CHAP. 4. Of the Lessons Offensive.
Which is your first Lesson in the Of∣fensive part?
Lesson 1. Of Approaching or Advancing.
My first Lesson is of Approaching, or Advancing.
How many wayes are there of Approaching?
Shew me how I am to approach these two wayes?
The first way then is with a single stepp and is done thus, * when you are standing to your Guard, and your Adversary without your measure, so that your Thrust cannot reach him, without Approaching, then lift your right foot forewards about a foot, Page 36and immediatly let your left foot follow clos• by the Ground, and keeping your left knee bowed, observing alwayes at the end of every stepp, that your feet be at the same distance they were at when you first presented your Sword, or rather nearer.
You must understand that in your ap∣preaching with the single step the nearer you bring your feet together, (yea even so closs that your heels almost touch one another) your advantage is the greater, because your Elonge will come as much nearer to your Adversary, as you brought your left foot, nearer to your right.
I see so indeed?
And you must remember always to Redouble this stepp, or any other you in∣tend to make use of, untill you come so near to your Adversary that you think he is within your Measure, or that your Elonge will reach him.
Can a man make use of this single stepp in ragged Ground.
Not easily, for this single stepp is on∣ly to be made use of in plain Ground, * where there is nothing that may occasion a Man's falling, but the double stepp, which I am going to shew you is most proper to be Page 37made use of, in stony or ragged Ground, where a man cannot make use of the single stepp, without being in hazard of falling; for with the double stepp, you may step over a little furrow, or a rickle of stones, which is almost impossible for you to doe, with the single stepp, without being in hazard of falling, which is as much as your life is worth.
Let me see how the double stepp is done?
The double stepp is done as followeth, * you must first throw your left foot, before your right (By raising of your Body a little on your right foot to doe it with the better grace,) about a foot, then bring forewards your right foot again, as farr be∣fore the left, as it was when you presented your Sword, thir two Motions must be done immediatly after other, otherwise the doing of this stepp, will appear very un∣handsome. Remember when you make use of this double stepp, to keep as thin a Body as possible, because the throwing of your left foot before your right, casts your Body open, and therefore you must guard against it. You must also as I told you before redouble this stepp, according to the distance you are from your Adverlary.
Since I now know how this double stepp is Page 38done, I perceive that it is indeed, properest to use it in uneven Ground, and the single in a plain field. But which is your second Lesson?
Lesson 2. Of Retireing.
My second Lesson is of Retireing.
How many wayes can a man Retire?
Shew me them?
The first is with a single stepp and is done the same way, * as you approach with the single stepp, onely whereas in Approaching with the single stepp, you lift your right foot first, in Retireing with the single stepp you must lift your left foot first, you must observe the rest of the Directions given you in Ap∣proaching with the single stepp.
The second way is with a double stepp;* and is also done the same way as the Advancing with the double stepp, only whereas in Ap∣proaching with the double stepp you throw your lest Foot before your Right in Retiring with the Double stepp, you throw your right foot backwards, behind your le•t, the rest is to be done, as in Advancing with the double stepp.
The Retiring with the Single and Double Stepps, is made use of, upon the same Occasions and in the same Grounds, that the Advancing Page 39with the Single and Double Stepp is, is it not?
Yes, that it is, but the Third way of Retireing is done by jumping backwards upon the streight Line: The Reason why I call it the streight Line is, because you Jump streight back from your Adversarie, * as it were in a Streight Line, for there is play which must be played off the Streight Line, called Quarting, and Volting, which shall be taught you in its proper place, I say it is done by Jumping backwards upon the streight Line, with both your feet in the Air at once, but you must lift your Right Foot first, and after your Jump is done, stand to your Guard again, unless you intend to Redouble your Jump, that you may go far∣ther out of your Adversaries Measure.
Which is your Third Lesson?
Lesson 3. Of giving in a Thrust.
My Third Lesson is of giving in a Thrust, or making of an Elonge.
How am I to give in a Thrust?
You are to do it thus, when you are standing to your Guard,* and your Adver∣sary within your Measure, your Sword being presented either within or without your Ad∣versaries Sword as you please, but I sup∣pose Page 40it be within, then stretch forth your Right Arm, and step foreward with your Right Foot, as farr as you can, keeping the point of it streight forewards, and let the Motion of your Arm begin a thought before you move your Foot. see Plate 3. fi∣gure 2. For a thrust that is right given, may be compared to the shot of a Gun or Pistoll, for as he that is wounded with the shot of a Pistoll receiveth his wound, before he hear the report of the Pistol, so he that is wounded with a Sword receiveth his wound before he hear his Adversaries Right Foot touch the ground when he is giving in his Thrust, and the Reason of it is, because the Motion of his hand is begun, before that he move his right Foot, but the difference is so little, that it can scarcely be perceived, but by a very quick Eye, or Ear: when you are at your full stretch, keep your left hough stretched, and by any means keep a closs and couched left Foot, which is done by keeping your left heel and broad side of your foot closs to the Ground, without the least drawing it after you, the keeping of a closs left foot, is one of the Chiefest things to be most exact∣ly observed in all the Art of Fencing, when you give in your Thrust, throw your left hand behind your back as in Plate 3 figure 2. Page [unnumbered]Page [unnumbered]
One giving in a Thrust without and above The sword see pag:4i
One Parieing his Adversaries thrust given without his sword with the first Parade in •orce see pag: 2•
But what advantage have I by observing all those Rules, in giving in a Thrust, as when I thrust without the Sword, the holding of my Hilt lower then my Point, and the holding of my Head from my Adversaries Sword; as also the thrusting closs by the Feible of my Adversaries Sword; I pray you let me see, what Advantage I have by ob∣serving all those Directions.
As the Quarting of your head when you Thrust within the Sword,* preserveth you from your Adversaries Contre-temps Thrusts in the face. So also doth your Thrusting closs by the Fieble of his Sword, and the holding of your Hilt lower then the Point, when you Thrust without the sword, as also the holding of your head alwayes to the contrary side your Adversaries Sword is on, preserve you from Contre-temps. And observe this as a General Rule alwayes to keep your head to the contrary side your Adversaries Sword is on, upon whatever side you Thrust, for this will oftentimes preserve your face from being hitt, when otherwise it would, for a Page 43Man that in giving a Thrust receiveth ano∣ther at the same time, cannot be accounted 〈◊〉Master of this Art, for this Art is called the Art of Defence, and therefore the great use of it is to Defend ones self, and save their Adversary, (which a Man that is Master of •t, may easily doe.) and not to hurt their Adversary, and have themselves likewise wounded, for any Man that never had a Sword in his Hand can doe that: After that you have let in your Thrust, recover your Body instantly to the posture it was in when you stood to your Guard, and in the recovering, whither or not you think your Adversary intends to Thrust upon the Respost, go to his Sword or to the Parade, accord∣ingly as you judge he will give in his Thrust, if you think within the Sword, then Parie in Quart, if without the Sword, then Parie in Terce, or you may make use of the Contre-Caveating Parade which if you make use of it right will never fail you, let your Adversa∣ry Thrust as he pleaseth; this recovering of the Body is one of the chiefest things in the Small Sword, for many a Man for not re∣covering of his Body quickly enough, after the giving in of a Thrust, hath received one, which had he recovered his Body quickly he would have shuned; Therefore I pray Page 44you by any means, mind to recover you• Body as quickly as possible after every thr• and when you do recover, go to his Swor• and either Beat it or Bind it, as shall be taught you in it's propper place.
I shall, and I also was convinced of t• Excellency of this Contre eaveating Parade before, but cannot a Man give in a Thrust unless he ob∣serve exactly all the Directions which you have here given?
Yes that he may, and not observe one of them, but then his Thrust will not be given according to the Rules of this Art, and so it cannot be expected, but his Body will be exposed to a great deal of more hazard, then if he had exactlie observed the foregoing directions.
Sir you are very farr in the right, but go on to your next Lesson?
Lesson 4. Of Caveating or Dis-engaging.*
My fourth Lesson is of C•veating or Dis∣engaging, with your Adversaries Sword.
How am I to do it?
You must do it thus, when your Sword is presented within your Adversa∣ries Sword, and you would have it withoutPage 45his Sword, you must (keeping your Nails in Quart,) sloap your Swords point so low, that you may bring it up upon the out∣side, of your Adversaries, this sloaping must be done onlie with the wrest, and not with any motion at all of the Arm.
Because, if you should move your Arm, when you Dis-engade, as some Igno∣rants do, you would discover so much of your Body, in the time of your Dis-engag∣ing, that your Adversary would have a very good time to give in a Thrust, which he would want, had you only moved your wrest, this sloaping of your Point with the wrest, and bringing of it up again on the other side, resembleth somewhat the Motion of the Contre-caveating Parade, and it must be done very quickly.
It doth so indeed, but is this all I must do, when I intend to Dis-engage?
Yes, for if once you can Dis-engage, and go from the inside of your Adversaries Sword, to the outside, and then back a∣gain to the inside, you will know how to dis-en∣gage, and slip your Adversaries Sword, as oft as you please.
Which is your fifth Lessen?
Lesson. 5. Of Feinting or Falsifying.
My fifth Lesson is of Feinting, or Fa•∣sifying.
How am I to make a Feint?
Before I shew you how to make Feint, you must know that there are se• rall kinds of Feints.
I pray you shew me them?*
There is then the Ordinary single, Fein• and the Ordinary double Feint; the single Fei• at the Head; and the double Feint at the be• the low Feint, single, and double; the single and double Feint upon Battery; Volt-coupe, sing and double; all which Feints I shall shew y• orderly, as I have here set them down how they must be played.
I pray you do so, and let your Expla••∣tion of them be as distinct, * and easie, as possible that so I may the better understand your meaning.
I shall, you are to make your Or∣dinary single Feint then, after this manner (I suppose that you are alwayes standing 〈◊〉 a Guard, before you offer to play any Lesso• when you are within your Adversaries Swor•dis•engage and make your Feint without, which is done by giving a beat with your right fo• upon the ground, just as you disengagePage 47and your Sword upon the outside of your Adversaries, and instantly after you have dis-engaged, if you perceive him answer your Feint, by offering to Parie, dis-engage again, and give him the Thrust within the Sword, some use to make their Feint without any beat with their Right Foot, but I am whol∣ly against it, unless you were playing a∣gainst those who are expert in this Art.
What is your Reason for that?
My Reason is this, * that if you should give a beat with your Foot, when you are playing against such as understand this Art well, they would immediatly know it to be a Feint, and therefore would not answer it. Now to make your Feint, without any Motion of your Foot to them, is most reason∣able, because the making of it, as quick as you can, without any beat of your Foot will cause them believe that it is really a Thrust, coming in upon that side on which you make your Feint, and so cause them answer it, and then you have your design. But the matter is farr different, when you are playing with Ignorants, or with such who are in a manner but just grounded in this Art, for if you should make a Feint to them without giving a beat with your Foot, upon the ground, they would not answer Page 48it, not because they should not, (for ob∣serve this as a General Rule, never to an∣swer a Feint, unless you do it upon some design,) but because they have not as yet come the length of discerning such quick play. For your Feint without a beat of your Foot with it, would appear to them as no Feint at all, because of the quickness of the Motion, whereas upon the contrary, if you gave a beat with your Feint, you would surprize them, and in a manner make them start, when you made your Feint, and so make them go to the Parade, which was your design. Sometimes also a beat with ones Foot, without any Moti∣on at all of the Sword, will make some Ignorants brangle, which is no small advan∣tage to their Adversary.
I am now fully convinced of the necessity of Beating with the Foot, except when I am playing as you say, with such as are in a manner Masters of this Art.
I am glad you are convinced that what I say is true, for that will encourage me to take the more pains to instruct you in the rest of this Art, but let us now speak of the double Feint.
Shew me first how I am to play the single Feint, being without distance.
You must approach with your Feint.*
And with what stepp am I to approach whither with the single or double?
With the single, for if you approached with the double, you would discover your Body too much in the time of your approach∣ing, and so be in hazard of being hitt by your Adversary, besides that the double stepp is ordinarly never made use of, neither in approaching, nor Retiring, But upon the occasions I before told you in page 37. where I treated of them.
I indeed thought otherwise, but shew me now how I must play the ordinary double Feint.
Lesson 6. Of the Double-Feint.
Before I shew you how to play it, you must know what difference there is be∣twixt all Single Feints and Double Feints.
I am very well satisfied that you shew me it.
You are then in all single Feints to make two Motions, * with the first Motion you make your Feint, and with the next you give in the Thrust, and the Thrust in all Single Feints, (except when you make your Feint upon that Side your Sword lyeth, Page 50which is done without Dis-engaging, and i• the simplest of all Feints) is given in upon the side your Sword lay before you made your Feint, whereas in all Double Feints, you make 3. Motions, and the Thrust (Except when you make your first Motion on that side your sword was presented) is gi∣ven in upon the other side, and not in that side your Sword lay immediatly before you began to make your Feint. This is the difference betwixt Single and Double Feints.
Seing you have shewn me the difference betwixt them, pray shew me how I must play the ordinary Double Feint?*
There are then two wayes of playing your ordinary Double Feint, for when your Adversary is within your Measure, you play it one way, and when he is without your mea∣sure you are to play it another; when you are within distance, your Sword being presented within your Adversarys Sword, you must Dis-engage, and make your first Motion with∣out his Sword, and stand a thought upon it to see if he answereth you, by offering to go to the Parade, if he do not answer you, your Lesson will have no effect, and there∣fore in such a case, you must try another: But if he answer your first Motion, then Page 51instantly make your second Motion within his Sword, and your Third without the Sword again, by giving the Thrust, thir two last Motions must be as quick as pos∣sible, and remember at every Motion to give a beat with your Foot, and Dis engage alwayes with your Nails in Quart.
How am I to play it being without di∣stance?
When you are without distance,* you must first make a Motion to try if he will answer your Feint, and if you perceive him answer you, then begin again, and make your first Motion just as you did when you was within distance (but you must approach with it) and you must make your second Motion, and Third also as you did be∣fore.
Which is your contrary to the ordinary Single and Double Feints?
My Contrary to them is this, * when I perceive my Adversary make use of them against me, I then either make use of the Contre caveating Parade, or otherwise, I keep my Swords point immovable towards his face, with my Arm as stretched as Possible, and when I do that, I recover my Body, by drawing my right Foot closs to my left, & standing as it were upon my tipp-toes; and Page 52if for all his seeing me do that, he give home the Thrust, then I Contre-temps him in the Face, and Parie his Thrust with my left Hand, or otherwise when I see him make variety of Feints, then in the very time of his making them, I make a half Thrust at him, that is I Thrust but I go not home with it. This will make him go to the Parade, and so if I please, I may take the Pursuit, or when he maketh such variety of Feints, I give home a plain thrust as smartly as possible, and in the time I give it, I endeavour to defend my Body from a Contre-temps with my left Hand, as in Plate 5. fig. 1. or Plate 6. fig. 2. *
But which of these Contraries is the best, and safest?
In my Opinion the Contre-caveat∣ing Parade, for if you make right use of it you may defie his Feints, but making use of any of the other two Contraries you may be hitt, because you trust all to your left Hand. Not that I am against the making use of it, for upon the contrary, I think a Man can never give home a Thrust with∣out being in hazard of receiving a Contre∣temps (if his Adversary designe it,) unless he make use of his Left Hand, and there∣fore I advise you never to give in a Thrust Page 53but when you make use of your Left Hand, and if you make right use of it, you will find it save you from a great many Contre∣temps, which otherwise you would have received; But let not this cause you trust all to your Left Hand, and nothing to your Sword, for if you do that, it had been better for you that I had not given you the foregoing Advice: Which, ne∣vertheless I can assure you is very good, if you onely make use of it as a help to your Parade with the Sword, and not alone, for alone it is dangerous, but together with your Sword most safe and excellent.
Truely, Sir, I am much of your mind, and I shall endeavour first to come to a Parade with my Sword alone, and when I am Master of the Parade that way, then I think I may venture to make use of my Left Hand, without spoiling of my self?
That is the very Method you should take, for once being Master of the Parade with the Sword alone, you will then find the making use of your Left Hand very use∣ful to you, and you will I am confident, confess that it is of as great use to you, as I before told you it would.
Its like I may; But which is your seventh Lesson?
Lesson 7. Of the Single Feint at the Head.
My seventh Lesson is the Single Feint, a la Teste, or single Feint at the Head.
How am I to play it?
When you are within distance play it after this manner, * you may either present your Sword within or without your Adver∣saries Sword, if your Sword be presented without, make a Motion or Feint, at your Adversaries Face, by stretching out of your right Arm a little, and turning your nails upwards towards your Adversarie, when you make the Motion give a beat with your Right Foot, and if you perceive him answer your Feint, then instantlie give in your Thrust at your Adversaries Arm-pitt with your Head under your Right Arm, as I shew you in the second Parade in Terce, Page 30, and for the same reasons there gi∣ven, the Motion at the Face, stretching of your Arm, turning of your Nails, and beat with your Right Foot, must be all done together, your Thrust must be gi∣ven with your Nails in Terce, and you must hold your left Hand before you, with the palm of it, looking towards your Right Page [unnumbered]Page [unnumbered]
One Pareing his Adversaries thrust give•• without & below his sword with the second para in quart see pag: 28
One giving in a thrust without & below the sword after his making a feint at the head see pag: 54
Why must I stretch out my Arm, and make my Nails look upwards from my self to∣wards my Adversary.
Because the doing of it defends you from your Adversaries thrust, if he should Thrust without and above your sword, at the same time you are making the Motion at his Face.
Would I not also if I keept my Nails in Quart, when I make that Motion, Parie his Thrust, if he should Thrust at the same time I am making it?
Not at all, for do you not see, that if you made your Feint with your nails in Quart, your Body would be quite open without and above your sword, which mak∣ing your Feint with your Nails in Terce, is quite Guarded.
I see so indeed, but how must I play this Lesson, if at the first I had presented my Sword, within my Adversaries?
Just as I have been shewing you, but you must Disengage with the first Motion.
And how am I to play it being without distance?
Also just as I have been shewing you, only you must approach with your Feint.
Which is your Contrary to this single Feint at the Head?
When I perceive my Adversary make use of this Lesson against me, * then I either give him the Thrust upon time, which is just as he is making his Feint at my Face, then I give him the Thrust at that same very time, and that same way he should have given it me, or otherwise I Parie him with the second Parade in Terce, or with the Contre-caveating Parade, by making half a Circle with it, from my Right to my left side, which at last, will end in the second Parade in Quart. see Plate 5. fig. 1.
I understand you very well, but is their no contraries whereby a Man may win at his Adver∣sary although he make use of these Parades, when this Lesson is played upon him?
Yes, for each of these Parades, have a contrary, which you may make use of, when you perceive your Adversary, make use of any of those two foregoing Parades a∣gainst this Lesson.
I pray you shew me them?
Lesson 8. Of the Double Feint at the Head.
My Contrary to the first Parade,* is called the Double Feint, at the Head, and is done thus, when you are within distance, make your first Motion or Feint at the face as in the foregoing Lesson, then make your second Motion low towards your Adversa∣ries Belly without his Sword, and with the Third Motion give in the Thrust without and above your Adversaries Sword with the Nails of your Hand in Quart, and let your Head, Hand, and Foot, mark every Motion: also when you make your second Motion towards your Adversaries Belly, you must hold your Left-Hand as I told you when you was shewn to play the single Feint at the Head see Plate 5. figure 2. when you give in your Thrust above the Sword, you must Quart your Head well, because you are to give it in with your Nails in Quart.
Why am I in this Lesson to give in my Thrust without, and above my Adversaries Sword with my Nails in Quart, whereas in all other Thrusts without and above the Sword, I am to give in my Thrust, with my Nails in Terce?
The reason is this, that after you have made your second Motion, towards your Adversaries Belly, it lyeth more na∣turally to your Hand, to give in the Thrust with your Nails in Quart, then in Terce, and besides, you can give in your Thrust quicker this way then if you should Aim at the turning of your Nails in Terce, which if you did, your Body would be open to your Adversary within your Sword, if he should offer to Disengage and give you a Contre-temps, but when you give in your thrust with your Nails in Quart, your Body within your Sword is keept secure, especially if you Quart your Head well, and make use of your Left Hand as in Plate 5. Figure 2.
I perceive so indeed, but must I not when I am without distance, or my Sword presented within my Adversaries, and intends to play this Lesson, observe your Directions given me in play∣ing the single Feint, at the Head, without di∣stance?
Yes, and approach with your first Motion. *
How is this Contrary to be Paried?
Either with the Contre caveating Pa∣rade, or by answering every Motion, and so you will fall to Parie him with the first Parade, in Terce, see Plate 4 figure 2.
Which is your Contrary to the second Pa∣rade of the Single Feint at the Head?
Lesson 9. Of the Feint at the Head, upon the true Parade.
My Contrary to the second Parade is called the Feint at the Head, * upon the true Parade, and is to be done as followeth first you make your Motion at your Adversaries Fa•e, and then if you think that he intends to Parie you with the second or Contre-caveating parade, go quit round his Sword, by mak∣ing as it were a circle with your Sword, and so give him in the Thrust at his Arm-Pit, as in the Single Feint at the Head, and pre∣serve your self with your Left Hand, from a Contre temps as you do in it, see Plate 5. Figure 2. And if you be without distance, approach with your first Motion.
I understand not what good that going round my Adversaries Sword doth
Do you not see that by so doing you Caveat his sword and shun his parade.
I now see so indeed?
You may if you please make one, two or three circles as your Adversary Page 60followeth your sword, untill you have the opportunity of letting in your Thrust.
And how is this Contrary paried?
You may either parie it as you do the single Feint at the Head,* or you may make one or two Circles with the Contre-caveating parade, untill you meet with his sword, but if your Adversary still Caveat you, by going about, then make your Circle the Contrary way, and then certainly you will meet with his sword, and so prevent the giving in of the Thrust.
Which is your next Lesson?
Lesson 10. Of the Low Feint.
My next Lesson is, * the Low Feint, and when you intend to play it, you must remember to have your sword without your Adversaries, and when it is so, make ex∣actly the second Motion of the Double Feint, at the Head, and give in the Thrust above as you did in it, & when you are without di∣stance, approach with the Feint, or first Mo∣tion, and give the Thrust with the second.
May not a Man make a Double Feint up∣on this Lesson?
Yes very well, * by only making the Motion with which you was to give in your Thrust above the Sword, a Feint, and give in your Thrust as in the single Feint at the Head, at your Adversaries Arm-Pitt, and when you are without distance, approach with your first Feint or Motion.
Which is the Parade of this Lesson?
You may Parie it either by answer∣ing every Motion, * or otherwise make use of the Contre-caveating Parade.
Have you a Contrary to this Lesson?
Yes, you may whon your Adversa∣ry is making his Low Feint, take time,* and give him the Thrust above his Sword, with your Nails in Quart, or you may Quart, or Volt, which I shall shew you hereafter.
Which is your next Lesson?
Lesson 11. Of Battery.
My next Lesson is called Battery.
Why hath it that name?
I know no other reason for its having that name, but because it is done with a kind of Beat. But before I proceed further, I will Page 62tell you that there are many Names of Lessons in this Art, the meaning of which cannot be easily explain•d in English, to make the name, and the Lesson answer o∣ther, and therefore you need not trouble your self to ask a reason for their having such Names.
I shall not; But pray tell me why you ha• not English Names to them?
I can give you no other reason then this, that it is like those who brought this A• first to this Kingdom, out of other Coun∣tries, have still given the Lessons the proper names, which they had in their own coun∣try, and now those Lessons are so well known by the same names they give them at their first coming to this Kingdom, that they need no other.
I think indeed that must he the reason of it, but how must I play this Battery?
When you make use of this Lesson (for it is a kind of Beat) you may present your sword either without,* or within your Adver∣saries, if you present within his sword, and he within your-measure, you must lye with your sword about half a Foot from his, and when you intend to play the Lesson, give a little stroak with the Edge, and Feible of your sword, upon the Edge and Feible of Page 63your Adversaries, and in the very time you give the stroake give a beat with your Foot to surprize him: if he doth not in the least answer your stroak by offering to parie, give him the Thrust streight home to his Right Pap, as you give in a plain Thrust within the Sword, remember when you give the stroak, to make the Motion only with the wrest, for by so doing you keep your Body closs, and doth not disorder your self.
I understand you, but if he offer to an∣swer my stroak, what must I doe in that ease?
If you perceive him offer to go to the parade, then slip him, and give him the thrust without, and above the sword.
May not a man make a Double Feint upon this Lesson?
Yes very well.
How I pray you?
Thus, * when you perceive him going to the Parade, immediatly slip, and make your Feint in the other side, and give in the Thrust upon that side on which you gave the Beat.
Must I give a Beat with my Foot, at every Motion?
You may either give a beat at e∣very Motion you make, or otherwise, on∣ly Page 64at the first, just as you please, and when you are without distance, approach with the first Motion, and give the Beat with the Feible of your Sword, upon the Feible of your Adversaries.
And how am I to play this Lesson, my Sword being presented without my Adversaries?
You must observe exactly the same rules, your Sword being present∣ed without your Adversaries, as you do your Sword being presented within it, for you may play this Lesson upon any side, without dis∣engaging, after you have presented your Sword.
Which is your Contrary to this Battery?
My Contrary is this, you may either Park it with the Contre-caveating parade,* or otherwise, you may meet his stroak, and make a half Thrust at him, which will make him go to the parade, and so you be∣come the Pursuer.
Which is your next Lesson?
Lesson 12. Of Volt Coupe.
My next Lesson is Volt Coupe.
How is it to be played?
You are to play it thus, when your Sword is presented within your Adversaries,* and he within your measure, make a Feint at his Face, with your Nails in Quart, and when you do it, give a Beat with your Foot, and Quart your Head well, and if he an∣swer your Feint by offering to parie, and parieth high, then give him the Thrust in the Belly with your Nails in Terce, as in the single Feint at the Head, and hold your Left hand that same way, to defend your self from a contre-temps as you doe in it. see Plate 5. fig. 2.
But what if be parie Low?*
If he parie you with the first parade in Quart and very low, then make use of the Double Volt-coupe, which is done thus, after you have made your Feint, instead of giving him the Thrust in the Belly, you Slip his parade, and give him the Thrust with∣out and above the Sword which resembleth something the Double Battery, and when you are without distance, approach with the first Motion, or Feint.
How must I play this Lesson when my sword is presented without my Adversaries?
You must first Dis-engage.
Which is your contrary to this Lesson?
It is this, you may either Parie it Page 66with the second Parade in Quart, or you may take time,* and give him the Thrust, that same very way he was to give it you, just when he is making the Motion at your face or you may pass with your Thrust, which shall be shewn you when I come to speake of passing.
You have now described to me very plain∣ly the Feints, which you told me a little before of: as also their Contraries, I pray you now go on to your other Lessons, and be as plain in the discrib∣ing of them.
Lesson 13. Of Binding.
I shall, my next Lesson then is the Binding, or securing of your Adversaties Sword, which certainly is the chiefest Lesson, belonging to this Art. For a Man that can play it exactly, needeth almost no o∣ther.
Because you commend this Lesson so much, I shall hear you discribe it wth the more attentiveness, that I may the better understand it.
You will do well to do so, for it is the only secure play, belonging to the smal Sword.
I shall, therefore I pray you, let me hear how it is done?
Take notice to me then, * when you keep the Quart Guard, the first thing that ever you should doe, should be to se∣cure or Bind your Adversaries sword, which if it be well done, you will be but in little hazard of being hurt by him, and it is done after this manner, after your sword is presented either within, or without your Ad∣versaries, immediatlie overlapp Six, or seven Inches of your Adversaries Sword, with 8: or 10: of yours, the doing of with se∣cureth his Sword: this Binding must alwayes be done with the edge of your Sword, whi∣ther it be presented within or without your Ad∣versaries, and immediatlie after you have Bound his Sword, give him the Thrust streight home, keeping a closs Left Foot, and remember alwayes when you bind, to give a beat with your Foot, and Bind with a spring, that is to say, press his Sword almost to the Ground, but stay not with it, but instantlie bring up your Sword again, and give in the Thrust.
I begin to think that when a Man maketh use of this Lesson, he indeed secureth his Adversaries Sword better, and is in less hazard Page 68of being bitt by a Contre-temps, then when be maketh use of any of the preceeding Lessons.
That is most certain, otherwise I could not have had the confidence, to re∣commend it so earnestly to you.
Sir I am oblidged to you, for the pain• you take to informe me; but which is your parade against this Lesson?*
The best Parade absolutelie against this Lesson, is the Contre-caveating Parade.
Which is your contrary to binding?
My Contrary is Caveating, or Slip∣ping,* and you must do it before your Ad∣versarie feel your Sword, for your must understand, that this binding is done by feel∣ing, and not by seing, as the Lessons before shewn you are.
I pray you let me understand this way of playing by feeling.
It is known thus, when you over∣lap your Adversaries Sword, if he slipp you before you touch his Sword, (which is the feeling of it.) then your offering to bind is in vain, because he hath prevented it by Caveating your sword, but if you feel his sword before he Caveat you, then you may safely give home the thrust, because you did first secure it. Which you knew by your feeling, or touching of his sword, and which Page 69you, nor no man else, could have so well discerned by your sight.
But what must I doe to prevent my Ad∣versaries slipping of my Sword when I am going to seeure his?
You must (if you intend to Bind his Sword within,* and he slipp you) rebind his Sword again, either without, by making use of the first Parade in Terce, or within by making use of the Contre-caveating Parade, & after you have rebound him, give him home the Thrust, or if you intend to bind his sword without, and he slipp you, then either rebind him again within his sword, by making use of the first Parade in Quart, or without his sword, by making use of the Contre-caveating Parade, and remember that Binding or the Contre caveating parade, are only the contraries to slipping, and that slipping is ab∣solutely the best Contrary, either against the Contre caveating-Parade, or binding.
I understand you very well, but may I not play a Feint with Binding?
That you may, for you may make the ordinary single, and double Feint upon it, which resembleth very near the single, and double Feint upon battery, or you may bind his sword without, & give in your Thrust as you do when you play the single Feint at the Head.
When I am without distance and intends to bind my Adversaries sword, must I not approach with the binding?
Yes, that you must.
I find this to be a very useful Lesson, and therefore I will endeavour to practise it as much as lyeth in my power, that so I may become master of it.
If you do that, I am confident you will confess to me, that what I have said in commendation of it, is far less then it deserveth.
It may be so, but which is your Next Lesson?
Lesson 14. Of Flancanade.
My next Lesson is called Flancanade.
How am I to play this Lesson?
* You must play it thus, (for it is a kind of binding) when you have presented within your Adversaries sword, then over-lapp his sword within with about a foot of yours upon 8. Inches of his, and give him the Thrust in his right Flanck, upon the out∣side of his sword, and beneath it, with your Page [unnumbered]Page [unnumbered]
One Parieing his Adversaries thrust wt the 2d parade in •orce see pag: 30
One giving in: Flanconade see pag: ••
What Contrary have you to this Lesson?
There are only two Contraries to this Lesson, the first is by Parieing,* and the other by slipping, and the Parade is with the second Parade in Terce, when your Adver∣sarie is giving in the Thrust.
Which is your contrary to the Parade?
If I perceive him offer to Parie,* then I give him the thrust without, and above the sword, as in the double Feint at the Head, & if he slipp my overlapping, then I either make use of Binding, or the Contre∣caveating Parade.
When I am without distance must I not approach, with the overlapping or Binding?
Yes, that you must, and if your Sword be at first presented without your Adversaries, then before you can play this Lesson, you must first dis-engage.
Which is your next Lesson?
Lesson 15. Of Ʋnder-Counter.
My next Lesson is Ʋnder-Counter.
How do you play it?
It is almost played like Flancanade,* only whereas in it, after you have over∣lapped your Adversaries Sword, you give him the Thrust in his Flank, in this you must go quite under his Sword, turning your hand in Terce, & bring up his Sword, and give him the Thrust, as you give it when you play the single Feint at the Head, and hold your left hand that same very way also, as you do in it.
Which is your Contrary to this Lesson.*
There are also only two Contraries a∣gainst this Lesson, the first is by Parieing, and is done by making use of the second Parade in Quart, when he hath overlapped your Sword, and is giving in the Thrust, the Page 73second is by slipping, when he is overlapping your Sword, and giving the Thrust without and above his sword, by De-querting or Quart∣ing off the streight Line, which shall be shewn you in its proper place, and is represented by the second figure of the ninth plate.
Which is your contrary to this parade?
My contrary to this Parade,* is the Feint at the Head upon the true parade, and my contrary to his slipping, is either binding, or the Contre caveating Parade, when you are with∣out distance, you must also approach with your overlapping, and if at first your sword be presented without your Adversaries, you must before you offer to play this Lesson dis∣engage, because this Lesson is surer to be played when your Sword is presented with∣in your Adversaries, then when it is presented without, for when you have presented with∣in, you have the Advantage of overlapp∣ing your Adversaries Sword, which in some Manner secureth it, Which you can∣not at all do, when you have presented without, unless you first dis-engage.
Is this all you have to say of this Lesson?
Which is your Next then?
Lesson. 16. of Beating.
My next Lesson is, of the beating of your Adversaries Sword, with one or both hands.
I pray you shew me how that is done?
A Man should never offer to make use of this Lesson, untill he be almost Mas∣ter of this Art, because the doing of it dis∣ordereth his Body, besides that a Man is in hazard of being hitt, if he should miss his Beat, but because you are curious to know how it is done, I shall satisfie you.
I pray you do so?
You must do it after this manner, * when you intend to make use of this Lesson, you must let your Adversaries Sword be within yours, & then either only with your right hand, or otherwise, with your Left, joyned to your sword about 8. or 10. In∣ches from the hilt, as in Plate 11. Fig. 2. (To do it with the greater Force,) Dis engage, and beat your Adversaries Sword strongly, and smartly, upon the outside, with the strong of yours, upon the Feible of his, and Page 75do it with a spring, that is when you beat, let not the point of your sword fol∣low your Adversaries, but keep your point as near streight towards your Adversarie as possible, the doing of which will less dis∣order your Body, then if •e followed your Adversaries sword, for then your Body would be discovered within your sword, and so you would give your Adversarie, an op∣portunity to thrust at you, if you hapned to miss his sword.
I take you up very well, But what signi∣fyeth this beating?
It is very usefull, for if you beat your Adversaries sword smartly, * and with a spring, as I before told you, you will hardly ever fail, either to beat it, (unless he be all the better skill'd in this Art, and take the more notice to himself;) out of his hand, or if he keep his sword very firme, you may infallibly give him the Thrust, but remember if you intend to give the Thrust, to give it upon the streight Line, by keeping a Closs Left Foot, unless you in∣tend to Pass with your beat, as I shall teach your hereafter.
Well, but can I never make use of this Lesson, but when my Adversarie hath presented his sword within mine?
Yes, that you may very well.
Shew me then upon what occasions, * I should make use of it?
You may doe it upon thir occa∣sions, First, if your Adversarie offer to give in a plain Thrust, either within, or, without your sword, then before his Thrust come home to you, recovering your Body a little, Disengage, and beat his sword, if he Thrust within your sword, Disengage, and beat his sword, upon the out-side, and if he Thrust without, Disengage, and beat within, and instantly after the beat, give him home the Thrust. Secondly, if he should offer to make a Feint, within your sword, then im∣mediatly in the time of his making the Feint, Disengage, and beat his sword, and give him home the Thrust. Thirdly, if you should offer to make a Feint within his sword, and he should take time, and Thrust just as you are making your Feint, then in∣stantly Disengage and before his Thrust be home at you, beat his sword, and give him the Thrust, alwayes with a closs Left Foot; this I think as good a time for Beat∣ing of your Adversaries sword this way, as can be, but you must be sure not to miss his sword, for if you do, he is but an igno∣rant, if he miss you, And therefore, I Page 77think a man should be very Expert in the Parade, and judging of his Adversaries Measure, before he should offer to make use of this Lesson.
I am much of your opinion, considering what difficulty there is in playing of it well.
I can assure you, the more you practise this Lesson, the more you will find out the hazard a man is in, if he happen to miss his Adversaries Sword.
I believe it indeed, but can a Man ne∣ver play this Lesson without Disengaging?
Yes you may Beat your Adversaries Sword, after this same manner, without Disengaging, when he offereth to give in a plain Thrust, without your Sword, but then your Beat hath not such a spring with it, to cause him part with his Sword, as when he offereth to Thrust, either without or with∣in your Sword, and you Disengage, and Beat upon that time, which certainly is the best.
You are in the right now when I consi∣der it. But is their no other way, to Beat the sword, * to cause it go out of my Adversaries Hand?
Yes, there are yet two wayes which I have not as yet shewn you?
I pray you show me them?
The first way then is done thus, when your Adversary hath his sword pre∣sented Page 78within yours,* then on a sudden give a smart Beat, with the strong and edge of your sword, upon the Feible, and outter edge of his, and let your Beat be very strong, and quick.
Which is your second way?
The second way is done by a twist, and is just done as you play under-counter, on∣ly you must do it with a spring, * by throw∣ing of your point smartly up towards your Adversaries left side?
What contraries have you to this Beating of the sword?
A man must of necessity either slipp the Beat,* or otherwise hold his Sword so fast, that his Adversary Beat it not out of his Hand. I have no other contraries against it, but the slipping is absolutly the best, you must also remember that you can never make use of Beating, but when you are with∣in distance.
I shall, but is this all you have to say of the Beating of the sword?
Which is your next Lesson then?
Lesson 17. Of Passing.
My next Lesson is of Passing, or making of a pass.
Shew me how I am to do that?
Before I shew you the way of doing it, * you must know that there are two kinds of Passes, the first kind, (and that which most properly deserveth the name of a Pass) is that with which a man goeth quite by, and behind his Adversary, the second kind which is called a Pass, (but improperly,) is that with which a Man goeth only closs to his Adversary, and when he is closs at him commandeth his Sword, and this most pro∣perly is called an inclosing or commanding of your Adversaries Sword, and shall be the next Lesson I shall shew you.
Shew me then the way of making a true Pass?
The true Pass is done by runing quite by your Adversaries right side untill you be behind him, * and when you are run∣ing by, give him the Thrust at his right pap, if you give him the Thrust above the Sword Page 80but if you give it him below at his Arm Pitt, then you must in the time of you passing keep your head that same very way as you do when you play the single Feint 〈◊〉 the Head, and that to preserve your Fa• from a blow, or joyne your left hand 〈◊〉 your Sword, about half a Foot from th• point, and give him the thrust the very sam• way as it is represented by the 2d: figure o• the seventh plate. And when you think yo• are farr enough past your Adversary (which is that if he should turn about to you, yo• would be out of his measure,) You mu• then turn about, and stand to your ow• defence again, and remember alwayes whe• you intend to pass, to go quite thorow wit• it. And not (if you should chance not 〈◊〉take the time exactly,) to stop in the midle and offer to recover your Body. For the• is farr less hazard in going foreward, a• though you have not taken the occasion al∣together so exactly as you should, the• to offer to recover your self.
Sir I think there is a great deal of reason for what you say, for when a man offereth to pas• it surpriseth his Adversary, if he go quite thorow with it, although he should miss the giving 〈◊〉 the Thrust, but when a man offereth to pass, an• doth it not freely, it both disordereth himself
Page [unnumbered]Page [unnumbered]
One receiving a thrust after his adversary hath beat his sword see pag: 80.
One passing below the sword after a beat given wt both his hands see pag: 80.
You may Pass upon the very same occasions that you can beat your Adversa∣ries sword. * (I mean not the two last wayes of beating of it.) But then you must first beat, and immediatly after your beat, Pass, or you may pass without beating, with the single Feint at the Head, Volt-coupe, and Ʋnder-counter, those are the best times which I know for Passing, but you will by frequent practice know all the occasions, upon which you may either Beat, or Pass, according to your pleasure.
Which is your contrary to passing?
If your Adversarie make use of Passing after his beat,* then prevent his Pass∣ing by using the contrary to beating, for by preventing his beating, you prevent his pass∣ing after his beat, but if he offer to pass u∣pon any other occasion, then the best con∣traries I know, are either to parie him, or otherwise to break his Measure, or go off the streight Line, as shall be taught you here. after.
Which is your next Lesson?
Lesson 18. of Commanding the Sword.
I told you before that my next Lesson should be of Inclosing, or commanding your Adversaries Sword.
Which way do you that.
There are two kinds of Inclosing, the first kind is done, by runing close to your Adversarie, * as it were with half a Pass. Which I before said was improperly called a Pass, the second kind is done without run∣ing, Now I shall begin with the Inclosing, with half a Pass as it were, and shew you First how that is done, afterwards I shall go to the second kind, and also shew you the occasions you are to take to do it: as for the first kind then it is done thus, when you intend to Command your Adversaries sword, or inclose with him, you must run close to his right side, and take hold of the Hilt of his Sword, and not of his Arm, (as Igno∣rants do,) so that their Adversarie to be in a manner in equal terms with them again, hath nothing to do but to change Page 83his Sword, from his right hand to his Left, and then I pray you for what serveth the securing of the hand, seing the Sword is not secured.
Certainly a man should alwayes endea∣vour to secure the Sword rather as the Arm, but I think this a very dangerous kind of Lesson, for if I should run so upon my Adversarie as you tell me, be hath no more to doe, but to catch me upon the point of his Sword.
There will be no fear of that, if you but observe the directions which I shall give you.
Sir to the outmost of my power I shall, pray let me hear them?
They are these then which follow, *first when you intend to Command or Inclose this way, you must try if your Adversarie answereth Feints, if he do not answer them, then it will be hard to inclose with him this way, but if he do Answer and offereth to go to the Parade, then immedi∣atly Inclose with a plain thrust within his sword, at his belly, * by turning the point of your sword, towards the right side of his Belly, for the better resisting of his Parade if he should meet with your sword, before that you hitt him, and when you are run∣ing to give your Thrust, let your Nails be Page 84turned in Terce. Secondly, you may Inclose with an ordinary single,* or double Feint: Thirdly you may inclose the same way, * with Volt-Coupe. Fourthly you may also Inclose with half a Passe,* when you have secured your Adversaries sword without, and when you Passe, carry the point of your sword, towards your Adversaries Left pap, as when you give in the Thrust within the sword, you was to carry it towards the right side of his belly, and that also for the better resisting of his Parade, and when you Inclose with this thrust without the sword, carry your hilt low, to prevent his slipping of your sword, and giving you the Thrust, when you are runing to Inclose.
I understand you, but yet I see that a man in making use of this kind of inclosing, may be in a great deal of bazard, if he be not all the Experter in this Art.
Sir I tell you again that a Man should never offer to play any of thir Dif∣ficult Lessons, when he is assaulting, untill by practice upon a Masters breast, he hath become Master of them.
I see so indeed, but are there no wayes to prevent this kind of inclosing?
Yes that there are.
I would very gladly know them?
You may then prevent your Adver∣saries Commanding of your sword after this kind, as followeth, first then,* if your Ad∣versarie maketh use of the First, Second, or Third wayes, you may shun his Commanding, by throwing back your right Foot, and when you do it, Parie his Pass with the se∣cond parade in Terce.
But secondly, if he make use of the Fourth way, then you may prevent his Commanding Three wayes, First you may when he is Passing, if he hath not secured your sword all the better, throw back your right Legg, * and Parie his Passe with the First Parade in Terce, and in the mean time you may with your left hand secure his sword, Secondly, if he hath win the Feible of your sword, so that you cannot Parie him with the First Parade in Terce, then without moving your right Foot, Parie him with the second Parade in Terce, which I shew you in the Parade in page 31 if your Adversarie should Thrust with∣out, and above the sword. Thirdly, you may pre∣vent him by (just as he is going to run) giving him the thrust, by de-quarting, or quarting off the streight Line, which shall be shewn you in its proper place, and so I go on to the se∣cond kind of inclosing, which I told you of.
How am I to inclose after this second kind?
There are several occasions in which a man may make use of this Second kind of inclosing,* which is done without runing, as first if your Adversarie keep a high point and your sword be presented without his, & he within your measure; then with the Fort of your sword, and your Naills turned up∣wards from you, put up the point of his sword, and keeping your right soot close, throw forward your left almost close to your Adversaries right Foot, and then se∣cure his sword, as I have before told you. Secondly, if your Adversarie keep a low point, * then you may overcross his sword, with your strong upon his weak, and so pres∣sing down the point of his sword, near the ground, throw forward your left hand, and take hold of his sword with it, just at the hilt, and so wrest it out of his hand, when you make use of this occasion, you must keep a close left Foot. *Thirdly, when your Adver∣sarie giveth in a Thrust, within your sword, parie him with the first parade in Quart, and take hold of his sword that same very way you was to do it before. *Fourthly, when your Adversarie giveth in a Thrust at you, without your sword, immediatly Parie him with the first Parade in Terce, and in the very time of your Parade, throw your left Foot Page [unnumbered]Page [unnumbered]
One commanding his Adversaries sword by taking the fifth occasion see pag: 87
One commanded by the fifth occasion
Pray do so, for I was just going to desire it of you.
You may then prevent your Ad∣verlaries Commanding of your sword, * as fol∣loweth; first if your Adversarie should make use of the first occasion, you may shun his Commanding, by throwing back your right Foot, and in the time you throw it back, give him a blow upon the Left hand; this must be done, just as he is throwing in his Left Foot to command or you may, when you perceive him offer to Command, leape quite out of his measure. * Secondly, if your Adversarie make use of the second oc∣casion of Commanding, you may shun him thus, immediately when he hath overcrossed your Sword, and you perceive him bringing foreward his left Hand to secure yours, either with a leap half about to the right, change your Feet, by putting the left, where the right was, and the right where the left was, and instantly take hold of his Sword, and so long as you keep it in your hand, hold the point of yours to Page 89his Breast, you may perceive the advan∣ta•e, of making use of this contrary, pro∣viding you take the right time, for if you do it right, you not only shun his Com∣manding of you, but you at one time both prevent his inclosing with you, and you be∣come the pursuer, by Commanding of his Sword, whereas he should have Commanded yours, but as I said before, you must be sure, to take the right time, otherwise you will be disappointed.
But what is to be done, if he should catch hold of my Sword, before that I command his?
Truely, if that happen you must either yeild him your sword, or if you will not do that, but rather run the ha∣zard of receiving a Thrust, you must in∣stantly when you find that your sword is secured, turn your Hand in Terce, and strive to secure his sword likewise, before that he can get his sword free of you to harm you, but if you take this method, you must do it very quickly.
But although I turn my hand in Terce, may not my Adversary force my sword from me, before that I can take hold of his?
Yes that he may, by only (when you have turned your hand,) drawing your Page 90sword sidewise out of it, by raising of your Point, and pressing down your Hilt.
I understand all you say very well, but only that of taking the right time I understand not.
I shall explain it to you then, * there are two times, viz. A right and a wrong, for the wrong I have nothing to do with it in this place, because most commonly all people take it, but to take the right time, is that which at this time I am to explain to you, and shew you upon what occasions a man is said to take it, there are then two occasions in which a man is said to take the right time, * first, when a man hath an opportunity of playing of a Lesson, command∣ing, or giving in a Thrust, and neglecteth not that occasion, then he is said to take the right time.* The second is when a man pre∣venteth his Adversary, by playing the same or the like Lesson upon his Adversary, which his Adversary designed to play upon him, and to make use of this second occasion right, a man must be sure to be before his Adversa∣ry, that is to say, whatever Lesson he designes to prevent his Adversaries Lesson with, he must have it played before his Adversary hath played his, otherwise it will be a Con∣tre-temps, as for example, if your Adver∣sary should offer to give you in a Plain Page 91Thrust, and you in the very time of his giv∣ing of it in, should give him a plain Thrust, before that his be home at you, by Quart∣ing your head, and shoulders upon the streight Line; then I say you are Before him, because although he pursued first, yet you pre∣vented him▪ and was Before him, in so far as your Thrust, was sooner home at him, then his at you, which had it not been so, it would have been a Contre-temps, because you would have been hitt, had you not Quarted all the better upon the streight Line; In like manner if a man should offer to com∣mand your sword, by taking the second oc∣casion, and you should offer to prevent him, by the contrary to it, which I just be∣fore shew you, I say, you must then have your Contrary played, and his sword Com∣manded, before that he hath yours Com∣manded, otherwise you have neither taken the right time nor been Before him, and therefore your endeavouring to prevent him signified nothing. I think I have now sufficiently Explained to you, what the taking of the right time is.
You have so Sir and I understand you very well, but I pray you go on in what you was saying, Concerning the shuning of my Adversaries commanding my sword.
I shall, Thirdly then, if your Ad∣versarie should take the Third occasion you may prevent him thus, * either by reco∣vering of your Body, before that he catch hold of your sword, or if he do catch hold of it before that you can recover your Body, you must then Instantlie turn your hand in Terce, and before that he can have the time either to disarme you, or to get his sword free of you to command you, throw in your left foot & command his sword likewise, and then he that is strongest must carry it.
Fourthly, if your Adversary take the fourth occasion for Commanding,* you may either prevent him, by making use of the 5th occasion as in Plat 8. fig. 1. & so you command his sword, whereas he should have comman∣ded yours, or you may when he is throwing in his left foot, & going to take hold of your sword, immediately throw your Left Foot behind you, towards your Adversarie, and upon it, as a Center make a whole turn to the Left, and in the time you are tur∣ning, clapp the Feible of your sword, under your Left Arm Pitt, and so you both shun his Commanding of your sword, and you give him the Thrust, with your sword being placed as I told you, in his Left shoul∣der as you are turning, if you do this Page 93contrary right, the turn that you make upon your left Foot, will put you quite behind your Adversarie, and as I said in the very turning, you give him the Thrust, and after you have given it him, you must jump out of his Measure, and then stand to your Guard again, By this contrary you may see how ridiculous some people are, in thinking that a Man cannot be fairly woun∣ed in the back, I am sure, there is no ra∣tional Man that will deny the faireness of this Thrust, and yet you see it is given at your Adversaries back.
I see so indeed, and till now, I thought so my self, but now I see the contrary both of this, and other things, which before I could not, because of my Ignorance, but I think this turning? pretty kind of contrary.
It is so, but you would take heed that you play it not to your knowledge, up∣on any who know the contrary to it, for if you do, it is ten to one, but you meet with a reward, for your folly.
Why so, is their any hazard, in this turning?
Yes that there is, * for if your Adver∣sary should but thrust you off him with his Left Hand upon your left shoulder when you are turning, he may either certainly Page 94give you the thrust in the Back, or cause you fall if he thrust you off him with a little force, and in the mean time trip you with his left Foot.
I see now indeed that there is more ha∣zard in the making use of this turning, then at first I thought there was.
Sir if you were not convinced with the reasons I give you, * that what I say is right, I would think my labour lost: But to the purpose, if your Adversary should offer to command your sword, by taking the Fifth occasion for Inclosing, you may then make use of the contrary to the First occasion, but you must do it very quickly, otherwise you will not be Before him, and so he will have you commanded, before that you could prevent him with your contrary.
These are all the contraries to the several occasions a man can have to inclose, or command, are they not?
Yes, they are all which I think Necessary to shew you, and therefore I will proceed to my next Lesson.
Concerning what is it?
Lesson 19. Of Breaking of Measure.
It is of Breaking of Measure, which is a thing as Necessary to be understood, as any Lesson I have as yet shewn you, and it sheweth a Mans art very much, if he do it neatly.
I pray you shew me then how it is done?
It is done thus, * when you per∣ceive your Adversary thrusting at you, and you are not very certain of the Parade, then Break his measure, or make his thrust short of you, by either stepping a Foot, or half a foot back, with the single stepp, for if you Judge your Adversaries distance or mea∣sure well, half a foot will Break his measure as well as ten Ells: You are to Judge the distance your Adversary is from you by First considering the Distance his right Foot is from you, Secondly the Distance that there is betwixt his Feet. Now you must observe thir two Directions for although his right Foot be at a reasonable distance from you, yet if his Feet be near to other, then he will Page 96reach you as farr of, as if his right Foot had been nearer to you, and his Feet at a greater Distance, because the nearer that his Feet are together, the farther will his •orge reach: this needs no demonstration if you will but seriously consider it. So now in Judging of Distance, there are two things to be observed, first the Distance his right Foot is from you, Secondly, the distance betwixt his Feet, if you observe thir two Directions you cannot but judge your Ad∣versaries distance exactly, which is a chief point, in the Art of the small Sword, but as I said, * after you have Judged it, then to break it, you must when he is thrusting break it according to the Distance you think he is from you, by either throwing your Body backwards, and drawing your right foot a little to your left, which you must keep fast, this way of breaking of measure, is sore for ones back, and is not used, but when your Adversaries Thrust would not go farr by you; or you may, as I told you before, go back half a foot, a foot, o• as you Judge your Adversaries Distance, with the single stepp. This is the most ordinary, and, in my opinion, the best way of breaking of measure; or you may break your Adver∣saries measure, by Jumping backwards from Page 97him upon the streight line, but this way of breaking of measure is not much made use of, except just after you have given in a thrust your self, because it hindereth extreamly your Adversaries pursuit upon the respost, and therefore is a great deal more proper to be used upon that occasion, then upon any other, for in the ordinary breaking of Measure, if people should jump alwayes so far out of their Adversaries reach, people would have really ground to cry out against the breaking of Measure, for it would indeed look too like yielding of ground, which I am very farr against, it looking some what like cowardliness, but upon the contrarie, I am altogether for Judging of distance, and breaking of Measure. For I never accompt a Man a compleat Sword Man, untill he both know how to Judge distance, and break Measure, and also putteth them in practice, but I am altogether against yielding ground, unless it be done out of a good de∣sign which no Coward can do.
Sir this is an extraordinary fine Lesson you have been explaining to me, and I am very much convinced of the usefulness of it.
Sir, people may talk what they please of breaking of Measure, but I assure you, it sheweth a Man's art, as much as Page 98any thing in all this art I have been explain∣ing to you.
Really it doth so, and upon that ao∣count, I will indeavour to become Master of it, but which is your next Lesson?
Lesson 20. Of Redoubling of Thrusts.
It is of Redoubling of Thrusts, and Gathering up of your left Foot, which is to be done thus, after you have let in your Thrust, and that your Adversarie hath broken your Measure,* and you at your Elonge, keeping your right Foot closs, draw your left so near to it, that you can either ap∣proach, or make another Elonge, just as you please, and when you Redouble or give in another Thrust, First Bind, for it is the securest way, and then give in your Thrust, it you can play this Lesson well, you may pursue your Adversarie, by this Redoubling, (although he should break your Measure) half a paire or more according to your strength, and when you Redouble, remember as a general rule, alwayes either Page 99to Beat, or Bind your Adversaries sword, before you offer to give the Thrust, for it will preserve you from a great many Contre∣temps.
I think this a very useful Lesson, for I per∣ceive it is just the contrary to retireing, or break∣ing of measure, which is a great preventer of all thrusts.
It is so, and if you learn not to do this Redoubling exactly, your Adversary may many a time shun your thrust, which (had you known how to Redouble) he might certainly have gotten.
I perceive so indeed, but shew me your next Lesson?
Lesson 21. Of raising or gathering up of the sword.
* My next Lesson is of Raising or Gather∣ing up of your Adversaries sword, and I do it thus, when my Adversary either present∣eth his sword, with a very low point, so that I cannot easily bind it, or that he mak∣eth use of the Quart Guard, with a sloping point near to the Ground, then I present my Page 100sword within his, and brings his up with the edge of my sword, not farr from his point, and when I have raised it as high as my mid∣dle then I bind him in the outside, and so I give him the thrust, either streight home with∣out his sword, or I make a Feint without, and give the thrust within, you must know that this raising and binding of my Adversa∣ries sword, is done with two Motions, with the first I bring up his sword, and with the second I Bind, when you are without distance, you must approach with the raising or gathering up of the sword,
*Is this all you have to say of this Lesson?
Yes, only that the contrary to it, is slipping.
Which is your next Lesson?
Lesson 22. Of Quarting and Volting.
My next and last Lesson is called Quarting and Volting, and is to be played off the streight line.
I intreat you shew me how this lesson is to be played?
You must play it after this manner, * you may either only Quart, or Volt, or Quart and Volt immediatly after other, if you only Quart, you must when your Adversary offer∣eth to bind your sword without, immediatly before he touch your sword, give him the thrust, by slipping him, and in the very time you slipp him, throw your left foot behind you off the streight line backwards towards your adversary, & give him the thrust at his breast, by keeping your right legg close and stretched, this is called Dequarting or Quar∣ting off the streight line; see plat: 9. fig: 2. and if you intend to Volt, you may either take the same verie time, or when he is going to Bind you within, but this time is not so safe as the former, or you may Volt after you have Bound his sword, this is a verie good time, but whatsoever time you take, you must Volt, or leap with both your feet in the Air at once, quite by your Adversaries left shoul∣der, and in the time you Volt, Quart your head well, to prevent a Contre-temps, and give him the thrust at his left pap, and Volt quite out of his Measure, and then stand to your Guard again, and remember when you either Quart or Volt, alwayes to make use of your left hand for fear of a Contre-temps. But if you intend to Quart, and Volt immedi∣atly Page 102after other; then you must first quart as I have shewn you, but give not your thrust with your quarting, and afterwards volt, I say you must first quart, and secure his sword within, by binding in the verie time you quart, and immediatly after give him the thrust at his left Pap, by volting as I told you, now the properest time, of Quarting, and volting, immediatly after other, is when your Adversary giveth in a thrust within your Sword, or when he goeth to bind your Sword without, then immedi∣atly you Quart, and with the Quarting secur∣eth and Parieth his thrust as it were, although the Quarting of it self shuneth it sufficiently, yet it is farr surer first to secure his Sword, in the time you Quart, and then with your volt you give the thrust, as I before shew you.
I see this is a difficult Lesson, and should not be played, but when one hath a verie fair opportunity for in playing of it, a man throweth his body wholly open to his Adversarie.
Sir your observation is good, and I am glad to see you reflect upon the secu∣rity, and hazard a man may be in when he maketh use of such, and such a lesson, for it is a great signe that you will reap advantage, from what I have at pre∣sent Page 103been teaching you.
I pray you if you have a Contrary to this Quarting and Volting, shew me it?
There is no other contrary to this Lesson,* but when you perceive that your Adversary is either going to quart, or Volt, to Rebind him without his sword, by making use of the contre caveating Parade, and give him the Thrust streight home, or you may take time and Volt upon him.
And are you now Sir at an end with your Lessons?
But have you no more to say, before you go on to the pursuing and defending of the several Guards?
No, for although there might be a great deal more said, yet I think what I have taught you, sufficient to make you a Master of this Art, providing you practise it exactly, for the Lessons which I have shewn you, are those upon which this Art depends, so that a Man that can once play them exactlie, in my opinion needeth no other, besides that a Man when once he knoweth the common grounds, may ac∣cording to his own fancy, invent very good Lessons, together with their contraries, for his own practice, for all Lessons that can Page 104be invented, depend upon thir that I have been shewing you.
Sir I think there is a great deal of reason for what you say, but now let us go to the several Guards, and see how they must be pursued and defended