Asia. The first part being an accurate description of Persia, and the several provinces thereof : the vast empire of the Great Mogol, and other parts of India, and their several kingdoms and regions : with the denominations and descriptions of the cities, towns, and places of remark therein contain'd : the various customs, habits, religion, and languages of the inhabitants : their political governments, and way of commerce : also the plants and animals peculiar to each country
Ogilby, John, 1600-1676.

Of India in general.

*INDIA is so call'd from the River Indus, and the Word East ge∣nerally added to India, because it is the most Easterly part of Asia; and hence America, or the New-found World, has bor∣row'd the Name of West-India in opposition to it.

*Ptolomy affirms, that anciently, and to this day, India is divided into two great parts, whereof one, which extends from the River Indus to Ganges, is by the Persians call'd Indostan, that is, The Countrey of Indus; and by the Greek and Latine Writers, India intra Gangem, or India within Ganges. The other part is call'd Mangi, or India extra Gangem, or Without Ganges. The first comprehends all the Countreys under the Great Mogol's Jurisdiction, as also the Kingdom of Narsinga or Bisnagar, Kan∣nara, Orixa, the Coast of Cormandel and Malabar, the Kingdom of Golconda, and many others. The second part without Ganges contains the Kingdom of Bengala, Arracan, Pegu, Siam, Malacca, Cambaya, Champa or Tzampa, Lao, Cochinchina, besides many lesser, and lastly the vast Empire of China. Both these parts also comprehend divers Islands, a∣mongst which Japan (if so it be) is the most Ea∣stern, as also the most eminent.

This whole vast Countrey (according to the ancient and modern Writers) conterminates on the West, with the River Indus, the Countrey of Arachosia and Gedrosia; on the South, with the Indian Sea; on the East, with the Eastern Shore; and on the North, with some Branches of Mount Taurus or Imaus, a part of Taurus.

Texeira tells us, that India begins at the end of the Kingdom of Macran,* lying in 106 Degrees of Longitude, and extends to 159 from East to West, a Degree being reckon'd to be fifteen Leagues; a Tract of eight hundred Leagues in a direct Line.

India also extends from North to South, from the Equinox to the Cape of Malacca, almost to the 40. Degree, the utmost part of China, a Tract of about six hundred Leagues, not reckoning the Indian Isles, some of which lie a great way to the Southward of the Equinoctial.

The most eminent Rivers of India are the Indus and Ganges,* which come from the Northward out of the Mountains Imaus and Caucasus, by the In∣habitants (according to Castaldus) call'd Dalanguer and Nangracot, and both (as the Inhabitants affirm) spring from one Head, though some Geographers make the distance between them to be a hundred and eighty Leagues, and others but a hundred and thirty, though the first seems most probable, be∣cause the Ganges takes its course Easterly, and the Indus Westerly. Philostratus places the Head of the River Indus in Mount Caucasus, and makes the same in some places to be a League and a half broad, and transplanting abundance of Soil along with it, which, like the Nile in Egypt, makes the adjacent Grounds exceeding fertile.

This River Indus (as Ananias affirms) is by those of Diu or Diul call'd Inder and Crecede, and according to others, Hynd, or Idu and Diul; but the Persians (as Texeira tells us) call the same Jud, and those that dwell thereabouts, Send. It is at Page  [unnumbered]

[illustration] [map of Mogul (Mughal, Moghul) empire]
MAGNI MOGOLIS IMPERIVM
Page  105the Great Mogol's Court in Persia call'd Pangab or Penjab, which signifies Five Waters: for Ab signi∣fies Water, and Pan Five, because five Rivers when they come to those Parts unite to its augmen∣tation, viz. the River Bhat or Behat, which takes its original near Dabul, towards the side of Persia; the second Chanab, comes out of the Kingdom of Caximir, fifteen days Journey from Lahor; the third call'd Raw, begins near Lahor; the other two, Via and Sind or Send, arise in remote Coun∣treys. The Send receives the Water of the other four, and swallowing their Names in its own, they are all call'd The Send or Sind. Mr. Herbert calls these five Rivers Behat, Ravy, Damiady, Gbehan, and Vuhy. Peruschy makes mention of five pecu∣liar Rivers, which discharge their Waters into the Indus or Sind, namely, the Catanul, Cebcha, Ray, Chenao, and Rebeth; which gliding from the mighty Mountains that inclose the Kingdom of Caximir, run through the Province of Penjab, or Five Ri∣vers, so call'd from them, and discharge their Wa∣ters into the Indus near the City Bakar.

*The Indus or Send thus enrich'd with the Wa∣ters of other Rivers, takes its course Southward through the Provinces of Attack, Backor, and Tatta, and near the City Dul, which gives its De∣nomination to the same, it discharges its Water through two Mouths into the Ocean, and not through seven, as Texeira affirms. These Open∣ings are in 23 Degrees and 35 Minutes Northern Latitude.

Most Maps, and many Geographers, are greatly mistaken in placing this River, as if it fell into the Sea, near the utmost Point of the Gulf of Cambaya; but this is a great error, and as wide from the truth as the whole Countrey of Zuratte is broad: for the Indus runs not from the East to Zuratte, as it should do if it disembogu'd at Cambaya; but the River which discharges its Water into the Bay of Cambaya, is another call'd Mehi.

The River Indus hath divers Isles, especially near its Mouth, which are very pleasant and fruitful, and one City nam'd Varaxes.

Pliny affirms, that nineteen Rivers contribute their Waters to the Indus, the chiefest whereof are the Hydaspes, now call'd Moltan (which receives four other lesser Streams) the Catabra, the Hypasis and Acesina.

*The River Ganges, now call'd Gangia, arises from Mount Caucasus, and bends its course to the South through or between the Rocks of the Pro∣vince of Siba, and soon after becomes very broad; then proceeding on its course Southward, it re∣ceives by the way the Waters of thirty Rivers, as Ananias saith, or according to Pliny, ninety, so that it swells exceedingly, and spreads above four Miles in breadth, yet not above eight Fathom deep, and at last, after a long course, falls through many Mouths into the Sea, the chiefest whereof and most Westerly is Satigan or Satiguam, so call'd from a City of that Name built on its Banks, a Sea-port Town, where the Portuguese us'd to drive a great Trade; the other being the most Easterly, is also near a famous Sea-Harbor, and is call'd Chatigan, both which are under the Jurisdi∣ction of the Kingdom of Bengala.

The Ganges at last discharges its Water through two noted Mouths into the Bay of Bengala. These Mouths Ptolomy places in the eighteenth and nine∣teenth Degree of Northern Latitude; but Bar∣ros and Linschot set them in twenty two or twenty two Degrees and a half.

*Those of Bengala, as the same Linschot writes, affirm the Head of Ganges to be in the terrestrial Paradise, and therefore account the Water thereof holy; and for that cause the Benjans and other Indian Heathens, go thither in Pilgrimage to bathe them∣selves, and to drink of it; and the Inhabitants of Bengala lying on their Death-beds, cause them∣selves to be thrown into the said River, or at least to have their Feet dipt in.

A Pint of Water (a thing very remarkable) of the Ganges,* is not above half so heavy as that of any other Water in India, and is also very whol∣som, and hath a good relish.

In the middle of the Ganges lie many great and small Isles, which are very fruitful, and all of them overgrown with wild Fruit-trees; but most of them at this day lie waste, by reason of the French Pyrates from Racau; yet they have store of wild Swine, and divers sorts of Fowls on the same, as also Tygers, which swim from one Island to ano∣ther, and therefore it is very dangerous to Land on any of them.

The Ganges is suppos'd to abound with Gold and Pearls,* and from its bottom are fetch'd all manner of Precious Stones, on some of which are perfectly represented the shapes of Beasts, Plants, and other things.

There is another Ganges, being onely two Streams joyning their Waters, which rise first Eastward of Gavel, near the Mountain Gate, in 18 or 19 Degrees of Northern Latitude. The River which comes out of the Northermost Spring, is call'd Kinsuar, as that out of the Sou∣thern, Benhora; but by their conjunction losing their former Denominations, are call'd Ganga like the other. But this River at last discharges its Waters into one of the Mouths of the Ganges, between Angely and Picholda, in about 20 Degrees of Northern Latitude. The Inhabitants also hold this Water in great veneration, by which means it is very advantageous to the Mahumetan Lords of the Countrey through which it runs, because they permit no Person to wash his Face in the same without paying them a certain Sum of Money.

The River Bark rises from another Spring on the West side of Mount Gate, and empties it self through the Gulf or Bay of Bombain, separating the Kingdom of Zuratte or Cambaya, from that of Decan.

The Stream Aliga likewise discharges its Wa∣ter on the West side of the same Mountain, against the middle of the Isle Anchedive, in 14 Degrees of Southern Latitude, having before separated the two Kingdoms of Decan and Canara.

The great River Nagundy gliding from Mount Gate, which is beyond Cananop and Calicut, runs Northerly, but within sight of the Aliga changes its course Eastward, and passes on through the Metropolis of Bisnagar and the Province of Orixa, and afterwards loses it self in the Bay of Bengala, between the sixteenth and seventeenth Degree, where the two Towns, Guadenary and Masulipatan, are built.

The Lake of Chiamay, lying in the North to∣wards Tartary, is the Head of six great Rivers,* of which three uniting one with the other, make a large Stream, which cuts through the middle of the Kingdom of Siam, as the other three fall into the Bay of Bengala.

Many more Rivers and Lakes hath India and the Mogol's Countrey, which in our following Discourse shall be describ'd in their proper places.

Page  106

*Cross the Rivers near which any High-ways lie, are almost no other Bridges made than of Ships, by reason of the Waters in the rainy Sea∣sons, which would carry away any other that do not float.

In several places of India are Wells or Cisterns, on which the Inhabitants bestow great Cost, be∣ing very large and spacious, rais'd up with Free∣stone, neatly joyn'd together, and cover'd on the top with an Arch; the Water is drawn up by Oxen in little Pales or Buckets.

The Stagna's or Ponds, which are all artificial, of which there are very many in India, may just∣ly be accounted amongst the best of their Rarities, though they account them for things of small con∣sequence; they are made in low places, and some of them very deep and broad, and a Mile or more in circumference, and are able to furnish a popu∣lous City with Water a whole year; most of them are inclos'd within a low Stone Wall, ha∣ving several Doors, and about the inside of the Wall are many Steps leading down to the bottom, which is pav'd with Free-stone. These kind of Ponds are near populous Towns, for the accom∣modation of the People, and built for the most part at the charge of the Publick; they are fill'd with Water in the rainy Seasons, being first made clean, that so the Water may be clear; and it continues so sweet, that not onely Men and Beasts drink of it, but they also use it upon all other occasions.

*As to what concerns the vast Mountains in this Countrey, the most famous are those of Balla-Gate, which begin in the North, and extend Southward to the Cape of Comory, by the Inhabitants, and also by Ptolomy call'd Cory, a Tract of a hundred and twenty Leagues; they begin to raise their tops near the River Carnate, not far from the Cape and Mountain Dely, and are good Marks to those that Sail along the Coast, and lying in twelve De∣grees and a half of Northern Latitude, divide the Kingdoms of Decan, Cuncan, Canara, and Malabar, from Balla-Gate, the Coast of Cormandel, and Fish-Coast, of which particularly, and their general De∣nominations, more hereafter.

India abounds with great and small Beasts,* as Oxen, Cows, Goats, Sheep, Hogs, and all man∣ner of other Cattel, the Flesh whereof is not so well tasted as ours, by reason of the great heat of the Countrey. They seldom kill any Oxen, be∣cause they use them to work. Mutton is little esteem'd, so that all sick Persons are prohibited to eat thereof; but Pork is reckon'd very wholsom Food.

The Horses here are but ordinary, the best be∣ing brought thither from Arabia and Persia by the Portuguese, and of late from Usbeck are yearly brought twenty or thirty thousand, as also a great number through Candahor out of Persia; some also are transported hither by Sea from Ethio∣pia, Arabia, and Persia, out of the Havens of Moca, Bassora, Bander, and Abassy.

But here are great numbers of Buffalo's, of whose Milk the Owners make little dry and salt Cheeses, and when they do not yield that plenty, they kill and eat them.

Here are also many Elephants, and Rhinoce∣rots call'd Abadas, as also abundance of Apes and Bats as big as Cats, which some call Flying-Cats.

In Malacca, Siam, and Bengala, are abundance of wild Goats, whose Horns are good against Poyson; the Portuguese call them Cabras de Mato, that is, Wild or Forrest-Goats.

In India likewise are great numbers of Fowls, as Pheasants, Partridges, Pigeons, Parrots, and Parraketo's of all sorts of colours. There are also Camelions, divers sorts of Serpents, and Hedghogs.

In Balagate are Rams without Horns, yet not∣withstanding are so strong, that a Youth may ea∣sily ride on them.

In many places of India up into the Countrey, breed abundance of Tygers, especiall in Bengala, near Mount Caucasus, and the Island of Iava, inso∣much that the Natives for fear of them dare not venture to gather such quantities of Gum Benzoin as they would. Some say this Beast is about the bigness of an Ass; others, that it is no bigger than a Greyhound; but Nearchus swells it to the big∣ness of a Horse, affirming to have seen the Skin of one above five Foot long; it much resem∣bles a Cat, having a thick Head, spotted Skin, glittering Eyes, sharp Teeth, Claws with Talons, and long Hair upon the Lips, which is so poisonous, that if either a Man, or the Beast it self should swallow one of them, it would certainly kill him; and the Inhabitants have observ'd, that it never goes to drink in any River, but al∣ways with its Mouth before the Stream, and ne∣ver against it, that so the Water infected by its poysonous Hair may not occasion its own death; and for the same reason it never drinks out of Lakes, Pools, or any standing Waters; and there∣fore all Persons are forbidden by the Great Mogol, to keep any of the Bristles of a dead Tyger, but on pain of death must send them all to his Court, where by the King's Physician most poisonous Pills are made thereof, which are given to those whom the King condemns to die at his pleasure.

The Tygre exceeds all Beasts in ravening, for he is said to be the most voracious and fiercest Creature in Bengala, and that he will follow a Ship from which he receives the least injury, a∣bove thirty Leagues along the Shore, and there∣fore the Inhabitants are greatly afraid of him, and call him by several Names.

Pliny saith the Tyger is a Beast of wonderful swiftness; which Bontius contradicts, affirming that he is very flow, and therefore lurks, or ra∣ther watches for Man-kind, who are not so swift as Stags, wild Swine, and other Beasts, which may easily escape from him by flight; wherefore he never catches any Beast, except it be by surprize, lying sculking in a Hedge or Thicket, from whence he leaps suddenly upon them; and if he chance to miss his prey, then he returns growling back, and runs into the Wood, to see what he can find there; he generally strikes his Tallons into the Necks of those Beasts he seizes, and beats the strongest down with one stroke, and having first suck'd out the Blood, drags the re∣maining part into the Wood to satisfie his Hunger with the Flesh by Meals. He keeps generally in the Woods, water'd by Rivers, that when other Beasts come to drink, he may surprise and prey upon them.

There are likewise Jackalls, in the Greek call'd Hyena, Camelions, and Lizzards, besides vast numbers of Ravens, which flying into the Houses, if the Windows be open, carry away the Meat from the Table.

The Rats of this Countrey are as big as suck∣ing Pigs, which do much mischief to the Houses, by undermining the Foundations, and eating through the Walls. Another fort of Rats, which are lesser, and have red Hair smelling like Musk, Page  107also molest this Countrey, and therefore the In∣habitants set their Chests and Cupboards on four Pillars a good distance from the Wall, placing Tubs with Water underneath; for else they would immediately swarm with the said Insects. Besides these, there are other Pismires, which be∣ing a Finger long, do great mischief to Plants.

*This Countrey is stor'd with all manner of Plants; and though there grows little Wheat, yet it abounds with Rice and Barley, as also Maiz, or Indian Corn, and abundance of Shell∣fruit. There are few or no Apples, Pears, Cher∣ries, Plums, Peaches, and fewer Grapes, except in China: But in stead of them, there are many other Trees, Plants, and Fruits, unknown in Eu∣rope. The chiefest of the Trees is the Coco-tree, which bears Coco-nuts, and affords many other Commodities.

The other Plants, Fruits, and Drugs are Banana's or Pisang, Anana's, Jaca, Mangas, Kaions, Jambes, Jambolins, Jangomas, Carambolas, Brindoins, Durions, Papaios, Injmes, Areka, Betel, Cubebs, Tamarind, My∣robalanes, Ambare, Caranda's, Mangostans, Pepper, Ginger, Cloves, Cinnamon, Nutmegs, Cardamom, Galanga, Cost, Spikenard, Aloes, Camphir, Calam∣bak, Sandal-wood, Benzoin, Amphion or Opium, In∣dico, Ambergreece, Musk, Civet, Assafoetida, China Roots, Great Canes, and many other Plants and Fruit.

*The chewing of Betel with Areca and Chalk is very common through India, and therefore ought to be briefly described. The Betel, or Betre, is by the Arabians, as Avicenna testifies, call'd Tembur, or Tambul; by the Turks, Japrach Industani; by those of Decan, Zuratte, and Canaria, Pan.

This Betel runs up by Poles like our Hops, and also on the Bodies of Trees: Some, to their greater advantage, permit them to grow up by the Pepper or Areca Trees. They constantly wa∣ter their Betel, the Leaves whereof are like those of the Lemmon-trees, but a little bigger, longer, and sharper at the end.

This Plant, according to Garcias, resembles that of the Pepper so exactly in Twigs, Leaves, and manner of growth, that one who doth not very well know it cannot distinguish them. The Be∣tel also produces a Fruit like that of the White and Long Pepper, or rather like a Rats Tail, which the Malayans call Syriboa, and is for its strange shape in greater esteem than the Betel Leaf it self.

*The Fruit Areca, or Arecka, so called in general by the Indians, and by the Portugues, with a cor∣rupted Name, Arequero, is in Zurratte and Decan call'd Suppary; on the Island of Zeilan, Paoz; in Malacka, by the Javans, Pinang; in Cotzyn, Cha∣cany; by the Arabians, Fausel; and by Avicenna, Filfel and Fufel; on the Coast of Malabar, by the Vulgar, Pak; but by the Nobles, Areca. Varto∣man calls the Tree Areca, and the Fruit Coffol.

The Tree it self on which this Fruit grows shoots up with a straight Body, having so smooth a Bark, that none can climb up without some help. The Boughs shoot not downwards, but upwards, and also turn up at the ends, and there∣fore at some distance seem Globular. The Leaves thereof grow like the Teeth of a Comb, one by another. The Fruit grows on the undermost Boughs, ten or twelve of them in a Cluster, at a thick long Stalk, and being cover'd with a rough yellow Shell, is about the bigness of a Nut∣meg, or small Acorn; and before it grows hard, it is like a Date, full of pale red Veins, and flat at one end: Yet nevertheless there are three se∣veral sorts of it; the first is flat on one side, and on the other broader and bigger; the second be∣ing less, blacker, and harder, is by the Indians call'd Checanum, and grows for the most part in Cotzyn: It draws the Rheum,* and makes the Mouth look of a reddish black colour, like the Mulberry. The third sort makes a man giddy, and intoxicates the Brain; though this quality is ascrib'd only to the unripe Fruit, There is also a white sort, which grows in great abundance in Zeilan. Out of the great Fruit, by the power of Fire and Glass Instruments, the Inhabitants distil a Water, which is a most excellent Medi∣cine against a Flux. The Fruit grows very plen∣tifully in Malabar, on the Island Zeilon, and also in Zurratte, Decan, and Malacka; but the best of all, on the Island Mombain, and in Basaim.

*The Indians break this Fruit into four pieces, if it be pretty big, or else into two; and roul them up in a Betel Leaf, with a little Ashes, or Chalk of burnt Oyster-shells: for the Betel being chew'd alone is bitter; therefore, to take away that bitterness, they mix the same with Areka and a little Chalk, and esteem the same, thus pre∣par'd, of a pleasant taste. Some also put a Juyce call'd Cate amongst it, which with them is an ex∣cellent Remedy against sore Gums.

*The Juyce Cate is extracted out of a Tree about the bigness of an Ash, with Leaves like those of the Tamarisk, having many Thorns, and said to blossom, but bearing no Fruit. The Wood is ve∣ry strong, hard, close, and heavy, and not subject to rot, whether it stands in the Air or Water; wherefore the Inhabitants call it Hacchie, that is, Semper vivens; of which, by reason of its hard∣ness, they make great Pestles to stamp their Rice in Wooden Mortars, six Foot in circumfe∣rence.

This Tree grows for the most part in Cambaya, especially in and about the Towns Bacaim, Manora, and Daman, as also on the Main Land of Goa, and in many other Places, though not in such abun∣dance as in those foremention'd, from whence the Juyce Cate is carried in great quantities to China and Malacka,* (because it is much used there with Betel:) but to Arabia and Persia in lesser quantities, as a Drug.

The manner of extracting this Juyce is thus: The Boughs of the Tree being cut small, are de∣cocted in Water, then stamped, and made up into Cakes with the Meal of Nachoani (which is a small black Seed, of taste like Rye, and good to make Bread) and the Saw-dust of a kind of black Wood, which are dried in the Shade, that the Sun may not attract their Vertue.

*It is an excellent Remedy not onely to preserve the Gums, and fasten the Teeth; but also to stop a Flux, and to cure sore Eyes.

*Garcias will have this to be the Lucium of the ancient Greeks and Romans; for the manner of ex∣tracting it is by all described to be the same with theirs, and judg'd to have one and the same ope∣ration with the Cate.

This Juyce hath received the Name Cate from the Arabians, Persians, and other People of Asia, because the greatest quantity thereof is used in Malacka, where it bears the same denomination, except that the last Letter E changed into O, makes it Cato.

Noble-men mix their Betel with Burnean Cam∣phir, Page  108Calamback or Aloe-wood, Musk, and Am∣bergreece.

*The Betel being thus prepared, is of an extra∣ordinary pleasant taste, and by its being perfum'd causes a sweet Breath, and for that reason is con∣stantly chew'd by the Inhabitants, as also others, according to their Estates and Quality; though some chew their Areka with Cloves and Carda∣mom.

The Kings and Princes use also Pills of beaten Areka, Cate, Camphir, and Aloe-wood, which they chew with Betel in stead of Areka.

When they, use their Betel, they first nip out the Veins in the Leaves; then they roul up the Ashes of burnt Oyster-shells and the bruis'd Areka in a Betel Leaf, which they put into their Mouthes and chew. The first Moisture, being red like Blood, they spit out, that its acrimony may not prejudice their Mouthes; the rest they swallow: and some which account it an excellent Medicine for the clensing of the Brain, swallow the first also. The redness of the Moisture is occasion'd by the Ashes, the Juyce of the Betel being of it self green. It also makes the Lips and Teeth red, and black if too much used, which the Indians extol as much as we white Teeth.

The Kings themselves present these Leaves by their Servants to their Nobles and others. Those who go to travel have Silk Bags full of Betel gi∣ven them: Neither doth any Friend go from the other without a Present of Betel, that being a Farewel-Gift.

*In several Parts of India grows a certain Fruit call'd Brindones; and by Linschot, Brindoins; which is a little reddish on the outside, but blood-red within, and of a very sowre taste: yet many People are much pleased with it; and the Dyers make great use of it.

*The Ambare is a large thick Tree, with Leaves like those of the Walnut, of a pale green, and interlac'd with many Veins. The Flowers are small and white; the Fruit about the bigness of a Walnut, with a smoother Shell, of a strong scent, and a firm and well-rellish'd Pulp.

The Canarians call this Tree Ambare; the Por∣tuguese the Fruit Ambares; the Persians, Ambereth; the Turks, Aarab: And all use the Juyce thereof among their Meat instead of Verjuyce. The ripe Fruit being also eaten with Salt and Vinegar cau∣seth an appetite. The Indians look upon the same as an excellent Medicine against the Rising of the Gall. The Fruit being pickled up in Salt and Vinegar, keeps good a long time. Texeira tells us, that this Tree loses its Leaves so soon as any Water falls on the same, and that the like of it is not in all India.

*Another Fruit-tree by the Persians and Turks call'd Amba; in Canaria, Ambo; and by others, Mangas, grows also in several parts of India.

It is a large spreading Tree, like our Oaks, ha∣ving many great and crooked Boughs. The Blos∣soms or Flowers are yellow, growing in clusters; and the Fruit is for the most part bigger than a Goose Egg.

*The Mangas, or Amba, is the best Fruit that grows in India, the same Tree producing Fruit different in Colours; for some are of a pale green, others yellow, and a third reddish, which are of a very pleasing smell, but of a bitter taste, and is accounted a good Medicine against the Worms.

The green Fruit is very sowre, and if eaten raw hurts the Teeth; wherefore many make a Pap thereof, which mix'd with Sugar tastes like scalded Goosberries: And thus prepar'd, it forti∣fies the Stomach, cools the Inflammation of the Blood, Liver, and Reins.

*The ripe Fruit not onely changes its green co∣lour into yellow, but also loses its cooling quality, becoming sweeter, and more moist wherefore if any eat thereof immoderately, he is certain to have the Bloody Flux.

Acosta tells us, That this Fruit is sometimes cut into Slices, steep'd in Wines, and so eaten. It is also preserv'd with Sugar, that so it may keep the longer; and sometimes opened in the middle with a Knife, and stuff'd full of Ginger, Garlick, Mustard-seed, Salt, Oyl, and Vinegar.

Before this Fruit is fully ripe it hangs from April till November upon the Tree, according to the nature of the Soil, and situation of the Place.

*The Carandas is a Tree about the bigness of a Crab-tree, hath the same sort of Leaves, and abundance of Blossoms, The Fruit also resem∣bles a Crab, which, ripe, some eat with Salt; but generally they pickle them green in Salt and Vinegar, and eat them to provoke an Appetite.

*Another Tree, highly extoll'd for its Physical Vertue, though very scarce, is call'd Nimbo; and by those of Malabar, Bepole. It grows to the big∣ness of an Ash, and at a distanee seems very like it. The Boughs are full of Leaves, and white Cinque-foil'd Flowers, with yellow Stalks smelling like Thyme. The Fruit is like an Olive, cover'd with a thin Shell, and grows at the ends or extremities of the Boughs. This Tree is much used in Physick. The Leaves are very excellent; for being bruis'd, and dipp'd in Lemmon Juyce, and laid on Ulcerated Wounds, as well of Men as Beasts, they suddenly heal the same, because they first draw out all the Purulent Matter, mundisie the Flesh, and make the Skin to grow. The Juyce of the Leaves is very good, taken either alone, or with Wine, Water, or Broth, or applied outwardly upon the Navel, with a little Ox-gall, Vinegar, or Aloes, to kill and de∣stroy all sorts of Worms; and therefore the In∣habitants of this Countrey, especially those of Malabar, much use it. The Flowers and Fruits also do them great kindness, in curing of Aches, Pains, Ulcers, Swellings, and Weakness of the Limbs. Out of the Fruit they extract an Oyl exceeding good against the shrinking of, or pains in, the Sinews, if used warm, and applied by the Malabars to cure Wounds, Stitches, and other Di∣stempers.

*Two other Trees grow in many Places of In∣dia, especially in the Province of Malabar, and are found to be excellent Remedies against divers Distempers. The first is accounted the Male, and by the Canarians call'd Varalo Nigunda. It is about the bigness of an Almond Tree, with Leaves green at the top, and woolly underneath, with notches round about the edge.

The other, being the Femal, is by the Portu∣guese call'd Negundo, or Norchila; in Malabar, Noche; in Balagate, Sambali; and commonly in Canaria, Nyergundi: But the Arabians, Persians, and the In∣habitants of Decan, call both the Male and Female Bache; and the Turks, Ayt.

They both grow to about the same height; or, as Garcias affirms, to the height of a Peach-tree: but have broader and rounder Leaves, much re∣sembling those of the white Poplar.

Page  109

The Leaves of both are in taste sharp, and bitter on the Tongue. Underneath most of Leaves in the Morning lies a kind of white or Froth, which distils out of them in the Night. The Blossoms of both are of a whitish Ash-colour, resembling that of the Rosmary; and the Fruit also of both is like black Pepper.

*This Tree is very serviceable in the Countreys where it grows, to all Diseased People; and therefore would long ere this have been extin∣guish'd, or at least been raised to a great value, if the cut-off Sprigs did not grow again: But the more the Boughs are cut, the better the Tree thrives. The Leaves and Flowers being bruis'd together, and boyl'd in Water, or fry'd in Oyl, are with great success applied to all Sores whatso∣ever, and have wonderful Operations on Bruises, Sprains, and Aches.

The Women wash and bathe their Bodies at all times with the Water wherein the Leaves of this Tree are boyl'd; nay, they believe that the Juyce of the Leaves, Flowers, and Fruit cause Conception. The Daya's or Ladies also make use of this Tree.

*In the Fields of India grows a wild Plant, shap'd like a Myrtle Tree, but with Leaves like those of a Crab-tree, or, as Paludanus saith, of a Haw∣thorn, which bears a Fruit exceedingly resem∣bling a great Olive, but of a very sharp taste, by the Inhabitants call'd Jambolins, which are pickled up like Olives. The Bark of this Tree is almost like that of the Mastick, and, according to Acosta, is not used in Physick, but boyl'd and eaten with Rice, because it creates a good Appetite.

*The Jangomas is a Fruit in colour like Rasber∣ries, but in taste like a green Plum, growing upon a large and prickly Tree. It comes up wild in the a Fields, as also in the Gardens of Basaim, Chouly, and Batequala.

The best way (as Garcias hath it out of the Mouthes of credible Persons) of Planting this Tree is, to sow the Seeds with the Dung of a certain Bird who feeds on the Fruit.

*Jacob Bont affirms, That this Tree is very like the Sloe-tree; wherefore the Hollanders in Java call the Jangomas, Javan-Sloes, or Little Plums. When ripe, they turn yellow; and the Juyce of these, like that of ours, mix'd with the Water of Champacka and Roses, cures the Heat in the Throat, and is an infallible Medicine against the Bloody-flux, Loosness, and Gripings.

Prosper Alpinus, in his Book of the Egyptian Plants, calls this Tree Paliurus, out of whose Fruit is made a Syrrup, which is no less famous than was the Juyce of Acacia amongst the An∣cients.

Amongst the cheifest and most delicious Fruits of all India,* is that call'd Mangostans, which, as Garcias tells us, is as big as an Orange, having an Ash-colour'd Skin, and a Pulp like an Orange, but not sticking to the Shell.

This Fruit grows on a small Tree, like an ordi∣nary Apple-tree, but having Leaves like Laurel, and yellow Flowers.

The Fruit in the Shell represents exactly the Granate, and hath the same taste, onely a little bitterer. At the bottom about the Stalk it is co∣ver'd with three or four little Leaves, like a Rose; but hath a Crown on the top, the number of whose spiry points agree exactly with the Kernels within.

The Fruit which the Malabars and Portuguese call Corambola's, is in Decan nam'd Camariz;* in Canara, Camarix and Carabeli; in Malaya, Bolimba or Balimba; by the Persians, Chamoroch; and by Linschot, Bolunbak. This Fruit is about the bigness of a small Hens Egg, separated into four parts, of a yellowish colour, and grows on a Tree about the bigness of a Quince-tree. The Blossoms thereof consist in five reddish-colour'd Leaves, and like those of a Caper, small, and of no pleasing smell; but fair to the Eye, and in taste like Sorrel.

This Fruit, as Bontius affirms, lies in an oval Cod, divided by thin Skins into four parts, which in∣close the Seed. The green Fruit is sowre and at∣tracting; but the ripe is not of that quality.

*They commonly pickle them in Vinegar (as many other Indian Fruits) with Garlick, Onions, Green Ginger, and Pepper, and serve them to the Table in stead of Capers, Olives, and other Sawces, to create a Stomach. Of the Juyce thereof they make a Syrrup, very good against the Bloody-flux, Gripings, Cramp, Burning Fe∣vers, and all other Distempers proceeding from the Gall; to which purpose the Inhabitants of the Island Java preserve the same. Moreover this Syrrup, being mix'd with Honey, is taken for sore Throats.

The Canarians make of its Juyce, and other In∣land Medicines, an excellent Water against Dim∣ness, and other Distempers incident to the Eyes.

Their Midwives, which they call Dayas, use also the dry'd beaten Fruit, by mixing Betel amongst the same, to force away the Secundine.

*Between the Island Zeilan and the Cape of Co∣mori, near the Island Manar, the Natives Fish for Pearl. The Kingdoms of Decan and Golconda afford the Inhabitants excellent Diamonds. India also produces Topazes, Berils, Rubies, which the Arabians call Yacut, Hyacinths, Granats, Sma∣ragds, Chrysolites, Amethysts, Agats, Bezoar∣stones, and Borax. Some Places also yield Gold and Silver, and all manner of other Metals.

The Seasons in India are much differing from ours, and one Coast from another.

*In Suratte, and through all India, there falls lit∣tle or no Rain, excepting at the Season in the Countrey Language call'd Pausecal, which lasting about three Months, begins in June: and by rea∣son of these constant Rains, some name these three Months Winter: Notwithstanding, at this time, as well in India, as in other Countreys lying in 23 Degrees from the Equinoctial Line, they feel the greatest and powerfullest Heat.

On all the Coasts of India the Rainy Seasons begin not at one time's; for it begins first in the Southern Countrey from the Cape Comoryn, and runs from thence to the Northern Parts; where∣fore it begins later in Cambaya, and other Northerly Places, than at Goa, where it appears on the ele∣venth of May.

Wherefore the farther the Places lie to the Northward, the longer it is before the Rainy Sea∣son comes thither: And for the same reason the Persians, in their Table-books and Almanacks, set the down the Rainy Seasons to begin in India on the fifteenth of their third Month, which they call Cordad, and, according to our Account of Time, falls out on the twenty third of May: For these Almanacks are made suitable to the Latitude of the Northern Countreys, as to Cambaya, Surat, and many other Places where the Portuguese drive the greatest Trade.

Page  110

*From the Kingdom of Cambaya, which is the first Westward to the Cape of Comoryn, along the Coast of Malabar, Winter begins about the latter end of April, and continues till August; and at the same time from this Cape to the Coast of Corman∣del it is Summer, and the contrary in the follow∣ing Moneths, when it is Summer every where else, for from August to April, so long as it is Winter in the Eastern parts of India, or on the Coast of Cormandel, the Inhabitants Westward on the Coast of Malabar enjoy plenty of Summer Weather, whenas both these Places lie under one Climate, and in one Latitude.

*Many years since it hath been found by expe∣rience, that this Rain having continu'd some days in India, and ceasing, and fair Weather following for many Weeks after, it begins to Rain with greater violence than before; and therefore without doubt this Rain is the onely work of Di∣vine Providence, because India without these great Rains would not be inhabitable in those times, by reason of the exceeding Heat and Drought, which is made temperate by the Rain, which also moi∣stens the Ground, being before parch'd and burnt, and not onely makes these Countreys habitable, but also fruitful, causing the Ground to produce all things in a plentiful manner, whil'st the Air grows much sweeter and pleasanter, and much healthier for all Persons.

There is also this difference in respect of the se∣veral remote Countreys, viz. the Rain being sooner, and much more in one place than the other; as in Bagnola, and along the Coast of Cor∣mandel, to the Island Ceilon, it begins and ends a Moneth sooner than on the Coast of Malabar. In Bagnola the rainy Season continues four Moneths, and sometimes it Rains eight days and Nights without ceasing; whenas in Doly and Agra it is nothing near so vehement, nor of that continu∣ance, three or four days passing together without a drop of Rain, and commonly from Sun-rise till nine or ten a clock it Rains very little or not at all. But the most remarkable difference is, that the Rain which falls in these several places comes out of divers parts of the World, as towards the City of Dely it comes out of the East, in which Bengala lies, whenas there, and on the Coast of Cormandel, it comes out of the South, and on the Coast of Malabar always out of the West. Accor∣ding as the Summer Heats come earlier or later, or are hotter or milder, so the rainy Season comes also sooner or later, falls in more or less abun∣dance, and continues longer or shorter. It seldom Rains at Dely till after several days abundance of Clouds are driven Westward.

Lastly, this rainy or tempestuous Season is com∣monly by a corrupt Arabick word call'd Mauzon Mausem.

*Ancient Geographers relate, that in former Ages five thousand great Cities flourish'd in India, the best of which was Nysa, in which (as the Natives affirm) Father Liber or Bacchus was born; and to this day all the Towns and Cities in India are very large and populous, which is no wonder, considering the Indians, an ancient People, never went out of their native Countrey.

Bacchus was the first that marching with his Army into India, subdu'd them, after which the Persians vanquish'd and possess'd the Countrey ly∣ing between the Indus and Ganges, till Alexander having vanquish'd Darius, defeated Porus King of India; after this it enjoy'd the happiness of a luxuriant Peace, every one under his peculiar King, till they were invaded by the Portuguese; the first whereof was Vasques de Gama, who setting Sail Anno 1497 from Spain, discover'd the Sea-Coasts from India; after which others of the same Nation; and lastly, the English and Hollanders a∣bout the latter end of the last Age, have made farther Inspections into these Countreys.

*All the Inhabitants of India are by a general Name call'd Indig or Indians, though they have several other Titles given them, according to their several Qualities, or the divers Countreys where∣in they reside.

All the Indians along the Coast of Cormandel,* and other Countreys thereabouts, are divided in∣to four Tribes, viz. those of the Brahmanes, Set∣trea's, Weinsja's or Benjans, and Soutra's; others add a fifth, but themselves think it not worthy to be reckon'd amongst them.

Diodorus Siculus and Strabo anciently divided these People into seven Tribes, who all follow'd several Employments or Studies; and amongst these the first were the Philosophers, which with∣out doubt were the Brahmans or Brahmines, con∣cerning whom they say, that as amongst Beasts,* the Cows, amongst Birds, the Gorouda, (which is a red Sparrow with a white Circle about the Neck) amongst Trees, the Rawasistow is the most esteem∣ed, so likewise amongst Men, the Brahmans are best belov'd of God, and therefore are highly re∣verenc'd and honor'd by their own Natives. The Vedam or Law-Book hath not a little added to the Honor of this Tribe: for by that Law no Brah∣man can be put to death, let his Crime be never so hainous; but if for some capital Offence he hath deserv'd to die, they onely put out his Eyes: for they account it one of the five deadly Sins that cannot be pardon'd, to put a Brahman to death; wherefore whoever kills a Brahman, must, accord∣ing to the Order of the Vedam, go in Pilgrimage twelve years, and beg Alms with the deceased Brahmans Scull, out of which he must eat and drink whatsoever is given him, and after expira∣tion of that time be bountiful in giving Alms, and build a Temple in honor of Eswara.

*The second Tribe in order is that of the Set∣trea's, consisting in the Nobility of the Countrey, who are call'd Raies or Ragias, and are (as we say) Comites Regis, the King's Companions or Cousins, who therefore writes in his Letters, Raja of Raja's. In ancient times this Tribe had onely two Branches, the one call'd Souriwansjam, and the other Somowansjam; Souri signifies in the Coun∣trey Idiome, Samscortam, or the Sun; and Somo, the Moon.

Besides these two, there are at this day many other, though of less Dignity, because they de∣graded their Pedigree, by mixing with other in∣ferior Tribes; wherefore those of the two Bran∣ches will not contract any Marriuges or affinity with them.

*The Office of these Noblemen is to defend the Countrey, oppose their Enemies, take care for the maintenance of the Brahmans, see that the Laws be not violated, and in short, to inspect the Government of the whole Realm.

*The third Tribe is that of the Weinsja's, and comprehends some which are call'd Comiteia's, and others Setti Weapari. They maintain themselves by Merchandizing and Broakage, which Office they are bound to perform with great fidelity, and be contented with a reasonable Gain. Most of Page  111them live after the manner of the Brahmans, and like them, never eat any thing which hath life, when as those of the second and fourth Tribe eat Fish and Flesh, Beef onely excepted, which in the Vedam or Law-Book is generally forbidden to all the Tribes. Moreover, this Sect is also call'd Vanjans or Banans.

*The fourth Tribe is that of the Soudra's, and consists of the vulgar or common sort of People, but most especially of Tradesmen and Artificers, This Tribe is also divided into many several Branches, distinguish'd by peculiar Names. Of these the Family of the Wellaca's are chief, where∣of some Govern the Countrey, and others live up∣on their Estates.

*Next to these follow in order the Ambria's, be∣ing for the most part Husbandmen, the rest either Serve the Nobility, or live by their Labor.

*That Family styl'd Palla, is the meanest of all the Soudra's.

*The Cawrea's are a very great Branch, being styl'd The three hundred Warehouses, from a Barthwu∣herri, who after his parting from 300 Marry'd Women or Wives, became a Samjasy, and gave them leave to Marry other Men, with promise that it should not redound to the disgrace of them nor their Successors. From these Marriages this Family sprang; into which are receiv'd all such as have lost their Pedigree, and therefore they compare it to the Sea, which receives the Wa∣ters of all Rivers, and yet never becomes full. Some of this Family are Governors, but the most are such as Paint on Cotton, which is partly us'd for Clothing in their own, and partly transported to foreign Countreys.

The Sitties are Chapmen or Pedlars, and some of them wanting Estates to Trade, perform the Offices of Porters.

The Paly are either Drovers, who sell Cattel, Husbandmen, Painters, or Soldiers, and were an∣ciently accounted a valiant People.

The Cottewaneni, Sitties, and Illewanies, Trade in all manner of Fruit and Jagara or brown Su∣gar.

The Caiclle are a despicable People, most of the Women being Strumpets, which they account no disgrace.

The Catalja's are Smiths working both in Gold and Iron, Masons, Carpenters, and Bricklayers.

The Carreans, Patnouwa's, Maccova's, and Calli∣a's, are Fishermen; the first and third Fish with great Nets, the second with small ones, and the last after a different manner.

The Conapule are Scriveners; the Gurrea's and Bargurrea's, Herdsmen; and the Berga's, though the last are accounted a noble Family.

The Kiddi are generally Husbandmen, but some of them Soldiers; the Camawaers are also Farmers; the Inmadi and Montrea's are for the most part Military; and the Berga Willala's. are Drovers.

The Family of the Corewa's have no setled Ha∣bitations, nor City to dwell in, but range up and down the Countrey with their Wives and Chil∣dren, sleeping in small Huts, which they build in those places where they come, and at their remo∣val pull them down, and with the rest of their Goods carry them away on Asses, which they keep for that purpose. They maintain themselves by making of Soupen and Tatous, which are little Fans wherewith they winnow their Rice, and Potlids to cover it when it boyls; they also fetch Salt from the Seaside on their Asses Custom-free, because they are poor, and their Asses carry but small Loads. The Women, who generally go with a Basket under their Arms, boasting them∣selves to be Fortune-tellers, get great Sums of Money from ignorant People.

The Perrea's (who are the Men, for the Women are call'd Perresies) are a very despicable People amongst these Heathens, not being accounted wor∣thy to be styl'd a Family, nor suffer'd to live near others, but dwell all together in a corner of the City, and in the Countrey have not their Habi∣tations in Villages, but in Houses built at a large distance; neither are they permitted, to fetch Water out of any Wells or Pits belonging to the Villages, but forc'd to dig some near their own Houses; nor may they go through any Street or Village wherein the Brahmans dwell, nay, are for∣bidden to enter the Pagode or Temple of their Gods Wistwow and Eswara; they do all manner of Drudgery which none else will undertake, and eat Horseflesh and the like Carrion; so that 'tis no wonder why the other Tribes not onely despise, but account them unclean, especially the chief Brahmans. This Family is divided into two Parries, the one call'd Perrea's, and the other Siripera's; which last are Tanners, Potters, and the like. The Perrea's, being the first, are of better esteem than the Siripera's, and therefore will never eat in any of their Houses; but the Siripera's are per∣mitted to eat in the Perrea's, where they shew them reverence by lifting up their Hands, and ri∣sing from their Seats. These, upon the decease of one of the Comittys, Ritties, Palies, and others, are oblig'd for a small Reward, to shave off their Beards and follow the Corps, when it is carry'd out of the City or Village to be burnt.

Every one of these Tribes must perform the Of∣fice which he hath once undertaken as long as he lives, without changing his Condition, and neither expect to be promoted, or fear to be degraded.

The Family of the Pulia's also is accounted un∣clean, and are much despis'd: for the other Tribes will not suffer them to come into their Houses, nor touch any thing that belongs to them.

The Brahmans have their Denomination from one Brahma or Bramma,* from whom they boast their Extract; and though they ascribe the origi∣nal of the other Tribes likewise to him, yet they affirm that they have gotten the Name or Bramma because they proceed from the chiefest part of him, viz. the Head, as the Settrea's out of the Arms, the Weinsja's out of the Thumb, and the Soudra's out of the Feet.

*How and from whence this Brahman had his original, some of his Sect relate out of their Vedam after this manner: Before the World was created, Wistnow, that is, God, had some inclination to have a new place to recreate and delight himself in; are and that upon the Leaf of a Tree he swam on the Water (for according to their opinion there was nothing but God and Water before the Creation) like a little Child, with his great Toe in his Mouth, in the form of a Circle, in testimony that he is without beginning or end; and that God caus'd a Flower (in the Countrey Language call'd Temara, and by us a Water-Llliy) to grow out of his Navel, and not long after out of that this Bramma sprang. So soon as he had receiv'd Life, he stood with great admiration, and consider'd from whence lie was deriv'd, which because he could not possible find out, God declar'd it to him; Page  112whereupon he shew'd great signs of thankfulness and obedience; wherewith Westnow was so well pleas'd, that he gave Bramma power to create the World; who thereupon created the same, and gave Life to all things in it.

Barthruerri, an Indian Writer, in his Book of the Way to Heaven, confirms this, and says, One of great prudence and understanding created this World; and more plainly in another place, Why hath Bramma made the Mountain Merouwa? and again in another, Bramma hath made nothing in the World that is constant; by which it appears, that this is really these Pagans opinion, viz. That this Bramma was the first Man (as they say) that by the power which God gave him, created the World, with all things therein. Yet neverthe∣less few amongst them positively ascrib'd the Creation of the World to one Man, but either to God himself or his Son; whence we may suppose, that the Brahmans judge their foremen∣tion'd Chief to be the Head of the Angels, or the Son of God. These further affirm, that this Bramma had anciently five Heads but from the power which had been given him growing more ambitious, he attempted to defile Eswara, Wist∣now's Consort, which when he heard, he was so enraged, that he caus'd her to bring forth the Daemon Beirewa, the chief of the Devils, who with his Claws scratch'd off the middlemost Head of Bramma, as a punishment for his bold at∣tempt; so that he kept onely four, Heads, with which he is represented in their Pagode: Not long after which Bramma made many Verses in praise of Eswara, who was so delighted therewith, that she promis'd to let him live in great Honor and Repute with his four Heads, and put the fifth on her own.

The same Bramma, as the Brahmans affirm, shall in the other World serve in a lower Degree; and that Annemonta, a faithful Servant to Wistnow, shall enjoy his Place, all which will be inflicted on him as a punishment for his ambition.

But the Brahmans do not onely ascribe the Creation of the World to this Bramma, but also the Government thereof; God (as they say) not once taking cognisance of it; for they alledge, that as a King will not take the trouble upon him to Govern his Realm himself, but appoint Vice-Roys or Lieutenants for that purpose; so likewise God doth not concern himself with the Govern∣ment of this World, but gave the Charge there∣of to Bramma.

The same Brathrouherri in the foremention'd Book, ascribes the limitation of time which a Man is to live here on Earth to Bramma, saying. The longest time which Bramma hath granted Men to live, is a hundred years; and, All things which happen to Mankind on Earth, is by the appointment of Bramma; which in his Book of good Conversation he thus expresses, According as Bramma designs, so it shall be: for it is with a Man as with the Bird Tzataca, who whether it Rains much or little, he gets not above one drop thereof: His meaning is, That though a Man strive never so much to raise his Fortune, it will be in vain: for whatever Bramma hath ap∣pointed for him, he shall attain to, and no more. The Bird Tzataca, as the Brammans relate, drinks not of the Water which falls on the Earth, but in rainy Weather holds open his Bill to receive the Drops, so that whether it Rains much or little it avails not, the Bird not being able to take above a Drop at once.

The same Author affirms in another place, that whatever Bramma hath decreed for Man∣kind, that will happen to him, and if any one be poor, it is by his appointment: For (saith he) he hath appointed the Winds to feed the Serpents, and the Grass for Beasts; whereby it appears, that this Bramma is the principal, who hath some others under him, to whom he commits the care of some peculiar Places; but these are not accounted Gods, but onely Geweta's, or Angels. The most eminent of them is a Dewendre, who bears great sway, and is chief over all the Heads of the eight Worlds: to seven whereof (they say) those that have liv'd well here, go after their Decease, and are all commanded by Dewendre, otherwise call'd Indre, as the supream Governor, besides whom every Place hath a peculiar Tutelary Angel, who Commands one of the eight Worlds, which are plac'd above the Earth. Next follow the fore∣mention'd eight Worlds, lying between ours and Bramma-lokon, that is, The Residence of Bramma, the one in the North, the other in the South; the Brahmans call them as followeth, viz. the first Indre-Lokon, where Dewendre or Indre hath his Residence; the second, Achmi-Lokon; the third, Jamma-Lokon, which is Hell, wherein the Wick∣ed are punish'd; the fourth, Niauti-Lokon; the fifth, Warronna-Lokon; the sixth, Cubera-Lokon; the seventh, Wajouvia; and the eighth, Isangja-Lokon: But these Worlds are not such as we in∣habit, onely places of happiness like the Elysian Fields.

Besides the care which these Governors have of their peculiar Places, they have other Concerns to look after, viz. Achmi hath the Charge over the Fire; Warrouna commands the Waters; Wa∣jouvia, the Wind; Cubera, Riches, &c.

Some account this Bramma to be the same with Pythagoras, and accordingly the Brahmans have some Books, which they firmly believe to be Py∣thagoras's own Works, which agrees with what Jarchas (according to Philostratus) told Apollonius Thyaneus, viz. That the Indians believ'd that which Pythagoras taught them concerning the Soul, and instructed the Egyptians therein. But Diogenes Laertius, who writ the Life of Pythagoras, makes mention in no place, that ever he was in In∣dia, or that he had any acquantance with the Brah∣mans; therefore it is to be suppos'd, that if Py∣thagoras hath taught the Indians any thing of his Doctrine, he did it not himself, but by his Books, that perhaps were brought into these Countreys.

*These Brahmans differing amongst themselves, are divided into six several Sects, viz. the Wist∣nowa, Sciva, Smarta, Scharwacka, Pasinda, and Tschecktea, which have each their peculiar Fol∣lowers. The Wistnowa's account Wistnow the su∣pream God, and none equal to him, and from him they take their Denomination.

This Sect is again divided into two, the one call'd Tadwadi Wistnowa, or Madwa Wistnowa, and the othe Ramanouja Wistnowa. Tadwadi signifies a Disputer, and Tadwa Knowledge of God: for the Followers thereof are accounted great Disputers, knowing how to discourse of God and all his Works, firmly maintaining all their Arguments. The Name Madwa is deriv'd from one Madway As∣jaria, who (as they say) was the first Promoter and Raiser of this Sect; as also the Name of Ram∣nouja, from one Ramanouja Asjarr, the Promoter of the Sect Ramanouja, Wistnowa.

The Westnowa's have each a peculiar way and Page  113manner to know one another.* The Tadwadistes mark themselves daily with a white Stroak, which from their Forehead comes down their Nose, and with a round Circle about the bigness of a Groat on their Temples, as also the upper part of the Arms near the Shoulder, and on both Breasts, which they say is the work of Wistnow, and serves as a Shield to defend them against the Devil and Jamma, the infernal Judge, that they dare not touch nor approach them.

They make Promises to Wistnow, to acknow∣ledge him for the onely God, to whom they owe Reverence and Obedience; neither do they think it sufficient to make the foremention'd Pro∣mise, but they must always lead a pious and vertu∣ous Life.

They are under one supream Head, who dwells up in the Countrey near the City Pallacatta, in a Place call'd Combeconne: He wears not the Cord call'd Tsandhan about his Neck, as the other Brah∣mans, neither hath he a Wife, but upon his entring into that Office he forsakes all worldly things, and commonly walks with a Cane in his Hand.

*The Ramanouja Wistnowa's mark themselves with a Sign in form like the Greek Letter Ypsilon, viz. they begin from their Noses upwards to their Foreheads, which is done with a Stuff like Whi∣ting or Chalk. They also burn another Mark in their Flesh under their Armpits, which some ac∣count sufficient, thinking it needless to mark all their Limbs every day. This Sect think it enough when they have once with an upright Heart pro∣mis'd their God to be his Servants, and believe, that though they live wickedly all their days af∣ter, God will be merciful to them for that Promise sake; that Wistnow will never forsake those he once hath receiv'd into his favor, alledging, that a Father will not kill his Child, though it offend, that a Man cannot live without sin, and therefore it is impossible that Wistnow should cast off those whom once he lov'd.

The Ramanouja's Wistnowa's must go bare∣headed, with short Hair, except one Lock on the top of their Heads, which in a Knot hangs down their Neck. The supream Head of this Sect, who resides in the City Causjewaram, in the King∣dom of Carmatica, may from a peculiar Priviledge, wear a Cloth about his Head, yet not always, but onely when he speaks with any body.

The Ramanouja's esteem their Sect to be better than that of the Tadwadistes, because they are no Traders, nor frequent Houses of publick Enter∣tainments.

The second Sect of the Brahmans is call'd Sei∣via, or Ardhiha; the Followers thereof believe one Eswara to be the supream God, making all other Deities inferior to him, nay, Wistnow himself. They make two or three Stroaks with the Ashes of burn'd Cow-dung on their Foreheads. Some also wear a certain Stone call'd Lingama about their Necks, others in the Hair of their Heads, in testimony that they put their whole confidence in Eswara, and acknowledge no other God but him. Their Children also wear this Stone cover'd with Wax at a String ty'd about their Arms, when they come to be eight or ten years of age.

The third Sect is call'd Smarta, whose Promo∣ter was Sancra Atsjaria; the Followers of whom account Wistnow and Eswara to be one and the same, though they worship them in two several Shapes. They wear no outward Marks of distin∣ction. Amongst the common People this Sect is not much esteem'd, and therefore hath not very many Followers, because their Opinion is some∣what above the Vulgars apprehension, as to the Deity of the two foremention'd Gods.

The fourth Sect is call'd Scharwaka; the Fol∣lowers whereof, after the opinion of the Epicure∣ans, believe no Life after this; and whatever others alledge to demonstrate it, they deny, and will not be convinc'd without a peculiar Demon∣stration.

The fifth Sect is call'd Pasenda, the Followers whereof affirm, that the Doctrine taught amongst the Heathens is irrational and senceless, and there∣fore they regard it not, but onely mind their Bel∣lies, and let all things run at random, belie∣ving also with the Scharwaka's, that the Soul of a Man dies with his Body: For how (say they) is it possible, that the Body of a Man, being burnt to Ashes, should ever come to life again? But this Argument they maintain not against the Christian Belief of the Resurrection of the Dead (of which they have no knowledge,) but contradict the Heathens Opi∣nion herein, who set down a certain time, after the expiration of which all things shall be as they are now.* This Opinion was held by Plato and others, who make the time to be thirty six thou∣sand years.

The Pasenda's are by the Brahmans esteem'd worse than those of the fourth Sect, not onely for this their Opinion, but also because like Beasts they make no distinction between Father and Mother, Brother and Sister. They eat with all Men, and sleep by any Women, alledging, that in the Person of another Woman they lie with their own Wives, and for a good Name amongst Men they regard it not; yet they are afraid to dispute their Opinion with the other Sects, as fearing they should suffer Death, for the other be∣ing provok'd with indignation against their wick∣ed and abominable manner of living, would cer∣tainly fall upon, and kill them, as hath often hap∣ned, to the ruine and destruction of many of these Atheists.

The sixth Sect call'd Tschectea, neither Believe in Wistnow nor Eswara, but acknowledge one Tschecti for the supream God, from whom they af∣firm Wistnow, Eswara, and Bramma to have had their original, and also their power; and likewise that the World and all things in the same proceeded and had their Being from him.

These three last Sects being by the Brahmans accounted superstitious, have but few Followers of their wicked Opinions.

Those Brahmans who by their retir'd way of living are separated from the others, are call'd Jaques. All other People that live so retiredly, are either the Wanaprasta's, or Sanjasies, or Ava∣doutes.

The Wanaprasta's go with their Wives and Children into the Wood, where they live on Roots and Fruits, without doing any kind of Labor.

Some are of so scrupulous a Conscience, that they will not pluck the least Root out of the Ground, fearing to sin, and be the occasion of di∣sturbing a transmigrated Soul, which perhaps might be in the same.

This kind of living in the Woods is amongst them accounted a great piece of Religion, and the Maintainers thereof look'd upon as a very holy People.

The Sanjasies are a People that pretend to de∣spise Page  114the World and all earthly things, and are much more retir'd than the Wanaprasta's, and are not permitted to Marry, to chew Betel, or eat and drink above once a day, and then not out of Cop∣per, but earthen Vessels: Moreover, they live on the Alms of others. They go Cloth'd in Linnen, colour'd with red Earth, and carry a long Cane in their Hands; they may not so much as touch Gold or Silver, much less be Possessors of any Money. They judge it unholy to stay above one Night in a place, and therefore are continually travelling from one place to another. They are also oblig'd to conquer five Enemies, viz. Cama, that is Desire; Croota, Anger; Lopa, Covetous∣ness; Madda, Pride, and affection for transitory things; and lastly Mattzara, Concupiscence. In this Conquest they are to persevere all the days of their Lives, studying spiritual things.

Those that lead this kind of Life, and are of the Family of the Brahmans, are call'd Sanjasies for their excellency; but Permaansa if of the Tettrean or Weinsjan Tribe, and Jogies of the Soudrean; whlch last take more freedom in their manner of living than the true Sanjasies.

*The Avadouta's being the third sort of Brahmans that live retiredly, not onely forsake their Wives and Children like the Sanjasies, but pretend to greater Holiness, abstaining from many things which the Sanjasies regard not, viz. the Avadou∣ta's wear onely a piece of Cotton Cloth before their Privities,* and some (though few) nothing at all, but go stark naked, without the least shame; neither do they use Earthen Vessels, nor walk with a Cane or any other kind of Staff, all which the Heathens look upon as a sign of their Perfe∣ction, and as a testimony of their despising the World and all things therein. They also strew Ashes over their Bodies, and when hungry, go into a House without speaking, and beg Alms by holding out their Hands, which the Pagans im∣mediately understanding (for they know them by their going naked,) give them part of what they have in the House, which they presently eat up before they stir. Some of them will not so much as go into the Street to get Alms, but are conten∣ted to sit down by some River or other which the Inhabitants accounted holy, and there expect such Food, as the People that dwell thereabouts will bring them, which indeed is done in a plentiful manner, for they furnish them with Milk, Fruit, and other Food, because they account it a very pious Work.

Those amongst the Brahmans that live most re∣serv'd, and are earnest in maintaining of their Law,* perform the Office of Priests, and are call'd Boti, being had in great honor and reputation; they live on Alms, never Marry, despise all tran∣sitory things, and to all outward appearance live very precisely, yet many of them commit most abominable Crimes in secret.

In most parts of India there reside a pensive sort of People, who either through the passion of Love, or the death of a Relation whom they highly esteem, or some other Misfortune, forsaking their native Countreys out of a desperate humor, take great Journeys, and range about like Vagabonds, nothing at all considering or fearing any ill that may befall them.

These kind of People, if Idolaters, are call'd Giogi,* otherwise Jogies; but if Mahumetans, Der∣wies, and Abbali, and Abdalla's; the last go almost stark naked, wearing onely a piece of Leather on their Backs like a Badge, and carrying a Staff or Cane in thir Hands.

*These Giogi have no other Dwelling-places than the Portals of the Pagodes or Temples, or under the Shades of large Trees, or the open Skie. They chiefly study Natural Magick, and the several Vertues of Herbs, Plants, and the like, as also Sorcery and Conjurations, boasting thereby, and by Prayer and Fasting to do great Wonders, and that they have strange Revelations, whenas in∣deed they attain not to the knowledge of any thing by any other Art than the help of the Devil, who appearing to them in several Shapes, deludes them; nay, they have familiar Conversation with him, yet imagine the contrary, affirming them∣selves to be onely familiar with certain immortal and unknown Women, to the number of forty, which they distinguish by their several Shapes and Names assum'd by them. They honor them as Goddesses; and not onely the Indians, but also the Moorish Kings shew them great Reverence, keeping great Festivals, and making annual Offe∣rings to them in certain deep Pits, wherein they say they reside. Wherefore if any of these Giogi, after long Fasting and Praying, can attain to the presence of one of the said Women, and by that means have future things reveal'd to them, they are for ever after highly esteem'd amongst their Sect; but much more if he can attain to that de∣gree of being her Brother, or any other step of Relation to her; but most of all, if he can attain to be her Husband: for then he is cry'd up as a Saint, and said to have gotten more than humane Nature.

*These Giogi are very exact in their Prognosti∣cation, and live in common under the Obedience of one supream Head, but stand not in that awe of him as the Roman-Catholicks of their Superior; neither is he onely respected by his Followers, but also held in great esteem by Persons of Qua∣lity, who also shew Obedience to him, kiss his Hands, and often stand by him in a melancholy posture to hear him speak, accounting his Voice like that of an Oracle.

The Giogi go all naked, onely covering their Privities with a small Lappet: They wear their Hair very long, and let it hang carelesly over their Shoulders, and oftentimes out of a strange super∣stitious humor, paint their Foreheads with Sandal Wood, Saffron, and other colours, either yellow, white or red, but keep the rest of their Body very neat and clean.

*There are likewise other Giogies, who lead a more strict Life, but are very slovenly, first co∣louring their Bodies black, and afterwards whi∣ting it with a Stone like Chalk. They also fre∣quently strew Ashes upon themselves, to put them in mind of their mortality: They let the Hair of their Heads and Beards grow very long, wearing them very carelesly, and often painting them with divers colours, which makes them look more like Devils than Men.

These Giogi are undoubtedly the same with the ancient Gymnosophists, who liv'd after the same manner.

*There are also another sort of People almost like these Giogi, who also strew Ashes on their Bodies; they are of a despised Tribe of the Indi∣ans, being unclean, slovenly, and beastial, for they eat of all things that come before them, without making the least scruple, nay, of those Beasts, which others account an abomination to touch; Page  115

[illustration]
wherefore they are by the Moors and Indians in the Persian Language call'd Halalchor, that is, Eat-alls: But the Indians in their Language name them Der, and abhor their Company and Conversation. They are all very poor, living generally on Alms, or on what they can get by their Labor, which they freely bestow in the most despicable and filthiest Employments of the Commonalty; which they do, either because they therein obey their Laws, which prescribe them such a kind of Life; or else out of necessity, for a Maintenance.

*There are also Indians call'd Vertiaes, which shave their Heads. Peruschi tells us, That the Vertiaes live together in great numbers, go cloth'd in White, with bald Heads, and bare Chins; for they pluck out the Hair by the Roots, leaving onely a little Tuft on the Crown of their Heads. They live poorly upon Alms, remain single, and drink warm Water, because they believe the Wa∣ter to have a Soul, and that they should kill that Soul which God hath created, if they should drink it cold. For the same reason they constant∣ly carry little Brooms, or rather Mops, in their Hands, made of Cotton Thrums, with which, as they walk, they sweep the Ground, so to prevent accidental treading on any Animal: Wherefore some will not sit down before they have swept the place very carefully where they intend to rest themselves. They are under one Supreme Head to the number of a hundred thousand, and wear a piece of Cloth of about four fingers broad be∣fore their Mouthes, with a hole on each side, through which they put their Ears.

*They say that the World hath been created many hundred thousands of years, and that God in the beginning sent twenty three Apostles, and a four and twentieth in this third Age, which is not above two thousand years past, since which they receiv'd written Laws, which before they had not. The Opinion of their Sect is written in Books, with Surat Letters and Characters.

There are several other Sects, which differ very little from those beforemention'd; as the Janje∣ma, the Giaugami, &c. and therefore we will not here any farther particularize concerning them.

*The Brahmans have four things allow'd them in their Vedam or Law-book.

First, They may freely keep the Feast Ja∣gam. And,

Secondly, They are permitted to instruct others therein; whereas the Weinsja's and Soudra's may neither keep, nor learn the manner thereof.

Their third Privilege is to read the Vedam, and teach it to others; which is forbidden to all else, but especially to the Family of the Weinsja's, which may neither read it, speak any Words that are in it, nor hear them spoken by others; nor may they look into the Jastra, by which Name all Books are understood which treat of Religion.

Their fourth Privilege is, That they may give Alms if they please, and ask the Charitable Bene∣volence of others: And though those of other Families may give Alms, yet they are not allow'd to beg.

*In their Books they write much of giving Alms, highly extolling all Charitable Acts; though they themselves seldom practise it, unless perchance among some few of their fellow-Brah∣mans: And if any other Sect happen to come to their Gates or Doors, they have nothing but the Word Po, Po, that is. Away, away; because the Brahmans believe they should be defiled, if they should admit the Conversation of any other Tribe.

*The Office and Exercise of the Brahmans agrees very much with that of the Levites amongst the Jews; yet some of them study Astronomy; others, Physick; others are put into Offices by Princes and Governors; some teach Children to read, write, and cypher: and all this, without re∣ceiving any Reward for their Pains. But those that are poor, and have little to live on, may take a small Reward from their Scholars.

The Brahmans also govern and serve in the Pa∣godes;Page  116and notwithstanding the large Munifi∣cence of their Kings, and though, they swallow a third part of the Revenue of the Countrey, yet by reason of their great number many of them are very poor, and forc'd to beg: However, the greatest Necessity must not compel them to learn any Trade, nor perform any servile Office, though for the King himself: For if any Brahman should offer to do the same, he would not onely be de∣spised by his Companions, but excommunicated. Nevertheless, they are permitted to be employ'd as Secretaries, Agents, Counsellors, and the like; for which Businesses they are very fit, and few Persons else follow those Employments.

In former Ages, in the time of King Rama-raia, the Brahmans, according to his Command, re∣ceiv'd onely one half of the Revenues of the Villages which had been given them before by his Predecessors, the other half being receiv'd by the Lords of the Countrey; but they have since re∣triv'd the whole Revenue into their own Hands.

*Sometimes the Countreys or Villages are taken from them, which to prevent, they use this means: viz. When the King hath given them a Village, they desire to part it amongst some of their Poor; which if granted, they have a Letter of License graven on a Copper Plate, by vertue of which they make their intended Division: And after this, such Places are never taken from them by the King, or any of his Successors. For, as they suppose it to be a Duty to do good to the Brah∣mans, which is a Work acceptable to their Gods Wistnow and Eswara, whom they serve; so they believe likewise, that by doing them any preju∣dice, they should offend their foremention'd Dei∣ties, and incur their heavy displeasure.

*The Brahmans never marry out of their own Tribe; for those which do so are accounted to be no Brahmans. And though any one, out of Zeal, or to be accounted a Saint, be permitted to lead the same course of life as the Brahmans; yet they cannot be made Brahmans, but must be so born.

The Brahmans account all Children unclean during the space of ten days after their Birth (after the same manner as the Infants and Women in Child-bed amongst the Jews) none daring to touch them but those which tend them. Moreo∣ver, the House wherein the Child is born is accounted unclean during the foremention'd time; wherefore no Stranger or Friend is per∣mitted to go in till ten days are expir'd, after which, viz. on the eleventh day, the House is made clean, and all the Womans Clothes, being of Cotton, are wash'd; all Earthen Vessels are thrown away, and the Copper ones scowr'd.

On the twelfth day they make a Hamam, or Fire, which they account Holy, and throwing Myrrhe into it, say several Prayers, After the Fire is extinguish'd, they give the Child such a Name as is usual amongst them; as Mainopa, Na∣raina, Beiaewa, Damersa, Padmanaba, Ragoa, Tirre∣nata, Marlepa, Dewela, Tannopa, Carpa, Wellopa, Rama, Goyenda, Warreda, Weinketi, or others of that kind. The Child thus nam'd, they make Holes in the Ears, wishing it also much joy and felicity. This making Holes in the Ears is not done to hang Jewels therein, as many do; but is done in compliance with a Promise of Obedience made to Wistnow and Eswara, and for a Testimony that they will ever acknowledge them as their Deities, and ever be constant in their Religion.

Notwithstanding the Children of the Brah∣mans are Brahmans in respect of their Extract, yet they are not so accounted before they have got∣ten the Cord call'd Dsanhem about their Necks. This Dsanhem is like fine Packthred,* consisting of three Strings, each of nine fine Cotton Threds. None but Brahmans make these Cords, and onely with their Hands, without a Wheel, or any other Tools. They wear the same like a Gold Chain, letting it hang on their left Shoulder, cross their Breasts, under their right Arm. About the fifth Year of their Age the Brahmans Children begin to wear the said Cord, though they may forbear till they are ten Years old; and commonly those that are of a poor Capacity stay till the tenth Year before they wear the Dsanhem, which can∣not be put on without a considerable Charge; for the foremention'd Fire Homam, which is made on a rising Ground, under a Canopy of stretch'd∣out Linnen, must be kept lighted four days with the Wood Rawasittow (the Tree whereof they account very holy, and believe that it is most ac∣ceptable to their Gods) on which every Brahman throws Rice in the Ears, also some boyl'd, toge∣ther with Butter, the Seed Zingele, Wheat, and Myrrhe, whilst they say several Prayers, and use many other Ceremonies. Moreover, the Parents of the Children must during the time of four days entertain the Brahmans which attend the Ceremo∣ny, which stands the Nobility in great Sums of Money.

The Children having received the Cord, which is done in August, on the Feast Traswanala Poudewa, at the Full of the Moon, are call'd Bramasory's, which Name they hold till they marry: Neither may they by vertue of the Vedam lie with any Women in that time, nor chew any Betel, or eat above once a day, and then of no other Food but what is begg'd, that by their Abstinence they may be the more capable of Learning.

This Cord is highly esteem'd amongst them; insomuch that if, age having worn it out, it chan∣ces to break, a Brahman is not allow'd to eat or drink before he hath another; for he that hath not a Dsanhem, though he be a Brahman, is not ac∣counted one amongst them so long as he hath no Cord: Therefore, by way of prevention, they always yearly renew their Cords in August, on the Feast Tsrawannala Poudewa, in the time of the Full Moon.

*The Brahmans are very ignorant in Natural Philosophy and Astronomy, not being able to give a Reason of the Sun or Moons Eclipse, or any Conjunction of the Stars; yet despise they the Europeans Knowledge in Astronomy, and sup∣port their own with this ridiculous Fable.

*Wistnow and Eswara call'd the Dewetaes and Raetsjasjaes to Council, to find out an Elixir, of which whoever drank should never die, but be∣come immortal. After serious consideration, it was agreed, to throw the Mountain Merouwa into the Sea, and there turn it round. In stead of a Cord, they took a great Serpent, by them call'd Sesja.

The Dewetaes and Raetsjasjaes were order'd to draw the Mountain, in which work while they were busie, it produc'd many strange Wonders; and amongst other things, a Poyson call'd Calecote Wisjam, which was so venomous, that it infected all the World, which was forc'd to call for aid to Wistnow: When Eswara observing that the Peo∣ple were in great pain by this Poyson, she, out of the affection which she bare to them, swal∣low'd Page  117

[illustration]
it: but it lay very heavy on her Stomach; wherefore she receiv'd the Name of Nile Canta, that is, Black-Head, by which she is call'd to this day.

After this, there appear'd a most beautiful Woman, admir'd and coveted by all; but at last Wistnow took her to himself for his Wife; she being call'd Laetsemi, hath a place in the Tem∣ple of Wistnow, wherein her Image stands.

*Not long after, when they had turn'd the Mountain round several times, there appear'd that which they had consulted about; viz. the thing which should take away Hunger, Drought, and Faintness, and procure Immortality to such as drank thereof. This excellent Elixir, by the Brahmans call'd Amortam, is a Liquor like Milk; wherefore the Brahmans, which dare not drink Water in any House, are allow'd to drink Milk.

When Wistnow had made this discovery, re∣solving to refresh the faint and wearied Dewetaes and Raetsjasjaes, he commanded them to stand be∣fore him, giving some of the Amortam out of one Pot to the Dewetaes;* but to the Raetsjasjaes, to whom he had not so much kindness, he gave somewhat else out of the same Pot, which was of no value.* But Kagou and Ketou, two Raetsjasjaes, suspecting the fallacy, went and stood amongst the Dewetaes, by which means they got also some of the Amortam; which the Sun and Moon see∣ing, inform'd Wistnow of. Whereupon Wistnow inrag'd to think that they should drink of the Amortam, caus'd both their Heads to be cut off: Yet they died not, because they had drank of this for the injury which they had suffer'd, demand∣ing why the Amortam was not given to them equally with their Companions. Wistnow, in answer to Kagou and Ketou, commanded them henceforth to be without Bodies; yet they should live as happy as others with Bodies. Now by reason the Sun and Moon had made that com∣plaint of them, they were incens'd with a per∣petual hatred against them; and when ever ei∣ther of those Luminaries are Eclipsed, they af∣firm that Kagou and Ketou are in Battel with them; and that the darkness proceeds from hence, be∣cause they are swallow'd up for a little while by their Adversaries, which have the shapes of Ser∣pents.

*The Brahmans marry their Children very young, especially the Rich; many about their eighth year, and some immediately after the re∣ceiving of the Cord Dsanhem in their fifth year: for before the receiving of this Cord, neither the Brahmans, Settreaes, nor Weinsjaes may marry. The Maid must always be elder than the Youth, which is strictly observ'd.

A Brahman takes special notice of all things that he meets with in the way when he goes to chuse a Wife for his Son; and as often as he meets any thing which he judges ominous or un∣fortunate, so oft he returns, and defers his intent.

If those of the Family Weinsja meet a Serpent on the day when they go to make their first Vi∣sit, they look upon it as an ill omen, giving over their Suit, and will never be brought to renew their Addresses, judging that it will prove a most unfortunate and bad Marriage.

The Maidens Fathers, to whom the Addresses for Marriage are made, commonly desire to see the Young Man, and make inquiry into his Estate; which if they approve, and like the Suitor, then he is permitted to go to her Friends, and to see the Maid.

After the Consent of both Parties is obtain'd for the Marriage, then a time is appointed, on a Good day, for the Friends to meet to celebrate the Ceremonies.

When the appointed time of the Marriages is come, then they kindle the Fire Homam, made of the Wood of their consecrated Tree Rawasittow; and a Boti or Priest repeats several Prayers. After this, the Bridegroom takes three Handfuls of Rice, which he throws on the Brides Head, who Page  118doth the same to him; which done, the Brides Father according to his Quality adorns the Bride, and also dressing the Bridegroom, washes his Feet.

Lastly, The Father taking his Daughter by the Hand, puts into same Water (if he be rich) Money and Jewels, and gives it to the Bridgroom in the Name of God, saying, I have nothing more to do with you; I here give her to you. When the Father gives his Daughers Hand to the Bride∣groom; he also gives with her a Precious Gem call'd Tali, which being a Golden Head of an Idol fastned to a String, is shew'd to the Specta∣tors, and, after some Prayers, and Good Wishes, is by the Bridgroom tied about the Brides Neck; and this confirms the Marriage.

*All these Ceremonies are perform'd in the Brides Father's House; besides which, the Con∣firmation of the Marriage (because it is a Business which concerne the Publick Good; and a thing necessary to be known) is openly proclaim'd, and notified to all Persons: For before they confirm the Marriage, some days before the celebrating thereof, they set an Arbor as a Sign before the Bride's Door, as also four Pisang Trees, if they can get them. This Canopy is properly four erected Poles, which being about seven Foot high, are cover'd on the top with small Sticks, on which they lay green Boughs, and wind the Poles round about with Pisang Leaves in sign of joy.

*On the seventh day the Bride and Bridegroom go abroad, or else are carry'd in a Palanquin, through the most eminent Streets of the City, with many Torches, Cimbals, and Fire-works before them, accompany'd by all their Friends: And thus the Bride is publickly carried to her Husbands House.

The Married Children of the Brahmans are no more call'd Brahmasaries, but Garhasta's, when they receive a second Cord, consisting of three Strings like the first. Every ten years that they increase in their age, they add another Cord to the former, and also another at the Birth of eve∣ry Child: But this is not so exactly observ'd by all; yet the more zealous they are in their Paga∣nism, the more strictly they oblige themselves to these Circumstances.

*They never marry their Children, whether Sons or Daughters, to any but those of their own Family; which those of other Tribes also observe, unless to those of a higher Degree: But the Brahmans cannot be deceiv'd thereby, because there are none above them. Yet there are some Brahmans which marry Wives out of other Tribes, but it is accounted so heinous a sin, that their Companions believe they can never be admitted into Paradise.

Their Poranes or Ancient Histories also relate, That a Brahman of great Quality, call'd Sandra∣goupeti Naraia, was very melancholy in his old age, because his Son Barthrouherri was born of a Woman of the Soudran Family; for he afterwards had familiarity with three hundred Women.

*They abhor Fornication, accounting it one of the five deadly sins; and, according to their Ve∣dam, he that so transgresses should have his Geni∣tals cut off, and so bleed to death: Also they per∣mit none to marry within the Degrees of Con∣sanguinity: But they differ very much from the European Nations in reckoning their Rela∣tions and Allies with whom they are not permit∣ted to marry; for they are allow'd to marry with their first Wifes Sister, nay, they may marry two, three, or more Sisters at once; but if two Bro∣thers marry two Sisters, it is accounted Fornicati∣on. They may also marry their Fathers Sisters Daughter; but not their Fathers Brothers Daughter.

The Brahmans seldom desert their Wives, though taken in the act of Adultery; partly, be∣cause it should not be publish'd, and so redownd to their disgrace; and partly out of the extraordi∣nary affection which they bear to their Wives, and therefore endeavor to keep all their miscar∣riages secret: But if it be known,* and civil Peo∣ple thereupon avoid coming to the House, and they, on the contrary, out of an affection to their Wives, have a mind to enjoy them honourably, then they makes a great Feast, to which they in∣vite many Brahmans and Sanjasys, on whom the Adulteress is to wait at the Table, which they look upon as a sufficient Punishment for her Of∣fence. But if a Woman with her own free will consented to, or sought to commit, the foremen∣tion'd Crime, then they immure her, where she is is kept so long as she lives with a slender allow∣ance.

*They are great Observers of Critical days, and will not undertake any Business unless preceded by some good Day or happy Omen.

When they intend to go a Journey, they often set out before their time, if a good Day or fortu∣nate Hour happens: And that they may the bet∣ter know these times exactly, they have Books written after the manner of our Almanacks, which they call Panjangam, and are of two several sorts; the one made by a Brahaspeti, Teacher to the Dewetaes; the other by Succra, Tutor to the Raets∣jasjaes, that is, The Chief of Devils. The first in∣structs, That some Days are good, and some half good; as also some Hours. According to these Panjangams the People of this Countrey govern themselves, they being made new every Year, like our Almanacks. The last are very exact; for they make Observations on every one of the sixty Hours, whereinto, according to their Ac∣count, the Day and Night is divided; declaring whether they are fortunate or not, and what may be done or let alone in every Hour; for which they highly esteem this Panjangam, supposing it infallible.

*As to what concerns the Good and Bad Days, the Amawasi, or first Day after the last Quarter of the Moon, is good: The Padeni, or first Day af∣ter the New Moon, before it is seen, is bad; as on the contrary, the Widdia, or Day on which the Moon first appears, is good: The fourth Day, and the Lecadesi, or ninth Day after the New Moon, are both bad; as also the eleventh, their Fast-day, if it happens on a Wednesday; but good, if on another day. And thus they reckon their Good and Bad Days throughout the whole Year, going from the Full to the New Moon. Moreo∣ver, they judge of the Hours and Minutes by the Accidents that happen to them, and narrowly observe the same.

They all account it a good Omen when the Bird Garrouda (which is a reddish Hawk, with a white Circle about his Neck) or the Bird Pala, flie from their right to their left side, or before them as they walk: But the contrary in other Birds; for if they flie before them cross the way, from the left hand to the right, it is a good sign; and a bad one, if from the right to the left. If Page  119any be touch'd by Jackdaw (of which there are many here in this Countrey) flying, it is a very bad Omen; and they certainly believe, that ei∣ther the Party which is to touch'd, or some of his Relations will infallibly die within six Weeks. To Sneeze as they travel is accounted very ill, insomuch that if it happen in any House, they will surely turn back. Many other things of that nature they observe from all Adventures they meet with, from whence they commonly conclude a good or bad event of the Business which they have in hand.

*Their Years begin with the new Moon in April, and is divided into twelve Moons or Moneths, viz.

  • Tseitram, April.
  • Weinjacam, May.
  • Jeistam, June.
  • Ajadam, July.
  • Srawanam, August.
  • Badrapadam, September.
  • Aswyam, October.
  • Carticam, November.
  • Margisaram, December.
  • Poujam, January.
  • Magam, February.
  • Paelgouwam, March.

But because the Account of Time should not expire (for the twelve Moons do not agree with the twelve Moneths of the Sun or Sun-years,) therefore they have after the expiration of three years, one year of thirteen Moons, which they insert, as we intercalate in our February one day every fourth year, and for that reason call the same Bissextile.

*The Weeks are likewise divided into seven Days, which in the same Scortam Language are call'd

  • Suria-waram, Sunday.
  • Jendra-waram, Monday.
  • Angaraka-waram, Tuesday,
  • Butta-waram, Wednesday.
  • Brahaspati-waram, Thursday.
  • Succra-waram, Friday.
  • Senni-waram, Saturday.

As the Latines, and almost all other Christians, name the Days from the Planets, so do likewise these People: for Suria signifies the Sun, Jendra the Moon, &c. though in the vulgar Language of the Countrey they call Sunday Adita-waram, and Monday Soma-waram.

*As the Greeks in their Account of Time rec∣kon'd by Olympiads, which was a Circle of four years, so these People have a Circle of sixty, by which they compute their Time, and coming to the end of the Circle, they begin again. Each of these years hath its peculiar Name, so that they never say in their annual Accounts, it is such or such a numbred year, but call it by its Name, in which such or such a thing hapned, or is to be done.

The first of this sixty years Circle is call'd Prabawa Samwatseram, that is properly, Prabawa-Year; for Samwatsaram signifies a Year, and must always be plac'd behind the proper Name of the Year, which for brevity sake we will here omit, the Indians themselves often leaving it out in their Writings, onely setting down the peculiar Name of the Year, viz. the second Year is call'd Pi∣pawa; the 3. Sukela; 4. Pramadouta; 5. Prajopatti. 6. Augiresa; 7. Tsrimocha; 8. Bhawa; 9. Jouwa. 10. Dhutou; 11. Eswara; 12. Bahoudihauja; 13. Pramadi; 14. Wikrama; 15. Wisjou. 16. Tsid∣trabhanou; 17. Tsabanou; 18. Tarana; 19. Paar∣towa; 20. Weiha; 21. Tserwasittou; 22. Tserwa∣dari; 23. Wierothi; 24. Wicrouti; 25. Carra; 26. Nandana; 27. Wiseija; 28. Tseia; 29. Mau∣mottha, 30. Dormeki; 31. Hewelembi; 32. Wel∣lembi; 33. Wikari; 34. Tsarewerri. 35. Plauwa; 36. Tshoopo-cortou; 37. Tsobacortou; 38. Crodi; 39. Wisswaswasou; 40. Parabawa; 41. Palawanga; 42. Kileka; 43. Tsaumea; 44. Tsadarena; 45. Wi∣rodicretou; 46. Paridawi; 47. Paramidisia; 48. A∣nanda; 49. Raetaja; 50. Nala; 51. Pingala; 52. Cali Ai; 53. Tsiddaerti; 54. Raudri; 55. Dur∣mati; 56. Dundoubi; 57. Ruddiro-dgari; 58. Rak∣taetsi; 59. Crodana; and 60. Tsaia.

*In common Businesses, as Leters and the like, they use these Names of the Years; but the King never sets down in his Letters the exact Date or Day in which he writ them, but naming onely the Moneth, says, After the New or Full Moon; yet other Nobles in their Letters set down how many days it is after the New or Full Moon. In the Heads of their Letters the Servants of Wistnow write Stirami; those of Eswara, Onoma Masje Waiye. In Business of consequence, the memory whereof they endeavor to preserve, they use ano∣ther Account, viz. As the Christians make the Birth of Christ their Epocha,* the Mahumetans the Hegira, or flight of Mahomet from Mecha; so these People begin their Account from the Death of one Salawagena.

This Salawagena was amongst them accounted a famous King, who dy'd Anno 1582. or eighty three (reckoning from this present Yeor 1672.) years since. They relate that he form'd Horses and Men of Earth, and giving them Breath, made use of them in his Wars. Some suppose him to be one and the same with Bramma, who should be brought forth into the World by the Name of Salawagena.

The Inhabitants on the Coast of Cormandel and Zuratte make the Day and Night to contain sixty Hours, viz. thirty in the Day and thirty in the Night, and divide the Day and Night into eight parts, which they measure by Watches, being lit∣tle Copper Cups, with a Hole at the bottom, which they set in Water after a peculiar manner.

*The Brahmans behave themselves in their Chambers after this manner: They generally rise two, or at least one hour before Sun-rise, and call upon the Name of God as soon as they awake; this done, they warn their Faces, Hands, and Feet, and then set themselves down on a Plank or Carpet, with their Faces towards the East or North; being thus seated, they begin to Sing the History of Gasjendre Mootsjam, and afterwards, if they have time, another Anthem in praise of God; then standing up, they wash their Hands and Mouth, nay, their whole Body in a consecrated Stream, or other Water, as convenience will ad∣mit, and then put on clean Clothes; when they are Dress'd, they set themselves down a second time on the place where they sat before, and cause fresh Water to be brought them, which taking up in their Hands three several times, they throw it into their Mouthes in the Name of God; when the Sun rises, they take up Water three times, and having said a short Prayer, throw the same on the Ground in honor of the Sun, and then wor∣ship it, and the chief of the lower Region, because Page  120they are the best of Gods Servants; after this they worship an Image call'd Salagramma, which is of Stone, with a Hole in the middle, and make Offerings to it of Sandal wood, sweet-smelling Flowers, and the Herb Toleje, all which they do in a praying posture; this done, they repair to a Copper Image, which stands somewhat higher, and Offer the same things to it as to Salagramma; on each side of this they set one, two, or more Candles, according to their pleasure, and after∣wards set Meat ready dress'd before it, or else Milk and Fruit; lastly, throwing Flowers upon the Image, they walk thrice round it from their right Hand, and as many times as they have walk'd round, so often they must kneel before the Image; then they set, themselves down by it, and sprinkle the Water Tiertum on their Heads, and put some of it into their Mouthes with a little of the Herb Toleje, and also into their Ears, yet no other but what hath been already Offer'd, and black their Foreheads with Angaram, that is the Coals of the Offer'd Benjamin: This colouring their Foreheads with Angaram serves, as they say, as a Buckler against Sin; the Toleje which they put in their Ears, against the uncleanness which might defile them by touching any dead thing; neither (as they believe) can the Devil approach any that wear it: The Water Tiertum, they say, cleanses them from all their sins which they have committed from their very Childhood. When the Brahmans have thus wash'd and mark'd them∣selves, they sprinkle a little Tiertum towards those that are near them, and burn some Myrrh. These Ceremonies perform'd, they go again to their Idol, strew Flowers upon him, or else Toleje, set∣ting Meat that is dress'd for them before it; for they are not allow'd to eat any Meat but what hath first been plac'd before the Idol: After Din∣ner they cleanse themselves again: Towards the Evening before the Sun set, they wash and mark their Bodies as before, and also say their Japon, that is naming God twenty four several times, and throw Water upon the Ground in honor of the Sun as in the Morning.

In this manner the Brahmans are by their Law oblig'd to behave themselves, though many of them give themselves more liberty. Those which do not perform all these ceremonies, in stead of their Heads wash their Bodies, and in stead of their Bodies, their Hands and Feet; but are by no means to neglect the repeating of Gods Name twenty four times, nor the Tiertum; yet if onely one Person in a House performs the foremention'd Ceremonies, it is sufficient, and look'd upon as if every individual Person had perform'd the Ser∣vice.

*The History of Gasjendre Mootsjam, which the Brahmans Sing in the Morning, doth briefly de∣clare, that the Heads of the Elephants are pre∣serv'd: for Gasjen signifies an Elephant, Indre a Head, and Mootsjam Preserv'd, or Preservation; of which they tell this ridiculous Fable, viz.

In the Sea (which they call The Milky Sea) is a Mountain call'd Tricoweta Parwatam, very high, and ten thousand Leagues broad, with three Spires, the first of Gold, the second of Silver, and the third of Iron, each adorn'd with all manner of Precious Stones; a Deweta call'd Indre Doumena (who with a Charriot travell'd through the Heavens, and all the World, as swift as the Wind) coming upon this Mountain to a Lake, Bath'd himself with his Wives, when at the same instant there pass'd by a Mouswara (who are accounted a holier People than the Deweta's,) of whom the Deweta taking no notice, so highly incens'd the Mouswara, that he passionately said, You shall be∣come an Elephant, and instead of your Wives You shall converse with the Elephants; whereupon the Deweta, terrifi'd with this Saying, not onely shew'd him Reverence, but begg'd his pardon for his neglect; yet nevertheless he was transform'd on the Moun∣tain into an Elephant, and had ten Lack-Coti of Females, (each Lack is a hundred thousand, and every Coti a hundred Lack) with whom he liv'd a long time without fear of Lyons, Tygers, or other ravenous Beasts; nevertheless it hapned that a Crocodile took fast hold of the Deweta's Foot as he was drinking out of the Lake in the shape of in Elephant, yet after much pulling he got loose again; but was afterwards seiz'd by the same Crocodile as he came to drink a second time, and held so fast, that the Deweta spent two thousand years in striving with the Crocodile, whose pow∣er being in his own Element, the Water, still in∣creas'd, whil'st that of the Elephant decreas'd; but when the Deweta was almost quite tir'd out, Witsnow passing by on Garrouda, came to him, and gave him his Weapon call'd Jeckeram, which was richly set with Precious Stones; wherewith stri∣king, he broke the Crocodile's Head, and imme∣diately fell down and shew'd Reverence to Wist∣now, who seeing of him weary, touch'd him, and thereby restor'd him to his former strength and shape.

*The Brahmans affirm also, that God himself spake to them, saying, Those which read these your Histories daily, shall have forgiveness of their sins; for which words and promise of God, they read the History of Gasjendre Mootsjam every Morning.

The Brahmans and other Indians never Let-blood when they fall sick, though the abundance of Blood be the occasion thereof; but they make their Patients Fast several days, not permitting them to eat the least bit of any thing.

*When any one lies a dying, a Brahman reads several Prayers by the Bed side, for which he re∣ceives Alms from the sick Persons Relations, whil'st the dying Man calls upon the Name of God till his Speech fail; but if the sick Person dies with the Name of God in his Mouth, not breathing afterwards, he is certainly suppos'd to go immediately to Heaven: for God, according to their Vedam or Law-Book, promises to be with those in their greatest extremity, that call upon his Name.

If a Person that lies a dying hath not lost his Reason, he asks his Wife if she will accompany him after his Death; she, according to the Cu∣stom of the Countrey, is oblig'd not to refuse: for the Women when they enter into the state of Matrimony, promise to their Husbands in the presence of a Brahman, and before the Fire Ho∣mam, that they will never forsake them. They also believe that a Woman cannot live after her Husband without great sin, except she hath Chil∣dren, for whose sake she may be spar'd and if she seem to be afraid to leap into the Fire, she cannot beforc'd; for no honest Woman that loves her Husband will refuse it, their Vedam affirming it the duty and part of an honest Woman, to delight in all things that her Husband delights in, and not to despise that, though it be bad, which plea∣ses her Husband; and to this purpose, to work the more upon their easie Beliefs, they tell us this fabulous Story, viz.

Page  121

One Draupeti, who in her life-time was a very religious Woman, was withal affectionately loving to her Husband, being never displeas'd at him, although he had spent his whole Estate, and so weakned his Body, that he was no longer able to visit his Strumpets, yet his inclinations were still such, that he declar'd he could not live, unless he might see his Mistresses: whereupon Draupeti out of extraordinary affection, taking him one Night on her Shoulders, carry'd him to his Con∣cubines; but going along in the Dark, she una∣wares ran against a Stake, on which a holy Man nam'd Galowa sat, and hit him with such force, that she overturn'd and hurt him; whereupon he cry'd, He that did me this Injury, let him die before the Sun rises; which Draupeti hearing, and pitying her Husband, said, Then let not the Sun rise; and so it hapned, the Sun not rising for several years af∣ter: Hereupon the People pray'd to Indre and De∣weta, to permit the Sun to rise; but they either could or would: not grant their Request: Then they address'd themselves to Bramma, who with the Deweta's went to the fore-mention'd Woman, saying, What will you have, and we will satisfie you, that the Sun may rise; whereto she reply'd, The Sun may rise, but I desire my Husband; which last word Husband she repeated five times; whereupon they answer'd, This shall be done in the other Life; then she immediately dy'd, and the Sun arose the next day as before.

*A Woman may Dress her self when her Hus∣band is from home, or be merry during his ab∣sence; but she must die with her Husband, or presently after; and in confirmation of this some Brahmans maintain, that the Women ought to hold their Husbands in so great esteem, that they must be the first thing in their thoughts, and spend their whole time in studying how to oblige them, tel∣ling them, that though they spend their time with∣out one thought of God, yet it is no sin, especially if they will die with them.

*When a Brahman is dead, and his Body brought to the place where it is to be burnt, they wash their Hands, and lay each a little Rice on the Deceased's Mouth; which done, they wash their Hands a second time; then a Beteani (which is a Perrea, one of those which beat on small Drums when a Corps is to be burn'd) goes thrice about the Body, which is laid on a Pyle of Wood, and afterwards makes an Oration to the People after his manner, speaking earnestly in the Name of the Deceased, alledging, that he Governs over all, young and old, rich and poor; and that those which do good in their life-time, shall be requi∣ted after their Death; and those that do ill, shall meet with the same. But all the Bodies of the Brahmans are not burnt, but some are bury'd. Likewise the Bodies of the Wistnowa's and Smar∣ta's are always burnt; but those of the Seivia's and Sanjasies are bury'd. The two first give this Reason for the burning of their Bodies, viz. be∣cause the Fire purifies the Souls from sin, for those that have serv'd Wistnow never so faithfully, are not wholly free from sin, and therefore must on necessity be purifi'd by Fire.

The Defunct, whether those which are to be bury'd or burnt, are in some places clad in rich Ap∣parel, as if living, and sitting in a Sedan, and so carry'd to the place of Interment, the Sedan be∣ing open before, that the Corps may be seen; behind follow several Persons carrying Vessels of Oyl, which are to be thrown into the Fire with the Body.

*A Woman is not permitted to Marry after her Husbands Death, but the Man may; neither will any Marry her, because she would be ac∣counted Dishonest to have had two Husbands.

These severe and strict Laws prove very preju∣dicial to young Widows, who being cautious to preserve their Reputation by continuing single, do privately prostitute themselves to People of ano∣ther Religion, or to any else; others on the con∣trary abhorring so wicked a Life suffer themselves to be burnt with their Husbands dead Body, which is done after this manner:

*As soon as the Breath is departed out of the Man's Body, if his Wife hath resolv'd to follow him at his death, they immediately make ready all Necessaries thereto belonging: for then the Woman cannot go back from her word, of recall her promise: if she be a Brahmans Wife, she is carry'd to the Funeral Pyle in a handsom Sedan under a Canopy, accompany'd by all her Friends, who encourage and extol her resolution, present her with Betel, and delight her Ears with the noise of Cymbals and Drums. The Settrea's and Sou∣dra's mix their Betel which they give to the Wo∣man with a certain Powder, which takes away all apprehensions of fear, and makes them courage∣ous and bold; but this is never done by the Brah∣mans, they being not permited to force, perswade, or use any means to a Woman, to gain her con∣sent to be burn'd. If she be of the Family of the Settrea's or Soudra's, then she carries a Lemmon in one Hand, and a Looking-glass in the other; but if of the Brahmans or Weinsja's Tribe, onely a few red Flowers, such as they strew in the Pagodes on their Idols, and have already been Offer'd to them. Coming to the place where her Husband is to be burn'd, she first go's to a Pool of Water to wash her self, giving away her Jewels, if she hath any; after which a Brahman says a Prayer; this done, and the Woman having put on a yellow Garment, she goes with great joy to the place from whence she is to leap into the Fire, which is made of glowing Coals in a deep Pit; and that she may not be terrifi'd with the sight of the Fire, they put Mats quite round to prevent her looking into it.

At the side of the Pit is a little rising Ascent made, on which she sits down against the Mats, and takes leave of her Relations and Friends, who still encourage her Undertaking. Lastly, having thus taken her leave, she throws a Pilang or Pestle, with which she us'd to stamp Rice, a small Rice∣pot, and the like Kitchin Utensils, over the Mat into the Fire, poures also a Pot of Oyl over her Head and Body; whereupon the mat being ta∣ken away, she suddenly leaps with the Pot of Oyl into the Fire; round about which stand divers People with great pieces of Wood in their Hands, which they throw upon her as soon as she is in the Fire, and cover her therewith above a Man's heighth.

Thus the Women of the Settrean, Weinsja's and Soudrean Tribes come to their ends; but those of the Brahmans endure far greater pain, viz. they leap not into the Fire, but are laid on a Pyle of Wood by their dead Husbands, as if they were to sleep by them; then they lay over them a great heap, leaving onely their Heads bare, on which they pour Oyl, and other such combustible stuff.

It is a great wonder, how the Women can be perswaded to this horrible Death, and brought to make a promise thereof; but this is effected by the Delusions of the Brahmans, who not onely instance Page  122

[illustration]
several Women for an Example, which have done the same, but also make them believe, that they do their Husbands an extraordinary kindness therein, freeing them from torments in the other World: Neither are the Women a little per∣swaded to it by their Husbands, because they live in derision and scorn of all People if they refuse: for they are not permitted to wear long Hair, but forc'd to shave it off; nor to eat Betel, wear Jew∣els, or Marry a second time; in short, she is sub∣ject to all manner of sorrows, and displeasures of of all People; so that Women of any courage do seldom refuse, and the rather, because they are be∣reav'd of all their Honor and Dignity, and their Goods taken from them; so that the Women lose all when their Husbands die, and if they live af∣ter them, they can expect nothing but sorrow and trouble.

*This Burning is not allow'd in those Coun∣treys which are under the Mahumetans, unless the Governor of the Countrey gives consent thereto, who first examines the Person whether she be willing; which if he find, then he gives permis∣sion. Neither is this Custom at all observ'd ex∣cept amongst People of great Quality, who are more exact in preserving their Honor than other People: for Noblemens Wives account it a great testimony of their love and fidelity to their Husbands, to be burnt with their dead Bodies.

Others are carry'd on Horseback about the Towns in State, with a Lemmon in one Hand, and a Looking-glass in the other, in which they look as they ride, and in a mournful tone sing cer∣tain Elegies, whil'st many other Men and Wo∣men follow them on foot; over her Head they carry an Umbrella, after the Custom of the Coun∣trey; and before her walk several beating on Drums: In all their Passage they shew a pleasant and undaunted Countenance, not shedding one Tear, expressing more sorrow for the death of their Husbands than their own, and seeming more joyful to go to him in the other World, than sor∣ry to leave this. But some chuse to be burnt alive with him after this manner:

*The Preparations for the burning and burying of Women after their Husbands Death are one and the same, the difference onely consisting in he Burning it self. After the Woman hath wash'd her self, she steps amongst the noise of Pipes, Drums, Cornets, and the like, to the Grave in which her Husband lies bury'd, where setting her self down on a Bank of Earth, she em∣braces her dead Husband; which done, they be∣gin to fill the Vault or Grave, throwing the Earth in; when the Earth begins to come up to her Chin, two of the attendant Officers hang a Cloth before the Mouth of the Grave, and give her a Cup full of Poyson, which immediately changes her Countenance, and suddenly after they break her Neck.

*The Heathens also believe that they are able to perform many works, which may extend to the benefit of the Deceased, and to that purpose they give Alms to those that request it of them, make Tampandals or Cisterns of Water near the High-ways, where Travellers may always have cold or warm Water, and sometimes Canje, which is Water boyl'd with Rice and Beans, gratis; which in all Cases is very beneficial to the living, and a very necessary Business in these Countreys; for by this means Travellers which are become faint through the exceeding heat of the Sun, are reviv'd and refresh'd. They also build Temples or Pagodes on the Graves of their deceased Friends, though they never worship any Images in the same, because they account those peaces unclean; and though there are Images in some of them, yet they are not set up to be worshipp'd as other Idols, but onely to represent the Person that lies bury'd there. They also make Wells and Ponds of Wa∣ter in the behalf of the Dead, which are com∣mon for all People.

*Their outward signs of Sorrow and Mourning are these: When the eldest Person of a Family Page  123dies, all the Friends and Relations shave off their Beards, and chew no Betel in ten days, neither do they cat above once a day: But if a younger Per∣son dies, then those that are older, though his near Relations, never mourn: Wherefore the Men mourn not for their Wives, because they are al∣ways younger than themselves.

*But the Soudra's mourn as well for young as old; and not onely shave off their Beards, but also the Hair of their Heads, leaving onely one Lock on the Crown, about which they tie a Cloth, not wearing their usual Cap in three days. They also abstain from Betel, though not so long as the Brah∣mans, but only three or four days. Upon the de∣cease of a Child the Soudra's shave not off the Hair of their Heads, but onely eat no Betel for three days.

When any one dies in a Noblemans House, all the Slaves must shave off their Beards, in sign of mourning. If a Husbandman dies out of the Fa∣mily Walala or Ambria, then twelve several sorts of People come and shew Reverence to the Dead: viz. 1. The Brahmans which serve the Pagodes. 2. The Bateani or Perrea's, which beat the Drums at Funerals. 3. The Pannejawa's, which play on long Cymbals. 4. The Smiths. 5. The Joyners. 6. The Goldsmiths. 7. The Laundrers. 8. The Barbers. 9. The Poumale Andi, which carry Flow∣ers to the Dead. 10. The Canacapule or Secreta∣ries. 11. The Salewadi. 12. The Caicullen or Dauncers, whose Wives are common Strumpets, as hath been mention'd before.

This Order in former times was very strictly observ'd but is of late not much regarded; for the Brahmans, Canacapule, and Andi, are grown to such a degree of Greatness, that they never go to shew Reverence, as do the other nine.

Every one that comes receives, as a Reward, a Cloth which they tie about their Heads, letting it hang down on their Backs; at the receipt where∣of they fall with their Faces on the ground, near a place where Nili, or unthresh'd Rice, is given out for Alms.

*Before we conclude the manner of these Indian Funerals, it ought not to be omitted what Peter Delia Valle says concerning them; viz. That they keep not their dead Bodies above twenty four Hours in the House, but burn them with the fol∣lowing Ceremonies.

The Corps is laid naked on a Pile of Wood, made like a Bed, with the Face towards the near∣est Water; then they cover the Private Parts of the Corps with a piece of Wood taken from the Pile, rub the Hands and Feet of the Defunct with Oyl, and put a Cole into his Mouth. All things thus being ready, they kindle the said Cole, and then the Pile of Wood, first under the Deceased's Head, sprinkling Water round about the Pile, still laying up the Fire again as it falls down, and letting the Ashes of the Body remain in the same Place, and sometimes also the Bones, though but half burnt: The Relations and Friends of the Deceas'd in the mean time fill the Air with their Lamentations.

The Bodies of Noblemen, and those that are rich, are burnt with sweet-smelling Wood, as Sandal, Aguilla, Brava, and the like but those of mean Persons with ordinary Wood. Children under two years of age are not burnt, but buried.

*The Settreaes and Soudraes eat Fish, Flesh, and whatever else is set before them, except Beef, from which all the four Chief Tribes, viz. Brah∣mans, Soudraes, Setteraes, and Weinsjaes abstain, insomuch that they would rather starve than kill a Cow, or eat of the Flesh.

The Boti, as also the Weinsjaes or Benjans, will not eat of any thing that ever had Life, and much less kill any Creature, believing they should com∣mit a great sin if they should so do. They also abstain from Herbs that are of a reddish tincture, reason of their resemblance in colour with Blood; for to shed Blood they account one of the greatest sins that can be committed.

*They often buy Birds, and other Creatures that are kept in Cages, with considerable Sums of Money; as also those that are taken by Hunts∣men, whether Moors or Christians, for no other end but to preserve them from death, and give them liberty. From this Custom, which is very com∣mon amongst them, hapned once a pleasant Quar∣rel, viz. A Christian,* clad after the Indian fashi∣on, bought some Birds to eat of a Bird-catcher, who by his Garb taking him to be an Indian, open'd his Cage, as soon as he had receiv'd his Money, and let them flie; whereupon the Christi∣an contesting, would have the Birds deliver'd to him, or his Money; and in short, the Bird-catch∣er, though he lost his Birds, was forc'd to repay the Christian his Money in the presence of all the Spectators, to their no little laughter.

There is great deceit in this kind of dealing; For many poor People, of a contrary opinion, to make an advantage, take any live Bird, and bringing the same to sell amongst these Indians, cry like mad-men, I will kill it instantly, I will wring of its Neck: Whereupon the innocent Indi∣ans immediately come running, and buy it above its worth, onely to release it from death.

To this purpose they have Cages in many pla∣ces to keep lame or hurt Birds, and also for four∣footed Beasts, which with great care are cured and fed at the Publick Charge.

*Not very far from Cambava are, according to Della Valle, divers such Cages; viz. one for wounded and sick Birds, another for sick or lame Beasts, as Goats, Rams, and Sheep; and another for great Cattel, as Cowes and Calves, of which there were a great number, some with broken Legs, others sick, old, and an, which were put in there to be fatned and cur'd.

Amongst these foremention'd Beasts was also a poor Mahumetan, who for a Robbery which he had committed had both his Hands cut off; but was by these Indians put in amongst the Beasts to be cured and fed.

Perusci also makes mention, out of Emanuel Pinner's Letter, of such Places for Birds, in these words, There are several Hospitals for Birds in Cambaya, but none for Men or Women, whom they suffer to perish without any relief. In their own Ci∣ties they suffer no Indian to kill any manner of Beast: Wherefore strange Merchants run a great hazard in killing a Sheep, or any other Beast, pri∣vately in their Houses to eat; for if it should hap∣pen any way to be discover'd, it would undoubted∣ly cost them their Lives.

*Amongst all Beasts, Cows are the most highly esteem'd; for they tip their Horns with Gold, and beset them with Precious Stones: Nay, they hold them in such Veneration, that when the In∣dians Trading with Christians, or any other Peo∣ple, are provok'd to swear, their onely Oath is, By the death of a Cow; viz. He that swears, having a Cow by him, and a Knife in his Hand. Page  124says, that if he doth not speak the truth, and the business be otherwise than he affirms, he wishes that the Knife which he hath in his hand may kill the Cow.

*These Heathens have another ridiculous and unheard of Custom about this Beast, especially in Surat; viz. they marry Bulls and Cows to∣gether publickly, with many Ceremonies, after this manner. The Beasts having a Rope tied about their Necks, are led to a River, where the Priest washeth their Heads. Then the Priest standing on the Shore, makes strange Signs to them with his Hands, whilst the Owners of the Beasts making a Fire of dry'd Cow-dung, set themselves round about it: Whereupon the Priest also drawing near the Fire, throws in Sandal-wood, Benjamin, and Aloes. Then going to the Water again, the Beasts are brought before him, and held so as that their fore-legs may stand on the Shore, and the hindermost in the Water; whilst the Priest taking off the old Ropes that a were about their Necks, puts on new. This done, they hold the Beasts Mouthes close together, while the Priest marks them with a yellow Stroke in the Forehead.

Mean while the Priest reads many strange Prayers out of a Book; which done, he throws several Perfumes into a Copper Pan full of glow∣ing Coals, with which he smokes the new-married Beasts under their Heads, Bellies, and Tails; then he goes again praying about the Fire, and at last perfumes the Tails of both, which are held toge∣ther.

If by chance the Beasts, during this Cere∣mony, happen to urine, the Women strive one with another to catch it, some with Pots, others with their Hands, and drink it; for they esteem this Water holy, and good for a barren Womb.

After this Marriage and Ceremonies are per∣form'd, the Beasts are led home again, accompa∣nied with a great number of Men, Women, and Children, who make a Feast. Texeira tells us, That a Benjan Merchant spent 12000 Ducats at the Marriage of his Cow with a Bull of his Neighbors.

Moreover, at some Seasons they have a Custom to feed their Cows with unthresh'd Rice; which done, they wash their Dung in a Sieve, and dry those Corns which are undigested, and remain in the Sieve; which Corns being afterwards conse∣crated by the Priest, are accounted holy, and being made into Cakes, and bak'd, are given to sick People for a wonderful Medicine.

*The Indians shew this great reverence to a Cow for three special Reasons. The first is, Be∣cause they believe, that the Souls of the Pious, which have liv'd justly, and such as God will not punish in this World, are transmigrated into these Beasts. Secondly, Because, with the Mahume∣tans, they believe, That the Foundation of the World is supported onely on the Horns of these Beasts, by them call'd Behemoth, which name they have taken out of Job; and that when the Cow moves any faster than ordinary, it occasions Earth∣quakes. Thirdly, When Mahadeu, being on a time highly incens'd by reason of the many sins which the People had committed, had resolv'd to destroy the World, a Cow appeasing him, ob∣tain'd Pardon for all their sins, and deliver'd the World from utter ruine.

Moreover, this their abstaining from Flesh, and from killing of Beasts, the Indians seem to have suck'd out of Pythagoras's Doctrine, if it was not customary amongst them before; for Pythagoras, after the same manner, and by reason he believ'd the Transmigration of Souls, forbade also his Scholars to eat Flesh.

*The Brahmans also maintain, That the eating of Flesh is not to be allow'd, because it cannot be done without forcing the Soul from the Body, which they account a horrid sin. And as it is ac∣counted a sin to kill a Man or Woman, because thereby is occasion'd a separation of Soul and Bo∣dy; for the same reason, say they, it is sin to kill any Beast, since by the death thereof the Soul is separated from the Body, and necessitated to pass to another, whereby its condition is not made better, but worse; for the Soul which formerly resided in a Cow, might chance to be transmi∣grated into the Body of some despis'd Beast or Plant: For the Brahmans believe, That not onely the Souls of Men transmigrate into Beasts, but also into Trees and Herbs; and that Humane Creatures, Beasts, Trees, and Plants, have all one and the same Soul, and differ onely in the outward appearance of the Body.

*And for this reason the Brahmans condemn the Soudra's and Settrea's, declaring them guilty of unpardonable sins, because both these Tribes kill all manner of Beasts for their Food, except onely Cows, from which they all abstain.

But the Settrea's, on the contrary, affirm, That they do better than the Brahmans, who disturb many Souls, by plucking divers Herbs out of the Ground to feed one Person; when as they, by killing a Beast, disturb onely one, to feed many People. But the Brahmans answer, That they by the pulling of many Herbs out of the Ground, do not sin so much as the Settrea's by killing of one Goat; because the Souls which reside in Herbs are in the meanest condition, and by their transmigation remove into nobler Bodies, as Men or Beasts. Nevertheless, they pretend that they would, if it were possible, live without Food, so to prevent the disturbing of any Soul. Yet few amongst them are so exact, but freely eat of the Fruits, Herbs, Roots, and Plants which the Earth produces, judging they may do it without of∣fence: But they will never eat of any thing that had life, chusing rather to die of Hunger.

The Brahmans are very moderate in their Diet, and have no peculiar Dainties; nor do they use to drink Wine, or any other strong Liquor; but their common Drink is clear Water, without any kind of mixture: yet sometimes, with great de∣light, they drink a Draught of Milk at Meals, with which to supply them most People of Note keep Cows.

Their usual Food is Rice, Plants, and Herbs, according to the Season of the Year. They ex∣tremely abhor Drunkenness and account it one of their five Mortal Sins.

Those amongst them who perform the mean∣est Offices, and do the greatest Lahor, have the most freedom allow'd them in their Diet, because they require the most Sustenance, which makes many of them not scruple to drink Wine.

The Brahmans, out of a high esteem or self-conceit of themselves, will in no wise be perswa∣ded to eat or drink any thing in a House inhabited by one of another Tribe, but onely Teyer, that is, thick Milk; because they account that to be a sort of Amortam, or Nectar of the Gods: Nay, a Brahman will not eat in another Brahman's House Page  125that is of a different Sect; and if a Byahman be Marry'd to a Woman of another Family, she is not allow'd to eat with, nor to see him eat; but if a Man out of love to his Wife, permit her to eat with him, and other Brahmans are informed there∣of, they will not onely resent it very ill, but shun the House of such a Person, and account him un∣worthy of their Society.

*These Idolaters are very proud, for those of any Quality will, if possible, avoid to eat with any of a meaner Degree. There are some amongst the Brahmans call'd Pandite and Boten, who being highly esteem'd, will not eat in the House of a Brahman, Sinai, Naike, or any other Nobleman, because they eat Fish. These Sinai or Naike are vulgarly call'd Mazarens, and are of less esteem than the other, eat freely with a Pandite or Boti, and account it a great favor, and so with the other. Some are so vainly curious, that they will not eat in a place where another of a contrary Sect or Tribe hath Din'd or Supp'd before the Floor is rubb'd over with Ox-dung, which they believe cleanses it.

The Indians never eat with any of another Re∣ligion, nor will they drink out of one Cup with them, but shun their company; and, endeavor by all means possible to avoid touching of them, fear∣ing to be defil'd thereby; nay, an Indian of great Quality will not onely refuse to eat with another of a lower Degree, out will not be touch'd by him, and if he should accidentally, he would im∣mediately cleanse his Body, by rubbing it with Herbs.

The common People shew great reverence and obedience to their Nobility: for meeting them in the Street, they not onely give them the Way, but run from one side of the Street to the other like mad Men, for fear of touching them; nay, the Noblemen, if they did otherwise, would beat them into better manners.

In regard no Indian will drink with another of a different Opinion out of one and the same Cup, for fear of being defil'd, therefore when they are in the Field, and have but one Cup, with which they are forc'd to make shift, they have found out a means not to defile one another by drinking together, viz. they touch not the Cup with their Lips, but holding it with one Hand a pretty distance from their Mouths, pouring the Liquor therein very dexterously, not spilling a drop.

*The Brahmans are also very strict in keeping certain appointed Fast-days, viz. they Fast the eleventh day after the full Moon; and again eleven days after a new Moon, when they eat no kind of Food, not so much as Betel, for the space of twenty four hours, but spend that time in Read∣ing and Praying.

In November the Brahmans of the Sect Seivia, as also the Soudra's, who are of the same Opinion with the Brahmans, and in some Observances as religious as they, Fast every Monday, and abstain from all manner of Food till the Stars arise.

They are generally not allow'd, during their time of Fasting, to undertake any manner of Bu∣siness, though of never so small a Concern. Some of them Fast eight, others fifteen, twenty, and thirty days, contenting themselves with very lit∣tle Sustenance, and a draught of Water.

Perushi relates, that a certain penitent Person by long Fasting lost his left Eye, which flew out of his Head.

*They have also a Fast of nine days call'd Dauli or Davili, during which whole time the Sammi, otherwise call'd The Giogi, or Spiritual Party, utterly abstain from Meat and Drink, sitting all that time on one place in a Pagode, fearing if they should stir, to provoke an appetite; notwithstanding they do this freely, and without any Obligation.

Commonly in the last Evening of the Fast, a great number of Singers go with the noise of little Bells and other Instruments to the Pagods, just as if they were going to a Funeral, where finding the afroesaid Giogi sitting on Carpets on the Ground, they place themselves round them in a Circle, and having spent a considerable time in Sing∣ing and jingling their Bells, one of the Sammi gives each of them out of a Dish two or three Kernels of Pomegranate with several little pieces of Quin∣ces; after this he plucks several Ears of Corn, which is planted near the place where they sit, whil'st the Singers fill the Air with their Voices, and the jingling noise of their Bells and other In∣struments.

The Sammi relate, that this Corn which they cut was Sow'n with their own Hands in the be∣ginning of their Fasting, and that they had every day since water'd and bless'd the same with all their usual Ceremonies.

On the last Evening of their Fast they begin gain to eat a little, so to bring their Stomachs by degrees to its usual appetite, fearing that if they should eat too much at first, they might prejudice their Healths, and endanger their Lives.

We might justly suspect, the truth of this their long Fasting, did not very credible Eye-witnesses confirm the same.

All the Moneth of December, the Brahmans eat a Pap made of Rice, Sugar, and some Fruit mixt together.

*As to what concerns the Meat and Drink of the Indians, it is several, according to the Situa∣tion of the Countrey, but most Indians use boyl'd Rice in stead of Bread. The Coco-tree is the chief and onely thing of their subsistence: for it affords Fruit, Oyl, Milk, Honey, Vinegar, and Wine. The greatest Delicacy amongst the common Peo∣ple, is Rice boyl'd with green Ginger, and mix'd with a little Pepper and Butter. Their ordinary Food is of wheaten Flowr, but of a certain course Grain, though well tasted, which they make up into great round and thick Cakes, and bake them on thin Iron Plates, which they carry with them from one place to another when they travel; they spread a little Butter on these Cakes, and so eat them.

They have also a certain Dish call'd Massack, or Matsack, which is made of two parts Water, and one of Brandy, some Eggs, beaten Cinamon, Su∣gar, and Bread, which is boyl'd like a Posset.

Baril is a Broth which the Indians make of the Juice or Milk of Coco-nuts and Butter, with all manner of Spices, and amongst others, Carda∣mom, Ginger, Herbs, Fruit, and several other Ingredients. The Christians, especially the Por∣tuguese, adde to the same the Flesh of Hens and Chickens chopt in small pieces, which they lay upon the Rice, that is boyl'd onely with Water and Salt.

They also boyl the Root Curcuma with their Meat and almost throughout all India they boyl no Meat without a little Bundle of Cammels Hay, in Greek call'd Schoenanthos, to give it a savory taste, and to fortifie the Stomach, as also a quan∣tity Page  126of Calamus Aromaticus, or Nard, in the Malaian Tongue call'd Diringo.

The Indians in many places have also a delicate Dish, or rather Sawce, to procure an Appetite, which is call'd Achor or Astjar, and is us'd there af∣ter the same manner as here our Gurkins, Olives, and Capers; it is likewise brought from thence into Europe, where many People eat it with much delight, it being made of Cucumbers, Mangos or long Pepper, Garlick, green Ginger Roots, and the young juicy Sprigs of Canes, which are laid in Pickle with Vinegar, Pepper and other Spices. The Bunches of green Pepper are also laid in Pickle, and brought to the Table either with roast or boyl'd Meat as likewise the Roots of green Ginger and Galanse, besides the Fruit Manga, Carambolas, Astjae, Billinbing, Curcuma; likewise Gurkins, Melons, and Pumpions in stead of Capers and Olives, which in Zurratte and other places, are also in great abundance.

Some Indians also eat that kind of Apple, call'd in Latine Pomum Amoris, and Pomum Aureum, and by the Portuguese, Pomod' Oro, which is a sort of Mandragora, or Mandrake cold in the third degree; though some put Achay, or Brasilian Pepper, in the Malaian Tongue call'd Lada Chili, that is, Pepper from Chili, which is very hot, to temper the ex∣traordinary Cold thereof, and pouring Oyl and Vinegar over them, eat the same with roasted Flesh or Fish. Some accustom themselves to chew Achay just as some People chew Tobacco. These golden Apples are sometimes Preserv'd with Su∣gar; but the Chineses on the Island Java, roasting them in Ashes, eat them with Pepper and Vine∣gar. The Fruits Carambolas are also for the same purpose laid in Pickle.

*The Drink which is commonly drunk by the Vulgar, is Water; but People of note, especi∣ally Moors, mix Cinamon Juice and Sugar with their Water, which being a pleasant Liquor, is call'd Scherbet.

In many places they drink in stead of Wine, a Liquor which is tapt out of the Palm-tree, into a Pot which hangs at it a whole Night. The Por∣tuguese call this Wine Vinho de Palma, that is, Palm-wine; the Indians in Cambaya, Tari or Ter∣ri; others, Sura and Toddy; and the Amboynans, Towack. This Liquor is of a white colour, and somewhat thick, and of a tart, yet pleasant taste, intoxicating the Brain like Wine, if drank to ex∣cess, but if moderately, it is accounted an excel∣lent Medicine against the Dropsie. They gene∣rally tap this Liquor out of the Tree after Sun-set, letting their Vessels hang to the same till Sun-rising, for then it keeps sweet and pleasant all the day after: for that which is tapt in the day-time is not so delightful to the Palate, but is flat and eager; which is occasion'd by the heat of the Sun, and is good for nothing but to make Vinegar, for which it is us'd by the Indians.

Of this Liquor Tara or Terri, which of it self drops out of the Trees, they make another sort of Wine, by the Indians call'd Uraca, which is the onely Wine of all India, and being of a white co∣lour, is very hot and strong, which the Indians ne∣vertheless drink like Water.

The Portuguese temper this Wine, by putting ston'd Raisins into the Vessel, which they do not stop close, but leave the Bung-hole open, least by reason of the extraordinary heat and strength the Fat should flie asunder, because it ferments like boyling Water. Every day for a fortnight toge∣ther they stir this Liquor, after which it becomes of a deep Red, and is of a sweetish taste. They also drink abundance of the fresh Juice, which is inclos'd within the Coco-nuts.

Another sort of Liquor call'd Zaguer, brought from Banda and the Molucko Isles, which drops out of a Tree not unlike the Coco. But this Liquor is very unwholsom to drink, especially for Stran∣gers, for it not onely occasions a great Loosness, but also a kind of dead Palsie, call'd by the Indi∣ans, Beribery.

They have likewise a very strong Liquor like Brandy, call'd Arack, made of the Moisture that is inclos'd in the Coco-nuts, and also of that which drops out of the Tree it self, which they burn with Rice.

The Chineses, to make the most of their Rice, adulterate the same, by putting into it a sort of poisonous Weed, which drives upon the Sea, whereby the Arack receives a corroding Heat, very prejudicial to the Lungs, and causing Con∣sumption, vomiting of Blood, and other deadly Distempers, especially to all Strangers that drink thereof.

The Hollanders in many places have a Liquor which they make of Spring-water, Javansagar, Tamarinds, and Lemmons, which they put all to∣gether in a Vessel hoop'd with Iron Hoops, and stopping it very close, let it stand twenty four hours in the Sun, whereby throwing the Dross and Filth upwards, it becomes a most excellent Liquor, almost like March Beer.

Moreover, in most places of India a certain Li∣quor is made call'd Palipuntz, which by some is made after this manner, viz. they take half Bran∣dy and half Water, into which they put Nut∣megs, Cinamon, Sugar, and Line Juice.

This Liquor, by the English call'd Punch, is ve∣ry hurtful to European Bodies, if drank excessively, for it occasions Loosness.

Some also drink a Brewage made onely of clear Water and brown Sugar, which if drunk in hot Weather is very unwholsome, but is much tem∣per'd, if a Draught of the Liquor Palipuntz be ta∣ken after it.

Moreover, they distill a kind of Brandy out of Dates, Sugar, and Palm-wine.

Persons of Quality in the Mogol's Countrey drink Chirassan Wine, for they have no Wine of their own, there being no Vines planted in all India.

*Most of the Indians take very strong Tobacco, but after a peculiar manner, agreeing most with the Persians.

All Indians likewise, as well Moors as Pagans, constantly chew the Betel Leaf with Areca and a little Chalk, or Ashes of burnt Oyster-shells.

*The Pagan Indians, especially those of Zuratte and the Coast of Cormandel, have extraordinary understanding in the nature of Herbs, knowing how to distinguish the good from the bad: for as these People, according to the Pythagorean man∣ner, do not eat of any thing that hath Life, but onely Roots and Herbs, so they know by daily ex∣perience how to distinguish the eatable Herbs from the medicinal or venomous.

The Indians never use any Table-cloths, but in stead thereof lay a great Leaf of the Tree Mauz, which also serves them for Dishes and Trenchers; neither do they use Spoons, but wholly make use of their Hands and Fingers.

They commonly wear Jewels and Pendants in Page  127both Ears, especially all the Idolaters, who also highly esteem all Strangers or Christians that wear them.

*The Apparel of the Indians is for the most part of Cotton or Callico, either fine or course, ac∣cording to every ones Quality: for Linnen they wear none, because India produces no Flax. These Clothes are put on over their bare Skins, and from the Middle upwards serve at once for Vest and Shirt, being very narrow at top, wide at bot∣tom, and reaching down to their Knees. From the Middle downwards they wear a pair of Draw∣ers of the same Stuff, which reaching below their Legs, touches their Feet.

All the Indian Women, who for the most part are swarthy, and have long Legs, but short Bo∣dies, go barefoot both at home and abroad. Women of Quality have commonly great Um∣brella's carry'd over their Heads to keep off the Sun.

As to what concerns the Men, some go bare∣foot; others that are of higher Degree, either wear Slippers or Sandals; but in most places they go barefoot: Their Sandals are very easie, be∣cause of the extraordinary Heat of the Coun∣trey. They wear likewise, according to the Cu∣stom of their Predecessors, very long Hair, quite contrary to the manner of the Mahumetans, who shave it all off, as also the lower part of their Beards. On their Heads they wear a fine Turbant, flat on the top, and almost square. The whitest People generally wear a Turbant whipt with di∣vers colour'd Ribbons upon a white Ground, and sometimes also Gold. Their Girdles are of white Cotton; but the richer sort have silken ones, stitch'd with Gold. They ride on Horseback with a Simitar by their Sides, a Shield about their Necks, and a little broad Dagger sticking at their Girdle.

*The Indians, both Men and Women, anoint their Bodies against the heat of the Sun, as also to make their Joynts nimble and pliable. This Ointment is made by the Women of all the sorts of Sandal Wood pulveris'd, the Leaves of Chan∣pock, the Flowers Mogori, of each a handful, Cam∣phire, so much as will give it a scent; all these In∣gredients being ground like Colours, are mix'd with Oyl of Coco-nuts or Roses, which is brought thither from Persia, and made thick like Paste; and though these People look very strangely with this Ointment, as if colour'd with Saffron, yet the smell thereof is very pleasant. For the same pur∣pose also they make another Ointment of the Flowers of a certain Tree, which is not very high, and hath Leaves like a Peach-Tree; both Leaves and Flowers are by the Indians call'd Sam∣paga, otherwise Champacka and Champe, which are of great esteem amongst them: for the Indians, especially the Moors, are extraordinary lovers of sweet and pleasant Smells, and chiefly those of Flowers; wherefore there are scarce any Women that walk along the Streets, but wear those or the like Flowers in their Hair, to render them the more acceptable to their Husbands or Suitors.

Through all India are likewise highly esteem'd the Leaves of a Tree, by the Arabians call'd Al∣canna, of which we have spoken before at large.

Moreover in the hot Seasons Persons of Qua∣lity, whether lying on their Floors or sitting, have several Servants stand by them, who continually fan them with Leather Fans, with which they not onely cool them, but also keep off the Flies, whil'st they cause their Barbers to rub their Backs, Shoulders, and other parts of their Bodies, so to cause the motion of the Blood.

*Their places of Recreation consist in Woods and Orchards, in which grow many pleasant Fruit-trees, as also in their Gardens; wherein, a∣mongst other Plants, grow small Vines, which bear extraordinary sweet and delicious Grapes, which they eat green or dry'd: for Wine they make none, because most People by their Law dare not drink any. There are also many Pome∣granate-trees, besides divers other excellent Flowers. In the middle of their Gardens are livers Springs or Fountains, which are considera∣bly rais'd above the Ground. From these Springs the Water is convey'd through narrow open Channels (for they know not the use of Leaden Pipes) to all parts of the Garden in the droughty Season of the Year. Moreover, there are round Cisterns to Bathe in, rais'd up and pav'd with Free-stone, and cover'd with fine Plaister.

*In their Houses they have neither Stools, Ta∣bles, Beds, or Bedsteads: for all their Orna∣ments consist in the Floors, which are made very even of fine Earth or Plaister, on which they lay rich Carpets, as well in their Houses as in their Tents, laying a worse Cloth underneath to pre∣serve the other: On these they sit both when they eat and drink, after the Eastern manner, with their Legs across under them, and without their Sandals, which are left off partly for neatness, and partly to keep their Feet cool. They also sleep in the Night on these Carpets, or else on a hard Quilt or Hammock, call'd Cot; but whereever they lay themselves to sleep, they stretch them∣selves out to their full length, and for the most part lie on their Backs, without either Pillow or Bolster under their Heads. The common People sleep on the Floor in the dry Season of the Year, covering themselves from Head to Foot with a white Cotton Cloth, so that they appear like dead Bodies laid out. The Hammocks or Cots hang by two Ropes a little above the Floor, which be∣ing made fast at four corners, are by the Servants mov'd to and again to rock them asleep.

*The Indian Pagans, as well as Mahumetans, go al∣ways Arm'd, whether walking in the City, or way travelling, with a Sword, Shield, Bowe and Ar∣rows; nay, perform all manner of Offices, though in their own Houses, thus Arm'd, never leaving their Armor off but when they go to sleep.

*Persons of Quality live after a noble manner, and when they are either in a Coach or on Horse∣back, cause a Taffaty Flag to be carry'd before them. The priviledge of the Inhabitants here is very great in this point: for not onely great Per∣sons, but also every private Man, of what Coun∣trey or Religion soever, may live at as high a rate as he pleases, and imitate the King in his Fashi∣ons if he fancy, them, and his Estate be able to maintain it. Every one that is able keeps a great number of Servants, wherefore most of them live like Lords; which they may easily maintain, partly because the King, notwithstanding he sees his Subjects richly Cloth'd, and that they live with a great Retinue like Princes which have great Revenues, yet he lets them live in quiet, and undisturb'd, never taking any thing from them, though it justly belongs to him, because the Indians are naturally inclin'd thereto: for by rea∣son of the abundance of mean People and cheap∣ness of Provisions they may live nobly for a small Page  128matter, allowing a Servant not above three Ro∣pia's a Moneth (each Ropias being 2 s. 6 d. Sterl.) to buy him Provisions and Clothes with. There are likewise an innumerable company of Slaves, which cost little or nothing the keeping: for they wear nothing but a white Cotton Coat, which is very cheap, and eat little else but Rice and Fish, a very common Food in this Countrey, so that with small charge they can keep a great Family, and the rather, because the Commodities and Goods which are made by the Inhabitants are many, and the increase of their Land, by reason of its extraordinary fruitfulness, almost incre∣dible.

*The Women are very expert in Dancing to the sound of divers Bells, and other such like In∣struments, on which the Men play.

In Zuratte and divers other places in India, are several Women-Dancers, who are hir'd to Dance for Money, having Rings about their Legs, Strings of Pearl about their Necks, and many other rich Ornaments. Some also wear Breast-plates of Leather, almost round like a Shield, beset with Precious Stones, and the like, which glitter ex∣ceedingly in the Sun.

The Chans and other Nobles cause the fore∣mention'd Dancers to Dance before them after Meals, either to their own Voices, or to the sound of a Cymbal and Tumbeck, which is a kind of Tabor, and two small Drums.

These People go stark naked from one City to another, nay, through the whole Countrey, and sometimes to the Borders of other Countreys, and maintain themselves onely by Dancing and Singing. They wear gilded Rings on their Fin∣gers. Toes, and in their Noses, and each of them five gilded Copper Rings, and two red Silk Arm∣lets, with Gold Buttons below their Elbows on their Arms. After the same manner they adorn their Legs also.

These Women, besides their Dancing, prosti∣tute themselves to all those who desire them.

*The Indians, especially the Mogolleans, spend much of their time in Hawking, and for that pur∣pose keep several sorts of great and small Hawks. Their Dogs with which they Hunt are (as Terry tells us) like our Greyhounds, though much smal∣ler; but Peruschi affirms, that they have no Hun∣ting Dogs, but make Leopards and Tygers tame, and teach them to Hunt, and at one Leap to seize and kill the Game: They also carry Guns with them when they go a Hunting, and kill their Game with a single Bullet, for smaller Shot they have none. They are very expert in Shooting with a Bowe and Arrow; their Bowes are made of Buffalo's Horns, and their Arrows of Canes, with which they shoot Birds flying, and Beasts as they run at full speed.

The wild Fowl which keep in the Water they catch after a subtil manner, viz. a Man going into he Water with an artificial Bird of the same kind which he designs to take, imitates its Voice, whil'st he swims under Water in such a manner, that the artificial Bird being on the Crown of his Head, appears just above the Water, by which means coming near the Birds, he pulls them down by the Legs, and takes as many of them as he pleases.

As to what concerns their Pastime within their Houses, they have Cards, though differing from ours in the Pictures, and in the number; they also are expert in playing at Draughts. They delight very much in the company of Quacks, Juglers, and the like, the Quacks carrying poysonous Ser∣pents in Baskets, and suffering themselves to be bitten or stung by them at their pleasures; the stung part swelling, they immediately cure the same with Oyl and certain Powders which they lay thereupon, afterwards proffering to sell the same Medicaments to the Spectators.* Their Juglers also are very dexterous in their Art, and do strange things by the sleight of Hand, viz. they set Dishes or wide open Baskets on the Ground, three or four one above another, which seem to be all em∣pty as they set them down, but in the taking them up one after another there seems to be living Birds in them, either Turtle-doves or others, which they seemingly cover again with the same Dishes, turning them backwards and forwards, as if they took them away, the Birds being afterwards no more to be seen, the Spectators not being able to discern either how they are brought thither, or ta∣ken away.

*The Great Mogol often goes a Hunting with a thousand, sometimes two thousand Men.

About Agra and Dely, along the Stream Gemna, as far as the Mountains, as also on each side of the High-way, which runs to Lahor, is a large quantity of untill'd Land; some parts are wooddy, others overgrown with Grass of a Man's heighth. In all these places are many Game-keepers, who go from place to place, to prevent Hunting or Hawking there, except for Partridges, Quails, and Hares, which the Indians catch in Gins or Snares; so that there are abundance of wild Beasts in all places. When these Keepers of the Game know that the King or Mogol is in the Field a Hunting, and near their Station they acquaint the chief Master Huntsman with the quality of the Beast which is Hunted, and where there are most of them; whereupon all the Avenues to that place are guarded, that Travellers may not go through that place, but pass by on one side or other. They Hunt several Beasts, as Gazelles,*Nil∣gaux, or grey Oxen, Lyons, Cranes, and others. They Hunt Gazelles with tame Leopards after this manner: When they discover a Herd of Gazelles (for they commonly graze five or six in a compa∣ny) they unchain the Leopard, that lay Chain'd in a little Wagon where they are kept; he being let loose, doth not immediately run at them, but goes creeping along to hide himself, till the Gazel∣les passing by, he leaps with incredible swiftness upon them, and seizing one of them, strangles the same, satisfying himself by onely sucking the Blood, and tearing out the Heart and Liver; but if he misses his prey, which often happens, then he stands still, very well knowing it to be in vain to run after them, because they are much swifter than himself: When the Game is ended, the Keeper approaches by Degrees, stroaks the Leo∣pard, and throwing the Flesh to him, blinds his Eyes, putting on his Chain, and so conveys him into the Wagon again.

The catching of the Nilgaux, or grey Oxen, which are a kind of Buffalo's, is of no great diffi∣culty: for they surround them with a strong Net, which they close by degrees, and having brought them into a narrow compass, the King, with his Omrahs and Husbandmen stepping in, kill them as they please, either by throwing Darts at them, or with Bullets, Arrows, and Swords, and in such great numbers, that the King sends whole Quar∣ters thereof for Presents to his Omrahs.

Page  129

In their catching of Cranes it is very pleasant, to see how these Fowls defend themselves against the Birds of prey, whom sometimes they kill, but very often get from them, because the Hawks or Falcons are not so nimble as they in turning and winding.

*But of all their Hunting, that of the Lyon is not onely the most Royal (for none but the King and Princes may perform the same without spe∣cial permission) but also the most dangerous, and is perform'd after this manner, viz. When the King is in the Field, and the Keepers thereof have discover'd the place where the Lyon keeps, they tie an Ass to a Tree near the same; the Lyon coming out and devouring the Ass, goes after∣wards unmolested to seek for some other prey, ei∣ther of Oxen, Sheep, or whatsoever he can light on; then going to drink, he comes back to his old place, and there rests till the next day; when co∣ming forth again, he finds another Ass in the same place, ty'd there by the Keepers; having fed him thus for several days together, at last, the day be∣fore the King is to come to Hunt, they tie another Ass in the same place, having first given it abun∣dance of Opium, that the Flesh thereof may make the Lyon sleep the better; then calling in all the Rusticks thereabouts, they inclose the Lyon within strong Nets made for that purpose, bring∣ing the same by degrees to a small circumference, as they do in catching the Nilgaux; this done, and all things in readiness, the King mounts on an Elephant, Arm'd with Iron Plates, in company of the chief Master Huntsman and some Omrahs, all likewise mounted on Elephants, several Gourze∣berdars, and many other Huntsmen on foot, Arm'd with Half-pikes and Musquets; in which manner approaching the Net, they fire at the Lyon, who when he feels himself wounded, comes directly, according to the custom, to one of the Elephants, but finds himself intangled in the Net, where the King shoots at him so long till he hath kill'd him. But some Lyons have often been known to leap over the Net, to the destruction of many People. The Indians account it a good Omen when the King kills a Lyon, and a very bad one when he misses him, believing the whole State to be in danger if he doth not destroy him. They also use great Ceremony at the end of this Hunting: for the dead Lyon is brought before the King in pre∣sence of all the Omrahs, who after they have ex∣actly view'd and measur'd it, give an account thereof to the Secretary to Register the same, viz. That such a King, at such a time, kill'd a Lyon of such a bigness, and such colour'd Hair, and having Teeth and Claws of such a length, and all other Circumstances whatever.

In India they use no Torches or Links, as we do here, but Copper Fire-pans, almost like those which in several Paintings are seen held by infer∣nal Furies. In these Pans they feed the Fire with Pitch, and the like, which makes a great Flame. A Servant commonly carries this Fire-pan in a Copper Case, with a very long and narrow Neck in stead of a Handle, by which he holds the same, and still feeds the Flame With fresh Matter.

*Most Indians, especially the Malabars, use in stead of Paper, to write on the long Leaves of the Coco-tree, on which they neatly cut their Letters with an Iron Instrument.

*As to what concerns the Language of the Indi∣ans, it onely differs in general from the Moors and Mahumetans, but they have also several different Dialects amongst themselves. Amongst all their Languages, there is none which spreads it self more than the Malayan (as shall be declar'd more at large,) and therefore it will not be amiss in this place to render into English some of their chiefest words.