A journey to Paris in the year 1698 by Dr. Martin Lister.
Lister, Martin, 1638?-1712.
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A JOURNEY TO PARIS In the Year 1698.

By Dr. Martin Lister.


Printed for Jacob Tonson at the Judges-Head near the Inner-Temple-Gate in Fleet street, and at Gray's-Inn-Gate in Gray's-Inn-Lane. 1699.

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To His Excellency, JOHN Lord Sommers, Baron of Evesham, Lord High Chancellor of England, and one of the Lords-Justices of England.


WIsdom is the Founda∣tion of Justice and Equity, and it seems not to be perfect, without it com∣prehends Page  [unnumbered]also Philosophy and Natural Learning, and what∣ever is of good Relish in Arts. It is certain, my Lord, for the Honour of your high Station, that the greatest Philosophers of this Age, were of your Prede∣cessors; nor is your Lordship in any thing behind them; as tho nothing inspired People with more Equity, than a true value for Ʋseful Learning and Arts. This hath given me the boldness to offer your Lordship this short Account, of the Magnificent and Noble City of Paris, and the Court of that great King, who hath given Europe so long and vehement Disquiet, and cost England in particular so much Page  [unnumbered]Blood and Treasure. 'Tis pos∣sible, my Lord, you may find a leisure Hour to read over these few Papers for your Diversion, wherein I promise my self, you will meet with nothing Offensive, but clean Matter of Fact, and some short Notes of an unpreju∣diced Observer. But that I may no longer importune you, perpe∣tually busied in so laborious and useful an Imployment, I beg leave to subscribe my self,


Your Lordships Most Humble and most Obedient Servant, Martin Lister.

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THE Reader is desired to Correct with a Pen these Faults, before he begins, because they obscure the Sense. As for the Literal Faults they are easie to be mended by the Eye.

  • Page 39. l. 1. read Metopae.
  • Page 81. line 5. read laminons.
  • P. 93. l. 19. r. limned.
  • P. 108. l. 29. r. interpolations.
  • P. 139. l. 30. r. had sold.
  • P. 150. l. 8. r. Shoots.
  • P. 58. l. 7. dele in.
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[illustration] [depiction of a species of snail]
Tab. 3. Cochlea terrestris Americana F. Plumier

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[illustration] [depiction of stamps of the heads of emperor Vaballathus and empress Zenobia]
  • Vabalatus
  • Zenobia

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Tab. 1.

[illustration] [depiction of a wasp's nest]
Fig. 1. Vesparum quarundam Canadensium Favus
[illustration] [Etruscan letters from a Roman coin]
Fig. 2.
[illustration] [inscription on a marble from Greece]
Fig. 3.

Page  1A JOURNEY TO PARIS In the Year 1698.

Introduction to the Reader.

THis Tract was Written chiefly to satisfie my own Curiosity, and to delight my self with the Memory of what I had seen. I busied my self in a place where I had little to do, but to walk up and down; well knowing, that the Character of a Stranger gave me free admittance to Men and Things. The French Nation value themselves upon Civility, and build and dress mostly for Figure; This Humour Page  2makes the Curiosity of Strangers very easie and welcome to them.

But why do you trouble us with a Journey to Paris, a place so well known to every body here? For very good Reason, to spare the often telling my Tale at my return. But we know al∣ready all you can say, or can read it in the Present State of France, and Description of Paris; two Books to be had in every Shop in London; 'Tis right, so you may; and I advise you not to neglect them, if you have a mind to judge well of the Grandeur of the Court of France, and the immense Greatness of the City of Paris. These were Spectacles I did in∣deed put on, but I found they did not fit my sight, I had a mind to see with∣out them; and in Matters of this Na∣ture, as vast Cities and vast Palaces, I did not care much to use Microscopes or Mag∣nifying Glasses.

But to content you, Reader, I pro∣mise you not to trouble you with Cere∣monies either of State or Church, or Po∣liticks; for I entred willingly into nei∣ther of them, but only, where they would make a part of the Conversation, or my Walk was ordered me. You'l easily find by my Observations, that I in∣cline rather to Nature than Dominion; Page  3and that I took more pleasure to see Monsieur Breman in his white Wastcoat digging in the Royal Physick Garden, and sowing his Couches, than Monsieur Saintot making room for an Ambassador; and I found my self better disposed, and more apt to learn the Names and Physi∣ognomy of a Hundred Plants, than of 5 or 6 Princes. After all, I had much rather have walked a 100 paces under the meanest Hedge in Languedoc, than any the finest Alley at Versailles or St. Clou, so much I prefer fair Nature and a warm Sun, before the most exquisite perfor∣mances of Art in a cold and barren Climate.

Another Reason, that I give you little or no trouble in telling you Court Mat∣ters, is, that I was no more concerned in the Embassy, than in the sailing of the Ship which carried me over: 'Tis enough for me, with the rest of the People of England, to feel the good Ef∣fects of it, and to pass away this Life in Peace and Quietness. 'Tis a happy turn for us, when Kings are made Friends again. This was the end of this Embas∣sy, and I hope it will last our days. My Lord Ambassador was infinitely caressed by the King, his Ministers, and all the Princes. 'Tis certain the French are the Page  4most Polite Nation in the World, and can Praise and Court with a better Air than the rest of Mankind. However the generality of the Kingdom were through great necessity well disposed to receive the Peace: The Bigots and some Dis∣banded Officers might be heard at our first going to grumble, but those also gave over, and we heard no more of them when we came away; but to the Business.

I happily arrived at Paris after a te∣dious Journey in very bad Weather; for we set out of London the 10th of December, and I did not reach Paris till the first of January; for I fell sick upon the Road, and stay'd 5 days at Bologne, be∣hind the Company, till my Fever abat∣ed; yet notwithstanding so rude a Jour∣ney, I recovered, and was perfectly cured of my Cough in 10 days; which was the chiefest reason of my leaving London at that time of the year, and never had the least return of it all the Winter, though it was as fierce there as I ever felt it in England. This great be∣nefit of the French Air I had experien∣ced 3 several times before, and had there∣fore long'd for a passage many years; but the continuance of the War was an insuperable Obstacle to my Desires. Page  5Therefore the first opportunity which offered it self I readily embraced, which was my Lord Portland's Acceptance of my Attendance of him in his Extraordi∣nary Embassie; who ordered me to go before with one of my good Friends, who was sent to prepare Matters against his arrival.

Now that I might not wholly trust my Memory, in what I saw at Paris, I set down my Thoughts under certain Heads.

I. Of Paris in General.

THough I had much spare time the 6 Months I staid in that City, yet the rudeness of the Winter Season kept me in for some time. Again, I believe I did not see the Tithe of what deserves to be seen, and well considered; because for many things I wanted a relish, par∣ticularly for Painting and Building; However I viewed the City in all its parts, and made the round of it; took several prospects of it at a distance, which when well thought on, I must needs confess it to be one of the most Beauti∣ful and Magnificent in Europe, and in which a Traveller might find Novelties enough fr 6 Months for daily Enter∣tainment, 〈◊〉 least in and about this Page  6Noble City. To give therefore a strict and general Idea of it, and not to enter far into the vain Disputes of the number of Inhabitants, or its bigness, compared to London; sure I am, the standing Croud was so great, when my Lord Ambassa∣dor made his Entry, that our People were strartled at it, and were ready the next day to give up the Question, had they not well considered the great Cu∣riosity of the Parisians, who are much more delighted in fine Shews than the People of London, and so were well near all got into the way of the Cavalcade. One thing was an evident Argument of this Humour, that there were some Hun∣dreds of Coaches of Persons of the best Quality, even some Bishops and Peers which I saw, which had placed them∣selves in a file to line the Streets, and had had the patience to have so remained for some hours.

'Tis also most certain, that for the quantity of Ground possessed by the Common People, this City is much more populous than any part of London; here are from 4 to 5 and to 10 Menages, or distinct Families in many Houses; but this is only to be understood of certain places of Trade. This difference betwixt the two Cities also is true, that here the Page  7Palaces and Convents have eat up the Peoples Dwellings, and crouded them excessively together, and possessed them∣selves of far the greatest part of the Ground; whereas in London the con∣trary may be observed, that the People have destroyed the Palaces, and placed themselves upon the Foundations of them, and forced the Nobility to live in Squares or Streets in a sort of Commu∣nity; but this they have done very ho∣nestly, having fairly purchased them.

The Views also which it gives upon the River are admirable; that of the Pont-neuf downwards to the Tuilleries, or upwards from the Pont-Royal; and in some other places, as from Pont St. Ber∣nard, the Greve, &c. The River Seine which passes through the midst of the City, is all nobly Bank'd or Keyed with large Freestone; and incloses in the heart of the City two Islands, which causes many fine Bridges to be built to pass over them. One of these Islands called l'Isle de Palais was all Paris for some Ages.

The Houses are built of hewen Stone intirely, or whited over with Plaister: some indeed in the beginning of this Age are of Brick with Freestone, as the Place-Royal, Place-Dauphin, &c. but that is Page  8wholly left off now; and the white Plaister is in some few places only co∣loured after the fashion of Brick, as part of the Abbay of St. Germain. The Houses every where are high and stately; The Churches numerous, but not very big; The Towers and Steeples but few in proportion to the Churches, yet that noble way of Steeple, the Domes or Cu∣polas, have a marvellous effect in pro∣spect; though they are not many, as that of Val de Grace, des Invalides, Col∣lege Mazarin, De l'Assumption, the Grand-Jesuits, La Sorbonne, and some few o∣thers.

All the Houses of Persons of Distin∣ction are built with Port-cochers, that is, wide Gates to drive in a Coach, and consequently have Courts within; and mostly Remises to set them up. There are reckoned above 700 of these great Gates; and very many of these are af∣ter the most noble Patterns of ancient Architecture.

The lower Windows of all Houses are Grated with strong Bars of Iron; which must be a vast Expence.

As the Houses are magnificent without, so the Finishing within side and Furni∣ture answer in Riches and Neatness; as Hangings of rich Tapestry, raised with Page  9Gold and Silver Threads, Crimson Da∣mask and Velvet Beds or of Gold and Silver Tissue. Cabinets and Bureaus, of Ivory inlaid with Tortoishell, and Gold and Silver Plates in a 100 different manners: Branches and Candlesticks of Crystal: but above all most rare Pictures. The Gild∣ings, Carvings and Paintings of the Roof are admirable.

These things are in this City and the Country about to such a variety and ex∣cess, that you can come into no private House of any Man of Substance, but you see something of them; and they are observed frequently to ruine themselves in these Expences. Every one, that has any thing to spare, covets to have some good Picture or Sculpture of the best Artist; The like in the Ornaments of their Gardens, so that it is incredible what pleasure that vast quantity of fine things give the Curious Stranger. Here as soon as ever a Man gets any thing by Fortune or Inheritance, he lays it out in some such way as now named.

Yet after all many Utensils and Con∣veniencies of Life are wanting here, which we in England have: This makes me remember what Monsieur Justell, a Parisian formerly, told me here, that he had made a Catalogue of near Threescore Page  10Things of this Nature which they wanted in Paris.

The Pavement of the Streets is all of square Stone, of about 8 or 10 Inches thick; that is, as deep in the ground as they are broad at top; The Gutters shal∣low, and laid round without edges, which makes the Coaches glide easily over them.

However, it must needs be said, the Streets are very narrow, and the Passen∣gers a-foot no ways secured from the hur∣ry and danger of Coaches, which always pass the Streets with an air of haste; and a full trot upon broad flat Stones, betwixt high and large resounding Houses, makes a sort of Musick which should seem very agreeable to the Parisians.

The Royal Palaces are surprisingly stately; as the Louvre and Tuilliries, Pa∣lais Luxembourg, Palais Royal.

The Convents are great, and numerous, and well built; as Val de Grace, St. Ger∣mains, St. Victor, St. Genevieve, the Grand Jesuits, &c.

The Squares are few in Paris, but ve∣ry beautiful; as the Place Royal, Place Victoir, Place Dauphine, none of the largest, except the Place Vendosme, not yet fi∣nish'd.

Page  11The Gardens within the Walls, open to the publick, are vastly great, and very beautiful; as the Tuilleries, Palais Royal, Luxembourg, the Royal Physick Garden, of the Arsenal, and many belonging to Con∣vents, the Carthusians, Celestins, St. Victor, St. Genevieve, &c.

But that which makes the dwelling in this City very diverting for People of Quality, is the facility of going out with their Coaches into the Fields, on every side; it lying round, and the Avenues to it so well paved; and the Places of Airing so clean, open, or shady, as you please, or the Season of the year, and time of the day requires: As the Cour de la Reyne, Bois de Bologne, Bois de Vin∣cennes, les Sables de Vaugerarde, &c.

But to descend to a more particular Review of this great City, I think it not amiss to speak first of the Streets and publick Places, and what may be seen in them: Next of the Houses of Note; and what Curiosities of Nature or Art, also of Men and Libraries, I met with: Next, of their Diet and Recreations: Next of the Gardens, and their Furniture and Ornaments: Of the Air and Health. We shall conclude the whole with the present State of Physic and Pharmacy here.

Page  12

*To begin with the Coaches, which are very numerous here and very fine in Gilding: But there are but few, and those only of the great Nobility, which are large, and have two Seats or Funds. But what they want in the largeness, beauty, and neatness of ours in London, they have infinitely in the easiness of Carriage, and the ready turning in the narrowest Streets. For this purpose, they are all Crane-Neckt, and the Wheels be∣fore very low, not above two foot and a half Diameter; which makes them ea∣sie to get into, and brings down the Coach-Box low, that you have a much better prospect out of the foremost Glass; our high seated Coachmen being ever in the point of view. Again, They are most, even Fiacres or Hackneys, hung with Double Springs, at the four Corners, which insensibly breaks all Jolts. This I never was so sensible off, as after having pra∣ctised the Paris Coaches for four months, I once rid in the easiest Chariot of my Lords, which came from England; but not a Jolt but what affected a Man; so as to be tired more in one hour in that, than in six in these.

Besides the great number of Coaches of the Gentry, here are Coaches de Re∣mise,Page  13by the month; which are very well Guilt, neat Harness, and good Horses: And these all Strangers Hire by the Day or Month, at about Three Crowns Eng∣lish a Day. 'Tis this sort that spoils the Hackneys and Chairs, which here are the most nasty and miserable Voiture that can be; and yet near as dear again as in London, and but very few of them neither.

Yet there is one more in this City, which I was willing to omit, as thinking it at first fight Scandalous, and a very Jest; it being a wretched Business in so Magnificent a City; and that is, the Vinegrette, a Coach on Two Wheels, dragg'd by a Man, and push'd behind by a Woman or Boy, or both.

Besides those, for quick Travelling there are great number of Post-Chaises for a single Person; and Roullions for two Persons: These are on two Wheels only, and have each their Double Springs to make them very easie; they run very swiftly: both the Horses pull; but one only is in the Thilles. The Coach-man mounts the Roullion; but for the Chaise, he only mounts the side Horse only. I think neither of these are in use in Eng∣land; but might be introduced to good purpose.

Page  14*As for their Recreations and Walks, there are no People more fond of coming to∣gether, to see and to be seen. This Conversation without doubt takes up a great part of their time: And for this purpose, the Cour de la Reyne is frequen∣ted by all People of Quality. It is a Treble Walk of Trees of a great length, near the River side, the middle Walk ha∣ving above double the breadth to the two side ones; and will hold eight files of Coaches, and in the middle a great open Circle to turn, with fine Gates at both ends. Those that would have better and freer Air, go further, and drive into the Bois de Bologne, others out of other Parts of the Town to Bois de Vincennes, scarce any side amiss. In like manner these Persons light and Walk in the Tuilleries, Luxembourg, and other Gardens, belong∣ing to the Crown and Princes, (all which are very spacious) and are made conve∣nient, with many Seats for the Enter∣tainment of all People; the Lacquies and Mob excepted; but of this more here∣after.

*No sort of People make a better figure in the Town than the Bishops, who have very splendid Equipages, and variety of fine Liveries, being most of them Men of Page  15great Families, and preferred as such, Learning not being so necessary a Quali∣fication for those Dignities, as with us; tho' there are some of them very De∣serving and Learned Men. I say, They are most Noblemen, or the younger Sons of the best Families. This indeed, is for the Honour of the Church; but whether it be for the good of Learning and Piety is doubtful. They may be Patrons, but there are but few Examples of Erudition among them. 'Tis to be wisht, that they exceeded others in Merit, as they do in Birth.

*The Abbots here are numerous, from all Parts of the Kingdom. They make a considerable figure, as being a gentile sort of Clergy, and the most Learned; at least were so from the time of Cardi∣nal Richlieu, who preferred Men of the greatest Learning and Parts to these Posts; and that very frankly, and with∣out their knowing it before-hand, much less solliciting him for it. He took a sure way, peculiar to himself, to enquire out privately Men of Desert, and took his own time to prefer them. This filled the Kingdom of France with learned Men, and gave great Encouragement to Study; whereof France yet has some feeling.

Page  16*'Tis pretty to observe, how the King Disciplines this great City, by small in∣stances of Obedience. He caused them to take down all their Signs at once, and not to advance them above a foot or two from the Wall, nor to exceed such a small measure of square; which was readily done: So that the Signs obscure not the Streets at all, and make little or no figure, as tho' there were none; being placed very high and little.

*There are great number of Hostels in Paris, by which word is meant Publick Inns, where Lodgings are Lett; and also the Noblemen and Gentlemens Houses are so called, mostly with Titles over the Gate in Letters of Gold on a Black Mar∣ble. This seems, as it were to denote, that they came at first to Paris as Stran∣gers only, and Inn'd publickly; but at length built them Inns or Houses of their own. 'Tis certain, a great and wealthy City cannot be without People of Qua∣lity; nor such a Court as that of France without the daily Inspection of what such People do. But whether the Country can spare them or not, I question. The People of England seem to have less Man∣ners and less Religion, where the Gentry Page  17have left them wholly to themselves; and the Taxes are raised with more dif∣ficulty, inequality, and injustice, than when the Landlords live upon the Des∣maines.

*It may very well he, that Paris is in a manner a new City within this 40 years. 'Tis certain since this King came to the Crown, 'tis so much altered for the better, that 'tis quite another thing; and if it be true what the Workmen told me, that a common House built of Rough Stone and Plaistered over, would not last above 25 years, the greatest part of the City has been lately rebuilt. In this Age certainly most of the great Ho∣stels are built or re-edified; in like man∣ner the Convents, the Bridges and Churches, the Gates of the City; add the great alteration of the Streets, the Keyes upon the River, the Pavements; all these have had great additions, or are quite new.

*In the River amongst the Bridges, both above and below, are a vast number of Boats, of Wood, Hay, Charcoal, Corn and Wine, and other Commodities. But when a sudden Thaw comes, they are often in danger of being split and crusht to pieces Page  18upon the Bridges; which also are some∣times ruined by them. There have been great Losses to the Owners of such Boats and Goods.

It has been proposed to dig near the City a large Basin for a Winter Har∣bour; but this has not had the face of Profit to the Government; so they are still left to execute their own Project. There are no Laws or Projects so effectu∣al here, as what bring Profit to the Go∣vernment. Farming is admirably well understood here.

*Amongst the Living Objects to be seen in the Streets of Paris, the Counsellors and Chief Officers of the Courts of Ju∣stice make a great Figure; They and their Wives have their Trains carried up; so there are abundance to be seen walking about the Streets in this manner. 'Tis for this that places of that nature sell so well. A Man that has a right to qualifie a Wife with this Honour, shall command a Fortune; and the carrying a great Vel∣vet Cushion to Church is such another business. The Place of a Lawyer is va∣lued a Third part dearer for this.

*Here are also daily to be seen in the Streets great variety of Monks, in strange Page  19unusual Habits to us Englishmen: These make an odd Figure, and furnish well a Picture. I cannot but pity the mistaken Zeal of these poor Men; that put them∣selves into Religion, as they call it, and renounce the World, and give them∣selves most severe Rules of Living and Diet; some of the Orders are decently enough Cloathed, as the Jesuits, the Fa∣thers of the Oratory, &c. but most are very particular and obsolete in their Dress, as being the Rustic Habit of old times, without Linnen, or Ornaments of the present Age.

As to their Meager Diet, it is much against Nature, and the improved Diet of Mankind. The Mosaic Law provided much better for Jews, a chosen People; That was instituted for cleanliness and health. Now for the Christian Law, though it commands Humility and Pa∣tience under Sufferings, and Mortificati∣on and Abstinence from Sinful Lusts and Pleasures; yet by no means a distinct Food, but liberty to eat any thing what∣soever, much less nastiness; and the Pa∣pists themselves in other things are of this mind; for their Churches are clean, pompously adorned and perfumed. 'Tis enough, if we chance to suffer Persecu∣tion, to endure it with Patience, and all Page  20the miserable Circumstances that attend it; but wantonly to persecute our selves, is to do violence to Christianity, and to put our selves in a worse state than the Jews were; for to choose the worst of Food, which is sowre Herbs and Fish, and such like Trash, and to lie worse al∣ways rough, in course and nasty Wool∣len Frocks upon Boards; To go Bare∣foot in a cold Country, to deny them∣selves the Comforts of this Life, and the Conversation of Men; This, I say, is to hazard our Healths, to renounce the greatest Blessings of this Life, and in a manner to destroy our selves. These Men, I say, cannot but be in the main Chagrin, and therefore as they are out of humour with the World, so they must in time be weary of such sla∣vish and fruitless Devotion, which is not attended with an active Life.

The great multitude of poor Wretches in all parts of this City is such, that a Man in a Coach, a-foot, in the Shop, is not able to do any business for the num∣bers and importunities of Beggars; and to hear their Miseries is very lamentable; and if you give to one, you immediately bring a whole swarm upon you. These, I say, are true Monks, if you will, of God Almighties making, offering you Page  21their Prayers for a Farthing, that find the evil of the day sufficient for the day, and that the Miseries of this Life are not to be courted, or made a mock of; These Worship much against their will all rich Men, and make Saints of the rest of Mankind for a Morsel of Bread.

But let these Men alone with their mistaken Zeal; it is certainly God's good Providence which orders all things in this World. And the Flesh Eaters will ever defend themselves, if not beat the Lenten Men; good and wholsome Food, and plenty of it, gives Men naturally great Courage. Again, a Nation will sooner be Peopled by the free Marriage of all sorts of People, than by the additio∣nal stealth of a few starved Monks, sup∣posing them at any time to break their Vow. This limiting of Marriage to a certain People only is a deduction and an abatement of Mankind, not less in a Pa∣pist Country, than a constant War. A∣gain, this lessens also the number of God's Worshippers, instead of multiply∣ing them as the Stars in the Firmament, or the Sand upon the Sea Shoar; These Men wilfully cut off their Posterity, and reduce Gods Congregation for the fu∣ture.

Page  22*There is very little noise in this City of Publick Cries of things to be sold, or any Disturbance from Pamphlets and Hawkers. One thing I wondered at, that I heard of nothing lost, nor any publick Advertisements, till I was shewed Printed Papers upon the Corners of Streets, wherein were in great Letters, Ʋn, Deux, Cinq, Dix jus{que} a Cinquante Louisse a gagner, that is, from One to Fifty Louises to be got; and then underneath an account of what was lost. This sure is a good and quiet way; for by this means without noise you often find your Goods again; every body that has found them repair∣ing in a day or two to such places. The Gazettes come out but once a week, and but few People buy them.

'Tis difficult and dangerous to vend a Libel here. While we were in Town, a certain Person gave a Bundle of them to a blind Man, a Beggar of the Hospital of the Quincevint, telling him he might get five pence for every penny; he went to Nostredame, and cried them up in the Service time, La vie & Miracles de Eves{que} de Reims. This was a Trick that was play'd the Archbishop, as it was thought, by the Jesuits, with whom he has had a great Contest about Molinas the Spanish J. Doctrines. The Libel went off Page  23at any Rate, when the first Buyers had read the Title further, and found they were against the present Archbishop, Duke and first Peer of France.

*The Streets are lighted alike all the Winter long, as well when the Moon shines, as at other times of the Month; which I remember the rather, because of the impertinent usage of our People at London, to take away the Lights for half of the Month, as though the Moon was certain to shine and light the Streets, and that there could be no Cloudy Weather in Winter. The Lanthorns here hang down in the very middle of all the Streets, about 20 paces distance, and 20 foot high. They are made of a square of Glass about 2 foot deep, covered with a broad Plate of Iron; and the Rope that lets them down, is secured and lockt up in an Iron Funnel and little Trunk fast∣ned into the Wall of the House. These Lanthorns have Candles of 4 in the pound in them, which last burning till after mid∣night.

As to these Lights, if any Man break them, he is forthwith sent to the Gallies; and there were 3 young Gentlemen of good Families, who were in Prison for having done it in a Frolick, and could Page  24not be released thence in some Months; and that not without the diligent Appli∣cation of good Friends at Court.

The Lights at Paris for 5 Months in the year only, cost near 50000l. Sterling. This way of Lighting the Streets is in use also in some other Cities in France. The King is said to have raised a large Tax by it. In the Preface to the Tax it is said, That considering the great danger his Sub∣jects were in, in Walking the Streets in the Dark, from Thieves, and the breaking their Necks by falls, he for such a Sum of Money did grant this Priviledge, that they might hang out Lanthorns in this manner.

*I have said, that the Avenues to the City, and all the Streets, are paved with a very hard Sand Stone, about 8 Inches square; so they have a great care to keep them clean; in Winter, for Example, upon the melting of the Ice, by a heavy drag with a Horse, which makes a quick riddance and cleaning the Gutters; so that in a days time all parts of the Town are to admiration clean and neat again to walk on.

I could heartily wish their Summer cleanliness was as great; it is certainly as necessary to keep so populous a City Page  25sweet; but I know no Machine sufficient, but what would empty it of the People too; all the Threats and Inscriptions up∣on Walls are to little purpose. The Dust in London in Summer is oftentimes, if a Wind blow, very troublesome, if not intolerable; in Paris there is much less of it, and the reason is, the flat Stones require little Sand to set them fast, where∣as our small Pebles, not coming together, require a vast quantity to lay them fast in Paving.

*But from the People in the Streets, to the dead Ornaments there: There are an infinite number of Busto's of the Grand Monarque every where put up by the Common People; but the Noble Statues are but few, considering the Obsequious Humour and Capacity of the People to perform.

That in the Place-Victoire is a-foot in Brass all over gilt; with Victoire; that is, a vast Winged Woman close behind his Back, holding forth a Laurel Crown over the Kings Head, with one Foot up∣on a Globe. There are great exceptions taken at the Gilding by Artists; and, indeed the shining seems to spoil the Fea∣tures, and give I know not what confu∣sion; it had better have been all of Gold Page  26brassed over; which would have given its true Lights and Shaddows, and suf∣fered the Eye to judge of the proportions. But that which I like not in this, is the great Woman perpetually at the Kings Back; which is a sort of Embarras, and instead of giving Victory, seems to tire him with her Company. The Roman Victorie was a little Puppit in the Empe∣rours Hand, which he could dispose of at pleasure; This Woman is enough to give a Man a Surfeit.

The other are Statuae Equestres, of 3 of the last Kings of France, in Brass a Horseback.

That on the Pont-neuf is of Henry the Fourth in his Armour bare-headed, and Habited as the Mode of that time was.

The other of Lewis the Thirteenth in the Place-Royal, Armed also after the Mode of the Age, and his Plume of Fea∣thers on his Headpiece.

The 3d is of this present King Louis the Fourteenth, and designed for the Place Vendosme. This Colossus of Brass is yet in the very place where it was cast; it is surprisingly great, being 22 foot high, the Foot of the King 26 inches in length, and all the proportions of him and the Horse suitable. There was 100000 pound weight of Mettal melted, Page  27but it took not up above 80000 pounds; it was all cast at once, Horse and Man. Mons. Girardon told me, he wrought di∣ligently, and with almost daily applica∣tion at the Model 8 years, and there were two years more spent in the Mould∣ing, and Furnaces, and Casting of it. The King is in the Habit of a Roman Em∣peror, without Stirrups or Saddle, and on his Head a French large Periwig A-la∣mode. Whence this great Liberty of Sculpture arises, I am much to seek.

'Tis true, that in building precisely to follow the ancient manner and simplici∣ty is very commendable, because all those Orders were founded upon good Prin∣ciples in Mathematicks; but the Cloath∣ing of an Emperor, was no more, than the weak fancy of the People. For Louis le Grand to be thus dressed up at the head of his Army now a-days would be very Comical. What need other Em∣blems, when Truth may be had; as though the present Age need be ashamed of their Modes, or that the Statua E∣questris of Henry the Fourth, or Louis the Thirteenth, were the less to be valued for being done in the true Dress of their times. It seems to me to be the effect of Mistaken Flattery, but if regarded only as a Piece of meer Art, it is me-thinks Page  28very unbecoming, and has no Graceful Air with it.

I remember I was at the Levee of King Charles the Second, when 3 Models were brought him, to choose one of, in order to make his Statue for the Court at Wind∣sor; he chose the Roman Emperours Dress, and caused it also to be executed in that other erected for him in the Old Exchange in London. The like is of K. J. in White∣hall, at Chelsey-Colledge, our Invalides. Now I appeal to all Mankind, whether in re∣presenting a living Prince now a-days these naked Arms and Legs are decent, and whether there is not a barbarity very displeasing in it. The Father of these two Kings, Charles the First, was the Prince of this Age of the best Relish, and of a sound Judgment, particularly in Painting, Sculpture, Architecture by Sea and Land, witness the vast Sum of Money he be∣stowed upon Rubens and his Disciple Vandyke. Also the great Esteem he had for the incomparable Inigo Jones, who was the first Englishman in this Age that understood Building. I heard Auzout say, when he had viewed the Banquetting-House at Whitehall, that it was preferable to all the Buildings on this side the Alpes; and I ought to believe him, he having studied Vitruvius more than 40 years to∣gether Page  29mostly upon the place and at Rome. Also the Ship the Sovereign, which was truly the Noblest floating Castle that ever swam the Sea. Yet after all this, that King had a Statua Equestris of himself erected, now at Charingcross, cast in the full Habit of his own time, and which I think may com∣pare with the best of that sort at Paris.

I should beg Leave in the next place to visit the Palaces and Men of Letters and Conversation; but I must take no∣tice first of the vast Expences that are here in Iron Balastrades, as in the Place-Royal, which Square is compassed about with one of 10 foot high; Of this sort and better there are infinite every where in Paris; which gives indeed a full view of the beauty of their Gardens and Courts.

*First, therefore, I saw the Palais Mazarin, in which are many good Pictures, but the Low Gallery is furnisht with a great Col∣lection of Ancient Greek and Roman Sta∣tues, and is what I most took notice of; They were most brought from Rome by the Cardinal. Those which are Togatae and Cloathed, are as they were found; but such as were made Nudae, are miserably disguised by the fond Humour of the Duke de Mazarin, who in a hot Fit of De∣votion Page  30caused them to be castrated and mangled, and then frocked them by a sad Hand with I know not what Plaister of Paris, which makes them very ridi∣culous. Cicero somewhere tells us, that some of the ancient Wise Men thought there was nothing naturally obscene, but that every thing might be called by its own Name; but our Celsus is of another mind, and begs Pardon, being a Roman, that he writ of those Matters in his own Tongue. 'Tis certain upon our Subject, the Duke should not have furnisht his Cabinet and Gallery with Naked Pictures, but with the Togatae only; or if it had once pleased him to do otherwise, he should not have Cloathed them; which was at best but a vain Ostentation of his Chastity, and betrayed his ignorance and dislike of good things; that is, spoils and hides the noble Art of the Sculpture, for which only they are valuable.

But why should Nudity be so offensive, since a very great part of the World yet defies Cloaths, and ever did so; and the parts they do most affect to cover, is from a certain necessity only.

'Tis plain by these and many other E∣legant Statues I saw at Versailles, most of which were taken out hence, that the Roman Cloathing was the most simple Page  31thing imaginable, and that a Roman was as soon undressed as I can put off my Gloves and Shoes. The Men and Wo∣men went drest much alike; As for the fashion of the Roman Habit, it is evident by these ancient Statues, (which Oct. Ferrarius has well and reasonably fol∣lowed in explicating the several Garments of the Ancients) that the Tunica or Shirt was without a Collar or Sleeves, and girt high up under the Breasts; also, that the Toga or Gown was a wide and long Garment open at both ends, and let down over the Head, and supported by the Left Hand thrust under the Skirts of it, whilst the top of it rested upon the left Shoulder; The Right Hand and Arm was naked, and above the Gown, so that the Gown was ungirt and always loose. Now for the purpose, when a Roman made himself naked for the Bath, (as he daily did just before eating) he had no∣thing to do but to draw up his Left Hand, and the Gown fell down at his Feet; and at the same time to loose the Girdle of the Tunica, and to draw up both his Arms from under the Tunica, and that also fell at his Feet.

In the first Ages of the Commonwealth they wore a Toga or Gown only, after∣wards they put on next the Skin a Tunica Page  32or Shirt, and never added more in the very Splendour and Luxury of the Em∣pire; all other Matters of Cloathing, of what nature soever, have been invented since.

I much admired, that in the great numbers of ancient Statues to be seen in and about Paris, I could never meet any one but what was Cloathed with a Toga pura, and no representation of a Bullated one.

This Toga and Tunica both were made of fine white Wooll, or Flannel: They had not a Rag of Linnen about them. This Flannel, I say, was very fine, for the folds are small, and it falls into them easily; and seems to be very light, by the handling of it, to raise it by the Finger and Thumb only, as is the Air of some of the Statues, and the whole Garment to be suspended by the left Shoulder: Upon the least straining of it, the Breasts and Nipples are visible through it; also the proportions of the Thighs.

This wearing all Woollen in a hot Country, brought on the use and necessity of frequent Bathing, otherwise they could never have kept themselves sweet and clean; and the necessity of Bathing kept them to this sort of loose Garment; and much Bathing brought in Oils, and Oils Per∣fumes infused in them.

Page  33But in my mind a fair Linnen Shirt every day is as great a preservative to Neat∣ness and Cleaness of the Skin and Health, as daily Bathing was to the Romans. 'Tis certain, had they not used either simple Oils of Olives, sometimes unripe and old, for the astringency, and sometimes ripe and perfumed, the warm Water must have much decayed Nature, and made the Skin intolerable tender and wrinkled. The Naked Indians and Blacks secure their Skins by Oils at this day from all the in∣juries of the Weather, both from Heat and Cold.

But the best Rule of Health and long Life is to do little to our selves: People are not aware what inconveniencies they bring upon themselves by custom, how they will plead for things long used, and make that pleasant which is very destru∣ctive to their Healths; as in the Case of Cloathing, Tobacco, Strong Waters, Steel Remedies, the Drinking Mineral Waters, Bathing, Tea, Coffee, Chocolate, &c.

One little Statue I took more particular notice of, for the elegance of the Sculp∣ture, and the humour of the Dress; it stood upon a Table; it was the Figure of a Sybil: The Face of the old Woman was cut very deep into the Stone, within the Quoifure, like a Hood pulled over the Page  34Forehead, a very Emblem of an Oracle, which is hid, dark, and ambiguous, as the Woman her self, who would have nei∣ther her Face seen, nor her Saying easily understood; that is, she is as it were ashamed of her Cheat.

What was the fancy of the Men of the first Ages to make Old Women Prophetesses, to utter Oracles, and to interpret the Will of the Gods by the eating of Ani∣mals. To make them Sagae and Veneficae is reasonable enough; for old Age makes all People spiteful, but more the weaker Sex; To Poison and Bewitch are the se∣cret Revenges of Impotent People.

The Jews were impatient of the Com∣pany of Women in their Religious Rites, lest they should contaminate and spoil all their Devotion. The Romans on the con∣trary thought Religion became Women better than Men, for besides the general parts they had in common with the Men in Adoration of their Gods, they had also peculiar ones, where the Men were not concerned. Tully bids his Wife suppli∣cate the Gods for him; for he tells her, he thought they would be kinder to her than him. Upon some such Principle, probably, their Prophetesses were in esteem.

Page  35*I saw the Apartment of Monsieur Vi∣viers in the Arsenal; it consists in 7 or 8 Ground Rooms looking into the great Garden; These Rooms are small, but most curiously furnisht, and have in them the greatest variety, and best sorted China Ware I ever saw, besides Pagods and China Pictures. Also elegant and rich Bureaus, Book-Cases, and some Paint∣ings of the best Masters.

That which pleased me most, amongst the Paintings, were the Pieces of Ram∣bramts, that incomparable Dutch Painter.

A Girl with a Cage in one Hand, and looking up after the Bird that had got out, and was flying away over her Head: She had Fright, Amazement, and Sorrow in her Looks. The other is an unlucky Lad leaning upon a Table, and looking with Mischief in his Eyes, or that he watcht to do some unhappy turn. The 3d is a young Gentleman in a Fur Cap en dishabille, after his wonted manner. The two first are the most natural Thoughts and Dress that can be; but nothing cer∣tainly ever came near his colouring for Flesh and Garments: This part he studied passionately all his Life, and was ever try∣ing Experiments about it; and with what success, these and many other Pieces shew.

Page  36These Three Pictures of Rambrant are all of young People, and are finisht with all the art and perfection of Co∣louring, as smooth as any Limning; which makes the Judgment of Philbien of him appear not just, for he fitted his Paint according to the Age and Nature of the Subjects he wrought. I had the pleasure of seeing them again and again.

*Monsieur le Nostre's Cabinet, or Rooms wherein he keeps his fine things, the Controller of the Kings Gardens, at the side of the Tuilleries, was worth seeing. He is a very ingenious old Gentleman, and the Ordinance and Design of most of the Royal and great Gardens in and about Paris are of his Invention, and he has lived to see them in perfection. This Gentleman is 89 years old, and quick and lively. He Entertained me very Civilly. There were in the 3 Appartments, into which it is divided, (the uppermost of which is an Octogon Room with a Dome) a great Collection of choice Pictures, Porcellans, some of which were Jars of a most exraordinary size; some old Ro∣man Heads and Busto's, and intire Sta∣tues; a great Collection of Stamps very richly bound up in Books; but he had lately made a Draught of his best Pictures, Page  37to the value of 50000 Crowns, and had presented them to the King at Versailles. There was not any thing of Natural Hi∣story in all his Cabinet.

I was several times with him, and once he carried me into an upper Closet, where he had a great Collection of Me∣dals in 4 Cabinets, most modern; a∣mongst them there were 4 large Drawers, 3 of which were the Medals of King William, near 300; The 4th Drawer was of King William's Ancestors and Family; he had been 40 years in making this Collection, and had purchased many of them at vast Rates. He has certainly the best Furniture for an Historia metallica, that I ever saw. The French K. has a par∣ticular Kindness for him, and has greatly inricht him, and no Man Talks with more freedom to him; he is much de∣lighted with his Humour, and will sit and see his Medals, and when he comes at any Medal that makes against him, he will say, Sire, voyla une, qu' est bien contre nous! as though the Matter pleased him, and he was glad to find it to shew it the King. Monsieur le Nostre spoke much of the good Humour of his Master; he af∣firmed to me he was never seen in Passion, and gave me many Instances of Occasions, that would have caused most Men to Page  38have raged; which yet he put by with all the Temper imaginable.

In this Cabinet I saw many very rare old China Vessels, and amongst them a small Roman Glass Ʋrn, very thick made, and ponderous, of a blue Sea colour, the two Ears were Feet divided into 4 Claws, but the very bottom of this Vessel was smooth, and very little umbilicate; and for this reason I cannot tell whether it might not be cast, and not blown.

*The Palace of Luxemburgh is the most finisht of all the Royal Buildings; it is very magnificent, well designed, were it not for the triflng Intersections or round and deep Jointings of the Columns, which looks like a Cheesemongers Shop, and which is below the grandeur of the Or∣ders, so hard a matter it is to have a true Re∣lish of the ancient Simplicity, and not to add impertinent Ornaments. And to say the truth, there are not many things in Paris where this Chastity is strictly pre∣served; amongst those, where little is to be blamed, are the South East Front of the Louvre, the Facade of St. Gervais, and the whole Building of Val de Grace. And this Wantonness in additional Or∣naments may perhaps be one reason, why the Doric is more practised here at this Page  39day, the Modillions naturally admitting greater variety, and according to the in∣tended use of the Building.

In this Palace is that famous Gallery, where the History of Maria of Medicis is Painted by Rubens. Though this was done 70 years ago, it is as fresh as at the first; so great a Master he was in Colour∣ing. His Flesh is admirable, and his Scarlet, for which, if he had not a se∣cret, not now understood, he had less Avarice, and more Honour, than most of our Modern Painters. 'Tis certain the goodness of Colours was one of the great Cares and Studies of the late fa∣mous Painters; and that which seems most to have obliged them to it, was the necessity they put themselves upon, to Paint all their own Designs, and more particularly the present Dresses. And though Rubens in his History is too much a Libertine in this respect, yet there is in this very place, which we now describe, much truth in the habit of his principal Figures, as of King Henry the Fourth, the Queen, her Son, the 3 Daughters and the Cardinal; though indeed the Allegoric assistants in all the Tableaux are very airy and fancifully set out. His Scholar St. Aut. Vandyke did introduce this No∣velty too much in England, where the Page  40Persons would bear it; as the Female Sex were very willing to do, who seem in his time to have been mighty fond of being Painted in dishabille. 'Twas this that cut out of business the best English Painter of his time, Cornelius Johnson, and shortned his Life by Grief. It is certain with a little patience all Dress becomes dishabille; but I appeal, whether it is not better and much more pleasing to see the old Fashion of a dead Friend, or Relation, or of a Man of Distinction, Painted as he was, than a foppish Night-Gown, and odd Quoifure, which never belonged to the Person Painted.

But that which led me into this Re∣flection was, that the Modern Painters have hereby an opportunity to be idle, and to have others to work under them; it is sufficient to finish the Face, and to send it out to be Drest at the Block; where∣as were they obliged in Honour to Paint the whole Dresses, this would make them accurate in Colouring, through the great variety which would daily occur, and and that noble Art be in a far greater esteem.

A good Artist might easily reduce it, and command the Purses of those he Paints, to pay well for his labour and time, for it is the lot but of very few Men to excel in this Noble Art.

Page  41In the Antichamber of the Queens Apartment there are other Paintings of Rubens, as, in 3 distinct Tableaux, at the upper end of the Room the Ceremonies of the Marriages of her 3 Daughters, to Savoy, Spain, and England. Also in an other Historical Tableaux, on the side of the same Room, he has Painted his own Picture, in a very free and easie posture, next the Eye, up in the very corner, look∣ing out, as unconcerned in his own Ta∣bleaux, upon the 3 Ladies. He has done his Wife in some of the Tableaux in the great Gallery; but in the last, where the Queen is mounting up to Heaven, she is drawn up after her; but whether it be her full and heavy Body, or her Mind, she is Painted in a very unwilling po∣sture, bending back: It seems her Hus∣band liked her Company too well to part with her easily, or she with him.

Several of the Rooms of this Apart∣ment were Wainscoted with Cedar, wrought in Flowers, as her Dressing Room and Oratory; which is rare in Paris. The Floors were made of small Wood put together in Figures, the in∣ward Knots were inlaid with Threads of Silver, which have a marvellous effect; but the firmness, duration, and intire∣ness of these Floors, after so long laying, Page  42I most admired: whereas with us in Lon∣don, and elsewhere in Paris, they prove so noisy to tread on, and faulty, that they are in a few years intolerable.

*'Tis pity the King has so great an a∣version to the Louvre, which if finisht, (which he might easily do in 2 or 3 years) would be the most Magnificent Palace, perhaps, that ever was upon the Face of the Earth; and, indeed, without that be done, Paris will never arrive at its full Beauty.

There are two Stones in the Fronton of the South East Facade of the Louvre, which are shewed to all Strangers, co∣vering the very top of it, as Slates do, and meet in an angle. These are very big, viz. 54 foot long a-piece, 8 foot broad, and but 14 inches thick: The raising so high these two vast and tender Stones was lookt upon as a Master-piece of Art, e∣qualling any thing of the Ancients of that Nature. They were taken out of the Quarries of Meudon, where Mon∣seigneur the Dauphin dwells.

I saw in the Galleries of the Louvre some of the Battles of Alexander by Le Brun; which are by the French the most admired Pieces of Painting that have been (say they) done by any Man on this side the Alpes;Page  43and of which they are not a little proud.

Also a large Piece of Paulo Verenese, presented by the Senate of Venice to the King.

I cannot pass by unmentioned the vast number of great Cases in one of the Gal∣leries, wherein are the Play things or Pup∣pets of the Dauphin, when a Child: They represent a Camp in all its parts, and cost 50000 Crowns.

But, indeed, that which most surprised me in the Louvre was the Artellier or Work-house of Monsieur Gerardon; he that made Cardinal Richelieu's Tomb, and the Statua Equestris designed for the Place de Vendosme; he told me he had been al∣most 10 years in making the Model with assiduity and daily application.

He hath in the Louvre also two Rooms, in one are ancient Marble Statues, and in the other are Brass Statues and Vasa, and a 100 other things relating to Anti∣quity: There is nothing in Paris deserves more to be seen.

In this last, I saw a sort of Egyptian Janus, with Silenus on one side, and a Bacchus on the other; With many o∣ther Egyptian Figures well designed; all of them with a hole in the Crown of the Head.

Page  44Also a Lion of Aegypt very large of Brass; but the design rude, and more like an Indian Pagod. This also had a large square hole in the Back, near the Neck. The Siamites that came in an Em∣bassiy to Paris, were well pleased to see this Figure, and said, it was not unlike one of theirs; and that that hole served to put the Incense in, that the Smoak might come out of the Body and No∣strils of the Lion. I doubt not but that also was the use of the open Crowns of the rest of the Aegyptian Figures, which I had seen elsewhere, as well as here; and their Heads served for Perfuming Pots for themselves: and hence also might arise, that other Ornament of Ra∣diated Heads; as this here, of a bright Flame, casting Rays out of and round the Head.

There was also a small Image of a Lean Man, Cast bent, in a sitting Posture, with a roll of Parchment spread open up∣on his Knees, and he looking down upon it, Reading it. This was of Solid Brass, the Head and all: This was found in∣closed in a Mummy. He seemed to have a thin Linnen Garment on, perhaps such as the Aegyptian Priests used to wear.

Also he shewed us the Mummy of a Woman intire: The scent of the Hand was Page  45to me not unpleasant; but I could not liken it to any Perfume now in use with us; tho' I make no question, but Naptha was the great Ingredient; which indeed is so unusual a Smell, that the Mineral Waters of Hogsden near London, (wherein the true Naptha is Substantially, and of which I have some Ounces by me, ga∣thered off of those Waters) have imposed upon the ignorant in Natural History; who would make them come from a chance Turpentine Effusion, or the Miscarriage of a Chymical Experiment.

Here were also great variety of Ʋrns and Funeral Vasa of all Materials and Fashions.

Also an antient Writing-Pen coil'd up, with two ends erected both a-like, repre∣senting the Head of a Snake.

The Antient Heads and Busto's in Brass are numerous and of great value. This Gentleman is exceeding Courteous to all Strangers; especially to such as have the least good relish of Things of this Na∣ture, to whom he shews them gladly. It cannot be otherwise, that a Man Edu∣cated in that Noble Art of Sculpture, who shall daily study so great a variety of Originals of the best Masters, but must far excell the rest of Mankind, who pra∣ctise without good Example, and by fancy mostly.

Page  46*I was to see Monfieur Boudelot, whose Friendship I highly value: I received great Civilities from him. He is well known by his Books about the Ʋtility of Voyages: He has a very choice and large Collection of Books of Greek and Roman Learning. I made him several Visits, and had the pleasure of perusing his Ca∣binet of Coins, and small Images of Copper, which are many and of good value; as Aegyptian, Phrygian, Grecian, and Roman.

Amongst his Aegyptian, the most cu∣rious was a Deus Crepitus of admirable Workmanship, with a Radiated Crown: It was an Aethyopian, and therefore be∣spoke its great Antiquity, for they very usually represented their Kings under the Figures of their Gods.

There was also the Skeleton of a Wo∣man of solid Copper, found in the Body of a Mummy, in a sitting Posture; not unlike that other mentioned above in Monsieur Girardon's Closet.

An Apis or a Heifer in Copper.

A Phrygian Priapus of Elegant Work∣manship: The Phrygian Cap pointed and hanging down behind, as our Caps in Dishabillie are now worn.

Page  47Of all which, and many more, this Learned Antiquary intends to write.

In his Cabinet of Medals I could not find one of Palmyra, for which I care∣fully enquired; for I was willing to add what could be found in France upon this Subject.

He has also many Marbles from Greece; most of which have been publish'd by Spon; save one, and that is the most Antient and most Curious of all; con∣cerning which he is ready to publish a Dissertation. 'Tis a Catalogue in Three Columns, of the Names of the most principal Persons of Erectheis, one of the chiefest Tribes of Attica, that were killed in one and the same year in five several Places, where the Athenians fought under two Generals, as in Cyprus, in Aegypt, in Phaenitia, in Aegina, in Halies. Here are 177 Names in the 3 Columns. See Table I.

The Mautis closes the Column, he di∣ed in Aegypt, that is, the Physician; Ma∣gick and Physick went together in those days; nay, the very Comedians and Poets, those necessary Men of Wit, fought, for none were exempt from being Inroll'd that were Born in the Kingdom or Re∣publick of Attica.

Page  48The Antiquity of this Marble, besides the known History and Names which ju∣stifie the time of those Men: The Figure of the Letters are an undoubted Argu∣ment; for there are no double Letters here; no η, no ω, but all graved with e, o; also the Letters, L, P, Π, R, S, are very Roman. So that it is also an Evi∣dence, that the Romans borrowed their Letters from the Antient Greek Alpha∣bet.

The Invention and Borrowing of Let∣ters was a great Happiness to Mankind. The Embarras in which Writing is in China, is owing to the Misfortune of wanting an Alphabet; so that the Chinese are forc'd to express every Sentence and Thought by a different Character, which has multiplied their Writing to 120000 Characters; of which yet they have less need than we in Europe, who perform all with 24 Letters, (whereof 5 add life to the other 19, saith Hippocrates, which is an Argument of the Age he writ in, the Knowledge of Grammar, i. e. Read∣ing and Writing, depends upon seven Figures, de Dieta. 1.) the Chineses know much less than we; they have no other Morals, they have less Philosophy, less Ma∣thematicks, fewer Arts, and yet much nar∣rower Knowledge of Natural History, be∣cause Page  49they can know but of that, which they have at home: In what therefore should they employ this multitude of Characters! 'Tis, I say, their Misfortune not to have Thought of an Alphabet: Their common Language is as easily learnt, and consequently might as easily be writ, as any in Europe.

But to return to Monsieur Budelot's Stores. In this Cabinet I also saw some Basse-Relieves: One of Praxiteles well de∣signed; one of Musos the Comoedian: Amongst the rest of the Marbles there is a Basse-Relief, very extant, and finely fi∣nisht, of a Cupid asleep, leaning his Head upon his Left Arm; In his Hand he holds two Poppy Heads. 'Tis probable the Poppies were Emblimatique from the Power they have in Love-Affairs. In∣deed, most Poisons affect those Parts chiefly, being the great Sluce of the Ha∣bit of the Body, or Circle of the Blood; and no People use Poppy more, and stand more in need of it, than the Men who delight in Polygamy, the Mahome∣tans, or understand it better; as Olearius testifies.

He had an Antick Busto of Zenobia in Marble, with a thick Radiated Crown; of which he very obligingly gave me a Page  50Copy, well designed from the Original: This was brought out of Asia by Mon∣sieur Thevenot.

He shewed me a Dissertation he had written out fair for the Press, about a certain Antient Intaglia of Madames, of Ptolomaeus Auletes, or the Player upon the Flute: In this the thin Mufler is the most remarkable Thing, which covers the Mouth and Nose. This Head is Ingraved upon an Amithyst.

I enjoyed this Gentleman's Company very often; and had much Discourse with him about his Books of the Ʋtility of Voyages; and in one Conversation took the freedom to Dissent from him about the Interpretation of that Coin in Mon∣sieur Seguin, which he calls Britannick.

Monsieur Boudelot reads it thus, Jovi Victori Saturnalia Io! or Jovi Victoria Sat. Io!

I had rather read it thus, Io! Sat. Victoriae Io! upon the occasion of his returning with the Souldiers, filling their Head-Pieces with the Shells they had gathered off of the Sea-shore; and the little use of his new invented Letter the Digamma, which he instituted or borrowed from the Eolique to express V Consonant.

Page  51The Shells were a Triumph much like this small addition to the Alphabet; which lasted no longer than his time: that is, Victory enough, (for so stupid a Prince as Claudius) Let's return with the Spoils of the Ocean, and Adorn his new invented Letter with a Palm-Branch; the Reverse of this Coin being a Lawrel-Crown: Both the Signs of Victory.

About the Boustrophedon way of Wri∣ting, mentioned by Suidas and Pausanias, or turning again as the Ox Plows, or the Racers about the Meta in the Cirque, in my Opinion it could be nothing else, but the Serpentine manner of Writing found in Swedeland in Runique Letters.

He shewed me also a Stone taken late∣ly out of the Body of a Horse at Paris, which was his Death; and dying strange∣ly, they Dissected him, that is, certain Ignorant People; in the lower part of the Body, (probable the Bladder) was found this Stone: It weighs, as I guess, two Pound; it is as round as a Cannon Ball; it is laminated like an Onion; for the first Couche was broken up in some Places, of a dark Hair colour, and transparent; or like some Cloudy Agats which I have seen: It was very ponderous. Such like Transparent Stones I had a Patient voided often in Yorkshire. I saw another Trans∣parent Page  52one, which was cut out of the Buttock of an Alderman at Doncaster; he was twice cut in the same place, at some years distance. Another I had in some measure transparent, voided by a Patient, which was of the very colour of a Coffee-Berry when burnt; but of this Stone Monsieur Boudelot writ me a Let∣ter before I left Paris, which I design to publish.

*I was by Invitation from Monsieur Cassini at the Observatoire Royal, built on a rising Ground just without the City Walls; This Building is very fine, and great Art is used in the Vaulted Cut Roofs and Winding Staircases. The Stones are laid inside, outside, with the most regularity I ever saw in any Mo∣dern Building; In all this Building there is neither Iron nor Wood, but all firmly covered with Stone, Vault upon Vault. The Platform a-top is very spacious, and gives a large and fair view of all Paris, and the Countrey about it; it is Paved with Black Flint in small squares, which I make no doubt are set in Cement or Tarras, that is, the Pulvis Puteolanus.

We were shewed a Room well furnisht with Models of all sorts of Machines; and a very large Burning Glass, about 3 Page  53foot diameter, which at that time of the year, viz. in the beginning of February, did fire Wood into a flame, in the very moment it came into and past through the Focus.

I was indisposed, and so could not ac∣cept of the Favour which was offered me of seeing the Moon in their Telescopes; and to go down into the Vault, which was contrived for seeing the Stars at Noon∣tide, but without success. I was told by Monsieur Roman afterwards, that there was a Rock formed in the Cave by the dropping of a Spring of Petrifying Wa∣ter; of which Nature are all the Wells in Paris.

In the Flore of one of the Octogone Towers they have designed with great accurateness and neatness with Ink an Universal Map in a vast Circle. The North∣pole is in the Center. This is a Cor∣rection of other Maps upon the latest and best Observations.

His Nephew Monsieur Moraldi was with him; as for his only Son, he was in Lon∣don at that time: I afterwards was with him at his Fathers, a very hopeful young Gentleman, and well instructed by his Father in the Mathematicks, and all o∣ther useful Learning.

Page  54*The Triumphal Arch out of the Gate of St. Antoine is well worth seeing; for in this the French pretend not only to have imi∣tated the Ancients, but to have out-done them. They have indeed, used the great∣est Blocks of Stone that could be got, and have laid them without Mortar, and the least side outward, after the manner of the Ancients; but I am afraid their Materials are very short of the Roman, and their Stone is ill chose, though vastly great.

Indeed the Design is most Magnificent; it is finisht in Plaister, that is, the Model of it, in its full Beauty and Proportions.

I suppose it was intended for a Gate or Entrance into the City; for it fronts the great Street of the Suburbs, and has a vast Walk planted with Trees leading from it towards Bois de Vincennes.

There is nothing more built but the four Parts of the Foundation of the true Building, raised only to the foot of the Pedestals; The Foundation is laid 22 foot deep.

Amongst the vast Blocks of Stone, which take up a great compass before the Building, I found several sorts, all brought from the Quarries not far from Paris; all of them are of a kind of course Grit, which will not burn into Page  55Lime. They distinguish these Stones in∣to 4 sorts; 1. Pierre d'arcueil, for the first 2 or 3 couches or lays above the Foun∣dation; This is St. Clou, which is good, and the next best. I did not find by the Blocks designed either for the Walls of the Building; or the Rounds of the Pil∣lars; that the Beds of Stone of St. Clou are above two foot thick. 3. That of S. Lieu; this is but indifferent, but yet much better then that Stone which is taken up out of the Stone Pits, in and about Paris, which makes the 4th sort of Stone: If it be wrought up into Walls, as it is taken out of the Pits, it is very apt to be flawed by the Frost; but if it be laid in the Air, and kept under cover for two years, then it becomes dry and more durable.

I saw but one Piece in Paris of the Ruines of an Old Roman Building; it was in La Rue de la Harpe. The Vaults are very high and large. The manner of Building is near the same I formerly caused exactly to be figured and described at York, and which is publisht in the Phi∣losophic Transactions; That is, the inside and outside of the Walls are composed of six Rows of small square Stones, and then 4 rows of flat, thin and broad Roman Page  56Bricks, and so alternatively from the top to the bottom; Which makes it proba∣ble it was built after Severus's time, for this was the African manner of Building, as Vitruvius tells us; and therefore might well be, what Tradition here says of it, viz. part of Julian the Emperor's Palace, or Thermae.

*St. Innocents Church-Yard, the publick Burying-place of the City of Paris for a 1000 years, when intire (as I once saw it) and built round with double Galleries full of Skulls and Bones, was an awful and venerable sight; but now I found it in Ruines, and the greatest of the Galle∣ries pulled down, and a Row of Houses built in their room, and the Bones re∣moved I know not whether; The rest of the Church-Yard in the most neglected and nastiest pickle I ever saw any Conse∣crated place. 'Tis all one, when Men, even the Roman Catholicks have a mind, or 'tis their interest, to unhallow things or places, they can do it with a good sto∣mach; and leave the Tombs of Chan∣cellors and other great Men without Company or Care. What no body gets by, no body is concerned to repair; but 'tis strange amongst so many millions of dead Men, not one Wonder-working Saint should start up to preserve it self Page  57and neighbours from Contempt and Scan∣dal. That so much Holy Earth, brought, as 'tis said, so far off, should never pro∣duce one Saint, but rather spue up all its Inhabitants, to be thus shuffled and dissi∣pated.

*Amongst the many Cabinets of Paris there is nothing finer than the Collection of Monsieur Buco, Gad-eroles du Parlement. You pass through a long Gallery, the one side of which is a well furnished Li∣brary, and also well disposed in Wired Cases. This Gallery leads into two Rooms very finely adorned with Pictures, Vasa's, Statues and Figures in Brass, China, and the famous Ennamel Vessels, formerly made in Poitu, which are not now to be had; and a thousand other curious things.

I very particularly examined his large quantity of Shells, consisting in near 60 Drawers. There were indeed very many of a sort, and not many but what I had seen before, and figured; He very oblig∣ingly lent me those I had not seen, to have the designs of them done. He had many very perfect and large ones of Land and Fresh Water Buccina; but yet a great number were wanting of those very Tribes of what I have publisht.

Page  58Here were also 2 or 3 very fair ones of that sort of comprest Snail, which have their Tail on the same side with their Mouth; and the Vulgar Name, by which those Men of Cabinets distinguish them, is not amiss, viz. Des Lampes.

He shewed me a Bivalve, which is not uncommon (in a large Blood red Spondile) for which the late Duke of Orleans gave 900 Livres, which is above 50l. Sterling; and he also assured me, that the same Per∣son offered a Parisian for 32 Shells 11000 Livres; which Sum was refused; but the Duke replied, That he knew not who was the greater Fool, he that bid the Price, or the Man that refused it.

I also saw in this Collection an Hippo∣campus about 4 inches long, the Tail square, thick Bellied and Breast like a Miller Thumb, Winged not unlike a sort of Flying Fish, but the Fins were spoiled, the Membranes being torn from the Bones of the Wings, the Head long and square like the Tail, with a sort of tufted Musle. This Fish I took to be of the Hippocampus Kind; and (as he told me) it was given him by my Lady Portsmouth, possibly out of King Charles's Collection, who had many curious Presents made him (as one of Shells from the States of Holland, ma∣ny of which I have seen in other Hands) Page  59but he suffered them all to be dissipated and lost.

Here also was a Vespetum Canadense of a most elegant Figure, and admirable Con∣trivance; of which I have a Drawing. This is intire in all its parts; it is as big as a middle-sized Melon, Pear-fashion, with an edge running round where it is thickest, from which edge it suddenly declines and lessens into a point; at the very end of the point, on one side, is a little hole, with pulvinated or smooth edges inclined inward; otherwise it is whole, and wrought upon the Twig of a Tree, of a very smooth Sattin-like Skin. Table 1. Figure 1.

Also the Striated Skin of an African Ass, supple and well cured, which I had never seen before. It is certainly a most beautiful Animal; and, I admire, after so many Ages that it has been known to the People of Europe, it could never be Tamed, and made of common use, as the rest of the Horse Kind. This was only of two colours, viz. broad lists of White and Bay or Chesnut colour drawn from the Back down the Sides to the Bel∣ly, which was all White: The lists were parted at the Back by a very narrow ridge of short Hair; which Lists also went round the Legs like Garters. The Hair Page  60coloured Stripes of the African Ass were, near the Back, 3 or 4 Fingers broad, also the List down the Back was very broad.

Another Skin of a Cap-Ass I after∣wards saw at Dr. Turnfords; and the Stripes were the same, but much broader and darker coloured; it may be from the different Ages. This sort of Striping seems to be peculiar to the Ass, for the most common to be seen with us have all a Black List down the Back; and two more, that is, on each side one, run∣ning down the Shoulders.

*I saw Monsieur Turnfort's Collection of Shells, which are well chosen, and not above one or two of a sort; but very perfect and beautiful, and in good order, consisting of about 20 Drawers.

There was amongst them a very large Land Shell, the same which I have fi∣gured from the Musaeum at Oxford, having its turn from the right hand to the left. Also many very excellent and large Pa∣terns of other Land Snails; also a Fresh-water Mussel from Brasil, which I had never seen before; a Pair of them he gave me; and many Species of Fresh-water Buccina from the Carribe Islands. Also an Auris Marina Spisse echinata; which was new to me.

Page  61Amongst the Shells the Thinn Oister, which shines within like Mother of Pearl, and has in the uppermost end of the flat Valve, near the Hinge, a Hole. These he brought with him, and took them up alive, from the Rocks in Spain; he said they were very offensively bitter to the taste. These being perfect, I had the op∣portunity of seeing that Hole shut with a peculiar and third Shell, of the fashion of a Pouch or Shepherds Purse.

I shall say nothing of his vast Collecti∣on of Seeds and Fruits, and dried Plants, which alone amount to 8000, and in this he equals, if not excells all the most curious Herborists in Europe. His Her∣borisations about Paris he gave me to car∣ry for England, just then Printed off; also he shewed me the Designs of about 100 European Non Descript Plants, in 8vo. which he intends next to publish.

He also shewed me 10 or 12 single Sheets of Vellom, on each of which were Paint∣ed in Water Colours very lively, one single Plant, mostly in flower, by the best Artist in Paris, at the King's Charge; Those are sent to Versailles, when the Doctor has put the Names to them, and there kept: In this manner the King has above 2000 rare Plants, and they work daily upon others: The Limner has two Louis's for every Plant he Paints.

Page  62I saw there also the Vespetum Canadense Maximum, about 12 inches long, and 6 in diameter; of a Pear fashion; it hangs by a long and broad loop to the Twig of a Tree; The broad or lower end is a little pointed, and rising in the middle; The outward Skin is as smooth as Velom, and of a whitish grey, next to the Pearl colour. The Button at the bigger end in this being broken, and the outward Skin pilled off, I could see a hole of about half an inch diameter in the very middle, into which the Wasps go in and out; The Cells are sexangular, but of a very small size, not much bigger then a Duck Quill, or very small Goose Quill; and consequently appear very thick set and numerous. See the Figure above.

He shewed me also a very great Julus from Brasil, at least six inches long, and two about, round like a Cord, very smooth and shining, of a kind of Cop∣per or Brazen colour; The Feet infinite, like a double Fringe on each side: This he had from F. Plumier, who after∣wards gave me a Design of it drawn by the Life, and in its proper colours. Table 5.

Page  63Dr. Turnfort shewed me a Present which was made him by his Country Man of Provence, Monsieur Boyeur d'Aguilles, of a large Book in Folio of curious Stamps. This is only the first part of his Cabinet, all Graved at the Author's Charge; and he is said to be another Peiresk, which would be happy for Mankind, and a great Honour to that Country to have produced two Moecena's in one Age.

*I was to see Monsieur Verney at his A∣partment at the upper-end of the Royal Physick Garden; but missing my Visit, went up, with a young Gentleman of my Lord Ambassador's Retinue, to see Mr. Bennis, who was in the Dissecting Room, working by himself upon a Dead Body, with his Breast and Belly gutted: There were very odd things to be seen in the Room. My Companion, it being morning, and his Senses very quick and vigorous, was strangely surprised and offended; and retired down the Stairs much faster than he came up: And in∣deed, a private Anatomy Room is to one not accustomed to this kind of Manufa∣cture, very irksome, if not frightful: Here a Basket of Dissecting Instruments, as Knives, Saws, &c. And there a Form with a Thigh and Leg flayed, and the Page  64Muscles parted asunder: On another Form an Arm served after the same manner: Here a Trey full of Bits of Flesh, for the more minute Discovery of the Veins and Nerves; and every where such discou∣raging Objects. So, as if Reason, and the good of Mankind did not put Men upon this Study, it could not be en∣dured: for Instinct and Nature most cer∣tainly abhors the Employment.

*I saw Monsieur Merrie, a most painful and accurate Anatomist, and free and communicative Person, at his House Rue de la Princesse. His Cabinet consisted of two Chambers: In the outward were great variety of Skeletons; also entire Preparations of the Nerves; in two of which he shewed me the mistake of Willis, and from thence gathered, that he was not much used to Dissect with his own Hand: The Pia Mater coating the Spinal Nerves but half way down the Back, where it ends: The Dura Mater coating the lowermost 20 pair; which, Willis, (as he said) has otherwise reported.

But that which much delighted my Curiosity, was the Demonstration of a blown and dried Heart of a Foetus; also the Heart of a Tortoise.

Page  65In the Heart of a Foetus, he shewed it quite open, and he would have it that there was no Valve to the Foramen Ovale; which seem'd equally open from the Left Ventricle to the Right, as the contrary; that it's Diameter well near equalled that of the Aorta: That the two Arteries, which ascend up into the two Lobes of the Lungs, (and are the Ramifications of the Pulmonick Artery, after it has parted with the Canal of Communication, which goes betwixt the Pulmonick Artery and the lower or descending Branch of the Aorta) both put together, far exceed, if not double the Diameter of the Aorta it self.

He therefore, not without good Reason assirms, That of all the Blood which the Vena Cava pours into the Right Ventricle of the Heart, and is thence in a Foetus forced up into the Pulmonick Artery, a great part is carried by the Canal of Com∣munication into the descending Trunk of the Aorta, and is so circulated about the Body, the Lungs (as to that part) be∣ing wholly slighted: Also that of the two remaining thirds of the Blood, which is carried about the Lungs, when it comes down the Pulmonick Vein, that which cannot be received by the Aorta, (and all cannot, because the Aorta is much less Page  66than the two Branches of the Pulmonick Artery put together) is therefore discharged back through the Foramen Ovale, into the Right Ventricle of the Heart, and so thrown up again with the rest of the Blood, coming from the Vena Cava. So that one part of the two remaining parts of the Blood is daily carried about the Body, as in an Adult Foetus, and a third part only Circulates in the Lungs, pas∣sing by the Body or Grand Circulati∣on.

That all this is done to abbreviate and reduce the Circulation to a lesser compass, is certain; and so for the same Reason and End, that other lesser Circu∣lation of the Liver is slighted by the Blood, which returns from the Placenta, by a Canal of Communication betwixt the Porta and the Vena Cava.

The Reason he gives of this, I can∣not at all allow of; as being very ill grounded; and therefore I shall not trou∣ble my self to Confute, or so much as Name it.

As for the Heart of the Land Tortoise, it was preserved in Spirit of Wine, and all the three Ventricles thereof slit and opened; so that I had not all the Satis∣faction I could have wisht: but the Left Page  67Ventricle in this Animal had no Artery belonging to it, but did receive only the Blood, which descended from the Lungs, and convey it by the Foramen Ovale into the Right Ventricle: That the third or middle Ventricle was only an Appendix to the Right, and had the Pulmonick Ar∣tery issuing from it. So that the Blood in a Tortois was in a manner Circulated like that in a Foetus, through the Body, the Lungs as it were or in good part slighted.

This Thought of Monsieur Merrie's has made a great Breach betwixt Monsieur Verney and himself; for which Reason I had not that freedom of Conversation as I could have wisht with both of them; but 'tis to be hoped there may come good from an honest Emulation.

Two English Gentlemen came to Visit me, Mr. Bennis and Mr. Probie: They were lodged near the Royal Garden, where Monsieur Verney dwells, and makes his Anatomies, who in Three Months time shewed all the Parts of the Body to them. He had for this purpose at least Twenty Human Bodies, from the Gal∣lows, the Chatelet, (where those are ex∣pos'd who are found Murthered in the Streets, which is a very common business at Paris) and from the Hospitals.

Page  68 They told me, Monsieur Verney pre∣tended to shew them a Valve, which did hinder Blood from falling back into the Right Ventricle by the Foramen Ovale. This Valve they said he compared to the Papillae in the Kidneys, Musculous and Fleshy: That if Wind was blown into the Vena Pulmonalis, it did not pass through the Foramen Ovale, but stop there, by reason of the Valve. That he did be∣lieve, contrary to Mr. Merrie, that no Blood did circulate through the Lungs in an Embrio.

Again, in another Conversation with Monsieur Merrie, he shewed me the blown Hearts of an Embrio, and that of a Girl of 7 years old. I saw clearly, that the Skin of the supposed Valve of the Fora∣men Ovale, was as it were suspended with two Ligaments: And that in the Girl's, the two sides of the Foramen Ovale were drawn one over the other, and so closed the hole; but were easily to be sepa∣rated again by a Bristle thrust betwixt them.

Also it seemed to me, that this Mem∣brane in an Embrio might cover the Fo∣ramen Ovale, like the Membrana Nictans in a Brids Eye, that is, be drawn over it, and so hinder the Ingress of the Blood from the Vena Cava, as oft as the Right Au∣ricle Page  69beats: But the Dilating it self might give way to the descending Blood of the Vena Pulmonalis; and possibly, the Em∣brio living as it were the Life of an In∣sect, can by this Artifice Command the Heart.

I remember in Discourse that day with him, he told me, That Monsieur Verney had an old Cat, and a young Kitling just Born, put into the Air-Pump before the Academie Royalle des Sciences: That the Cat died after 16 Pumps, but the Kitling sur∣vived 500 Pumps; which favours in some measure the Command young Ani∣mals have of their Hearts.

At another Visit, Monsieur Merrie ob∣ligingly procured for me, the Heart of a Human Embrio, with the Lungs intire. He tried before me the Experiment upon Blowing, and also Syringing Water into the Aorta, both which filled the Auricles and Ventricles, and freely came out at the Vena Cava only. Then he opened the Right Auricle and Ventricle, where the Foramen Ovale was open only at one cor∣ner, not the tenth part of its breadth; and a Membrane drawn over the rest, which Membrane was fastned to the sides quite round. Then he opened in the same manner the Left Ventricle and Au∣ricle, and there it was evident, that that Page  70Membrane which closed the hole, had two narrow Straps or Muscles by which it was fastned to the opposite sides, after the manner of some of the Valves of the Heart.

I told him, that it must follow from this, that the Foramen Ovale was shut and opened more or less, at the pleasure of the Embrio, according to the Necessities of Nature, and the quantity of Blood that was to pass: That it was probable, that all Insects had a Command of their Hearts, (of which I had given large In∣stances elsewhere) by some such passage, which they could shut altogether, or in great part, as they had a Mind, in Winter, in Fear, or Fasting for want of Food: That the shutting up of the passage in Adult Animals was therefore done in an instant, by drawing the Curtain fully, which could never be again drawn back and opened, because of the great torrent of Blood, which now entred the Right Auricle, stopt it in that posture, which in time would altogether stiffen and lose its Motion of Relaxation. As a Hen, when she Sleeps, draws over the Mem∣brana Nictans; and likewise when she Dies, the same Membrane covers all the Eye.

Page  71Mr. Bennis procured me the Heart of a Humane Foetus, which had but just breath'd; the which I examined with Monsieur Litre of Castres in Languedoc, another very Understanding and Dextrous Anatomist, and who Teaches Scholars of all Nations the Practice of Anatomy. The Experiments here were repeated as formerly described; Both Wind and Water passed the Foramen Ovale, both from the Vena Pulmonum, and from the Aorta. That which I observed in this Heart more particularly, was, That the Membrane or Valve on the Left side of the Foramen Ovale was flat, and extended almost over the hole, without any Limbus round its edges, because it was nothing but the very substance of the Auricula Sinistra continued, or a Process thereof: But on the right side the Vena Cava being joined to the Auricle, it had a rising edge round that part of it, whence it proceeded; that is, that the two Faces had contrery openings, and being drawn as it were one over the other, they shut the hole; but not so firmly, but the hole might be more or less open all a Man's Life. For those two Oval Processes sticking close together in a blown and dried Heart, that is not to be much heeded, for I have seen them dry with Page  72the hole open; but it has been like as betwixt unglued Paper, or as the Ure∣thers descend betwixt the Skins of the Bladder, or as the same happens to the Ductus Bilaris in its insertion into the Guts.

The same Person brought me the Heart of a Man 40 years old, in which the Foramen Ovale was as much open, as in a Foetus new born; and the Ligaments very conspicuous, which tack the sides of the Valve to the Auricle, and go over to the other side of the Border.

*I was not better pleased with any Visit I made, than with that of F. Plumier, whom I found in his Cell in the Con∣vent of the Minimes. He came home in the Sieur Ponti's Squadron, and brought with him several Books in Folio of Designs and Paintings of Plants, Birds, Fishes, and Infects of the West-Indies; all done by himself very accurately. He is a very understanding Man in several parts of Natural History, but especially in Bota∣nique. he had been formerly in America, at his return Printed, at the King's Charge, a Book of American Plants in Folio. This Book was so well approved of, that he was sent again thither at the King's Charge, and returned after several years Page  73wandring about the Islands with this Cargo. He was more than once Ship∣wrackt, and lost his Specimens of all things, but preserved his Papers, as ha∣ving fortunately lodged them in other Ves∣sels; so that the things themselves I did not see. He had designed and Dissected a Crocodile; one of the Sea Tortoises; a Viper, and well described the Dissecti∣ons.

His Birds also were well understood, and very well painted in their proper colours. I took notice of 3 sorts of Owles, one with Horns, all distinct Species from our European. Several of the Hawk Kind and Falcons of very beautiful Plumage; and one of those, which was Coal black as a Raven. Also (which I longed to see) there was one Species of the Swallow Kind, very distinct from the 4 Species we have in Europe.

Amongst the Fish there were two new Species of American Trouts, well known by the Fleshy Fin near the Tail.

Amongst the Insects there was a Scolo∣pendra of a foot and an half long, and proportionably broad. Also the Julus very elegantly painted, which I had seen before in Dr. Turnfort's Collection. Table 5.

Also a very large Wood-Frog, with the extremity of the Toes webbed.

Page  74Also a Blood-red Polypus, with very long Legs, two of which I could discern by the Draught were thick acetabulated. This, he told me, was so venemous, that upon the least touch it would cause an insupportable burning pain, which would last several hours.

There were also some few Species of the Serpent and Lizard Kind.

There were but few Shells; but amongst them there was a Murex (See T. 4.) which dies purple, with the Fish as it exerts it self in the Sea. Also that Land Buccinum (see Tab. 3.) which I have figured, and which lays Eggs with hard Shells, and for bigness, and shape, and colour, scarce to be distinguisht from the Sparrow Eggs. And because the Mu∣rex and this Buccinum was drawn with the Animals creeping out, I desired a Copy of them, which he freely and in a most obliging manner granted me; He designed the Buccinum Terrestre in the Island of St. Domingo, where he found it.

Amongst the vast Collection of Plants, I observed the Torch Kind, and Fernes were of all others the most numerous; of each of which there were an incredi∣ble number of Species. There were 2 or 3 Species of Goosberries and Currants; and some Species of Wild Grapes; all Page  75which F. Plumier told me were good to eat.

He told me these Drawings would make 10 Books, as big as that he had publisht; and Two Books of Animals: He had been often at Versailles to get them into the Kings Imprimerie; but as yet un∣successfully; but hoped e're long to be∣gin the Printing of them. Note, That the Booksellers at Paris are very unwil∣ling, or not able to Print Natural Hi∣story; but all is done at the Kings Charge, and in his Presses.

*I Visited Monsieur Dacier and his Lady, two very obliging Persons, and both of great Worth, and very Learned.

I think our Profession is much beholden to him, for his late elegant Translation of Hippocrates into French, with Learned Notes upon him. I wish he may live to finish what he hath so happily begun. I read over the Two Volumes he has Print∣ed with great delight.

He seems to favour the Opinion of those, who think, the Circulation of the Blood was known to him; in which he errs undoubtedly. 'Tis manifest his Ana∣tomy was rude, dark, and of little ex∣tent; but 'tis also as manifest, that he knew very well the effect of the Circu∣lation. Page  76As for Example, 2. de Diaeta. c. 12. All the Body (says he) is purged by Respi∣ration and Transpiration, and what Humour thickens, is subtilized and thrown out by the Skin, and is called Sweat.

Again, 3. de Diaeta. c. 5. speaking of a sort of foul and impure Bodies, he says, More is by Labour melted out of the Flesh, than the Circular Motion (of the Blood) hath purged off. There are a great number of Instances of this Nature. In Conversa∣tion I put this to him, which he avowed was all he thought.

He told me he had two more Volumes ready for the Press, and did intend not to give it over, till he had gone through all the Works of Hippocrates. In which Volumes will be these Treatises: Of Dreams: Of the Regimen in Acute Diseases: The Prognosticks: The Prorrhetiques: The Aphorismes: The Coaques.

On that Aphorism he seemed to me to have a very happy thought, cocta non, sed cruda purganda sunt; which makes it of the same sence with that other, Si quid movendum est, move in principio.

I must needs say this for Madam Da∣cier, his Wife, though I knew her by her Writings, before I saw her, the Learnedst Woman in Europe, and the true Daughter and Disciple of Tanaquil Page  77Faber; yet her great Learning did not alter her genteel Air in Conversation, or in the least appear in her Discourse; which was easie, modest, and nothing affected.

*I visited Monsieur Morin, one of the Academie des Sciences, a Man very curious in Minerals; of which he shewed me some from Siam, as Jaspers, Onyxes, A∣gats, Loadstones, &c. He shewed me also excellent Tin Oar from Alsace. Also from France a great Block of a sort of Amythyst of 2 or 300 weight. Some parts of it (for he had several Plates sawed and polisht) were very fine, and had large Spots and Veins of a deep co∣loured Violet. It was designed for a Pavement in Marchetterie, of which he shewed me a Carton drawn in the Natural Colours.

This puts me in mind of a vast Ame∣thyst I had seen at London, brought from New-Spain, and exposed to Sale; it weigh∣ed, as I remember, Eleven Pound odd Ounces; and was most perfectly figured both point and sides, after the manner of a Bristol Diamond, or common Rock Cry∣stal; but this Block here was rude, and without any shape.

Page  78*I cannot say much of the meeting of these Gentlemen of the Acad. Royal. de Sci∣ences, there are but few of them, about 12 or 16 Members; all Pensioned by the King in some manner or other.

They endeavoured in the War time to have Printed Monthly Transactions or Me∣moires after the manner of ours in Lon∣don; but could not carry them on above two Volumes or Years, for without great Correspondence this can hardly be done. And ours is certainly one of the best Regi∣sters that ever was thought on, to pre∣serve a vast number of scattered Observa∣tions in Natural History, which other∣wise would run the hazard to be lost, be∣sides the Account of Learning in Printed Books

I heard Mr. Oldenburgh say, who began this Noble Register, that he held Corre∣spondence with 70 odd Persons in all parts of the World, and those be sure with others: I askt him, what method he used to answer so great variety of Subjects, and such a quantity of Letters as he must receive weekly; for I knew he never failed, because I had the Ho∣nour of his Correspondence for 10 or 12 years. He told me he made one Letter answer another, and that to be always fresh, he never read a Letter before he Page  79had Pen, Ink and Paper ready to answer it forthwith, so that the multitude of his Letters cloy'd him not, or ever lay upon his hands.

The Abbot Bignon is President, Ne∣phew to Monsieur Pontchartrain. I was informed by some of them, that they have this great advantage to incourage them in the pursuit of Natural Philoso∣phy, that if any of the Members shall give in a Bill of Charges of any Expe∣riments which he shall have made; or shall desire the Impression of any Book, and bring in the Charges of Graving re∣quired for such Book, the President al∣lowing it and signing it, the Money is forthwith reimbursed by the King. As it was done in Dr. Turnfort's Elements de Bo∣tanique, the Cuts of that Book cost the King 12000 Livres. And the Cuts in∣tended, and now Graving for another Book of new Plants found in his Voyages into Portugal and Spain, will cost 100l. Sterling.

Also, if Monsieur Merrie, for Example, shall require live Tortoises for the making good the Experiments about the Heart, they shall be brought him, as many as he pleases, at the King's Charge.

These, besides their Pensions, I say, were some of the Advantages they have Page  80injoyed; but the War, for this Reason, has lain heavy upon the Philosophers too.

*Mr. Butterfield is a right hearty honest Englishman, who has resided in France 35 years, is a very excellent Artist in making all sorts of Mathematical Instru∣ments, and works for the King and all the Princes of the Blood, and his Work is sought after by all the Nations of Europe and Asia.

He more than once shewed me (which is his great Diversion) a mighty Collection of Loadstones, to the value of several Hundred Pounds Sterling.

Some he had as hard almost as Steel, and others soft and friable; yet of these he had those which were of as great virtue, as any of the hard; That of the equally hard there were very great difference.

He had one which weighed naked not above a Drachm, and would naked take up a Drachm and an half; but shod would take up 144 Drachms of Iron, if rightly applied, that is, if the Iron to be taken up did firmly and in a plain touch alike both the Feet.

Page  81The best Shod were these that follow.

1. A Slate Loadstone, which I noted not so much for its strength, but be∣cause of its peculiar make, being fairly and distinctly luminous throughout, weighing One ounce and an half, draws up One pound.

2. A Smooth Loadstone, weighing One drachm, two scruples, fourteen grains, draws up Eighteen ounces, that is Eighty two times its weight.

3. Another Smooth Loadstone, weigh∣ing Sixty five grains, draws up Fourteen ounces, that is, One hundred and forty four times its weight.

There is, a Loadstone no bigger then a Hazel Nut, which took up a huge Bunch of Keys.

We have a very large Slate Loadstone in the Repository at Gresham-Colledge, at least 6 inches over; This also is but weak; Whether the Laminae do spoil the vertue, as though they were but so many distinct Stones packt together. And yet a Loadstone which takes up ex. gr. 6 pound weight, cut by the Axis in two halves, and both halves shod again, will take up 8 pound.

It is plain, that Experiments are bet∣ter made with a Terrella, or spherical Load∣stone, than a square one; and his way Page  82of capping the Terrella is very well con∣trived.

A square Loadstone made into a Ter∣rella, will near take up as much weight as it did before, though a great deal of the Stone is lost in the rounding, by virtue of the different shooing.

He entertained us full two hours with Experiments neatly contrived about the effects of the Loadstone.

The Experiment of approaching a Load∣stone to the Spring of a Watch is very fine; it causes the Ballance to move very swift, and brought yet nearer, to stop quite and cease moving.

Another Experiment was an inch broad Plate of Iron, turned into a Ring of about 4 inches diameter, which had evi∣dently two North and two South Poles, which he said he had seen in a Loadstone, and had contrived this in imitation of Nature. The working of them with fi∣lings of Steel, drigged upon a Plate, set upon the Ring, did clearly manifest the double Polarity.

Also the suspending of a Needle in the Air, and a Ball of Steel upon the point of it, by a Thred, which a weight kept down, that it could not ascend higher, than such a distance within the sphere of the activity of the Loadstone.

Page  83Again, the free working of the Needle in Water, through Brass, Gold, Stone, Wood, or any thing but Iron. He told us, he had a Stone, which would work through a Stone Wall of 18 inches.

Lastly, he demonstrated by many Ex∣periments, how the Effluvia of the Load∣stone work in a Circle, that is, what flows from the North Pole, comes round, and enters the South Pole; on the con∣trary, what flows from the South Pole, enters the North, and in its way puts in order all such Filings of Steel it meets with; that is, according to the dispositi∣on of its own whirling, and the circular lines it keeps in its flying about the Load∣stone. Indeed, it is pleasant to see, how the Steel Filings are disposed; and in their arangement one clearly sees a per∣fect image of the road, which the whirl∣ing invisible Matter takes in coming forth, and re-entring the Poles of the Load∣stone.

He shewed us a Loadstone sawed off that piece of the Iron Bar, which held the Stones together at the very top of the Steeple of Chartres; This was a thick Crust of Rust, part of which was turned into a strong Loadstone, and had all the properties of a Stone dug out of the Mine. Mans. de la Hire has Printed a Page  84Memoire of it; also Mons. de Vallemont a Treatise. The very outward Rust had no Magnetic Virtue, but the inward had a strong one, as to take up a third part more than its weight unshod. This Iron had the very grain of a solid Magnet, and the brittleness of a Stone.

These Gentlemen, who have writ of this, have, in my Opinion, miss'd their purpose, when they enquire, how it comes to pass to be thus turned; for it is certain, all Iron will in time go back into its Mineral Nature again, notwith∣standing the Artifice of Melting and Hammering. I have seen of those Ham∣mered Spanish Cannon, which had lain many years buried in the Ground, under the old Fort at Hull in Yorkeshire, which were thoroughly turned into brittle Iron Stone, or Mine again; and would not own the Loadstone, no more than the rest of our English Iron Mine, till it was calcined, and then shewed it self to be good Iron again. Also I have seen, and had by me, a piece of Wood taken out of Lough-Neagh in Ireland, which was not only good Iron Mine, but a Loadstone too; so that it is evident, Nature, in this sort of Mine, goes backwards and for∣wards, is generated and regenerated; and therefore Mons. de la Hire has well Page  85used the Term of Vegetation in this Affair, which I had done many years be∣fore in my Book De Fontibus Medicatis Angliae, that is, out of Iron, Mine will grow; and out of Mine, 〈◊〉 Loadstone; as in the petrified Wood.

I do not relate these things, as though they were new Di•…veries; the World has long since known •…em, by the great In•…y of our most Learned Country∣•…Gilbert of Colchester, to whom little 〈◊〉 been added after near 100 years, th•…h very many Men have written of t•…•…bject, and formed divers Hypo∣t•…s to solve these Phoenomena. A D•…chman, Mr. Hartsoeker, one of the A∣cademy des Sciences, has published a Trea∣tse of the Principles of Natural Philo∣sphy, and has accounted for these and many more Experiments of this Nature, which he had shewn him by Mr. Butter∣field, whom he mentions very Honour∣ably.

And yet after all, the nature of these Effluvia are little known, and what is said by Des Cartes of Screw fashioned Particles, and the invisible Channels and Pores and Pipes of the Loadstone, are all meer Fancies without any Founda∣tion in Nature. It is well called by some a certain Magnetick Matter, but Page  86what properties it hath, is little under∣stood.

It is very strange to me, that a little Loadstone, of that prodigious force, should have so short a sphere of activity, and not sensibly to affect Iron above an inch or two; and the biggest and strong∣est not above a foot or two. We see the Vortices in Water, how wide they work round about them, vastly increas∣ing the Circles; and what little resi∣stance the Air can make to a body of that subtilty, as the Effluvia of the Load∣stone, which can with ease penetrate all Bodies whatsoever, Marble, Flints, Glass, Copper, Gold, without any sensible di∣minution of its virtue. Again, we see the Flame of a Lamp in Oil, or Tallow, or Wax, how short it is; and how long and tapering it is in Spirit of Wine. If therefore the Magnetick Matter was darted out of infinite small Pipes, and was of the nature of a more subtile and invisible Flame, why does it not conti∣nue its course in a direct line to a great length, but return so suddenly? We see the perspiration of our Skins to rise into the Air, and continue to mount which yet has but a weak impulse from the Heart, being interrupted and broke off, when it comes out of the Road of the Page  87Blood into the Ductus Excretorii. But the Circle of the Magnetick Matter is without any impulse, that we know of, from the Stone; and moves in a double circle, and with a double and contrary stream in the same Pipes, contrary to the Laws of the Circulation of the Blood in Animals; which has naturally but one Currant, and one Road round; for the whole Mass of Vessels, in which the Circulation of the Blood is concerned, is but one continued Pipe.

Until the Nature of the Effluvia is bet∣ter known, no very satisfactory Account can be given of the most common Phoe∣nomena of the Loadstone, ex. gr. why it does not draw to it all Bodies alike? why a great Loadstone, though weak, extends its vertue much farther, than a small one, though strong? Why a Load∣stone communicates its vertue to Iron, as soon as it touches it, nay even at some distance, and gives it the properties of a Loadstone.

The Truth is, the Earth's being a great Magnet seems to me a meer Vision and Fable; for this reason, because it is not Iron. 'Tis true, Iron Mine is the most common of all Minerals, and found al∣most in all places; but it holds not any proportion with the rest of the Fossils of Page  88the Earth; and is not, at a guess, as a million to other Fossils; This seems evi∣dent to any one, who has well consider∣ed the Chalky Mountains and Cliffs, the high Rag-stone Mountains and Lime Stone Cliffs, the several Quarries and Pits sunk in∣to the Bowels of the Earth for Coal, and Lead, &c. how little Iron there is to be found in comparison of other Matters. Add to this, that very little of that very Iron Mine, which is to be found any where, is Magnetick, or capable of obe∣dience to the Magnet, till it is calcined: Whence therefore should all those Magne∣tick Effluvia arise, which are supposed every where plentifully to incompass the Earth? And why should they be sup∣posed to be every where wandring in the Air, since 'tis evident, they make haste to return to the Stone that emitted them, and are as afraid to leave it, as the Child the Mother before it can go?

Towards the discovery of the Nature of the Effluvia of the Loadstone, such Particulars as those, in my Opinion, ought chiefly to be considered, and pro∣secuted with all industry. The Load∣stone is very good, if not the best Iron Mine. The sole Fusion of the Loadstone turns it into Iron; The Fire destroys its very virtue, and so does Vitrification Page  89Iron. Fire will make Iron Mine own the Loadstone, and turn to a Magnet; Rust, (into which all Iron will naturally turn) and the reduction of Iron again to its Mine, will take away all the Mag∣netick capacity of Iron. A Loadstone cannot be made to alter its Poles, but Iron may; nor be destroyed, but by the Fire. A great and long Bar of Iron is naturally a Loadstone, if held up perpen∣dicularly, and it changes its Poles at the pleasure of him that holds it: A strong Loadstone loses much of its virtue by touching Iron, but after a few days re∣covers it again: A small and weak Load∣stone cannot touch to give its virtue to a great lump of Iron: A Loadstone ex∣posed to the Air is spoilt in time: The deeper the Vein of Iron Mine is, where Loadstone is found, the better the Stone, and how far, this holds true; for I do not doubt, but a very hard Stone may be found near the day, as well as deeper: A Ruler or long Plate of Steel is much better touched with the virtue of the Loadstone, than a Plate of meer Iron of the same figure; but on the contrary a Plate of Iron sticks much faster to the Loadstone, than a Plate of Steel; so as if a Loadstone draws up a Plate of Steel of 3 Ounces, it will draw up a Plate of Page  90Iron of four Ounces and more. Why Iron fastned to the Poles of a Magnet does so vastly improve its strength, as to be 150 times stronger than when Naked.

Since therefore a Loadstone is nothing else but good Iron Mine, and may be turned into Iron; and Iron most easily, and of its self into Load-Stone, the way to find out the Nature of those Magnetick Effluvia, seems to be to enquire strictly into the Na∣ture of Iron Mine, and Iron it self; and not to run giddily into Hypotheses, before we are well stocked with the Natural History of the Load-Stone, and a larger quantity of Experiments and Observati∣ons relating to Iron and its Mine, with all the Difference and Species of them; which I think has hitherto been little heeded. For Nature will be its own In∣terpreter, in this, as well as in all other Matters of Natural Philosophy.

Mr. Butterfield, in another Conversa∣tion, told me, He had observed Load-Stones, which were strong without arm∣ing; and being armed, had not that great advantage by it, as one could have expected: And that on the contrary, there were others, which had a more incredible Virtue when armed, than they did promise.

Page  91That it seldom happens, that a Load-Stone hath as much Virtue in one of its Poles, as in the other; and that a bit of Iron is toucht equally well at either of the Poles of one and the same Load-Stone.

That there are Load-Stones which take up much, and which notwithstanding are incapable of well touching Iron; so that a Stone armed, which takes up seven Pound, yet cannot Communicate to a Ruler of Iron, the Virtue of taking up a very small Needle.

That a Load-Stone of 10 Ounces, be∣ing reduced to the weight of 6 Ounces or thereabouts, did almost the same effect as before, &c.

I caused Mr. Butterfield to make the Slate Load-Stone into a Terella, and when shod, it was indeed but of little force; but I observed its Poles to lie level with the Laminae, of which it was composed.

N. B. A strong Load-Stone ought to have large Irons, and a weak one but thin Irons; so that a Stone may be over-shod.

*I waited upon the Abbot Droine to Visit Monsieur Guanieres, at his Lodgings in the Hostel de Guise. This Gentleman is Courtesie it self, and one of the most Curious and Industrious Persons in Paris. His Memoires, Manuscripts, Paintings, Page  92and Stamps are infinite, but the method in which he disposes them, is very par∣ticular and useful. He shewed his Porte∣seiulles in Folio, of Red Spanish Leather finely adorned: In one, for Example, He had the General Maps of England; then the particular Maps of the Counties; then the Maps of London, and Views a∣bout it: Then the Stamps of all the par∣ticular Places and Buildings of Note a∣bout it; and so of all the Cities in England, and Places and Houses of Note of the Counties.

In other Book-Cases, he has the Stamps of the States-Men of England, Nobility of both Sexes, Souldiers, Lawyers, Di∣vines, Physicians, and Men of Distin∣ction. And in this Method he hath all Europe by themselves.

His Rooms are filled with the Heads of a vast number of Men of Note in Oil Paintings, and Miniatures or Water-Co∣lours: Amongst the rest, an Original of King John, who was Prisoner in England, which he greatly values.

He shewed us the Habits in Limning from the Originals, done by the best Masters, of all the Kings and Queens and Princes of France, for many Ages back∣wards. Also the Turnaments and Just∣ings at large; and a thousand such things of Monuments.

Page  93He was so Curious, that he told me, he seldom went into the Country with∣out an Amanuensis, and a couple of Men well Skilled in Designing and Paint∣ing.

He shewed us amongst other curious Manuscripts, a Capitularie of Charles V. also the Gospel of St. Matthew writ in Golden Letter upon Purple Vellum. This seemed to me to be later than that Manuscript I saw at the Abby of St. Ger∣mains; that is, the Letters less and more crooked, tho' indeed, the Letters of the Title Page are exactly Square.

One Toy I took notice of, which was a Collection of Playing Cards for 300 years: The oldest were three times bigger than what are now used, extreamly well lined and illuminated with guilt Bor∣ders, and the Pastboard thick and firm; but there was not a compleat Sett of them.

*Amongst the Persons of Distinction and Fame, I was desirous to see Madameoi∣selle de Scuderie, now 91 years of Age. Her Mind is yet vigorous, tho' her Body is in Ruins. I confess, this Visit was a perfect Mortification, to see the sad De∣cays of Nature in a Woman once so famous. To hear her Talk, with her Page  94Lips hanging about a Toothless Mouth, and not to be able to Command her Words from flying abroad at Random, puts me in mind of the Sybil's uttering Oracles. Old Women were employed on this Errand, and the Infant-World thought nothing so Wise, as Decayed Nature, or Nature quite out of Order; and preferred Dreams before reasonable and waking Thoughts.

She shewed me the Skeletons of two Chameleons, which she had kept near four years alive: In Winter she lodged them in Cotton; and in the fiercest Weather, she put them under a Ball of Copper, full of hot Water.

In her Closet she shewed me an Ori∣ginal of Madame Maintenon, her old Friend and Acquaintance, which she affirmed was very like her: and, indeed, she was then very beautiful.

*The Marquis d'Hopital, one of the Aca∣demie des Sciences, whom I found not at home, returned my Visit very obliging∣ly. I had a long Conversation with him about Philosophy and Learning; and I perceived the Wars had made them al∣together Strangers to what had been do∣ing in England. Nothing was more plea∣sing to him, than to hear of Mr. Isaac Page  95Newton's Preferment, and that there were hopes, that they might expect something more from him, he expressed a great desire to have the whole Sett of the Philosophic Transactions brought over, and many other Books, which he named, but had not yet seen. He told me, it was not possible for them to continue the Month∣ly Memoirs, as they had done for two years only, because they were but very few in number of that Society, and had very little Correspondence. Indeed, I did inquire once of some of that Body, why they did not take in more since there were very many deserving Men in the City, as I instanc'd in F. Plumier: They owned he would be an Honour to the Body, but they avoided to make a Pre∣sident for the Admission of any Regulars whatsoever.

I repaid the Marquis his Visit: He lives in a fine House, well furnisht; the Gar∣den pretty, with neat Trelliage, wrought with Arches and other Ornaments:

He expressed a great Desire to see England, and Converse with our Mathe∣maticians, whose Works he coveted a∣bove all things, and had ordered all to be brought him over.

Page  96His Lady also is very well Studied in the Mathematicks, and makes one of the Learned Ladies in Paris; of which num∣ber are Mad. Dacier, the Dutchess of Main, Mad. Scuderie, Mad. de Vicubourg, Mad. d'Espernon the Daughter, Mad. Pres. de Ferrand, and others, whose Names I have forgot.

*I bought the Works of Pere Pezron, a Benardin, now Abbot de Charmoyse near Rheims. This is a very Learned and very disinterested Author, and by his free way of Writing has got him Enemies amongst the Regular Clergy. The Books I bought were his Antiquities or Account of Time; The Defence of it against Two Monks; An Essay or Commentary upon the Prophets; The History of the Gospel.

He is now upon giving us the Origin of Nations, where he will shew, that Greek and Latin too, came from the Celtique or Bas-breton; of which Country he is. He told me he had 800 Greek Words perfect Celtique. I settled a Correspondence be∣twixt him and Mr. Ed. Floid; which he most readily granted, and which he said he had long coveted.

Page  97Monsieur Spanheim, now Envoy Ex∣traordinary from the Duke of Branden-bough at Paris, told me, that the King of France's Collection of Medals is far the best in Europe, or that ever was made. Having the opportunity of Discoursing him often, his sick Lady being my Pa∣tient, I inquired more particularly of him, what he had seen of Palmyra, of Zenobia, Odenatus, Vabalathus. He desired a Memoir of me, which I gave him, of what I would have him search for in the King's Cabinet, and promised me all the Satisfaction he could give me in that Af∣fair.

I told him I had met with nothing yet, but a fair Busto in White Marble of Ze∣nobia, in the Cabinet of M. Boudelot; which was part of Mons. Thevenot's Col∣lection of Marbles from the East.

*I was to wait on Mons. Vaillant at his Appartment in the Arsenal. I found only his Son at home, who very Civilly Entertained me; and shewed me a Book in Quarto of his Father's of Greek Medals, near Printed off; but without Cutts. The Title was Nummi Graeci Imperatorum; he goes down no lower than to Claudius Gothicus. He hath added a large Appen∣dix,Page  98with References to all the most Re∣markable Heads about the Cities and the People.

I left a Memoir with his Son; and in a second Visit, I found the old Gentle∣man at home, very busie in his Flower Garden; of which I shall speak here∣after.

He told me, as to the Memoir I had left, he had never seen any Coins of Oe∣denatus; yet he had very lately parted with one of Zenobia to the Duke of Maine. As for Vabalathus, he had seen some of him in Brass; and one he had in Silver, which he very obliginly made me a Present of; and that this was the only Silver Coin he had ever met with of him.

This is his Reading of it.

Vices gerens Imperii Romani.
Les autres y lisent mal. YCRIMOR.

He gave me also the Stamps of the Heads of Zenobia and Vabalathus, done from the King's Medals. See Tab. 2. These were designed for a short History of all Page  99the Emperors and Empresses, which he has by him written in French, but not pub∣lisht. Nothing could be more Civil and Franc than this Gentleman, whom I be∣lieve to be the best Medalist in Europe; he told me he had made 12 Voyages all over Europe and Asia Minor on purpose; That he had seen and described the Con∣tents of more Cabinets, than any Man ever did before him; and it is evident by his Works, that he has made good use of them.

I had a Visit from Mr. Conningham, Tutor to my Lord Lorne, a very Learn∣ed and Curious Man in Books. I askt him (knowing him to have been lately at Rome) very particularly about the Pa∣pers of Monsieur d'Azout. He told me, that he see him not above half a year before he died, and was very intimately acquainted with him, and saw him for a Twelvemonth very often. That he told him, that he had about 80 difficult Pas∣sages in Vitruvius, which he had Com∣mented and Explained; and the Corre∣ction of a great number of Errata in the Text. Also that upon Julius Frontinus (though that was a much less Book) he had much more to say, than he had upon Vitruvius: What is become of his Papers I could not learn from him, nor any in Paris.

Page  100Monsieur d'Azout was very Curious and Understanding in Architecture, for which purpose he was 17 years in Italy by times; I do remember when he was in England about 14 years ago, he shewed me the Design of several of our Build∣ings drawn by himself; but of that of the Banquetting-House at Whitehall, he expres∣sed himself in very extraordinary Terms, telling me, it was the most Regular, and most Finisht Piece of Modern Workman∣ship he had seen on this side the Alpes, that he could not enough praise it: That Inigo Jones, the Architect, had a true re∣lish of what was Noble in that Art.

It is time now to leave the Private Houses, and to Visit the Publick Libraries; and with them such Persons as are more particularly concerned in the History of Learning.

*Monsieur l'Abbe Drouine came to visit me at my Lodgings. I returned the Visit the next day at his Appartment in the College de Boncourt. He had 4 or 5 little Rooms well furnisht with Books; in the biggest he had a Collection of Catalogues of Books, and of all such who had writ the Accounts of Authors; above 3000 in all Languages. He told me he had studied the History of Books with the Page  101utmost application 18 years, and had brought his Memoirs into a good Method; That he had thoughts of Printing the first Tome this year, which would be of the most ancient Authors, Greek and La∣tin; That he intended to continue them throughout all the succeeding Ages down to our times; which he said he had per∣formed in good part.

He shewed me the Catalogue of Au∣thors in 4 very thick Folio's; alphabeti∣cally disposed by Family Names, under some such Title as this: Index alphabeticus omnium Scriptorum, cujuscunque facultatis temporis, & linguae: Those came to about 150000.

He also shewed me his Alphabetick Memoirs in Sheets of the Authors and Books they had writ, and in great for∣wardness. And lastly, the Chronologi∣cal Catalogue, in which form he intends to Print the whole.

He is a very Civil and well Tempered Person, very Learned and Curious, and of a middle Age, fit to continue and fi∣nish such a Laborious Work. I was in∣finitely obliged to him for his frequent Visits.

Page  102*I was to wait on Monsieur Gurnier, one of the Heirs of Monsieur Thevenot, to see the Remains of that Famous Man's Li∣brary. There are a great number of O∣riental MSS. yet unsold.

He shewed me the MS. of Abulfeda, with its Latin Version, done by Monsieur Thevenot; and the Matrices and Forms of Arabick Letters, which he had, at his own Charge, caused to be cut for the Printing of certain proper Names in it.

He went or designed to go into Eng∣land and Holland to get it Printed, but was called back by Monsieur Louvois's Order, to Print it in France at the King's Charge; but the late Wars coming on, it was set aside, and is like to be so, for he was turned out of his place of Library Keeper to the King, and died in Dis∣grace.

Those great number of Oriental Books he had most from his Nephew, whom he sent abroad for that purpose, and who died in his Travels.

This Man was, as it were, the Foun∣der of the Academie des Sciences, and was in his own Nature very Liberal, and gave Pensions to many Scholars.

Amongst other things, I saw there a large Dictionary and Grammar of the Page  103Algonquin Tongue, one of the Nations of the West-Indies. The Fugitive Jesuit, who writ it, dwelt amongst them 20 years. Here it also saw a History, with large and accurate Descriptions of the Quadrupeds of that part of the West-Indies by the same Author.

As for the Papers of Swammerdam, which indeed were the things I most coveted to see, they were much beneath my Expectati∣on, not answering the Printed Catalogue of Thevenot, p. 239. There were, in∣deed, some Corrections of the Figures of his general History of Insects, and some Additions, as though he intended ano∣ther Edition of that Book.

Also towards a particular History, there were some small Treatises, or ra∣ther some Figures only of the Tadpole. Again, Figures relating to the Natural History of a certain Day Butterfly; Of the Asilus; Of the Scuttle Fish; Of the Scarabaeus Nasicornis; and some consider∣able number of Snails, as well naked, as fluviatil, and Sea dissected; at least fi∣gured with their Bodies exerted, and some of their Bowels extracted; and which seemed to me to be well under∣stood and delineated. There were 2 or 3 Stitcht Books in Dutch of 4 or 5 Sheets a-piece belonging to those Plates or Fi∣gures. Page  104But the Gentleman would not part with any of them; because, he said, they had been secured by the Abbot Big∣non for the Kings use. However, all these I judge well worth Printing, when it shall please that Society to do it.

Lastly, I saw in his Custody a fair MS. of Michael Servetus, with a Treatise at the end of it, which, as he said, was never publisht; being a Comparison of the Jewish and Christian Law, its Justice and Charity.

*Mons. l'Abbe de Brillac, Almoner to the Prince of Conti, very obligingly offered to carry me to the Kings Library; but I Civilly declined it, for I had been told, it was better to make Visits by ones self: for no Stranger but was very welcome, at all times; not only on the days it was publickly open, as it is upon Tuesdays and Fridays.

Mons. Clemènt, the Deputy Library Keeper, made us welcome, and invited us to come again, and spend a whole day with him: He made me in particular a very great Compliment, as a considerable Benefactor to that place, shewing me most of the Books and the Names of the rest, I had publisht in Latin; and shewed a great satisfaction, that he had got the Page  105Synopsis Conchyliorum, which he had caused to be Bound very elegantly. I told him, that I was very sorry to see it there, and wondered how he came by it; for it was, I assured him, but a very imperfect trial of the Plates, which I had disposed of to some few Friends only, till I should be able to close and finish the Design; which I now had done to my power, and would redeem that Book with a bet∣ter Copy at my return into England: The same Promise I renewed to the Abbe Louvois, the Library Keeper, at his own Instance, when I had the Honour to Dine with him. This young Gentleman is Brother to Monsieur Barbisieux, Inten∣dant of the Affairs of War; he takes great care to apply himself to his Studies, and for that purpose has two of the Sor∣bone constantly with him to instruct him. He lives great, and has a House which joins upon the King's Library, of which he is Keeper. We were Entertained by him with all the Civility imaginable, and freedom of Conversation.

This Library is now placed in a Private House, and taken out of the Louvre, but it is intended to be removed to the Place de Vendosme, where one side of that Magni∣sicent Square is designed for it. In the mean time it is here most commodiously Page  106dispos'd into 22 Rooms; 14 above Stairs, and 8 below and above. Those below are Philosophy and Physick, and the Shelves are Wired, to secure them: Above are the Books of Philosophy and Human Learn∣ing; and it is into those Rooms only the promiscous Crowd are admitted twice a week. In the middle Rooms, which makes the great Body of the Library, are, for Example, Catalogues of Books; Hi∣stories in one of England and Holland; in another the Histories of France and Germany; in another the Histories of Italy, Spain, &c. in other Bibles of all sorts, and the Interpretations; in another Greek MSS. in another Latin MSS. in ano∣ther the Civil and Municipial Laws of all Nations; in another the Original Papers of State; in another Stamps, where, by the by, the King had the Collection of Mons. Marolles to divert him, in one of his Sicknesses, bought in at a vast Sum: The Catalogue alone of these Stamps, no big∣ger than two small Almanacks, cost me 14 Livres; so much Strangers are im∣posed upon by the Crafty Booksellers of Rue St. Jaques; but 'tis not in France a∣lone, where People are made to pay for their Humour.

Page  107They have Two Indexes of this Libra∣ry; one relating to the Matter and Con∣tents of Books; and another Index of Authors, wherein are all the Works they have of them, and the Titles of all like∣wise that they know of, that are want∣ing, with an Asterism to such in the Mar∣gent; which is well done, that they may know what they have to buy in. It is indeed a vast Collection, and worthy so great a Prince. This Library consists at least of 50000 Volumes of Printed Books; and 15000 MSS. in all Languages.

They work daily and hard at the Ca∣talogue, which they intend to Print; I saw 10 thick Folio's of it, fairly tran∣scrib'd for the Press. It is disposed ac∣cording to the Subject Matter of the Books, as the Bibles and Expositors, Hi∣storians, Philosophers, &c. They pur∣pose to put it into the Press this years, and to finish it within a Twelvemonth.

In the King's Library I was shewn an Ancient Greek MS. of Dioscorides, writ in a sort of thin or narrow Capitals, with the Plants painted in Water-co∣lours; but the first Book was wholly wanting, and therefore the Animals not there, which yet was what I most desired to see; for there are some things relat∣ing to them, which we are at this day in Page  108great doubt of; and it would have been some satisfaction to have seen by the Pictures, what the middle Ages, at least, had thought of them.

In the same Room also we were shewn the Epistles; which was one part of the same MS. which we have at Cambridge, which is the Gospels only. Beza was possessed of ours, from whom we had it. It is written in square Capitals, and very short Lines, and much worn out in ma∣ny places. This comes much short of the Alexandrian MS. at St. James's for Beauty and Antiquity.

There was another MS. of the Gospel of St. Matthew, which was but of late dis∣covered; a very fair Volume in a large Folio. This was cut to pieces in the back, and had been shuffled and bound up again; and another Book overwritten in a small Modern Greek Hand, about 150 years ago. The first Writing was turned so pale, that they took no pains to rub it out. One of the Library Keep∣ers observing this, hath reduced it again by paging it a-new; and with a little heeding 'tis yet very legible. The Letter is as fair a square Capital as any I have seen. There are some Interpretations ve∣ry notorious, as about the Descent of the sick Man into the Pool of Bethesda;Page  109which I suppose will be accounted for by the Industrious and Learned Collator.

I observed the China Manuscripts which Father Beauvais brought this year as a Present to the King. They are about 44 Packs of small Books, of a long Quarto fashion, put up in loose Covers of a Pur∣ple Sattin glued on Pastboard; of Natu∣ral History, of Dictionaries relating to the Exposition of their Characters, &c.

The King had a Sett much of the same before in White-Sattin, with their Ti∣tles.

Here also I see the 3d Decade of Livy, a large Quarto in Vellum, without Di∣stinction of Words in fair large Capitals. It is supposed by Monsieur Baluze to be 1100 year old.

Yet the Manuscript of Prudentius Hym∣nes, which was also shewed us, is a much fairer Letter, and therefore thought to be older by one Century at least.

Here also I saw a famous Latin Roll or Volume written of Aegyptian Paper, In∣tituled, Charta Plenariae Securitatis, taken the 38th years of Justinian; it is fanly Ingraved and Interpreted Letter by Letter upon Copper by Monsieur Thevenot. I saw the Print thereof: It is writ long∣ways the Roll and not cross; in three Columns: The Column in the middle is Page  110three times as long as the two end Co∣lumns. The Roll is not above a foot broad.

They shewed us also in this House, the Apartment of Monsieur Hugeins, which was very Noble, and well for Air, upon the Garden: But here he fell Melanchol∣ly, and Died of it in Holland. He shewed the first Tokens of it by playing with a Tame Sparrow, and neglecting his Ma∣thematick Schemes. 'Tis certain, Life and Health of Body and Mind are not to be preserved but by the Relaxation, and un∣bending the Mind by Innocent Diversions. For Sleep is nothing else that I know off, but the giving up the Reins, and letting Nature to Act alone, and to put her in full possession of the Body. We have a convincing instance of this, in being a Bed awake: No Man can lie still 3 Mi∣nutes without turning; and if it come not presently upon us, we must turn a∣gain and again; and at length we be∣come so intolerably weary, that our Bed is a very wrack to us. Whereas, if we chance to fall a sleep, though we lie in one and the same posture 7 hours, we shall Wake fresh and without pain, as tho' the Body did not weigh at all upon it self in Sleep. 'Tis certain, the Nerves and Muscles are in little or no Tension Page  111in Sleep; but when we are awake, are always stretch'd and compressed, whence weariness: which, if upon our Feet or Sitting, we are not sensible off, because we remove quick and with ease, and of course; but laid, we soon find our selves very uneasie, till we change the posture.

But this is not all in the King's Library: There are other things to be seen, viz. A considerable number of Ancient Roman and Aegyptian Antiquities; as, Lamps, Pateras, and other Vessels belonging to the Sacrifices; A Sistrum or Aegyptian Rattle with three loose and running Wires cross it.

Amongst the great variety of Aegyptian Idols, there was one betwixt 2 and 3 foot long of Black Touch-stone, with Hiero∣glyphicks ingraven down before. I took particular notice of the Grain of this Stone; and at my return, having had the Honour of a Paper from Mr. Molyneux from Dublin, giving an account of the vast and stupendious Natural Pillars to be seen in Ireland, and that the Stones or Joints which constitute these Pillars, are of the Lapis Lydius, or Basaltes Kind, ha∣ving seen one of the Joints at Gresham-Colledge, I easily agree with him; but much admire, that the Peble Kind should produce such regular Figures; which is cer∣tainly Page  112the very hardest Stone to be found in Europe, and which no Tool of ours will cut.

This also is another Instance (the carved Oblisks being one) of the diffe∣rent make and goodness of the Aegyptian Chisels, of which, and of the retrieving the ancient Temper of Steel, I have pub∣lisht a Discourse in the Ph. Transactions some years ago.

I should have had more satisfaction in this Kind, had I met with what I ear∣nestly sought for, the Aegyptian Tombs, which were a long time in the Garden of Monsieur Valentine at Paris; but were un∣luckily sent away to his House at Tours, not long before our coming to Paris: One of these Tombs is said to be of black Touchstone, to have been brought out of the higher Aegypt, and to be full of Hie∣rogliphicks. Of this in particular Kircher has written.

There is in this Collection a large Piece of Tin Oar from England, very curious; it has on one side of it a great number of fair and large Opaque Crystals of Tin, shin∣ing like polisht Steel: The plaines of those Crystals I could not easily reckon, but sure I am, having with care examined all the Stone Crystals, I could meet with, both precious and more common, and Page  113also the Crystals of all Fossil Salts, I ne∣ver before observed that figure in any of them, but believe them of a peculiar na∣ture, proper to Tin Oar. I call them Crystals, though Opaque, because angu∣lar and of one constant figure.

*I was at the Colledge of Clermont with Pere Hardouin; he shewed me the Library with great Civility; it consists of two long Galleries; The Galleries are well furnisht with Books, having Lights only on one side, and the Windows are not over large; with Tables under each Light, very commodiously placed for Writing and Reading. Also certain Closets for Manuscripts, and others for forbidden Books. In this he shewed a great Col∣lection of Jansenius's Original Letters. In the other a Greek manuscript of the Prophets, of Eusebius's own Hand Writ∣ing; it was in Capitals, but of a diffe∣rent Character from any I had seen; The Letters very erect, but something thinner, and not so square.

Also a Vulgar Latin in Capitals, very Ancient.

I told him I was well pleased with his Plinie in usum Delphini; and that it was to the Honour of the French Nation to have laboured more particularly upon that Page  114Author; Delachampius first, then Salma∣sius's Exercitationes Plinianae; and lastly, this his most Elegant Edition.

The Books are well disposed under Gilt Titles, as Medici in Folio, and over-against them, where the Windows will permit, the Medici in Quarto; in the o∣ther Galley runs a Balustrade, within which are plac't the Octavo's and Twelves.

At one end of the upper Gallery is a very large Tableau, an Original of Ni∣colo, of the Massacer of Agamenon; in it there is this commendable, That in such a horrid Fury, and such variety of Mur∣ders in half naked Figures, no one inde∣cent posture is to be seen.

Pere Hardouin seemed to doubt of the Inscription of Palmyra put out by M. Spone; That the Greek was faulty, and the Syriac very questionable. I told him we had had it lately Copied, carefully and truly by one at Rome; Which took away his Ob∣jection of the multiplicity of Letters.

Both he and Valliant agreed, that they had never seen any Medal of Odenatus. He very obligingly answered my Memoir about Palmyra, Zenobia, and Vabalathus, with a Transcript of all the Coins he had seen, and had in his possession; which follows.

Page  115
    Nummi Zenobiae.
  • ϹΕΠΤΙΜΙΑ ΖΗΝΟΒΙΑ ϹΕΒ. ℞. Spes. est apud Seguinum, p. 62.
  • Odenati nullum vidi, nisi apud Occonem, nullum Palmyrenum.
  • Vabalathi apud Dom. Foucault rei aerariae ac judi∣ciariae Praefectum in Neustria inferiore.
  • Α. Κ. Λ. ΑΟΜ. ΑΥΡΗΛΙΑΝΟϹ. ϹΕΒ. capite lau∣reato. Sub ipsum Aureliani mentum litera L. absque anni numero.
  • ℞. ΑΥΤ. ΕΡΜΙΑϹ ΟΥΑΒΑΛΑΘΟϹ ΑΘΗ∣ΝΟΥ. capite radiato.
  • ℞. ΑΥΓ. Κ. Λ. Δ. ΑΥΡΗΛΙΑΝΟϹ. ϹΕΒ. capite laureato. L. A.
  • ℞. ΑΥΤ. ΕΡΜΙΑϹ. ΟΥΑΒΑΛΑΘΟϹ. ΑΘΗ. capite diademate L. Δ.
  • ΑΥΤ. Κ. Λ. Δ. ΑΥΡΗΛΙΑΝΟϹ ϹΕΒ. capite lau∣reato. L. B.
  • ℞. ΑΥΓ. ΕΡΜΙΑϹ. ΟΥΑΒΑΛΑΘΟϹ. ΑΘΗ∣ΝΟΥ. capite diademate. L. E.
  • IMP. C. AURELIANVS AVG. capite radiato.
  • ℞. VABALATHVS VCRIMPR. alii male VCRIMOR. sic olim interpretatus sum. Vice Caesaris, rector imperii Romani.
  • IMP. C. VHABALATHVS AVG. capite radiato.
  • ℞. VICTORIA AVG. victoria gestat palmam & coronam.

Page  116*The Library of the Grand Jesuits, near the Gate St. Antoine, is a very fair Gal∣lery of great length and breadth, and well furnisht with Books, on the very top of the House: They find, that Books keep much drier and sweeter there, than in lower Rooms, besides the advantage of a clear Sky-light.

P. Daniel is Library Keeper; and was very Civil to me; he shewed me a Letter, which he had just then received from Mons. Huetius, the Learned Bishop of d'Auranches near Mont St. Michaels in Nor∣mandy; wherein he told him, that ha∣ving lately received the Catalogues of Books Printed in Holland and England, during the War; he found, that Learn∣ing was much alike at a kind of stand in Holland and France; but, that it had yet life and vigour in England, which he re∣joiced at.

And, indeed, I had had the same thought from more of the French before. Even the Jesuits themselves will be little considered, if Learning fall into neglect and disgrace. Oratory ceased with the Commonwealth of Rome; and so will all sorts of Learning without Emulation and Rewards.

Page  117He shewed me P. de la Chaise's Cabinet of Medals.

Also a Vestal of Copper found at Dee in the Country of le Forest.

Also a very intire Loaf or Roman 10 Pound weight of Red Copper, on which was inscribed Deae. Sec. P. X.

Also a square Stone Urn, or small Tomb, well Carved, and Inscribed.

D. M.

*I saw the Quire of the Abbey of St. Germains, and the Altar near the lower end of it; in which Position also I re∣member to have seen an Altar in the Quire of St. John's Church at Lions; both plain Tables. Mons. l'Abbe de Vil∣liers, who has an Apartment in the Con∣vent, a Learned Man, went with me, and to the Library also; which is two large Galleries well furnisht; at the end of one of them is a large Closet of Ma∣nuscripts; also another Armoir in the great Library, where the most ancient Page  118Manuscripts are kept, yet with more care. In this I saw the Psalter, as it is believed, of St. Germain, who lived in the 6th Century; it is certainly very an∣cient; being a large Quarto of fine purple Velom, and on it are writ the Psalms in large Capital Letters, with Comma's or Points. The Letters seem to have been of Silver; and the great Initial Capitals of Gold.

They shew also a Psalter in the short Notes of Tyro, Tullius's Libertus; with a Discourse concerning the use of such Short Hand in the beginning of the Ma∣nuscript; it was writ very fair on Ve∣lom, with red Ink, as I remember.

The Codicils or Waxen Table Books of the Ancients; which were thin Ce∣dar Boards about 14 inches long, and 5 broad, 6 or 8 of them glued together by Shreds of Parchmen; The Rims were a little raised, with a flat and broad Bor∣der, the better to preserve the black Wax, which was spread over them. I saw more of these afterwards in the King's Library; and by the Letter it is manifest, they were in use much later, than I could have imagined. This here was in Latin, and I could read here and there a Word, for the ground was much torn up, as Pro duobus Falconibus, &c. The Style or Steel Page  119Pen had cut through in many places; so that with a good Eye-glass I could see the board bare. I take this past to be no∣thing else, but what the Etchers in Copper use at this day to cover their Plates with, to defend from the Aqua-fortis; which is a Composition of Bitumen and Bees Wax.

Here also I saw a Manuscript of 3 or 4 Leaves written upon true Aegyptian Paper, in which with an Eye-glass 'twas easie to discern, how the flags were dis∣posed, length-ways and a-cross, one o∣ver another. The Letters which re∣mained, which were but few, were large and fair square Capitals. This Fragment I take to be the most ancient Writing they have.

*I Visited in this Convent, at his Cham∣ber, Pere Mabillon, who has so well de∣served of the Commonwealth of Learn∣ing by his Writings, and particularly that Excellent Book De re Diplomaticâ; he seemed to me to be a very good Na∣tured and Free-hearted Man; and was very well pleased to hear, that our Ca∣talogue of English Manuscripts was so forward in the Press at Oxford. He thankfully owned the favour of the Cot∣ton Library; and was very sorry to hear of Dr. Bernard's Death, of whom he Page  120spoke very kindly; but he expressed a wonderful Esteem for Dr. Gale, the Dean of York.

In another Conversation I had with P. Mabillon, (for he was my Neighbour, and I was often with him) telling him the Account we had brought us of Palmyra, and the Tracts that were writ of it, and that more was intended to be pub∣lisht about it, he was much concerned, that those Accounts, which were pure Matters of Learning in general, were written in English; and he told me, he was afraid it might be with us, as it was with them, since they cultivated their own Language so much, they began to neglect the ancient Tongues, the Greek and Latin.

He shewed me certain Figures not ill taken with Red Chalk, of some very an∣cient Monuments observed by some of the Fathers of their Order; one of which was present in the Chamber, upon the Mountain of Framond near Salme, which lies in the middle of that Tract of the Mountain, called La Vauge, betwixt Al∣sace and Lorraine. There were great Re∣mains of an ancient City. These Fi∣gures which the Fathers shewed me, were about 12 in all; but 5 or 6 of them were of Mercury; and Cock at his Foot; a Chla∣mysPage  121knotted upon the Right Shoulder, hanging at his Back; his Hair laid in curles about his Face, and tied with a Ribban, whose two ends might be seen on the top of his Head, like Horns; a Caduceus in his Hand, which was very differently represented in all the Figures of him; sometimes held up, othertimes the point resting at his Feet; sometimes the Snakes were twisted about a Stick; and again in others without one, or the Designer had taken no notice of it; some∣times the Tail of the Serpents spread and flying about, and again in others close twisted with many braids; a Girdle came round the bottom of his Belly, and which had in the middle of it two Rings, one fastned to the other, and hanging be∣twixt his Legs. These many Statues of Mercury in a French Country are a con∣firmation of what Caesar says of the Reli∣gion of the Gaules, in his 6th Book, Deum maxime Mercurium colunt: hujus sunt pluri∣ma simulacra, &c.

There were some few Roman Letters on some of them, which were so imperfect that I could make nothing of them.

*The Library of St. Genevieue is a very large and fair Gallery, upon the very top of the House, well stored with Books on Page  122both sides up to the top, and kept in Cases wired with Brass; which is a good secu∣rity, and hinders not the Books from be∣ing seen.

Also it is adorned with fair Busto's of the ancient Men of Learning.

The Musaeum is a little Closet on the side of this Gallery; of which there is a Book lately publisht: I saw in it very little of Natural History, that was re∣markable. They keep half a dozen Joints of a large Cornu Ammonis, which they shew as a rarity. But it is well stored with ancient Idols, and Sacrificing Vessels, Lacrymatoirs, Pateras, Strigils; also an∣cient Weights and Measures; Coins, and particularly the As, and its first and latter Divisions.

There we saw an ancient As, with Etruscan Letters of a kind of red Copper; The Letters seem to be a-kin to the old Greek Characters. These are the Capital Letters about the Coin going round, and bringing every Letter before you. See Table 1. Figure 2.

As quasi Aes; This is very reasonable, for before the Greeks had invented double Letters, the Romans were skilled in their Writing. So Vitruvius tells us Aerugo was in the Hetruscan Tongue called Eruca; Whence undoubtedly by Translation the Page  123common Caterpillar had its Name, from its blueness; which also is an evidence, that the Tuscan Writing was in the old Greek Character.

But nothing pleased me more than to have seen the Remains of the Cabinet of the Noble Pieresc. the greatest and heartiest Maecenas to his power of Learned Men of any of this Age.

Amongst the first and very old Brass Roman Coins there was a Sextans with a Caduceus of Mercury on one side, and a Scallop Shell on the other; probably, be∣cause they might have at first had the use of Shell Money, as some parts of both the Indies and Africa have at this day, till Mercury, whose Emblem that Staff is, taught them the use of Metallic Money.

Also in this Cabinet are Wet Mea∣sures, as the Ancient Congius, of which they have an old one, and an exact Co∣py of that of the Capitol; also a Sextarius, and a Quartarius. Now the Congius con∣taining 120 Ounces The Sextarius 20 Ounces; The Hemina 10 Ounces; The Quartarius 5 Ounces, I doubt not but the Cyathus, by reason of the aforesaid Divisi∣on, held two Ounces and an half; which is the Measure so frequently to be met with in old Physic Authors, and of so great concern in Doses.

Page  124In that Hetruscan As before-mentioned, one Cap coifs or covers the double head of Janus. I saw an ancient Statue of Mercury in the Garden belonging to the Kings Library in Paris, where Mercury has upon his Head a long Cap doubled, or laid double upon his Head, as though there were some affinity betwixt those two Inventors of Trade, Arts and Learning.

Here also we saw the Steel Dyes of the Paduan Brothers, by which they stampt and falsified the best ancient Medals so well, that they are not to be distinguisht but by putting them into those Molds; which makes them very valuable, there being a 100 and more of them, and are prised at 10000 Crowns. They Stampt upon old Medals, whereby the Cheat was the greater; for by this means they were of the ancient Mettal, had the green Coat, and the same ragged Edges.

I saw a Picture here of about 6 inches over, finely painted in Mosaic, the very little squares were scarce visible to the naked Eye, but the whole appeared like the finest Hatchings in Stampes; yet by the application of a good Eye-glass, I could readily distinguish the squares of all colours, as in other Mosaiques. This sort of Painting had a very admirable effect, besides the duration.

Page  125Here was also the Leg of a Mummi well preserv'd, the Toes only bare, black and shining as Pitch: The Bandage was very curious and was disposed in Oblique Circles, Decussated; but the Fillating very narrow. I told the Father, that this was still Flesh; and that Mummie therefore in Venice-Treacle did break Lent, if given at that time; He answered, he did not believe it: I told him how he should be convinced, viz. If that Leg was kept a good while in a damp Cellar, it would yield and stink like very Carrion, tho' it was at least 3000 years old; which thing happened to one in London, so carelesly laid by.

There was one thing very curious, and that was an Ancient Writing Instrument of thick and strong Silver-Wire, wound up like a hollow Bottom or Screw; with both the Ends pointing one way, and at a distance; so that a Man might easily put his Fore-Finger betwixt the two Points, and the Screw fills the Ball of his Hand. One of the Points was the Point of a Bodkin, which was to Write on Waxed Tables: The other Point was made very Artificially, like the Head and Upper-Beak of a Cock, and the Point divided in two, just like our Steel-Pens; from whence undoubtedly the Moderns had Page  126their Patterns; which are now made al∣so of fine Silver and Gold, or Princes Mettal; all which yet want a Spring, and are therefore not so useful as of Steel, or a Quill: But a Quill soon spoils; Steel is undoubtedly the best, and if you use China Ink, the most lasting of all Inks, it never rusts the Pen, but rather pre∣serves it with a kind of Varnish which dries upon it, though you take no care in wiping it.

*I saw the Library of the late Monsieur Colbert, that great Patron of Learning. The Gallery wherein the Printed Books are kept, is a Ground-Room, with Win∣dows on one side only, a-long a fine Gar∣den. It is the neatest Library in Paris, very large, and exceedingly well furnisht. At the upper-end is a fair Room, where∣in the Papers of State are kept; particu∣larly those of the Administration of Car∣dinal Mazarine, and his own Accounts when he was in Employment: These make up many hundred Folio's, finely Bound in Red Maroquin and Gilt.

The Manuscript Library is above∣stairs, in three Rooms, and is the choicest of that kind in Paris: It contains 6610 Volumes. The Catalogue of them Mon∣sieur Page  127Balure shewed me; which he said was designed shortly for the Press.

He shewed me many rare Books, Caro∣lus Calvus's Bible, a vast Folio in Vellum, and his Prayer Book or Hours, all writ in Gold Letters.

Also the Missa Beati Rhenani, whereof all the Copies were burnt but four. The Original Deed of the Agreement of the Greek and Roman Church at Florence. The Regalia agreed upon at Lyons, and many others which I have forgot.

I saw neither Greek nor Latin Manu∣script but what had the Marks of the Goths upon them: that is, the Letters maimed, and consequently not very An∣cient.

He shewed us Servieto's Book, for which he was Burnt at Geneva; which cost Mon∣sieur Colbert at an Auction in England, 25 Crowns. The Title is, De Trinitatis Er∣roribus Libri 7. per Michaelam Serveto alias Reves ab Aragonia Hispanum 1531. I had forgot the particular place where the Circulation of the Blood through the Lungs is mentioned: but he told me very Civilly, I should have it Transcribed at any time.

We told him, we came to see him as well as the Library: He replied, It was his hap to have more Reputation than Page  128Merit. He was a little old Man, but very chearful and of a quick Wit.

He complained much of the Refusal of the Emperor's People concerning the Manuscripts of Vienna, in order to the publication of the Capitulaires: For he said, Letters were never at War: That for his part he had most willingly given leave for at least Twenty four Manu∣scripts to be Collated for Dr. Mill's Edi∣tion of the Testament.

*The Library of the Sorbonne is a very long and large Gallery, reasonable well stored with Books; no Catalogue Prin∣ted.

Amongst the Manuscripts, they shew, Titus Livy in French, upon Vellum, in a very large Folio, Bound in two Books: The first is almost throughout Illuminated with very fine Miniatures. The Book is Dedicated to King John, by Pelon. Bercho∣rius: And in the Title Page is a very cu∣rious Design of that King receiving the Present from the Author of the Transla∣tion.

Amongst the Illuminations and Orna∣mental Pictures in the Margent, I could not but take notice of a Brass Cannon fired, well Painted, with two large Arms or Gudgeons, one on each side near the Page  129Touch-hole; which Evinces Cannon to have been in use at that time.

This Manuscript confirms the loss of Titus Livy, and that it was deficient in that Age, as to what is now wanting, there being nothing more in this than what is in the Printed Copy. This was the Gift of Cardinal Richlieu to the Li∣brary; who in a manner Rebuilt the whole College, and Beautified it as it is. His Tomb is in the middle of the Quire, before the great Altar, in White Marble; and is for plainness and exquisite Perfor∣mance, the best thing of that kind I ever saw.

*I see the Library of St. Victor: This most Antient Convent is the best seated of any in Paris; has very large Gardens, with shady Walks, well kept. The Li∣brary is a fair and large Gallery: It is open three days a week, and has a range of double Desks quite through the mid∣dle of it, with Seats and Conveniencies of Writing for 40 or 50 People.

The Catalogue was not finisht, nor in∣tended to be Printed; which yet I think is always necessary in all Corporations, for check of loss of Books, for the use of Strangers, for Benefactions.

Page  130In a part of it, at the upper end, are kept the Manuscripts; they are said to be 3000; which though not very Ancient, have yet been found very useful for the most correct Editions of many Authors. This is one of the pleasantest Rooms that can be seen, for the Beauty of its Pro∣spect, and the Quiet and Freedom from Noise in the middle of so great a City.

In this Convent is very prettily lodged, in an outward Court, Monsieur Morin, another Physitian of that Name. In his Apartment, he hath a large and excellent Collection of Physick Books and Natural History. He Saluted me with the greatest Kindness imaginable; and at first word, ask'd me, If there was any more of Sir Francis Willoughby's Works Printed be∣sides his History of Fishes, and that other of Birds; both which he had. He had in another Room a well stored Musaeum of Natural History, of all sorts, and of comparative Anatomies: A Cabinet of Shells, another of Seeds, among which were some from China: Variety of Ske∣letons, &c.

*I saw the Celestins. The Library is an Upper-Gallery, very pleasant, and plen∣tifully furnisht with Books. This is a Page  131very fine Convent; with the noblest Dor∣toire, having open Galleries round: also, very large Gardens, with Alleys and shady Groves; and divers Kitchin-Gardens, well Cultivated. Also a Vineyard of White-Wine Grapes, well kept; which is the only thing of that Kind within the Walls of Paris.

Here I also saw the Closet or Cell of P. Hochereau; who had a very choice Collection of Original Paintings, of very many of the best Masters: Amongst the rest, I took notice of the Originals of Rambrant, excellent Pieces, St. Peter and the Cock: The Nativity of our Saviour: And, The Massacre of the Innocents. His Co∣louring is not to be imitated: his Inven∣tion great and natural, and the Design most correct.

*I was to Visit Pere Mallebranche of the Fathers of the Oratory: They live very neatly together in a kind of Commu∣nity, but under no Rule: He was very handsomely lodged, in a Room well furnisht: He is a very tall, lean man, of a ready Wit and chearful Con∣versation.

Page  132After an hours discourse, he carried me into the Publick Library of the House: A fair Gallery well lighted, and well fur∣nisht with Books; with an Apartment at the upper end for Manuscripts, where were many Greek and Hebrew. Amongst the rest, the Library-Keeper shewed us the Samaritan Pentateuch, of which Morin made use. It seemed to me to be much later than that of Sir John Cotton's Libra∣ry with us, because it was of a much smaller Letter, and more broken in the Writing, which was all I am capable to judge by.

They were busie in Reforming the Disposition of the Library; and making a good Catalogue, according to the Me∣thod of the late Archbishop of Rheims; and which I like well of, they had drawn out some Hundreds of Books, and exposed them in the middle of the Li∣brary, upon a long Table, for Sale, as being Duplicates; and from the Sale of them to furnish themselves with what they wanted.

The Books which were written by Protestants, I observed, they were lockt up in Wired Cases, not to be come at without particular leave.

Page  133The Freedom and Nature of this Order puts me in mind of what I heard of a certain rich and learned Man, Monsieur Pinet, of the Law; who put himself at length into Religion, as they say, amongst the Fathers; but first persuaded his Cook to do so too; for he was resolved not to quit his good Soupes, and such Dishes as he liked, whatever became of his Penance and Retirement. This Compliment the Elegant and Learned Monsieur Peletier, in Monsieur Colbert's place, Controller Gene∣ral of the Finances, made his Guests at his Country House near Choisy, having voluntarily quitted all his Imployments at Court: He said, He reserved his Cook, tho' he retrencht the rest of his Retinue; they might therefore expect a slender Phi∣losophers Dinner, tho' well drest.

It is wonderful to consider how most of the rest of the Orders abuse themselves for God's Sake, as they call it. Hunger and Ill-Diet not only destroys a Man's Health, but Maugre all his Devotion, puts him out of Humour, and makes him Repine and Envy the rest of Man∣kind; and well if it do not make him also Curse in his Heart his Maker; Job is not every Man's Roll to Act. The Original and Rise of Natural Philosophy Page  134and Physick was to Invent a more whol∣some and better Food, than the Beasts have, and to Eat Bread and Flesh instead of Herbs and Corn; to Drink Wine in∣stead of Water; those, and a thousand other things were the Blessings of Physick, and still the good management of these things, both in Health and Sickness, are under the Directions of the Physitians. Now for a sort of Melancholly and Willful Men, to renounce these Comforts, and destroy their Healths, and all this upon a pretended Principle of Religion and De∣votion, seems to me, I confess, great In∣gratitude to God the Author of it.

Indeed, I heartily pitied F. P. an in∣dustrious honest Man, after his return from the Indies, who was nothing but Skin and Bone; and yet by the Rules of his Order he could not Eat any thing that was wholsome and proper for his Cure; nothing but a little slimy nasty Fish and Herbs: And tho' he took, as he told me, Hypocochoana five times, it had no effect upon him. 'Tis true, I never heard him complain; But what will not blind prejudice do against all the Reason of Mankind.

Page  135I know some of these Men have been useful to Mankind by their Studies; but the very same men would have been much more, had they staid with their Neighbours, and Taught the World by their Conversation and Example; Wis∣dom, and Justice, and Innocence, and Temperance, which they highly pretend to, are not things to be hid in Corners, but to be brought forth to Instruct and Adorn the Age we live in: To abandon the World, and all the Conveniencies of Life and Health, is (let them say what they please) the height of Chagrin, and not Religion.

There were some other Publick Libra∣ries I saw, as that of the Grands Augu∣stins, Colledge Mazarin, Colledge Navarre, and great many more I did not see for want of an opportunity; but there is nothing particular I remember about them.

There is such a passion of setting up for Libraries, that Books are come to most unreasonable Rates.

I paid to Anisson 36 Livres for Nizo∣lius; 20 Livres for the Two small Quar∣to's of the Memoirs of the Academie de Sciences, that is, as I may say, for two years Philosophick Transactions; for they began those Monthly Memoirs in Page  136imitation of ours, out of the Registers of the Academy, but did not think fit to continue them above two years.

As to Stamps, I had a mind to have bought a compleat Set of Melans, that in∣comparable Master; but I was askt 200 Livres, and 12 excepted, which might amount to as much more; for some of his Gravings in Octavo done at Rome, they askt me a Pistol a-piece; and for the Head of Justinianus a Louis; which yet is his Master-piece.

I was at an Auction of Books in the Ruë St. Jaques, where were about 40 or 50 People, most Abbots and Monks. The Books were sold with a great deal of trifling and delay as with us, and very dear; for Hispania illustrata Aud. Sciotti, of the Francfort Edition, from 20 Livres, at which it was set, they bid up by little and little to 36 Livres; at which it was sold. The next was a Catalogue of French Books in a thin Fol. in an old Parchment Cover by De la Croix de Maine, 8 Livres. And so I left them to shift it amongst themselves.

After having said so much of the Pub∣lick Libraries, I cannot but congratulate their happiness, to have them so well se∣cured from Fire; it being one of the Perfections of this City to be so built and Page  137furnisht, as not to have suffered by it these many Ages; and, indeed, I cannot see how Malice it self could destroy them, for the Houses here are all built of Stone, Walls, Floors, Staircases and all, some few Rooms excepted; no Wainscot; Woollen or Silk Hangings, which can∣not be fired without giving notice by the intolerable stench, and the supply of much Fuel. 'Tis well for us in London, that there are very few publick Libraries, and those small and inconsiderable, and that the great number of Books are di∣stributed into a thousand hands, (no Country in Europe can compare to us for private Libraries) for if they were toge∣ther in such vast quantities as in Paris, Learning would run the hazard of daily suffering. Here with us, me-thinks, every Man that goes to Bed, when a∣sleep, lies like a dead Roman upon a Fu∣neral Pile, dreading some unexpected Apo∣theosis; for all is combustible about him, and the Paint of the Deal Boards may serve for Incense, the quicker to burn him to Ashes.

In the next place I will Account for what I saw, that seemed to me singular and new in the Improvement of Arts, or wanting in our Country.

Page  138*I saw the Potterie of St. Clou, with which I was marvellously well pleased, for I confess I could not distinguish be∣twixt the Pots made there, and the finest China Ware I ever saw. It will, I know, be easily granted me, that the Paintings may be better designed and finisht, (as indeed it was) because our Men are far better Masters in that Art, than the Chi∣neses; but the Glazing came not in the least behind theirs, not for whiteness, nor the smoothness of running without Bubles; again, the inward Substance and Matter of the Pots was, to me, the very same, hard and firm as Marble, and the self same grain, on this side vitrification. Farther, the Transparency of the Pots the very same.

I see them also in the Mold, undried, and before the Painting and Glazing was applied, they were as white as Chalk, and melted upon the Tongue like raw To∣bacco Pipe Clay, and felt betwixt the Teeth soft like that, and very little grit∣ty; so that I doubt not, but they are made of that very Clay.

As to the Temper of the Clay, the Man freely owned to me, it was 3 or 4 times well beaten and wet, before it was put to work on the Wheel; but I believe Page  139it must first be melted in fair Water, and carefully drawn off, that the heaviest part may first sink; which also may be proper for Courser Works.

That it required two, and sometimes 3 or 4 Fires to bake it, to that height we saw it in the most finisht Pots: Nay, some of them had had 11 Fires.

I did not expect to have found it in this perfection, but imagined this might have arrived at the Gomron Ware; which is, indeed, little else, but a total Vitrifi∣cation; but I found it far otherwise, and very surprising, and which I account part of the felicity of the Age to equal, if not surpass the Chineses in their finest Art.

As for the Red Ware for China, that has been, and is done in England, to a far greater perfection than in China, we ha∣ving as good Materials, viz. the Soft Hae∣matites, and far better Artists in Pottery. But in this particular we are beholding to two Dutchmen Brothers, who wrought in Staffordshire, (as I have been told) and were not long since at Hammersmith.

They sold these Pots at St. Clou at ex∣cessive Rates; and for their ordinary Cho∣colate Cups askt Crowns a-piece. They had arrived at the Burning on Gold in neat Chequer Works. He had some Fur∣nitures of Tea Tables at 400 Livres a Sett.

Page  140There was no Molding or Model of China Ware, which they had not imitat∣ed; and had added many Fancies of their own, which had their good effects, and appeared very beautiful.

Mons. Morin in Conversation told me, that they kept their Sand as a Secret to themselves; but this could not be for o∣ther purposes than Colouring: Also he said they used Salt of Kelp in the Com∣position, and made a thing not unlike Frit for Glass to be wrought up with White Clay; neither could this be, for I did not taste it in the Raw Pots.

The Ingenuous Master told me, he had been 25 years about the Experiment, but had not attained it fully, till within this 3 years.

*The Glass-house out of the Gate of St. Antoine well deserves seeing; but I did lament the Fondery was no longer there, but removed to Cherborne in Nor∣mandy for cheapness of Fuel. 'Tis cer∣tainly a most considerable addition to the Glass-making. For I saw here one Looking-glass foiled and finisht, 88 inches long, and 48 inches broad; and yet but one quarter of an inch thick. This, I think, could never be effected by the Blast of any Man; but I suppose to be Page  141run or cast upon Sand, as Lead is; which yet, I confess, the toughness of Glass Mettal makes very much against.

There they are polished; which Im∣ploys daily 600 Men, and they hope in a little time to employ a 1000 in several Galleries. In the lower they grind the course Glass with a Sand Stone, the very same they Pave the Streets in Paris; of which broken they have great heaps in the Courts of the Work-houses: This Stone is beat to Powder, and sifted through a fine Tamis. In the Upper Gallery, where they polish and give the last Hand, they work in 3 Rowes, and 2 Men at a Plate, with Ruddle or Powdered Haematites in Water.

The Glasses are set fast in White Puttie, upon flat Tables of Stone, sawed thin for that purpose. The grinding the Edges and Borders is very troublesome, and odious for the horrid grating noise it makes, and which cannot be endured to one that is not used to it; and yet by long custom these Fellows are so easie with it, that they Discourse together as nothing were. This is done below, and out of the way of the rest.

'Tis very diverting to see the joint La∣bour of so many Men upon one Subject. This has made Glass for Coaches very Page  142cheap and common; so that even many of the Fiacres or Hackneys, and all the Remises have one large Glass before.

*Amongst the Bïoux made at Paris, a great quantity of Artificial Pearl is to be had, of divers sorts; but the best are those which are made with Scales of Bleakes. These Bleaks they fish in the River Seine at Paris, and sell them to the Pearl-makers for that purpose.

Mons. Favi, at the Pearle d'Angleterre, told me, that he paid for the Fish only of the little River Yier of Ville Neuve St. George, 4 Leagues off of Paris, by the year 110 Pistols. This Fish in French is called De la Bellette: Sometimes in Win∣ter he has had 30 Hampers of the Fish brought him, for the Scales only which he uses in Pearl-making. He sells some Strings for a Pistol; and they have for∣merly been sold much dearer. This sort is very neat and lasting.

Enquiring of a Goldsmith, a great Dealer in Pearl, about those which were made of the Scales of Fishes, he told me, that it was so; That the Scales were beat to Powder, and that made into a Liquid Past with Icing-glass, and cast into the hollow Glass Beads, and so gave the co∣lour by way of foil from the inside.

Page  143I askt him, if he had any Fresh Wa∣ter and Muscle Pearl; and he forthwith shewed me one of 23 Grains, of a blush colour or faint Cornation, perfectly glo∣bular; he told me, he valued it at 400 l. for that it would mix or match better with the Oriental Sea Pearl, than the bluish ones. Further, he assured me he had seen Pearl of 60 odd Grains of Fresh Water Muscles; and some Pear fashion∣ed. That in Lorrain, and at Sedan, they fisht many Pearls in the Rivers there∣about.

*The formerly so famous a Workhouse, the Goblins, is miserably fallen to decay; perhaps, because the King having fur∣nisht all his Palaces, has little more to do for them.

Here I saw the making Marble Tables, inlaid with all sorts of coloured Stones.

Also the Atteliers or Work-houses of Two of the famous Sculptures Tuby; in which was a Lacoon Copied in White Marble admirably; also that other of Quoisivox, in which was, amongst other rare Pieces, Castor & Pollux, in White Marble, exceeding beautiful and large; a Copy also after the Antique.

Page  144*At Hubins the Eye-maker, I saw Drawers full of all sorts of Eyes, admirable for the contrivance, to match with great ex∣actness any Iris whatsoever: This being a case, where mis-matching is intolerable.

He himself also formerly wrought in false Pearl, and affirmed, that the Glass Pearls were painted within with a Paste made of the Scales of the Bleak only; which he said was a good Trade here to the Fishermen, who sold the Scales for so much the Ounce. These Necklaces were formerly sold at great Prices, 2 or 3 Pi∣stoles a-piece.

*I saw the Platrerie or Plaster Quarries near Montmartre, and the manner of burn∣ing of it. 'Tis burnt with open Fire, set up against it; The hardest Stone is burnt enough in 2 or 3 hours time.

The top Band or Bed is very hard like a Free-stone, they distinguish the Beds by several Names, i. e. 1. Mutton, 2. Lane, 3. Busier, 4. Clikar, 5. Grosban, 6. Pillier noir, &c.

That which they call Lane is like Talke or Selenites transparent, and splits in thin flakes; but there is but little of it, and the Beds are small; This seems to be but a Fluor to the greater Beds of grey Stone. Page  145This Rock is covered with a kind of gray Sand to a great depth; which is not of the nature of Plaster.

Though this Plaster burnt is never used (that I could learn) to fertilize either Corn Ground, or Pasture, as our Limestone is; yet I see no reason, why it may not, it being full of Nitre, if it has lain long in damp Caves.

This is not peculiar to Paris only; for I have seen Quarries of it near Clifford-Moore in Yorkeshire; where it is call'd Hall-Plaster.

*I cannot omit the Mill-stones, which they grind their Wheat with at Paris, as upon the River of the Gobelins out of the Gate St. Bernard, where it falls into the Seine, and all throughout Picardy down to Calais, where I have seen great num∣bers of them.

These Mill-stones are very useful, and so sweet, that not the least grit is ever found in their Bread: They are mostly made up of pieces, 2, 3, or more set to∣gether by a cement, and hooped round with Iron to keep the pieces faster toge∣ther: They are made of a kind of Honey∣comb Stone, wrought by the petrification of Water, or Stalactites. The very self∣same Stone I have seen Rocks of on the Page  146River Banks at Knarsborough, at the Drop∣ping Well in Yorkeshire: therefore I ad∣vise my Countreymen to put these ex∣cellent Stones in practice; for certainly no place stands in more need of it; for the Bread in the North of England is into∣lerably gritty, by reason of those Sand or Moore Stones, with which they grind their Corn.

These Stones are sold at 500 Livres a pair; whence they come I forgot to be informed.

In the next place we will see how the Parisians Eat, Drink, and Divert them∣selves.

Of the Food of the Parisians.

*The Diet of the Parisians consists chief∣ly of Bread and Herbs; it is here, as with us, finer and courser. But the com∣mon Bread, or Pain de Gonesse, which is brought twice a week into Paris from a Village so called, is purely white, and firm and light, and made altogether with Leaven; mostly in 3 Pound Loaves, and 3d. a Pound. That which is Bak'd in Paris is courser and much worse.

As for the fine Manchet, or French Bread, as we call it, I cannot much com∣mend it; it is of late, since the quantity Page  147of Beer that is Brewed in Paris, often so bitter, that it is not to be eaten, and we far exceed them now in this particular in London.

The Gray Salt of France (which there, at Table, is altogether in every thing made use of) is incomparably better and more wholsome than our White Salt. This I the rather mention, because it seems not yet to enter fully into the con∣sideration and knowledge of our People; who are nice in this particular to a fault. But I must take leave to tell them, that our Salt spoils every thing, that is pre∣tended to be preserved by it, be it Fish or Flesh. For whether boiled from the in∣land Salt Pits, or the Sea Water, it is little less than Quicklime, and burns and reeses all it touches; so that 'tis pity to see so much good Fish, as is caught upon the Northern Line of Coast, particularly the God and Ling and Herring, now of little value, which were formerly the most esteemed Commodities of England. 'Tis certain there is no making good Salt by fierce and vehement boiling, as is used; but it must be kerned either by the heat of the Sun, as in France; or by a full and over-weighty Brine, as at Milthrope in the Washes of Lancashire; for in no o∣ther place in England I ever saw it right Page  148made; but yet that is not there under∣stood to purpose, for they also boil the Brine, which possibly by some slight Ar∣tifice might be brought to give its Salt without stress of Fire.

*In Lent the common People feed much on White Kidney Beans, and white or pale Lentils, of which there are great Provisi∣ons made in all the Markets, and to be had ready boiled. I was well pleased with this Lentil; which is a sort of Pulse we have none of in England. There are two sorts of White Lentils sold here; one small one, from Burgundy, by the Cut of Briare; and another bigger, as broad a∣gain from Chartres; A 3d also much larger, is sometimes to be had from Lan∣guedoc. Those excepted, our Seed Shops far exceed theirs, and consequently our Gardens, in the Pulse Kind for variety; both Pea and Bean.

*The Roots differ much from ours. There are here no round Turneps; but all long ones and small; but excellently well tast∣ed, and are of a much greater use, being proper for Soupes also; for which pur∣pose ours are too strong; we have, in∣deed, of late got them into England, but our Gardners understand not the Manag∣ing Page  149of them. They sow them here late after Midsummer; and at Martinmas or sooner, before the Frost begin, they dig them up, cut off the tops, and put them into Sand in their Cellars, where they will keep good till after Easter, nay, till Whitsuntide; Whereas if the Frost take them, they are quite spoilt, and that piece of ill Husbandry makes them to be despised here; having lost their taste, and they soon grow sticky in the Ground. The Sandy Plains of Vaugerard near Pa∣ris, are famous for this sort of most Ex∣cellent Root. After the same manner they keep their Carrets.

After we had been 2 or 3 days Jour∣ney in France, we found no other Tur∣neps but the Navet; and still the nearer Paris the better. These, as I said, are small long Turneps, not bigger than a Knife Haft, and most excellent in Soupes, and with Boiled and Stewed Mutton. I think it very strange, that the Seed should so much improve in England, as to pro∣duce Roots of the same Kind 6 or 10 times as big as there; for I make no que∣stion, but the long Turneps, of late only in our Markets, are the same.

*The Potato are scarce to be found in their Markets, which are so great a Re∣lief Page  150to the People of England, and very nourishing and wholesome Roots; *but there are store of Jerusalem Hartichokes.

*They delight not so much in Cabage, as I expected, at least at the Season while we were there, from December to Mid∣summer. I never saw in all the Markets once Sprouts, that is, the tender Roots of Cabages; nor in their publick Gardens, any Reserves of old Stalks. The Red Ca∣bage is esteemed here, and the Savoy.

But to make amends for this, they a∣bound in vast quantities of large Red O∣nions and Garlick. And the long and sweet White Onion of Languedoc are to be had also here. Also Leeks, Rockam∣boy, and Shallots are here in great use.

It has been observed, that the Nor∣thern People of Europe much delight in Cabage, as the Russes, Poles, Germans, &c. 'Tis certain the Cabage thrives best in cold Countreys, and is naturally a Nor∣thern Plant, and the Keel is to be found wild upon the Maritine Rocks, as I have seen it at Whitby, and the Cold ripens it, and makes it more tender and palata∣ble.

The Southern People are pleased with the Onion Kind, for the same reason, for that the great Heats meliorate them, but Page  151give a rankness to the Cabage. The Leeks are here much smaller than with us; but to recompence this, they are blancht here with more care and art, and are 3 times as long in the white part, which is by sinking them early so deep in mellow Earth. There is no Plant of the Onion Kind so hardy as this, and so proper for the cold Mountains; witness the use the Welsh have made of them from all Ages; and indeed it is excellent against Spitting of Blood, and all Diseases of the Throat and Lungs.

*Though the Lettice be the great and universal Sallet, yet I did not find they came near our People, for the largeness and hardness of them; indeed, about a week before we left Paris, the long Ro∣man Lettice filled their Markets, which was incomparable, and I think beyond our Silesian.

*April and May the Markets were served with vast quantities of White Beets, an Herb rarely used with us, and never that I know of, in that manner for Soupes. The Leaves grow long and large, and are tied up, as we do our Silesian or Roman Lettice to blanch, and then cut by the Root: The Stalks are very broad and Page  152tender, and they only are used, stript of the green Leaves; They Cook those Stalks in different manners.

*The Asparagus here are in great plenty, but for the first month they were very bitter and unpleasant; from whence that proceeded I cannot guess; afterwards I did not much perceive it.

*They are so great Lovers of Sorrel, that I have seen whole Acres of it plant∣ed in the Fields; and they are to be com∣mended for it; for nothing is more whole∣some, and it is good to supply the place of Lemons, against the Scurvy, or any ill habit of the Body.

*But after all, the French delight in no∣thing so much as Mushroomes; of which they have daily, of which they have daily, and all the Winter long, store of fresh and new gathered in the Markets. This surprised me; nor could I guess where they had them, till I found they raised them on hot Beds in their Gardens.

Of Forc't Mushroomes they have many Crops in a year; but for the Months of August, September, October, when they na∣turally grow in the Fields, they prepare no Artificial Beds.

Page  153They make in the Fields and Gardens out of the Bar of Vaugerard (which I saw) long narrow Trenches, and fill those Trenches with Horse Dung 2 or 3 foot thick, on which they throw up the common Earth of the place, and cover the Dung with it, like the ridge of a House, high pitched; and over all they put long Straw or long Horse Litter; *Out of this Earth springs the Champignons, after Rain, and if Rain comes not, they Water the Beds every day, even in Winter.

They are 6 days after their springing, or first appearance, before they pull them up for the Market.

On some Beds they have plenty, on others but few, which demonstrate they come of Seed in the Ground; for all the Beds are alike.

A Gardner told me, he had the other year near an Acre of Ground ordered in this manner, but he lost a 100 Crowns by it; but mostly they turn to as good profit, as any thing they can plant.

They destroy their old Beds in Sum∣mer, and dung their Grounds with them.

Page  154They prepare their new Beds the lat∣ter end of August, and have plentiful Crops of Mushrooms towards Christmas, and all the Spring, till after March.

*I saw in the Markets the beginning of April, fresh gathered Moriglio's, the first of that Kind of Mushroom, that I re∣member ever to have seen; though for∣merly I had been very curious and in∣quisitive about this Kind of Plant, and had distinguisht and described 30 Species of them growing in England, yet I do not remember ever to have found this Species with us; it is blackish, and be∣comes much blacker, when boiled, whence probably it had its Name; but there are some few of them that are yellow. They are always of a round Pyramidal Figure, upon a short thick Foot-stalk; The Foot∣stalk is smooth, but the outside of the Mushroom is all deeply pleated and wrinkled like the inside of a Beasts Maw. The Moriglio split in two from top to bottom is all hollow and smooth, Foot, stalk, and all. In this hollowness is some∣times contained dangerous Insects. The taste raw is not ungrateful, and very tender. This Mushroom seems to me to be produced of the Tree Kind.

Page  155This sort of Mushroom is much e∣steemed in France, and is mostly gather∣ed in Woods at the foot of the Oaks; There were some of them as big as Turky Eggs. They are found in great quantities in the Woods in Champagne, about Reims, and Nostre Dame de Liesse.

They string them, and dry them; and they seem to me to have a far better relish than the Champignons.

The French say there are no bad Mo∣riglio's; but there are bad Mushrooms. At first I was very shie of eating them; but by degrees, and that there was scarce any Ragouts without them, I became pleased with them, and found them very innocent. I am persuaded the harm that comes from eating them, is from the noxious Insects and Vermin that feed upon them, and creep into them; I have often found them full of such Animals. Possibly the Garden or forc't Mushrooms, being that is done in Winter, and in the Spring, may be much freer of this mischief, at what time Insects are dead, or not much stirring, than the wild Mushrooms of August.

*This City is well served with Carp, of which there is an incredible quantity spent in the Lent; They are not large, and Page  156I think are the better for it, but they are very clean of Mud, and well tasted.

They have a particular way of bring∣ing fresh Oysters to Town, which I never saw with us; To put them up in Straw Baskets of a Pecke suppose, cut from the Shell, and without the Liquor; They are thus very good for Stewing, and all other manner of Dressing.

There is such plenty of Macreuse, a sort of Sea Ducks, in the Markets all Lent, that I admire where they got so many; but these are reckoned and e∣steemed as Fish, and therefore they take them with great Industry; They have a rank fishy taste, yet for want of other Flesh were very welcome. I remember we had at our Treat at the King's Charge at Versailles a Macreuse Pye near two foot diameter, for it was in Lent; which be∣ing high Seasoned, did go down very well with rare Burgundy. There is a better Argument in Leewenhoeke for Birds participating something of the nature of Fish, though their Blood is hot, than any the Council of Trent could think of, and that is, that the Globuli of the Blood of Birds are Oval, as those of Fishes are; but this will take in all the Bird Kind; which also in time those Gentlemen may think fit to grant.

Page  157*As for their Flesh, Mutton and Beef, if they are good in their Kind, they come little short of ours, I cannot say they exceed them. But their Veal is not to be compared with ours, being red and course; and I believe no Countrey in Europe understands the Management of that sort of Food like the English. This was once proper to Essex; but now it is well known, that nothing contributes more to the whiteness and tenderness of the Flesh of Calves, than often Bleeding them, and giving them much Food of Milk and Meal, besides sucking the Dam. By much Bleeding the red Cake of the Blood is exhausted, and becomes all White Serum or Chyle. The same effect Cramming hath upon Poultry, so as the Blood is well near all Chyle; and the Livers of Geese so fed by force, will be∣come, for the same reason, vastly great, and white and delicious.

I cannot but take notice here of a great Prejudice the French lie under, in relation to our Flesh; 'Tis generally said amongst them, that our Meat in England will not make so strong Broth, as the French, by a third part. If they say, not so salt and savoury, and strong tasted, I agree with them; and yet the French Meat Page  158is never the better. For first their Meat is mostly leaner and more dry, and (which is all in all in this matter of Soupes) is long kept before it be spent, which gives it a higher and salter taste; for as Meat rots, it becomes more urinous and salt. Now our People by custom, covet the freshest Meat, and cannot indure the least tendency to putrefaction; and we have good reason to do so, because our Air is twice as moist as theirs, which does often cause in the keeping of Meat a Mustiness, which is intolerable to all Mankind; whereas the Air of France be∣ing so much drier, keeping of Meat, not only makes it tender, but improves the taste. So that could we secure our Meat, in keeping it from that unsavoury qua∣lity, it would far outdo the French Meat, because much more juicy.

I don't remember I eat of above two sorts of Flesh, but what we have as good or better in England, and that was of the Wild Pigs; and the Redleg'd Partridge. Of these last I eat at St. Clou, taken there∣abouts; as to bigness; they are much de∣generated from those in Languedoc, and less; but far excel the gray Partridge in taste.

Page  159*As for their Fruits our Journey was in the worst time of the year, from De∣cember to Midsummer, so that we had little save Winter Fruits; some few Bon Chri∣tiens we tasted, not much better than ours, but something freer of Stones; the Virguleus Pears were admirable, but to our sorrow, they did not last long af∣ter our arrival.

The Kentish Pippin, as we call it, was here excellent; but two other sorts of Apples stock the Markets. The Winter Calvil or Queening, which though a ten∣der and soft Apple, yet continued good till after Easter. Also the Pome d'Apis, which is served here for shew, more than use; being a small flat Apple, very beau∣tiful, very red on one side, and pale or white on the other, and may serve the Ladies at their Toilets for a Pattern to Paint by. However this tender Apple was not contemptible after Whitsuntide; and which is its property, it never smells ill, though the Ladies keep it (as some∣times they do) about them.

I never met with any thing peculiar in their Sweet Meats, but a Marmalade of Orange Flowers; which indeed was admi∣rable; 'Twas made with those Flowers, the Juice of Lemons, and fine Sugar.

Page  160

The Wines follow, and Water to Drink.

*The Wines about Paris are very small, yet good in their Kind; those de Surene are excellent some years; but in all the Taverns they have a way to make them into the fashion of Champagne and Bur∣gundy.

The Tax upon Wines is now so great, that whereas before the War they drank them by Retail at 5d. the Quart, they now sell them at 15d. the Quart and dearer, which has inhansed the Rates of all Commodities, and Workmens Wages; and also has caused many thousand pri∣vate Families to lay in Wines in their Cellars at the cheapest hand, which used to have none before.

The Wines of Burgundy and Champagne are most valued; and indeed, not with∣out reason; for they are light and easie upon the Stomach, and give little distur∣bance to the Brain, if drawn from the Hogshead, or loose botled after their fashion.

The most esteemed are Vin de Bonne of Burgundy, a red Wine; which is Dolce Pi∣quante in some measure, to me it seemed the very best of Wine I met with.

Page  161Volne, a pale Champagne, but exceed∣ing brisk upon the Palate. This is said to grow upon the very borders of Bur∣gundy, and to participate of the Excel∣lency of both Counties.

There is another sort of Wine, called Vin de Rheims, this is also a pale or gray Wine; it is harsh; as all Champagne Wines are.

The White Wines of value are those of Mascon in Burgundy.

Mulso in Champagne, a small and not unpleasant White Wine.

Chabri is a quick and sharp White Wine well esteemed.

In March I tasted the White Wines called Condrieu, and d'Arbois, but found them both in the Must, thick and white as our Wines use to be, when they first come from the Canaries; very sweet, and yet not without a grateful flavour; they clear towards Summer, and abate much of the flavour and sweet taste. Those Wines thus in the Must are called in the Prints Vin des Liqueurs.

There is a preparation or rather stif∣ling of the White Wine in the Must, used in Burgundy and elsewhere, which they call Vin Bouru; it gives a sweet taste, and it is foul to the Eye; those also are called Vin des Liqueurs. This is only drunk a Glass Page  162in a morning, as an equivalent to Brandy.

Vin de Turene en Anjou of two years old, was one of the best White Wines I drunk in Paris.

Gannetin from Dauphine: This is a very pale and thin White Wine, very like the Verde of Florence, sweet, and of a very pleasant flavour, especially while it is Des Liqueurs.

The Red Wines of Burgundy, Des qua∣tres feuilles, as they say, or of 4 years old, are rare, but they are esteemed much more wholesom, and are permitted to the Sick, in some cases, to drink of; they are fine, and have a rough, but sound taste; not prickt, as I expected. This Term Des quatre feuilles, is used also to Volne, or any other sort of Wine which is kept any time.

There are also in esteem stronger Wines at Paris, as Camp de Perdris.

Coste Bruslee, both Red Wines from Dauphine, of very good taste, and hot upon the Stomach.

De l'Hermitage upon the Rosne.

But the most excellent Wines for strength and flavour are the Red and White St. Laurence, a Town betwixt Tou∣lon and Nice in Provence. This is a most delicious Muscat. These are of those sorts Page  163of Wines, which the Romans called Vinum passum, that were made of half Sun dried Grapes: for the Grapes (especially the White Muscadine Grapes) being usually sooner ripe, than the common Grapes of the Country, called Esperan, viz. the lat∣ter end of August, (as I have seen them in the Vintage at Vic, Mirabel, and Fron∣tiniac, 3 Towns near the Sea in Langue∣doc, where this sort of Wine is made) they twist the Bunches of Grapes, so breaking the Stalks of them, that they receive no longer any nourishment from the Vine, but hang down and dry in the then violently hot Sun, and are in few days almost turned into Raisins of the Sun; hence, from this insolation, the flavour of the Grape is exceedingly height∣ned, and the strength and oiliness, and thick Body of the Wine is mightily im∣proved. I think the Red St. Lauren was the most delicious Wine I ever tasted in my life.

Besides these, here are also the White Wines of Orleans, Bourdeaux Claret, and those Excellent Wines from Cahors: also Cabreton, White and Red, from about Bayone, strong and delicious Wines: and all sorts of Spanish Wines, as Sack, Palme, Mountaine Malaga, Red and White, She∣ries, and indeed the French are, of late, Page  164very desirous to drink of the strongest Wines.

*Besides Wines, there is no Feasting without the Drinking at the desert all sorts of Strong Waters, particularly Rata∣fia's; which is a sort of Cherry Brandy made with Peach and Apricock Stones, highly piquant, and of a most greeable flavour.

The pungent and acrimonious quality of these and such like Kernels was not unknown to the Ancients, and very poi∣sonous to some Animals. Dioscorides tells us, a Past made of the Kernels of Bitter Almonds will throw Hens into Convul∣sions, and immediately kill them. Birds have but little Brain, and so are the stronglier affected with this Volatil Ve∣nom. Not unlike effect 'tis possible Ra∣tafia may have in some tender and more delicate Constitutions, and weak and feeble Brains, and may be one cause of so many sudden Deaths, as have been ob∣served of late.

Vattee is a sort of Perfumed Strong∣water from Provence, made (as it is pre∣tended) of Muscat Wine distilled with Citron Pills and Orange Flowers.

Fenoulliet de l'Isle de Ree, is valued much, 'tis much like our Aniseed Water.

Page  165 These and many more sorts of Strong∣waters, and strong Wines, both of France and Italy and Spain, are wont to be brought in, at the latter end of the De∣sert in all great Feasts, and they drink freely of them; Which Custom is new: when I was formerly in France, I remem∣ber nothing of it. But it is the long War that has introduced them, the No∣bility and Gentry suffering much in those tedious Campagnes, applied them∣selves to these Liquors to support the Dif∣ficulties and Fatigues of Weather and Watchings; and at their return to Paris, introduced them to their Tables. Sure I am, the Parisians, both Men and Wo∣men, are strangely altered in their Con∣stitutions and Habit of Body; from lean and slender, they are become fat and corpulent, the Women especially: Which, in my Opinion, can proceed from nothing so much as the daily drinking strong Liquors.

*Add to these Drinks the daily use of Coffee with Sugar, Tea and Chocolate, which now is as much in use in Private Houses in Paris, as with us in London: And these Sugar'd Liquors also add con∣siderably to their Corpulency.

Page  166I must not forget, that amongst the Drinks that are in use in Paris, Cyder from Normandy is one. The best I drank of that Kind, was of the colour of Cla∣ret, reddish or brown; The Apple, that it was made of, was called Frequins, which is round and yellow, but so bitter, that it is not to be eaten; and yet the Cyder that is made of it, is as sweet as any new Wine. It keeps many years good, and mends of its colour and taste. I drank it often at a Private House of a Norman Gentleman, of whose Growth it was; otherwise, if I had not have to the contrary, I could not have believed, but that it had been mixt with Sugar.

There are also very many publick Coffee-houses, where Tea also and Choco∣late may be had, and all the Strongwa∣ters and Wine above-mentioned; and innumerable Alehouses. I wonder at the great change of this Sober Nation, in this particular; but Luxury like a Whirlpool draws into it the Extravagances of other People.

'Twas Necessity, and the want of Wine, (either naturally, as in a great part of Persia and the Indies; or from their Re∣ligion, Page  167as in Turkey,) that put Men upon the invention of those Liquors of Coffee and Tea: Chocalate, indeed, was found out by the poor starved Indians, as Ale was with us. But what else but a Wan∣ton Luxury could dispose these People, who abound in Excellent Wines, the most cordial and generous of all Drinks, to ape the necessity of others.

Mighty things, indeed, are said of these Drinks, according to the Humour and Fancy of the Drinkers. I rather be∣lieve they are permitted by Gods Provi∣dence for the lessening the number of Mankind by shortning Life, as a sort of silent Plague. Those that plead for Cho∣colate, say, it gives them a good Sto∣mach, if taken two hours before Dinner. Right! who doubts it? you say you are much more hungry having drunk Cho∣colate, than you had been if you had drunk none; that is, your Stomach is faint, craving and feels hollow and empty, and you cannot stay long for your Dinner. Things that pass thus soon out of the Stomach, I suspect are little welcome there, and Nature makes haste to get shut of them. There are many things of this sort which impose upon us by procuring a false hunger.

Page  168The Wild Indians, and some of our People, no doubt digest it; but our Pampered Bodies can make little of it; and it proves to most tender Constitu∣tions perfect Physic, at least to the Sto∣mach, by cleansing that into the Gutts; but that wears it out, and decays Na∣ture.

It is very remarkable with what gree∣diness the Spaniards drink it, and how often in a day, 5 times says Gage, at least. The Women drank it in the Churches, and the disorder could scarce be remedied.

The old Romans did better with their Luxury; they took their Tea and Choco∣late after a full Meal, and every Man was his own Cook in that case. Caesar resolved to be free, and eat and drink heartily, that is, to excess, with Tully; and for this purpose Cicero tells his Friend Atticus, that before he lay down to Table, Emeticen agebat, which I construe, he prepared for himself his Chocolate and Tea; something to make a quick riddance of what they eat and drank, some way or other.

There are two sorts of Water which they drink at Paris; Water of the River Seine, which runs through the Town; and the Water brought in by the Aqueduct of Page  169Arcueil, which, by the by, is one of the most Magnificent Buildings in and about Paris, and worth going to see: This noble Canal of hewn Stone conveys the Water 15 miles to Paris.

The River Water is very pernicious to all Strangers, not the French excepted, that come from any distance, but not to the Natives of Paris, causing Looseness, and sometimes Dysenteries. I am apt to think, the many Ponds and Lakes that are let into it to supply the Sluces upon the Canal De Briare, are in part the cause of it. But those who are careful of themselves purifie it by filling their Cisterns with Sand, and letting it sink through it; which way clears it, and makes it very cool and palatable.

As for the Spring Water from the Maison des Eaux, it is wholesom in this respect, and keeps the Body firm; but it is very apt to give the Stone, which the People of this Town are infinitely sub∣ject to. An Instance of this I had by chance, when coming from seeing the Aqueduct of Arcueil, in the very Road near the Wall of the Aqueduct, a great number of Earthen Pipes, which had served to convey that Water to some House, were cast to mend the High-ways. I observed, that of 4 inches diameter the Page  170hollow of the Pipes were all stopt up to the breadth of a Shilling, with a firm Stone petrified; so that they were forc'd to break up the Pipes being altogether useless. Now what Petrifies in the Water-Pipes is apt in some weak Constitutions to Petrifie also in the Kidneys and Blad∣der.

In the next place we will see how the Parisians divert themselves; which consists chiefly in Plays, Gameing, Walk∣ing, or Coaching.

The Plays here are divided into two Houses: One for the Operas, and the other for the Comedies.

*I did not see many Opera's, not being so good a French-Man as to understand them, when Sung: The Opera, called l'Europe Gallante, I was at several times, and it is lookt upon as one of the very best. It is extreamly fine, and the Mu∣sick and Singing admirable: The Stage large and magnificent, and well filled with Actors: The Scenes well suited to the thing, and as quick in the removal of them, as can be thought. The Dancing exquisite, as being performed by the best Masters of that Profession in Town: The Page  171Cloathing rich, proper, and with great variety.

It is to be wondered, that these Opera's are so frequented: There are great num∣bers of the Nobility that come daily to them, and some that can Sing them all: And it was one thing that was trouble∣some to us Strangers, to disturb the Box by these voluntary Songs of some parts of the Opera or other; That the Specta∣tors may be said to be here as much Actors as those imployed upon the ve∣ry Stage.

*The Comedies have another House in another part of the Town; for the Opera's are under the Roof of Monsieur, and it is part of the Palais Royal.

The Disposition of the Theatre is much the same; but something less: And here the Stage it self is to be Let; where for Strangers, the Places are most commodious, to hear and see.

I heard many Tragedies, but without gust for want of Language: But after them, the Little Plays were very Divert∣ing to me, particularly those of Moliere, Vendange de Suresne, Pourcegnac, Crispin Medecin, le Medecin malgre luy, le Malade Imaginaire, &c.

Page  172In this all agree, that tho' Moliere's Plays have less of Intrigue in them; yet his Characters of Persons are incompara∣ble, so true and just, that nothing can be more: And for this Reason, so many of them are only of two or three Acts; for without an Intrigue well laid, the Characters would have failed him, in which was his Excellency. However, this is now so much become a Custom on the French Stage; that you ever have one of these little Pieces tack'd to the Trage∣dy, that you may please your self accor∣ding to your Appetite.

'Tis said, Moliere Died suddenly in Acting the Malade Imaginaire: Which is a good instance of his well Personating the Play he made, and how he could really put himself into any Passion he had in his Head. Also of the great dan∣ger strong and vehement Passions may cause in weak Constitutions, such as Joy and Fear; which History tells us, have killed many very suddenly. He is re∣ported to have said, going off the Stage, Messieurs, Jay joue le Malade Imaginaire; Mais je suis veritablement fort Malade; and he died within two hours after. This Account of Moliere is not in his Life by Perault, but it is true: And he yet has blamed him for his Folly, in persecuting Page  173the Art of Physick, not the Men, in di∣vers of his Plays.

Moliere sent for Dr. M—, a Phy∣sitian in Paris of great Esteem and Worth, and now in London, a Refuge. Dr. M— sent him word, he would come to him, upon two Conditions; the one, that he should Answer him only to such Questions as he should ask him, and not otherwise Discourse him; the other, that he should oblige himself to take the Medecines he should prescribe for him. But Moliere finding the Doctor too hard for him, and not easily to be Dupt, refused them. His Business, it seems, was to make a Comical Scene in exposing one of the Learnedest Men of the Profession, as he had done the Quacks. If this was his Intention, as in all probability it was, Moliere had as much Malice, as Wit; which is only to be used to correct the Vitiousness and Folly of Men pretend∣ing to Knowledge, and not the Arts themselves.

This I must needs say, That Obsceni∣ty and Immorality are not at all upon the French Stage, no more than in the Civil Conversation of People of Fashion and good Breeding.

Page  174*One Afternoon in Lent, I was to hear a Sermon at La Charite, preached by an Abbot, a very young man. His Text was about the Angels Descent into the Pool of Bethesda, and Troubling the Waters. I am not so good a French-Man as to understand all he said, but he had many good Arguments about the necessity of Grace, and the means to attain it. I was strangely surprised at the Vehemen∣cy of his Action, which to me appeared altogether Comical, and like the Actors upon the Stage, which I had seen a few days before: Besides, his Expressions seemed to be in too Familiar a Style: I always took a Sermon to the People to require a grave and ornate kind of Elo∣quence, and not Verba Quotidiana, with a certain dignity of Action; but 'tis possible this way here best suits with the Customs and Manners of the People; who are all Motion, even when they say the easiest and most intelligible Things,

*Gaming is a perpetual Diversion here, if not one of the Debauches of the Town: But Games of meer Hazard are strictly forbid upon severe Fines to the Master of the House, as well private as Publick, where such Playing shall be discovered. Page  175This was done upon the Account of the Officers of the Army; who, during the Winter used to lose the Money, which was given them to make their Recruits, and renew their Equipages in the Spring. And indeed, such quick Games, as Basset, Hazard, &c. where Fortune in a manner is all in all, are great Temptations to Ruine, by the sudden Passions they are apt to raise in the Players: Whereas Games, where Skill and Cunning, and much Thought are imployed, as well as Luck, give a Man time to Cool, and re∣cover his Wits, if at any time great Loss shall have Dismounted his Reason; for he must quickly come to himself again, or forfeit his Skill and Reputation in Conducting the Game, as well as Husbanding his Money.

*We were in Paris at the time of the Fair of St. Germain; It lasts six weeks at least: The Place where it is kept well bespeakes its Antiquity; for it is a very Pit or Hole, in the middle of the Fau∣bourg, and belongs to the Great Abbey of that Name. You Descend into it on all sides, and in some places above 12 Steps; so that the City is raised above it 6 or 8 Foot.

Page  176The Building is a very Barn, or Frame of Wood, Tiled over; consisting of ma∣ny long Allies crossing one another, the Floor of the Allies unpaved, and of Earth, and as uneven as may be; which makes it very uneasie to Walk in, were it not the vast croud of People which keep you up: But all this bespeaks its Antiquity, and the rudeness of the first Ages of Paris, which is a foil to its Politeness in all things else now.

The Fair consists of most Toy-shops, and Bartholomew-Fair Ware; also Fiance and Pictures, Joiners Work, Linnen and Woollen Manufactures; many of the great Ribban Shops remove out of the Palais hither: No Books: Many Shops of Confectioners, where the Ladies are com∣modiously Treated.

The great Rendezvous is at night, af∣ter the Play and Opera are done; and Raffling for all Things Vendible is the great Diversion; no Shop wanting two or three Raffling Boards. Monsieur, the Dauphin, and other Princes of the Blood come, at least once in the Fair-time, to Grace it.

Here are also Coffee-Shops, where that and all sorts of strong Liquors above∣mentioned are to be Sold.

Page  177Knavery here is in Perfection as with us; as dextrous Cut-Purses and Pick-Pockets. A Pick-Pocket came into the Fair at night, extreamly well Clad, with four Lacqueys with good Liveries attend∣ing him: He was caught in the Fact, and more Swords were drawn in his Defence than against him; but yet he was taken, and delivered into the Hands of Justice, which is here sudden and no Jest.

I was surprised at the Impudence of a Booth, which put out the Pictures of some Indian Beasts with hard Names; and of four that were painted, I found but two, and those very ordinary ones, viz. a Leopard, and a Racoun. I ask'd the Fellow why he deceived the People, and whether he did not fear Cudgelling in the end: He answered with a singular Confidence, that it was the Painter's fault; that he had given the Racoun to Paint to two Masters, but both had mistaken the Beast; but however, (he said) tho' the Pictures were not well design'd, they did nevertheless serve to Grace the Booth and bring him Custom.

*I saw here a Female Elephant betwixt 8 and 9 foot high, very lean and ill kept. Nothing could be more Docil than this poor Creature. I observed, she bent the Page  178Joints of her Legs very nimbly in making her Salutes to the Company: Also that the Nails of her Fore-Toes, were large and almost five Inches long. This was from the Continent, having the Ears entire. I had seen one about 13 years ago in London much less, from the Island of Ceylon, of another Species with Scal∣lopt Ears, and the Tail with two rows of large, thick, and stiff black Hairs.

*Coaching in Visits is the great and daily Business of People of Quality: But in the Evenings, the Cours de la Reyne is much frequented, and a great Rendez∣vous of People of the best Fashion. The Place indeed is very commodious and pleasant, being three Allies set with high Trees of a great length, all along the Bank of the River Seine, inclosed at each end with noble Gates; and in the middle a very large Circle to turn in. The mid∣dle Alley holds four lines of Coaches at least, and each side Alley two a-piece: These eight lines of Coaches, may, when full, supposing them to contain near 80 Coaches a-peice, amount to about 6 or 700. On the Field side, joyning close to the Allies of the Coaches, there are several Acres of Meadow planted with Trees, well grown, into narrow Allies in Quin∣cunxPage  179Order, to walk in the Grass, if any have a mind to light; and this must needs be very agreeable in the Heats of Summer, which we staid not to en∣joy.

One thing this Cours is short of ours in Hide-Park, for if full, you cannot in an hour see the Company twice you have a mind to see, and you are confined to your line; and oftentimes, the Princes of the Blood coming in, and driving at Pleasure, make a strange stop and em∣barras.

Besides, if the weather has been Rainy, there is no driving in it, it is so miry and ill gravelled.

Those which have a mind to drive further out of Town for the Air, have Woods, one to the West, and another to the East, most convenient. I mean, the Bois de Bologne, and the Bois de Vin∣cennes; this last is very opaque and plea∣sant. There are some Ancient Roman Statues in the first Court of this House.

But for the Castle in the Bois de Bo∣logne, called Madrid, it was built by Francis the First, and it is altogether Moresque, in imitation of one in Spain; with at least two rows of covered Galle∣ries running quite round, on the out-side the four faces of the House; which sure Page  180in a very hot Country, are greatly re∣freshing and delightful: And this is said to be built on purpose for a defence a∣gainst a much hotter Climate, than where it stands; which that King had no mind to visit a second time.

*But let us return to Paris; Towards 8 or 9 a Clock in June most of them re∣turn from the Cours, and land at the Garden Gate of the Tuilleries, where they Walk in the cool of the Evening. This Garden is of the best Ordonnance, and now in its full beauty, so that Mons. Le Nostre has seen it in its infancy, for it is all of his Invention, and he enjoys his Labours in perfection. Certainly the Moving Furniture of it at this time of the Evening, is one of the Noblest Sights that can be seen. The Night I came a∣way from Paris, a Lady of Quality, Ma∣dam M— when I took my Leave of her, askt me, What I had seen in Paris that most pleased me; I answered her Civil∣ly, as I ought to do; but she would not take my Compliment, but urged me for a further Answer: I told her, (since she would have it it so) that I just then came from seeing what pleased me best; that was, the Middle Walk of the Tuilleries in June, betwixt 8 and 9 at night; I did Page  181not think that there was in the World a more agreeable place than that Alley at that hour, and that time of the year.

And now we are got into the Gardens of Paris, I shall give you a short taste of all of them of Note, at least of such as I saw.

*This of the Tuilleries is vastly great, has shaded Tarrasses on two sides, one a∣long the River Seine, planted with Trees, very diverting, with large Parterrs in the middle, and large Fountains of Wa∣ter, which constantly play; one end is the Front of that Magnificent Palace the Louvre; the other is low, and for pro∣spects, open to the Fields; The rest is disposed into Alleys, and Grass-Plots, and Copsies of Wood; with a great number of Seats upon Down in all parts, for the Ac∣commodation of the Weary.

In the Tuilleries there is one thing which I much liked, and that was an Amphitheater, with the Stage, Pits and Seats, and the Scenes leading into the Stage very pretty; from all sides close Alleys leading into it.

Nothing can be more pleasant than this Garden, where in the Groves of Wood the latter end of March, Black Birds, and Page  182Trostles, and Nightingales, sing most sweet∣ly all the morning, and that as it were within the City, for no Birding is suf∣fered here near this City, and the Fields round the Town, are all, every where, full of Partridges, and Hares, and other Game.

The Garden of the Palais of Luxenburgh is also vastly great, and has something of champatre in it, like St. James's-Park; it is also filled with People daily of good Quality; but because the hard Winters have destroyed many of the Walks, by killing the Pole Hedges, it is not so fre∣quented, as formerly; yet it hath its Fountains and Parterres, and some well shaded Allies; and for Air, I prefer it before the Tuillieres, because it is seated upon a high Ground next the Fields, in the Faubourgh of St. Germains.

*As to the King's Physick Garden, it is a very great Piece of Ground, well fur∣nisht with Plants, and open also to walk in, to all People of Note. There is great variety of Ground in it, as Woods, Ponds, Meadows, Mounts, besides a vast Level, by which it is fitted for the Re∣ception and Growth of most sorts of Plants.

Page  183I first saw it in March with Dr. Turn∣fort, and Mr. Breman, a very Under∣standing and Painful Gardner. The Green Houses well stored with tender Exoticks, and the Parterrs with Simples; though but few of them then to be seen; yet by the Trees and Shrubs, and some Plants which did not lose their Heads, I could well judge of the Furniture.

Dr. Turnfort told me, that he shewed a 100 Plants every Lesson, and he had in the Summer 30 Lessons, which made 3000 Plants; besides the very early and late Plants, which he reckoned could not be less than a 1000 more.

I took particular notice of these Plants in the Green Houses at that time.

  • Jasminum Asoricum flore albo viridarii Regis Lusitanici.
  • Marum Cortusii, which had been Potted 30 years.
  • Caryophyllus Creticus arborescens.
  • Smilax fructu nigro.
  • Iris bulbosa flore luteo.
  • Symphytum minus Boraginis flore.
  • Fraxinus Americana florida.
  • Staechas folio serrato Bochini.

Page  184This Garden is endowed by the King and Duke of Orleans, and has 2000l. a year Sterling Rents belonging to it, where∣of 500l. is given to the chief Physician who over-looks all, and the rest to the Botanic Reader, Dr. Turnfort, and Under-Gardners, with Lodgings for all.

Mr. Breman told me, he had in the beginning of April made an end of Sow∣ing his Hot Beds, and had put into the Ground 2000 Species of Seed.

From the Mount in the Kings Garden, on the other side the River, upon the declivity of a high ridge of Hills, I had a fair view of the Palace or Country-House of Father la Chaise, the Kings Con∣fessor; it is very finely seated against the South Sun, and well Wooded on both sides: A fit Seat for a Contemplative Person.

*The Garden of the Palais Royal, con∣sidering it is in the middle of the Town, is very large, has 2 or 3 great Basins with their jet d'Eau, but not well kept; nor hath any thing elegant in it, but the good order and disposition of its shady Walks and Parterrs: It is ever full of good Company.

Page  185*The Garden of the Arsenal is much larger, and finer kept; has the prospects of the Fields, and lies open to the Ram∣parts: It is also much frequented for the beauty of its Walks.

There are also divers Convents which have spatious and well kept Gardens, which are always open and publick to People of any Note; as the Carthusians, which is vast and Champestre. The Ce∣lestins, very fine and large; That of St. Genevieve, which is great, and very well kept; and the Tarrasse for length and breadth is incomparable, extreamly well planted with Horse-chesnuts; having also on the South side upon the Tarrasse, 3 or 4 square Copses of the same Trees; which have a marvellous effect for Shade in Summer.

These Private Gardens I saw in Paris.

D'Aumont. Its Green House opened in∣to the Dining Room: The Orange Trees seemed to have suffered, and had their Leaves withered; for the Room was too broad by half.

The Treillage, at the upper end of the Garden, was very well adorned with Gilding, and had in the middle a Pavil∣lon, Page  186in which was an old Roman Statue of a young Man, very well preserved: The fashion of the Toga here was so evi∣dent, that it might well pass for a con∣viction to those, who have thought it to be a Plade, or a Garment open before like a Cloak.

This Treillage is performed with that variety of Ornaments, that it resembles Filegreen Work, and is large. The Painting of these Works in green is not well performed in all places alike; it is either too yellow, or of a sad dirty green, or Sea green; few have hit the right Grass green colour. To do it well, it is to be primed in yellow, and then to be covered with Vert de Montagne or La∣pis Armeniacus; of which last colour we have plenty in England about Maulham in Craven in Yorkeshire.

This is the great benefit of Treillage in Cities, that besides the beauty of it to the Eye, it takes away and hides the ill prospect of the Neighbouring Houses.

Here were very many Fig-Trees well grown in square Boxes; and Parterrs well stockt with Flowers; each sort by them∣selves; as Tulips a-part; Junkills a-part; Anemonies a-part; Ranunculus's a-part; Daffadills a-part.

Page  187Puissart. This Garden is very neat, and open at the end to the Tuilleries. The Treillage Walk or Arbor at the upper end is very fine, 70 Paces long, and 8 broad, hath 3 Pavillons all open at the top. It is all of Iron, painted green, and cost 15000 Livers.

The Gardner was an Artist; and had some Plants in Cases in good order, not to be seen elsewhere, as large Rosemary Bushes, Jacobaea Maritima, Marum Syriacum, &c.

The Walls were well covered with Fruit Trees; he had not cut his Peaches; when I askt him the reason, he told me, it was his way, not to cut them till after flowring, which he found by Experience to improve the Fruit; whereas he said, the early cutting Stockt them, and im∣paired the Fruit.

The Orangery here was the most beau∣tiful Room, for the bigness, I had seen, paved with Marble, and neatly Wain∣scoted with Oak, from the top to the bot∣tom, after our English manner. I make no doubt it served to eat in in Summer, when cleared of Trees.

Bouvillier. I found not any thing more remarkable here than the Trellage at the end.

Page  188Comartin. The Trellage in this Garden was most admirable in the fashion of a Triumphal Arch; half of it was an A∣viarie, with a Fountain in it, well stor'd with Birds.

Here were large Iron Vasa's upon Pe∣destals, the first I had seen of the Kind, painted over of a Copper colour.

Les Diguieres. This is the only House in Paris, I saw kept in all the parts of it, with the most exact cleanliness and neatness, Gardens and all.

In the Garden there were several pieces of Trellage; that at the upper end was very noble, and cost 10000 Livres; an∣other piece of it cost 6000. But I saw a small one all of Iron-leaves painted green, the only one of the Kind. Here also were great Vasa's of Trelliage upon Pede∣stals.

The Fountains in this Garden were very curious, though small, with proper Or∣naments, which had a marvellous effect, when the Spouts plaied off.

The first Court was set about with Cases of extraordinary large Laurus Tinus, and in the Gardens there were some cut into square Pyramids.

Page  189A Person of Quality came into the Garden to me, who with great Civility conducted me up to the Apartments.

In the Apartment of the Dutchess, which was all of her own Contrivance, and had an Air of State and Agreeable∣ness beyond any thing I had seen, I observed hanging down in the middle of the Bed-chamber the finest Crystal Candle∣stick in France: The Pieces were all bought single by her, and the Contrivance and setting them together was her own; it cost 12000 Crowns.

But before I left the Garden, in an obscure Parterre I saw the Tomb of a Cat, viz. a Black Cat Couchant upon a White Marble Cushion, fringed with Gold, and Gold Tassels hanging at the corners upon a square Black Marble Pe∣destal: On one of the sides of that Marble is writ in Letters of Gold.

Cy gist Menine la plus aimable & la
Plus aimee de toutes les chattes.
On the other side.
Cy gist une chatte jolie
Sa maistresse qui n'aimoit rien
L'aime jusques à la follie
Pour quoy dire! on le voit bien

Page  190 This is not the first Instance of this kind of folly; I have seen something of it in England; and have read much more in History.

If you blame me for Transcribing this Epitaph, I will submit; but I could ne∣ver have forgiven my self, if I had Tran∣scribed the many fine Inscriptions I met with at Paris, though in most Elegant and truly Roman Words; others in pure Court French. You may read them in the Description of Paris.

De Lorge. We had the good fortune here to find the Marshal himself walking in his Garden; who Entertained us with great Civility, viz. the Dean of Win∣chester and my self. This Garden was not finisht, and the House it self was but building; but it is one of the finest in Paris, and has the advantage of a most free and extended prospect of the Fields and Montmarter: At the end of the Gar∣den rises a Tarrass equal with the Ram∣part.

That which was in this House and Garden very commodious and noble was, that betwixt the two Courts the Coaches drive through a stately Hall upon Pillars, and might land on either side, up a step Page  191or two, which leads to the Staircases and other Apartments; and then in the fur∣thest Court, which is only divided from the Garden by high Pallasadoes of Iron, they turn, and take up the Company a∣gain; so that no Weather offends them. Which is much wanting here; and more with us at London, where we most need it.

This Hall is open upon Arches to the Garden, and the Staircase it self is so contrived, that you enjoy a full prospect of the Garden and Montmarter in descend∣ing.

The Marshal very obligingly shewed us his own Apartment; for all the rest of the House was full of Workmen; and in his Bedchamber his little Red Damask Field Bed, which he lay in now, and which also served him, when he com∣manded upon the Rhine.

He shewed us his great Sash Windows; how easily they might be lifted up and down, and stood at any height; which Contrivance he said he had out of Eng∣land, by a small Model brought on pur∣pose from thence: There being nothing of this Poise in Windows in France be∣fore.

Page  192He also had us into a Set of small Closets or Rooms, after the English fashi∣on, very prettily furnished, neatly kept, and retired, with his English Keys to them, as he told us; and from thence we descended a back Pair of Stairs: We did all we could to hinder him from see∣ing us take Coach: He sent his Page af∣ter us, to invite us some day to Eat with him.

Hostel Pelitier. The Garden here was very neat, with a Trelliage at the end after the manner of a Triumphal Arch, but not very high, nor well Painted; yet its Beauty and Finishings differ much from any I had seen before. In the two Niches were plac'd great Iron Vasa's or Flower Pots, right before the middle of a Basin of Water, which was set a Playing for our Entertainment, which is a Com∣pliment the French are willing to ob∣lige Strangers with.

In the Orangerie were very large Trees, and two pair of Mirtles in Cases, cut Globe-wise, the best and biggest I had seen: Large Bushes in Pots of Marum Sy∣riacum. Great store of Tulips, Anemo∣nies, Ranunculus, and other Flowers in Beds, in the Parterre, each by them∣selves.

Page  193Also Anemonies and Ranunculus's in little Earthen Pots, as with us; but in very light Mold. Great and very fair Laurus Tinus's in Cases. And, which was singular, a-long one of the Garden Walls were planted Abel Trees, whose tops were disposed and spread by an Iron Trelliage into Arches at equal distances, which had a very good effect.

*The Garden of the Hostel-sullie had no∣thing remarkable in it.

*The best Piece of Treillage of Iron Bars and Wood intermixt, is that in the Garden of feu Mons. Louvois. And this is one of the neatest Gardens in Paris. The whole upper end is adorned with a noble Treillage after the manner of a Triumphal Arch; it cost a great Sum of Money: There are 4 Statues disposed on Pedestals under it, which have a good effect; these are Antique, rarely good. One of the first Empresses, a Diana, an Apollo, &c. Here the Walks are hard Gravel, but not Rowled. On one side of the Treillage is a large Aviary well stored with Birds.

The Walls of the Green House are Matted; and large Pans of Iron hang down in the middle of the House, at Page  194equal distances, to every Window one; They have Pullies to let them down or run them up to what height they please. This way may very well correct the moistness of the Air, which the breath of the Plants cause, and sufficiently warm them. Hot Beds puff up Plants; yet a warm Air over their Heads may be as useful to re∣fresh and nourish them in Winter.

*The last Private Garden I saw, was that of Mr. Furnier, a few days before we left the Town, nothing could be pret∣tier. At the upper end a noble Treillage, two great Vasa's of Iron painted of a Brass∣colour and gilt.

Here I saw an Apple Tree Potted, as the Figs and Oranges use to be; it was the White Queenen, (or Calvil d'Este) the Stem of the bigness only of my Thumb, full of Fruit the first of June.

Many Pots of Sedum Pyramidale, now a most elegant Ornament. But nothing is here so pompous as double red and stript stockes; which they multiply with care; and their Pains are justly Rewarded. With a thousand other things, which my short turn in the Garden would not give me leave to remember.

There are great numbers of these Pri∣vate Gardens in Paris, which deserve Page  195seeing; but the Season of the year not much favouring our Curiosity, we did not much enquire after them.

Hitherto I have given a short Account of what I saw mostly in Paris, as to the People, abroad and at home; The Coun∣try, round about it, is full of populous and neat Towns, and many Palaces of the King and Princes of the Blood; which are not to be equalled with any thing we have in England. But I am unwilling to lead you any further, it being much out of my way and humour to go to Court; but because it was my fortune to be at Versailles, St. Clou, Marli, and Meudon, I will venture to say something of each.

These 4 Royal Palaces and their Gar∣dens possess a barren and hilly Country, as big as most Counties in England: Two of them, Meudon and St. Cloud, have the Prospect of Paris under them; but the former hath it much more open and fully, than the latter.

This District may be said to be Le Ber∣ceau des Roys, or the Nursery of Kings; for the chief of the Blood Royal are lodged here, viz. the King, Monseigneur the Dauphin, and the 3 Grandsons, the Dukes of Burgundy, d'Anjou, and Berry, Monsieur or the Kings Brother, and his Son the Duke of Charlres, and Mademoi∣selle Page  196his Daughter. All these are, or will be (as it is easie to guess by the growth and proportions of the youngest) very large and well shaped beautiful People. The other Branch of the Blood Royal, of the House of Bourbon, as the Prince of Conde, the Duke of Bourbon, and the Princesses his Daughters, the Prince of Conti, are all of less Stature, but very well shaped and handsom.

The Duke du Maine and the Conte de Toulouse I did not see; but the Princess Dowager of Conti often, who is without dispute one of the most graceful and handsomest Women in France, and me∣thinks exceedingly like the King her Fa∣ther, as I remember him in his full beau∣ty, when I first saw him in the year-65.

These 4 Palaces are all intirely built and furnisht in this Kings time, and all the Gardens, and what belongs to them.

*St. Clou is the nearest Paris, and the Castle is very magnificent, and most commodious. The Great Salon and the Gallery are extreamly well Painted.

The Gardens are a vast Extent, 12 or 15 miles in compass.

The Natural Woods on the South-west side the House, are well Husbanded, and cut into small and bigger Alleys, to save Page  197the Trees; which they have had so great a care of, they have kept them standing not only in the Alleys, but in the very Steps of Stone, which are made to descend into the Alleys.

In the other parts of the Garden the Al∣leys are mostly treble, and well shaded, run out in vast lengths of several miles, every where Basins and Jetts d'eau; but there is a Cascade, which I saw several times play, and is said to be the most beautiful and best furnisht with Water of any in France. In the middle of the large Ba∣sin amongst the Woods, I saw a Jet d'eau, which threw up a Spout of Water 90 foot high, and did discharge it self with that force, that it made a mist and cool∣ness to the Air a great compass round about, and gave now and then cracks like the going off of a Pistol; such force the vent of Wind in the Pipes had.

The Pipes which convey the Water are composed of Iron Cylinders 3 foot long, some 10, some 20 inches diameter, till they divide; and then they are of Lead.

I was once kindly invited to St. Clou by Madam's Physician, Monsieur Arlot, who sent his Coach for me to Paris, and nobly Treated me: Before Dinner he carried me in his Coach (for this privi∣ledge Page  198is granted him) into all parts, and round the Gardens; which were well furnisht with Alleys and Walks, adorn∣ed with Cypress, Pines, and Firrs, cut into Pyramids; and Water-Works every where playing in abundance, particu∣larly the Gerbes d'eau were very fine, that is, great and thick, seeming Streams of Water thrown up into the Air; This is done to husband the Water by a great number of small Pipes like a Sheaf, to re∣present a solid Pillar of Water.

Monsieur has added, and taken into this vast Garden, a new acquisition of a Mountainous Plain, which over-looks all the Country round; and will, no doubt, when it is modelled by that admirable Contriver Mons. le Nostre, make one of the most delightful Places in the World.

From the Balustrade in the Upper Gar∣den, the River Seine, and a vast Plain bounded by Paris, is to be seen, and makes a most delightful Prospect.

These vast riding Gardens are unknown to us in England, and se promener a che∣val, on en carosse, is not English. We can∣not afford to lose so much Country, as those Gardens take up. I see in some of the Quarters not only Partridge and Hares plentifully, but, which I wonder∣ed at, 5 Biches or Female Red-Deer feed∣ing.

Page  199The Orangery belonging to this Garden is very large and magnificent, paved with Marble, and was filled with vast Trees in Cases, not to be brought in or out without proper Engines, but in it there was nothing but those Orange Trees, Oleanders, and Laurus Tinus's. He goes out of the end of his Appartment, that is, the noble painted Gallery is conti∣nued upon a level with the Orangery, which leads directly into an ascending Walk of a vast length; and also fronts or flanks all along the Parterre or Flower Garden; where they are disposed of in Summer. At this Treat I eat of a Preserve or Wet Sweetmeat, made of Orange Flowers, incomparable; and the Lady obliged me with the manner of making it.

Though there were high and proper Walls for Fruit in many parts of the Garden, yet nothing of that nature was to be found, only ordinary and in∣fructiferous Greens were fastned to the Treillage, which are the Linings of most Walls here. In the Garden are many Arbours of Treillage, Pavillons, &c. of Iron mixt with Wood, painted Green, with Honey Suckles running up them. These Gardens have above 150 People always imployed to keep them in or∣der; Page  200which stands in 40000 Livres a year.

Another time I Dined with the Captain of the Castle, who shewed me all the Apartments at leisure. I eat here of the Red Leg'd Partridge taken here upon these Hills; They are much less here than in Languedoc, but yet far better tasted, than the Grey Partridges taken in the same place. This was the beginning of April, and we drank our Wine in Ice, which I was not aware off, till I found the bad effect of it in my Throat; and the next day much more; but it went off again without any great trouble. There is no Animal that abuses it self in Meat and Drink, as Man does; we daily drink excessive hot and excessive cold; in other Creatures it's Instinct that guides them, but as for us we neither act by Instinct, nor Reason; but betwixt both loosely, and therefore oftner are catcht, to our own destruction.

At the end of the Apartments of Monsieur, are a fine Set of Closets; The first you enter is furnisht with great va∣riety of Rock Crystals, Cups, Agats up∣on small Stands, and the sides of the Rooms are lined with large Panes of Looking-glass from top to the bottom, with Japan Varnish and Paintings of e∣qual Page  201breadth intermixt; which had a marvellous pretty effect. The other Room had in it a vast quantity of Bijou, and many of very great Price; but the Siam Pagods, and other things from thence, were very odd.

There was also one very small Roman Statue of White Marble, not 10 inches high, which cost 20000 Crowns; one Leg of it was a little injured. It seemed a Piece of admirable Workmanship. It was a Boy, who had in the Skirt of his Tunic a Litter of Puppies, and the Bitch lying at his feet and looking up.

*I cannot say much of Meudon, because I was not within the House or Park; it will require yet some time to bring it to that perfection which is designed, for that Monseigneur has been but lately possessed of it; The Road from Paris to it is yet un∣paved; but the Situation is admirable, and the Splanade before the House is like a vast Bastion, and commands the full view of all the Campagne, and Paris under it. The Gardens are very great, but I only coasted them, and the House.

*As to the Palace of Versailles, (which is yet some miles further within the Moun∣tainous Country, not unlike Black-HeathPage  202or Tunbridge) 'tis without dispute the most magnificent of any in Europe; Yet what of it was first built, and much admired 30 years ago, is now no longer relisht: However this King intends to rebuild it, where it is faulty. 'Tis, as I said, plac'd in a very ungrateful Soil, without Earth proper for Herbs, or Water; but he hath brought that to it in abundance, and made the Ground too to be fruitful.

There are Books writ to describe this famous Palace in every part; to which I refer the Reader. The Way to it is new, and in some places the Mountains are cut down 40 foot, so that now you enjoy it a mile in prospect before you come to it; it opens and closes in 3 Courts, the more remotest narrower and narrower; which is a fault; and is, as I was told, designed to be pulled down, and made into one noble large square Court of the same or∣der of building, as that magnificent Front is, which looks upon the Gardens. The Gilded Tiles and Roof have a marvellous effect in prospect. The Splanade towards the Gardens and Parterres are the no∣blest things that can be seen, vastly great, with a very large Basin of Water in the middle, walled round with white Marble, on which are placed a great number of incomparable Brazen Vasa, and large Page  203Brass Figures couchant, of the best Masters in Sculpture; it were endless to tell all the Furniture of these Gardens of Marble Statues, and Vasa of Brass and Marble, the multitude of Fountains, and those wide Canals like Seas running in a streight line from the bottom of the Gardens, as far as the Eye can reach.

In a Word, these Gardens are a Coun∣trey laid out into Alleys and Walks, Groves of Trees, Canals and Fountains, and every where adorned with ancient and modern Statues and Vasa innumer∣able.

May the 17th the Waters were order∣ed to Play for the Diversion of the En∣glish Gentlemen. The Playing of the Spouts of Water, thrown up into the Air, is here diversified after a thousand fashions. The Theatre des eaux, and the Triumphal Arch are the most famous Pieces. But in the Groves of the Left Hand, you have Aesop's Fables, in so many Pieces of Water-Works, here and there in Wind∣ing-Alleys. This might have been said to be done in Ʋsum Delphini. 'Tis pretty to see the Owle washt by all the Birds; the Munkie hugging her young one, till it spouts out Water with a full Throat, and open Mouth, &c.

Page  204The Orangery, or Winter Conservato∣ry for Tubs of Winter Greens, is what corresponds to the greatness of the rest. 'Tis a stupendious half square of under∣ground Vaults, like the Naves of so many Churches put together, of exquisite Work∣manship in hewn Stone, well lighted and open to the South Sun. It contains 3000 Cases of Greens; whereof near 2000 are Orange Trees, and many hun∣dreds of them are as big as generally they naturally grow in the Earth: Hence amongst them are some, which are said to be in Cases from the time of Francis the First.

They did not think fitting to put them out this year till the latter end of May; and indeed their Oleanders, Laurels, Len∣tiscus's, and most other Greens, had suf∣fered miserably.

In the Pottagerie (which is part of these Gardens, and hath its magnificence also) there are 700 Cases of Figs, be∣sides Wall Fruit of all other Kinds: By all the Gardens in and about Paris, I per∣ceived they are very fond of this Fruit.

I observed in small Fiance or Painted Pots a vast number of the narrow leaved Laurus Alexandrina; also Thlapsi flore albo, Leucoii folio latifolium; also the Sedum Py∣ramidale; These are not yet Ornaments in our Gardens, that I know of.

Page  205*The 15th of May my Lord Ambassa∣dor went to Marli, where the Waters played for his Diversion.

I must needs say it is one of the plea∣santest Places I ever saw, or, I believe, is in Europe; it is seated in the bosom or upper end of a high Valley, in the midst of and surrounded with Woody Hills. The Valley is closed at the upper end, and gently descends forwards by degrees, and opens wider and wider, and gives you the prospect of a vast plain Coun∣trey, and the River Seine running through it.

Marli is a square House raised upon Steps, and Terrassed on all sides; The 4 Fronts all alike; and the Doors opening into the Garden all the same. In the middle an Octogon-hall, running up Dome-wise, in which all the side Rooms meet; which are all Rooms of State. Above are 12 Lodgings, with a narrow Gallery leading to them. In the lower Rooms at Marli, particularly in the Octogon Salan, are extraordinary large (6 foot at least) Marble, or rather Agat Tables; To the best of which they may be compared. They are veined like Wood, and of an Amber colour; These are the admirable effect of Petrification. Of this very Page  206Stone I have seen great Blocks in the Banks of the Dropping Well at Knaresbo∣rough in Yorkeshire. I forgot to ask here whence they had them.

In one of the Ground Rooms was a Semicircular Gilt Bar or Rail, which took off and inclosed the upper end of the Room: Within the Bar was disposed se∣veral Rows of Porcellain or fine China on Gilt Shelves. Here at the Corners, within the Bar, opened two small Doors, whence the Ambassador and his Retinue were plentifully served with Chocolate, Tea, and Coffee, in a most obliging man∣ner; Many of the Nobility and Gentle∣men of France were ordered to attend him there.

The two side Fronts of the House have in prospect great Alleys cut through the Woods, and paved for the more com∣modious coming down to the House; which is descending all the way.

On each side the Valley, close under the Woods, run along in a line, six square Pavillons or smaller Palaces of the very same figure and beauty with the Mother House; at equal, but large distances, as 500 Paces. The 6 on the right hand the Garden are for the Men; The other 6 on the left are for the Women of Quality; whom the King weekly appoints, upon Page  207a List given, to attend him, and enjoy the Pleasure of this Retirement, as I may say, from Court. Before those Pavil∣lons, and betwixt them, are the finest Alleys and Walks imaginable, with Foun∣tains, and all the Decorations of Treil∣lage and Flowers. Such a shew of not ordinary Tulips in broad Beds, of a 1000 Paces long, every where, all this vast Garden over, in their full beauty, was a most surprising sight. I could not for∣bear to say to the Duke de Villeroy, who was pleased much to accompany me in this Walk, That sure all the Gardens in France had contributed to this Profusion of Flowers; which he took so well, that the Marishal his Father; afterwards de∣tached himself to single me out, and very obligingly embraced me, and sa∣luted me with a Kiss, and followed it with very kind and familiar Discourse.

The Cascade coming down from the brow of the Hill, on that Front of the House which respects and stands near it, was new and singular, and of the Kings own invention, as, indeed, all the Gar∣den besides. From the House it appeared a Broad River, quietly gliding down the Hill; but when I went near it, I found it composed of 52 large square and shal∣low Basins of Water, disposed at right Page  208Angles, and not declining, but falling over one into another.

In the Garden were many Fountains, nobly adorned, and had variety of Wa∣ter Pipes playing up into the Air in them. Here are some Gerbes of a singular fashi∣on, with a Circle of a great num∣ber of large Pipes, within at least two foot diameter; which made the appea∣rance of a vast Pillar of Water. There was one Jet d'eau in the bottom of the Garden, which we were told threw up Water 120 foot high; for of 50 and more Fountains, we saw but those on the side Alleys to play; most of the great Basins in the middle were mending, and dry. To furnish all this Water, there is a most stupendious Machine, which was invented by 2 Liegois. This Machine forces the Water up 560 foot, from the River Seine, to the top of the Tower or Aqueduct. It throws up 500 inches of Water by almost continued Ructations, or quick Pulses. It is wrought by 14 Wheels of 32 feet diameter each, set in the River, and carried about night and day by its Stream.

This Invention is the same with what is practised in the deep Coal-pits about Leeds in Lower-Germany; so that to see the Engines, and a great number of Iron Page  209Cylinders or Water Pipes, lying bare above ground, and running up a vast Mountain, is to imagine a deep Coal-Mine turned wrongside outward.

The Tree most in use here, was the small leaved Horne-Beam; which serves for Arcades, Berceaus; and also Standards with Globular Heads: At the foot of which they have planted little Sprigs of the same of a foot and half high; and also in some places in like manner, whole areas full of them; which cut smooth and level, make the finest green Hedges I ever saw; Some of these low Hedges were 12 foot broad, and in a barren and dry Climate supply very artificially the use of Grass∣plots.

'Tis certainly very commendable in the King, who pleases himself in Plant∣ing and Pruning the Trees with his own Hand, to make use of no other Trees, but what the Neighbouring Woods afford; so that 'tis admirable to see whole Alleys of Pole Hedges of great height, and long Rows of goodly Standard Globes of 18 months growth only.

If this great King, as he grows older, should take a fancy to place himself in a warmer Climate, (and he has a good one of his own, as any under the Sun, in Languedoc) as he does his Winter Greens Page  210in proper Houses; (and, me-thinks, this Instance alone should be sufficient, to convince him of the necessity there is to cherish decaying Nature, and that a Na∣turally warm Air is a better fence, than Cloaths or Fire) what Wonders would not his Purse and Passion for Planting do there?

The next Woods in Languedoc would afford Laurel, and Myrtles for Pole Hedges; Lentiscus's and Phylarea's in as great abun∣dance, as Hazel or Thorn with us. Also Jasmins for Arbors and Treillage; Cistus's and Rosmary, and a hundred other sweet smelling Woody Shrubs grow every where in the Fields, to furnish the Pots and Vasa.

There the tall Cypres's grow of them∣selves, to 60 and 100 foot high, like so many Towers; and also Tonsil at plea∣sure, for the most beautiful Pole Hedges imaginable. The very Fields are most Excellent, and well furnisht Parterrs of Flowers, and are Naturally Pottageries, or Kitchin Gardens. The Vineyards are very Orchards; and all the most tender Fruits with us are there Standards; as Figs, and Grapes of all sorts, Apricocks, Peaches, Nectorins, Jujubs, &c. The de∣licious and large Cherries; and, what∣ever has been said to the contrary, Pipins Page  211and Pears there are in far greater per∣fection, than with us, or in any parts of France else, besides that happy Climate.

What was it for so great a King to make a Walk from Marli to Montpelier, or (if I might choose) to Pescenas, seated in the bosom of a well Watered Valley, inclosed with perfumed Hills. 'Tis not half so far as betwixt Lahor and Agria, two Seats the Mogul has thus joined. This would Eternise his Name, above any Palace he has yet built, and bring to himself much Health in his old Age. The Gardens of the Hesperides, and the Labyrinths of Cande, so famous in History, would be nothing to such wonderful Performances, as his Abilities and Happy Genius is capable of. For besides the Natural Product of the Countrey, the Climate also is capable of producing, and nourishing with small Art and Expence, what ever Plants both the Indies can af∣ford. Whereas, at this end of the World, we drudge in vain; and force a Pleasure which is dead, and gone before we can well enjoy it: We have indeed a kind of shew of the Summer Delights, but all on a suddain we drop into a long and tedious Winter again. But we love the Places we are used to, or born in. Man, to say the truth, is a very Animal, Page  212as any Quadrupede of them all; and most of his Actions are resolvable into Instinct, notwithstanding the Principles which Custom and Education have super∣induced.

The pleasure of seeing is scarce to be tired; but yet after 2 or 3 hours Walk in so fine and great a Garden, I was forc't to make a halt behind the Com∣pany, and glad to retire to the gilt Bu∣reau in the Palace again, to refresh my self; where I found some of the Kings Officers waiting, and some other Gentle∣men of the Houshold, who had made se∣veral Campagnes in Flanders. I had now more a mind to a Glass of cool Burgun∣dy, than the insignificant Indian Liquors; which though I knew was against the sanctity of the place, yet nothing was denied me a Stranger. Here being alone, we fell into Discourse of the English, and of their King. They willingly allowed the English to be truly Brave; and now in Peace they found also, that they were as Civil, and well Bred, as Brave; That no Nation had given the King and his Court that satisfaction, that the English had done; being curious and inquisitive after all good things; They did see a great difference betwixt them and other Nations; They did not stare, and care∣lessly Page  213run about, or hold up their Heads, and despise what they saw; but had a true relish of every good thing, and made a good Judgment of what was Commendable; and therefore the King took pleasure to have them shewed e∣very thing. This Discourse of the En∣glish they concluded with a great Enco∣mium of K. William.

As for their own King they were much in the Praise of him, as one may easily imagine: That his Retirement hither was mostly for his Health; That he left Versailles every Tuesday night, and came hither with a select Company of Lords and Ladies; That he returned not till Saturday night, and sometimes inter∣mitted 10 or 14 days; so that he spent half of his time here in Repose; That he was the most affable Prince in the World, and never out of Humour, of a pleasant and open Conversation where it pleased him; easie of access, and never sent any one away discontented; The most Bountiful Master in the World, of which there were Ten thousand Instances; nothing of Merit in any Kind, but he most readily and chearfully Rewarded, ever, of late years at least, preferring the Virtuous; so on the other hand, he never spared the Rebellious and Obstinate; That the Page  214Government of his People could not be carried on with less severity and strict∣ness; nor the Taxes which was necessary to support it, raised; That he delighted not in Blood or Persecution; but that the Art of Government had different Rules, according to the Climate and Nature of the People, where and upon whom it was to be put in practice. His great Wisdom appeared in nothing more, than in pre∣serving himself amidst his Troops, his Converts, his Court and numerous Fa∣mily, all in a manner fit for the Throne. The greatness of his Mind, and Magni∣ficence, in his Buildings. This was the Sum of the Discourse these Gentlemen were pleased to entertain me with.

*At my return to Paris I was to see the Pipinerie, or Royal Nursery of Plants, in the Fauxbourgh of St. Honorie; where I met the Master or Controuler of it, Mon∣sieur Morley, one of the Ushers of the Bed-Chamber to the King.

He, like the rest of the French Nation, was Civil to me; and shewed me a Writ∣ten Almanack of Flowring Plants for the whole year, which he said was an Ori∣ginal; it might, indeed, be so in French, but we have had Almanacks for Fruit and Flowers, for every month in the Page  215year, Printed divers times, for above this 30 years, thanks to Mr. Evelyn.

This Ground inclosed with high Walls is vastly big, as it ought to be, to sup∣ply the Kings Gardens; Here are several Acres of young Pines, Cypresses, Vues, &c. also vast Beds of Stock July-Flowers, of all sorts of Bulbes, as Tulips, Dafi∣dills, Crocus's, &c. and therefore I could easily believe him, when he told me, he had sent from hence to Marli alone, in 4 years time, 18 millions of Tulips, and other Bulbous Flowers; for which he offered to shew me his Memoires.

He further told me, that the furnishing the Trianon, (a peculiar House of Plea∣sure, with its Parterres at the end of the Gardens at Versailles) with Flower Pots in season, every 14 days in the Summer, took up no less than 92000 Pots from hence.

Also from hence he could Plant and furnish in 14 days time, any new Gar∣den the King should cause to be made.

Here besides the Plants common to us and them, I saw a multitude of Pots well conditioned of Staechas citrina folio latius∣culo.

Also a sort of Cotila, which bore large Sun Flowers or Marigolds, propagated by Slips, called by him Amaroutre.

Page  216In this Ground are several Houses to lodge the tender Winter Greens; a∣mongst the rest there is one very large, which I may call the Infirmery of sick Orange Trees; which coming from Genoa by Sea, are here deposited in a pe∣culiar Green House; and there were in it, and then actually carrying out into the Air, (it was the 22th of May our Style) 300 Trees in Cases as thick as a Man's Thigh; but after 10, and some after 17 years cherishing, had not yet got Heads decent enough to be removed, and to appear at Court, they being often forc't to lop both Tops and Root, that they might recover them.

After all, it must be said, that this Magnificence, and the number of these Palaces and Gardens, are the best and most commendable effect of Arbitrary Go∣vernment. If these Expences were not in time of Peace, what would be this Kings Riches, and the extream Poverty of the People? For it is said, that every 3 years, some say much oftner, he has all the Wealth of the Nation in his Coffers; so that there is a necessity he should have as extravagant and incredible ways of expending it, that it may have its due circulation amongst the People.

Page  217But when this vast Wealth and Power is turned to the Disturbance and Destru∣ction of Mankind, it is terrible; and yet it hath its use too: We and all Europe have been taught, by the Industry of this great King, mighty Improvements in War; so that Europe has been these 12 years an Over-match for the Turk; and we for France by the continuation of the War. The 40 Millions Sterling which the late War hath, and will cost England, before all is paid, was well be∣stowed, if it had been for no other end, than to teach us the full use and practice of War; and in that Point to equal us with our Neighbours.

It was observed by Polybius of the Ro∣mans, that wherever they met with an Enemy, that had better Weapons than themselves, they changed with them; This Docility gained them the Empire of the World. On the contrary, those late Eastern Tyrants have despised Learning, and consequently must submit to the more refined Valour of Europe. I say, the Effects of Arbitrary Govern∣ment, both in War and Peace, are Stu∣pendious.

The Roman Emperours, because abso∣lute Lords of the People; far out-did the Commonwealth in Magnificent Build∣ings, Page  218both Publick and Private. Au∣gustus left Rome a Marble City, which he found of Brick only. Nero burnt it and rebuilt it, and a Golden Palace for himself, like a City. Vespatian and Titus built Amphitheaters and Baths far surpassing any Buildings now upon the face of the Earth; in one of which 120000 Persons might see and hear, and be seated with more convenience, than upon our Stages. Adrian visited most parts of the World, on purpose to build Cities. Trajan had his Name on every Wall, which he either restored, or built. His Pillar and Bridge over the Danube are Stupendious Monu∣ments of his Expences.

The Aegyptian Kings built them Monu∣ments, wherein they slaved their whole Nation, and which are the Wonders of the World to this day, the Obelisks I mean, and Pyramids.

The Asiatick Emperours of China and Japan have outdone the Europeans in this kind of immense Buildings, as the Wall in China, the Cut Rivers and Sluces and Bridges there. In Japan the Buildings are no less incredibly great.

Of this Absolute Dominion we have Examples even in those two American Empires, of Mexico and Peru. In this last, meer Nature forc't Impossibilities Page  219without Art, Tools, or Science. The Cusco Fortress was a Master-piece, where Stones were laid upon Stones, which no Engine of ours could carry, or raise up; or Tools better polish, and fit together; where a Country near as big as all Eu∣rope, was turned into a Garden, and cul∣tivated better than Versailles, and Water-Works brought to Play and overspread some thousands of miles, where it never Rains. This was the only Arbitrary Go∣vernment well applied to the good of Mankind, I ever met with in History; where Roads and Store-houses of Food and Raiment were the Guides, and num∣bred the miles for the Travellers, and the whole Empire turned into an useful and intelligible Map.

As for the Turks, Persians, and Mogul, the whole Empire is intended solely for the Pleasure of one Man; and here even Tyranny it self is foully abused.

Yet I should be loth to see them in any kind exemplified in England. In our happy Island we see such Palaces and Gardens, as are for the Health and Ease of Man only; and what they want in Magnificence, they have in Neatness. There is not such a thing as a Gravel Walk in or about Paris, nor a Rowler of any sort; when it Rains the Tuilleries Page  220are shut up, and one walks in Dirt some days after. The Grass Plots, or, as they call them Bowling Greens, are as ill kept, they clip them and beat them with flat Beaters as they do their Walks. This puts me in mind of what I saw in the Garden of the Prince of Conde in Paris; where there was a Grassy Circle of about 4 foot wide, round one of the Fountains in the middle of the Garden; to keep this down, and make it of a finer Turf, the Gardner had Teathered two Black Lambs, and two White Kids, at equal distances, which fed upon it. What ever the effect was, I thought it lookt pretty enough; and the little Animals were as Ornamen∣tal, as the Grass.

All the Paintings and Prints made of late years of the King make him look very old; which in my mind is not so; for he is plump in the Face, and is well coloured, and seems healthy, and eats and drinks heartily, which I saw him do; This is certainly an injury to him, and possibly in complaisance to the Dauphin, or worse. This is the meanest Compliment I have known the French guilty of to∣wards their Prince; for there are every where Expressions of an other nature all over Paris. See The Description of Paris, where they are collected and at large. Page  221The Romans under Augustus, (the first Ab∣solute Master of that People, as this King is of the French) had upon this Subject from the People a much finer thought, and wish, De nostris annis tibi Jupiter au∣geat annos.

However it be, the King seems not to like Versailles so well as he did; and has an Opinion, that the Air is not so good, as elsewhere; he leaves it (as I said) every week on Tuesday night, and goes mostly to Marli, or Meudon, and some∣times to the Trianon, which is but at the end of the Gardens, and returns not to Versailles till Saturday night: Besides his extraordinary removes to Fontainbleau. I wonder no body puts him in mind of that Paradise of France, Languedoc, where he may be with ease in 4 days, at the Rate that Kings use to Travel. I had this Discourse at Table with one of the In∣troducteurs to the Ambassadour at Ver∣sailles; but he could not bear it, it being against the Interest of all settled Courts to remove, though it were never so good for their Princes Health. I remember but of one Instance in History, and that was Aurenzebe the Great Mogul, who in his middle Age fell desperately sick, and long languisht at Labor; but took Advice of some body about him, and went in Page  222his own Kingdom a progress of 1000 miles to Casimire, a very mild and tem∣perate Climate, where he recovered, and lived to almost a 100 years old.

The King now seldom or never Plays, but contents himself sometimes with look∣ing on; but he hath formerly been en∣gaged, and has lost great Sums. Mon∣sieur S. Rookt him of near a Million of Livers at Basset, by putting false Cards upon him; but was imprisoned and ba∣nisht for it some years.

Before I give over the Business of Gar∣dens and Countrey, I will add some Re∣marks, which seemed particular and new to me.

In the Kitchin Gardens at and near Paris, are a great number of Apricock Standards; but kept low; very full of Blossoms, and good Bearers.

They make a Conserve of the Fruit; which I like above any of their Wet Sweetmeats; it was made by cutting them into thin slices, and throwing a∣way the Stone; which our People spare sometimes, and leave in the Flesh intire, and spoils the Sweetmeat, and sets it a fretting.

Page  223They imploy the Stones in Brandy, and distil them in Spirits.

In the beginning of April we had store of Sparagrass, but they were often so bitter, to me at least, that there was little pleasure in eating them. 'Tis certain they were much worse, than ours in England in that particular. Which puts me in mind of the Wild Sparagrass, which grows plentifully with us on the Sea Coast in Lincolnshire. This is very fair to the Eye; yet no culture of our Gardens, by often transplanting, could make it eat∣able. I fancy the Sparagrass recovers some∣thing of its natural force in a warmer Cli∣mate; for the sweet is as it were degene∣rated. If they would have them good here, they must renew the Seed from England or Holland.

The Wild Sparagrass of Languedoc is another Plant called Corruda.

I procured out of Languedoc a sort of Praecox Vine, about 50 Plants, by the Clermont Carrier; the which I gave to Mr. London, our Kings Gardner, for my Lord Ambassador. This Grape is White, very thin Skinn'd, and clear as a drop of Water; it is usually ripe at St. Johns∣mass in July at Montpellier, where it is called Des Ʋnies.

Page  224There are also in this Town Praecox Grapes, as Dr. Turnfort told me, in the Physick Garden; but whether the same with the Ʋnies, I know not.

I have said they delight much in Figs in Pots or Cases; but here is another way of preserving the Fig Trees set in the Ground, which is much practised; and that is to lap, and tie them up in long Straw, from top to bottom; for which they are placed at a little distance from the Walls. This also is practised to such Trees as stand in the middle of the Par∣terre; they did not open them till Mid-May.

The Exotic Trees, which the Parisians most delight in, for their Garden Walks, and for the Shade in their Courts, are the Maroniers, or Horse Chesnuts, of which they have innumerable; for the Fruit ripens very well here, and comes up of it self. Also the Acacia Rovini, which is very common, and makes pretty Alleys, and which they lop and turn to Pollards, with good effect; but of these last the Leaves are late in putting forth, it being the 15th of May our Syle, when these Trees were scarce green.

May 25, when I took my Leave of Monsieur Valliant, I found him in his Flower Garden; he shewed me a Parcel Page  225of Ranunculus's, in full Flower, which he had received but two years before from Constantinople; They were very beautiful and rare, at least such as I had never seen; as pure White, White and Green, White and Strip't with Carnation, Pure Carnation or Rose-colour, Strip't Carna∣tion, &c.

Of these he had sold some a Pistol a Root, and hoped in a year or two to be more plentifully stock't with them, that he might afford them cheaper. I did see afterwards a few of them in the Royal Pipinerie, and also in the Seedsman's Gar∣den, Monsieur le Febre; but both came from him.

I also took notice of his Iron Cradles or Hoops over his Beds, which were re∣movable, and to be made higher and lower, according to the height and na∣ture of the Floors they were designed to cover. This, me-thoughts, was far be∣yond all the Inventions of Wooden Co∣vers, and might with Sail-Cloths and Mats well serve for a sort of portable Green House, to the less tender Plants.

I saw Le Febre's Flower Garden May 9. The Tulips were in their prime; indeed, he had a very large and plentiful Col∣lection. The Panacheé or Strip't Tulips were many, and of great variety. He Page  226observed to me, that from his large and numerous Beds of self-flower'd Tulips, that is, of one colour, as Red, Yellow, &c. they expected yearly some Stript ones, which if perfect, that is, strip't in all the six Leaves, would but doubtfully continue, and perhaps return to their former state the next year; but if they laboured, or did not finish the stripings of all the six Leaves the first year, there were better hopes of their continuing in that state.

Though I had no mind to descend into the Stone Pits, which are like our Mines, Well-fashion, and the Stones wound up with great Wheels, to husband the Soil over them: Yet I went to Vanre, 3 miles from the Town, which is a ridge of Hills that runs along to the Observatoire. Here the Quarries are open on the side of the Hill, as with us. In those I observed 2 or 3 layers of Stone, 2 or 3 foot thick, mostly made up of Shells, or Stones in the fashion of Shells. Amongst these Shell-stones the most remarkable for bigness was a certain smooth and long Buccinum, tapering with very many spires. I measured one whose first spire was 8 inches diameter, the full length I could not so well come at; yet holding proportion with those of the kind which lay flat, and which we could see in their full length, it must have been Page  227a foot long at least. There is no Bucci∣num in any of our Seas a quarter so big. Here are many of this Species. Also other large Turbinated Stones, which come near some of the West-India Kinds of Mu∣sic Shells, of which Genus yet there are none in the European Seas.

These Layers of Stone mixt with Shell-figured bodies, are at certain distances in the Rock, and other Rocks void of Shells interposed.

Fanciful Men may think what they please of this matter; sure I am, until the History of Nature, and more parti∣cularly that of Minerals and Fossils is better lookt into, and more accurately distinguisht, all Reasoning is in vain. It is to be observed, where Men are most in the dark, there Impudence reigns most, as upon this Subject: They are not con∣tent fairly to dissent, but to insult every body else. In like manner upon the Sub∣ject of Mineral Waters; How many Scriblers have there been, without any knowledge of Fossils?

I know not whether it be worth the not∣ing, but it shews the Humour of the French, that I saw in some Country Towns near Paris, the Church Wall near the top, had a two foot broad Mourning List, which compassed the whole Church like a Page  228Girdle, and on this was at certain di∣stances, painted the Arms of the Lord of the Mannor, who was dead.

I shall conclude, what I have to say further, with the Air of Paris, and the State of Health and Physic there.

*The Air of Paris is drier than that of England, notwithstanding the greatest part of the City is placed in a dirty miry Level; The Muddy Banks of the River Seine witness this; also the old Latin Name of Paris, Lutetia; but some of them are unwilling to derive it from Lu∣tum; though there are several other Towns in France, formerly more consi∣derable than it, of that very Name; but from the Greek Original, as Tolon, Tolousa, which in that Language signifie Black Dirt. We have an undoubted Experi∣ment of the different Temper of the Air in our Philosophic Transactions; where it is demonstrated, that there falls twice as much Rain in England, as at Paris; Re∣gisters of both having carefully been kept, for so many years, both here and in France.

From this quantity of Rain with us, our Fields are much greener; and it was a pleasing surprise to me at my return, sailing up the River of Thames, to see our Page  229green Fields and Pastures on every side; but we pay dearly for it, in Agues and Coughs, and Rheumatick Distempers.

The Winter was very rude and fierce, as was ever known in the Memory of Man; The cold Winds very piercing; and the Common People walk the Streets all in Mouffes, and Multitudes had little Brass Kettles of Smallcoal kindled, hang∣ing on their Arms; and yet you should scarce hear any one Cough.

I never saw a Mist at Paris in the 6 months I staid there, but one; though a very broad River runs through the middle of the City, nor any very strong Winds; but this may be accidental, and the Tem∣per of some one year by chance.

We were very sensible by the 20th of February our Style, though the Nights were cold, and the White Frosts great in the Mornings, that the Sun at Noon had a much stronger force and heat, than with us, at that time of the year.

Another Argument, of the Dryness of the Air at Paris, we had from the alterati∣on of Health; such as were thick Breath∣ed, and Cought and Spit much, soon re∣covered; and the insensible perspiration of the Skin was so clear and free, that the Kidneys had little to do; so that it was observed by most, that though we Page  230drank pretty freely of the thin Wines of Champagne and Burgundy, yet they never broke our sleep to get shut of them; and that very little passed that way in the morning.

Lastly, a sign of the Driness and great goodness of the Air of Paris is, the vast number of Iron Bars all over the City; which yet are mostly intire, and the least decayed with Rust, I ever saw in any place; whereas ours in London are all in a few years all over rusty, and miserably eaten.

*We were sufficiently alarmed at our first coming to Paris, with the unwhole∣someness of the River Water, and cautioned against drinking it; and yet it was al∣most impossible to avoid the bad effects of it, for within the month two thirds of the Family fell into Fluxes, some into Dysenteries, and some very ill of it. The French that come out of other re∣mote Countreys suffer as well as the Stran∣gers. We were told boiling it was a good Remedy to prevent its Griping Qua∣lity; but that is a meer Notion, for we know Mineral Waters boiled have a stronger effect, and this quality can pro∣ceed from nothing less.

Page  231The Well Waters here are much worse than the River Waters, because more Mineral. But our safety was in the Water brought from the Maison des Eaux, where the Aqueduct of Arcueil empties it self to serve the great Palaces and City Fountains.

*The Disease of the Dysentery being one of the most common in Paris,*the most celebrated Drug for its cure is now the Hypopecouana; though I never once made use of it to any of our People, but cured them all as soon, and as well with our usual Remedies. Indeed they have great need of it here, for the poorer sort of People, through ill Diet, this Wa∣ter, and Herbs, are very subject to it; This Root is said to cure it with as much certainty, and as readily, as the Jesuits Powder an Ague; Of this most of the Physicians and Apothecaries agreed. They give it in Powder from 10 grains to 40, which is the largest Dose. It most commonly Vomits, and sometimes Purges, but both gently. 'Tis sold here from 20 to 50 Crowns a Pound. They divide it into 4 sorts, according to its goodness.

Page  232*Another popular Disease here is the Stone; and there are Men well practised in the Cutting for it. There are also two Hospitals, where great numbers are cut yearly, as La Charite, and Hostel-Dieu, in both of these there are Wired Chests full of Stones cut from Human Bodies; and in the Chest of La Charite is one, which exceeds all belief; it was cut from a Monk, who died in the very Operation; it is as big as a Childs Head. It is but the Mo∣del or Patern of the Stone which is kept in the Chest; which has this Inscription on it.

Figure & grosseur de la pierre, pesant 51 ounces, qui font trois livres trois ounces, qui a esté tirée dans cet Hospital au mois de Juin 1690, & que l'ou conserve dans le couvent de la Charité.

But that which I shall here most insist upon is the new way, practised by Pere Jaques, a Monk. About the 20th of April he cut in the Hostel-Dieu 10 in less than an hours time: The 3d day after, all were hearty and without pain but one.

Page  233He cuts both by the grand and little Appareil; in both he boldly thrusts in a broad Lancet or Stilleto into the middle of the Muscle of the Thigh near the Anus, till he joins the Catheter or Staff, or the Stone betwixt his Fingers; then he wi∣dens the incision of the Blader in pro∣portion to the Stone with a Silver Oval Hoop; if that will not do, he thrusts in his 4 Fingers, and tears it wider; then with the Ducks Bill he draws it out.

I see him cut a second time in the Ho∣stel-Dieu; and he performed it upon 9 Persons in 3 quarters of an hour, very dexterously. He seemed to venture at all; and put me into some disorder with the cruelty of the Operation; and a stouter Englishman than my self. How∣ever I visited them all in their Beds, and found them more amazed, than in pain.

Pere Jaques cut also his way in the other Hospital La Charite, much about the same time, 11 at twice. Here Monsieur Mar∣shal, the best of the Surgeons for this Operation now in Paris, harangu'd against him before the Governors, who coldly answered, they would be determined by the Event, which way was best.

Page  234Atque hac ratione Faeminis Calcúli omnium facillimè exciduntur; nempe scalpello intra va∣ginam uteri in vesicam adacto.

Of those cut in La Charite one died; and being dissected, it was found he had his Bladder pierced in 4 or 5 places; also the Museulus Psous sadly mangled; also the left Vesiculae Seminales cut.

Notwithstanding this, if this Method was well executed by a Skilful Hand, it might be of good use to Mankind.

This way of Cutting for the Stone, puts me in mind of what I formerly writ and publisht in the Phil. Transactions, about Cutting above the Os Pubis, in the Fund of the Bladder.

Also of that Experiment of Cutting for the Stone of an Alderman of Don∣caster in the Gluteus Major, he was twice cut in the same place, and out-lived both. I saw the first Stone, which was very large, and in some measure transparent, Crystal like. This Experiment is Printed in Dr. Willies Scarborough Spaw, 14 years ago at least, and is a fair hint for this new Method.

Page  235Since my return I had a Letter from Mr. Probie, a very Learned and Industri∣ous young Gentleman, who was with me to see the Operation, that part relating to this Matter I shall here transcribe. Indeed, I mightily longed for an Account of this Matter, the success of which I came away too soon to learn any thing for certain.

Paris, Aug. 2. 98.

PEre Jaque's Reputation mightily slackens, out of Forty five that he cut at the Ho∣stel-Dieu, but sixteen of them survive; and of Nineteen in the Charite, but eleven. He has practised at the Hospitals at Lyons, but, 'tis said, with worse success than at Paris. I am sensible he has got abundance of Ene∣mies, which makes me very often question, what I may hear said of him. Dr. Fagon, the Kings Physician, told Dr. Turnfort, when he went to present his Book to him, that he had cut Seven at Versailles, and that six of them are alive, and as well as if never cut. The Person that died was so Distem∣pered, that he was not expected to live, and 'twas thought, if he had not been cut, he had not lived so long: The Surgeons have a great mind to cry down the Man, though they Page  236practise his Method. For Marshal has since cut after Pere Jaque's Manner, only with this difference, that Marshal's Catheter was can∣nulated. Le Rue, the second Surgeon of the Charity Hospital cut after the old Manner, at the same time when Marshal cut Pere Jaque's way, but had not so good success as Marshal had; for all that Marshal cut are alive and very well, whereas the other lost one or two of his number; besides, those that lived were not so soon cur'd, no, not by a month or six weeks.

Thus far Mr. Probie.

*The Pox here is the great Business of the Town; a Disease which in some mea∣sure hath contributed to the ruine of Physick here, as in London. This Secret Service hath introduced little Contempti∣ble Animals of all sorts into Business, and hath given them occasion to insult Fa∣milies, after they had once the know∣ledge of these Misfortunes. And it is for this reason the Quacks here, as with us, do thrive vastly into great Riches beyond any of the Physicians, by treating pri∣vately these Calamities.

It was a pleasant Diversion to me to read upon the Walls every where about the Town, but more particularly in the Fauxbourgh of St. Germain, the Quacks Bills Printed in great Uncial Letters.

Page  237As,

De par l'ordre du Roy.

Remede infallible & commode pour la geri∣son des maladies secretes sans garder la chambre.


Par permission de Roy.

Manniere tres aisee & tres sure pour guerir sans incommodite, & sans que persone en appercoive, les maladies veneriennes, &c.


Par privilege du Roy.

L'Antivenerien de medicin Indien, pour toutes les maladies veneriennes, telles quelles quissent estre, sans aucun retour, & sans guarder la chambre. Il est tres commode & le plus agreable de monde.


Remede assure de Sieur de la Brune privilege du Roy, &c. sans qu'on soit contraint de garder la chambre, &c.

Page  238 By these Bills it is evident, there is yet a certain Modesty and Decorum left in the Concealing this Disease, even a∣mongst the French; They would be Cured secretly, and as though nothing were doing; which those Wretches high∣ly promise. But this is that Handle which gives those mean People an occa∣sion to insult their Reputation, and injure them in their Health for ever.

Every body here puts their helping Hand, and meddles with the Cure of this Disease, as Apothecaries, Barbers, Women, and Monks; yet I did not find by all the inquiry I could make, that they had other Remedies than we. Nay, there is something practised in the Cure of this Distemper in England, which they at Paris know nothing of; but this old Verse forbids me to say any thing further.

Artem pudere proloqui, quam factites.

*The Apothecaries Shops are neat enough, if they were but as well stored with Me∣dicines; and some are very finely adorn∣ed, and have an Air of greatness, as that of Monsieur Geofferie, who has been Provost des Merchands, in the Rue Burte∣bur, where the Entry to the Basse Cour is a Port-cochier, with Vasa's of Copper in the Niches of the Windows; within are Page  239Rooms adorned with huge Vasa's and Mortors of Brass, as well for sight, as for use. The Drugs and Compositions are kept in Cabinets disposed round the Room. Also Laboratories backwards in great perfection and neatness. I must needs commend this Gentleman for his Civility towards me; and for his Care in Educating his Son, who came over with Count Tallard, a most Hopeful and Learned Young Man; whom our Society at Gresham-Colledge, at my Request, ho∣noured with admitting him Fellow, ac∣cording to his Deserts.

*I had the opportunity of Conversing with many of the Physicians in this Ci∣ty; who all agree in the low Condition and Disesteem it was in, from the bound∣less Confidence and intruding of Quacks, Women, and Monks. Monsieur d'Achin, the late chief Physician, has been ill thought on for taking Money, and gi∣ving protection to these sort of Cattle; but the chief Physician now, Monsieur Fagon, is a Man of great Honour and Learning, and very desirous to promote the Art.

It is here as with us, some practise out of meer vanity, others to make a Penny any way to get Bread. The cause of all Page  240this is, I think, the great Confidence People have of their own Skill, an ar∣rogance without thinking. To pass a Judgment upon Cures, and the good and evil practice of Physick, without doubt is one of the nicest things, even to Men of the Faculty; but a Jury, that is, the very ordinary Men in England, are suffered now to undertake the Question; when I may truly say, that I have ever found, no disparagement to them, the most Learned Men of the Nation, the most mistaken in these Matters; and can it be otherwise in so Conjectural an Art, when we our selves scarce know, when we have done ill or well.

Another cause of the low Esteem of Physick here, are the sorry Fees that are given to Physicians; which makes that Science not worth the Application and Study. The King indeed is very liberal, as in all things else, in his Pensions to his chief Physician, and gives his Chil∣dren good Preferments.

Also Mr. Burdelot, who is also well Pensioned, and lodged at Versailles, Phy∣sician to the Dutchess of Burgundy, a Learned Man; he is perfectly well Skill'd in the History of Physick; and we may shortly (as he told me) expect from him, another Supplement to Vauder Linden, of Page  241many thousand Volumes, which have escaped that Catalogue, and are not ac∣counted for.

Monsieur, and the Dauphin, and all the Princes of the Blood, have their Do∣mestick Physicians; some of whom I knew, as Monsieur Arlot, Monsieur Mi∣not, to the Prince of Conty, of my ac∣quaintance formerly at Montpelier. The Two Morins very Learned Men; also Monsieur Grimodel, &c.

Others have the practice of Nunneries and Convents, which gives them Bread; others have Parishes; and some such Shifts they make; but all is wrong with them, and very little incouragement given to the Faculty.

April 14. the Prince of Conty sent his Gentleman and Coach at mid-night to fetch me to his Son, and to bring with me the late King Charles's Drops to give him. This was a very hasty call. I told the Messenger, I was the Prince's very humble Servant; but for any Drops or other Medicines I had brought nothing at all with me, and had used only such as I found in their Shops, for all the oc∣casions I had had to use any. I desired he would tell him, that I was ready to Consult with his Physicians upon his Sons Sickness, if he pleased to command me, Page  242but for coming upon any other Account I desired to be excused; but I heard no more of the Matter, and the young Prince died. By this it is evident, there is as false a Notion of Physick in this Coun∣try, as with us; and that it is here also thought a Knack, more than a Science or Method; and little Chimical Toys, the Bijous of Quacks, are mightily in request. This Heresie hath possessed the most think∣ing, as well as the ignorant part of Man∣kind; and for this we are beholden to the late vain Expositors of Nature, who have mightily inveighed against and un∣dervalued the ancient Greek Physicians, in whose Works only this Art is to be learnt, unless single Persons could live over as many Ages, as those Wise Men did.

Men are apt to prescribe to their Phy∣sician, before he can possibly tell, what he shall in his Judgment think fitting to give; 'tis well if this was in Negatives only; but they are prejudiced by the impertinence of the Age, and our Men, who ought to Converse with the Patient and his Relations with Prognosticks only, which are the honour of Physick, and not play the Philosopher by fanciful and pre∣carious Interpretations of the Nature of Diseases and Medicines, to gain a sort of Page  243Credit with the Ignorant; and such cer∣tainly are all those that have not studied Physick thoroughly, and in earnest.

Those Drops were desired of me by other Persons of Quality, as the Princess d'Espinoy, the Duchess of Boullon, Mon∣sieur Sesac, &c. and having bethought my self how my Master, the late King Charles, had communicated them to me, and shewed me very obligingly the Pro∣cess himself, by carrying me alone with him into his Elaboratory at Whitehall, while it was Distilling. Also Mr. Che∣vins another time shewed me the Mate∣rials for the Drops in his Appartment newly brought in, in great quantity, that is, Raw Silk. I caused the Drops to be made here. Also I put Dr. Turnfort upon making of them; which he did in perfection, by Distilling the finest Raw Silk he could get. For my part I was sur∣prised at the Experiment often repeated, having never tried it before. One Pound of Raw Silk yielded an incredible quanti∣ty of Volatil Salt, and in proportion the finest Spirit I ever tasted; and that which recommends it is, that it is when rectified, of a far more pleasant smell, than that which comes from Sal Armoniack or Hartshorne; and the Salt refined and cohobated with any well scented Chimical Oil, makes the Page  244Kings Salt, as its us'd to be called. This my Lord Ambassador gave me leave to present in his Name; and the Doctor now supplies those which want. Silk, indeed is nothing else, but a dry Jelly from the Insect Kind, and therefore very Cordial and Stomachick no doubt. The Arabians were wise, and knowing in the Materia Medica, to have put it in their Alkermes.

This must be said for the Honour of this King, that he has ever given great Encouragements for useful Discoveries in all Kinds, and particularly in Physick. 'Tis well known he bought the Secret of the Jesuits Powder, and made it pub∣lick; as he lately did that of the Hypo∣cocana.

To Conclude, it was my good Fortune here to have a Bundle of Original Pa∣pers of Sir Theodore Mayerne, and his Friends, who Corresponded with him, presented me by the Reverend Dr. Wickar, Dean of Winchester, who Marrying his Kinswoman found them amongst other Writings of Law Matters. I have not yet had the leisure to peruse them, but those who know the Worth of that great Man, will desire they may be made pub∣lick; which if they are, they shall come Page  [unnumbered]Page  245forth intire, and not disguised, as some of his other Papers have been, to the great detriment of Physick; and I think it is the first Example of this Nature, that Posthumous Papers were ever abre∣viated, and made what they never were, before an intire and full publication.

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[illustration] [depiction of a species of snail]
Purpura Americana F. Plumier
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[illustration] [depiction of a species of millipede]
Iulus Americanus F. Plumier
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[illustration] [depiction of a species of centipede]
Scolopendra Americana F. Plumier

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