣ving that Course stopt by the People thereabout, for the fertilising of the Ground, it was forc'd to take its way through the Tigris again. This Ri∣ver swelling like Nilus in some places, useth to overflow the Fields of Mesopotamia, and make them very Fruitful.

The River Tigris, by the Inhabitants call'd Tigil, in like manner hath its Source in Great Ar∣menia, in a plain Champaign place. There where this River runs with a slow gentle Stream, it is call'd Diglito; where it carried with a swift pre∣cipitous Course, Tigris, which in the Median Lan∣guage signifies A Dart. It breaks through the Lake Arethusa, and a little after, the Mountain Taurus hindring its Course, makes it self a hidden way under Ground, and rises on the other side of the Mountain; then having pierc'd through ano∣ther Lake nam'd Thospites, sinks again under Ground, and with another Subterranean Course measures six German Miles. After it hath ta∣ken in other Rivers in Assyria and Armenia, it se∣parates Assyria from Mesopotamia, and at Seleucia is Page  [unnumbered]divided into two Branches, one whereof glides to Seleucia, and the other to Ctesiphon, and so makes, as it were, an Island, though of no great Magni∣tude: As soon as its Streams conjoyn into one again, it is call'd Pasitygris. At length it insinu∣ates it self into a Lake of Chaldaea, out of which having broken forth with great violence, it di∣rectly tends to the Persian Gulph, in which it ter∣minates with two Out-lets.

The River Jordan springs from two Fountains, though not far distant frnm each other, the one of them nam'd Jor, the other Dan, of the contex∣ture of which two Words is fram'd the Name of Jordan. This River is extremely pleasant and beautiful in its Prospect: About twelve Miles from its Source it runs into the Lake Samochonites, thence into the Lake Genesara, or Tiberias; after which it waters Judaea and Samaria; and lastly, is immerst into the Lake Asphaltites, or Dead Sea, in the way making several Turnings and Wind∣ings, as if loth to lose it self and its sweet Wa∣ters in such a noisom Sea.

In India are two most Noble Rivers, Indus and Ganges. Indus, vulgarly Hiind, or Inder, rising from the Mountain Parapomisus, takes in nine∣teen Rivers, whereof the Chief are Hydaspis and Hypasus. The greatest Breadth of this River is fifty Furlongs, and the Depth of it fifteen Paces: With seven Mouths it empties it self into the Sea.

Ganges (now Guengam) ariseth out of the Scy∣thian Mountains, affords in many places very rich Pearl, and plenty of Gold-dust. The least Breadth of this River is said to be two German Miles, and its least Depth 100 Foot.

The grand Rivers of Tartaria Asiatica are Ob, and Parapomisus, now Orchardus; both which fall into the Northern Ocean: Rha, now Volga; Jax∣artes, now Chesel; and the River Edel, which disgorge into the Hircanian Sea. Of Persia, Oxus, now Abia, or Abiamu; Arbis, now Ilment; and Samydaces. Not to omit in Media the Rivers Cy∣rus, Cambyses, Amardus, Strato, and Corindas: Of China, Cantao