THE SECOND BOOK. OF The Manducation of the Bodie of Christ.
CHAP. I. Of two sorts of manducation of Christs flesh, to wit, Spirituall and Corpo∣rall, and which is the best.
MEtaphors are similies contract∣ed and reduced to a word. So wee say feeding for teach∣ing, and to flourish for to be in prosperity, and we call Pride a swelling, and truth a light. We say of a childes Page 254tongue, that it is untied, and of his wit, that it is displayed.
These Metaphors, besides the orna∣ment, have some utility. For they pro∣pose an Image of the things whereof wee speake, and make them more intelligi∣ble by a tacite comparison. Specially, it is a thing very usuall and frequent, to expresse the functions and qualities of the soule, by tearmes borrowed from the actions and corporall qualities. So we say that Envy fretteth, that love burneth, that Covetousnesse is a thirst of money, and that hope is a tickling or soothing.
The holy Scripture is full of such manner of speeches, wherein nothing is more frequent than to speake of good in∣structions as of meats and drinks, and of the Graces of God, as of a water that quensheth the thirst, and of the desire of these graces as of a hunger and thirst. So in the 9 of Proverbes the supreame Wise∣dome saith, Come, eate of my bread, and drink of the wine which I have mingled. And David in the 36 Psalme saith, God makes us drink in the river of his pleasures. And in the 34 Psalme, O taste and see that the Lord is good. And Ieremy in the 15 chap. Thy words were found, and I did presently eate Page [unnumbered]〈1 page duplicate〉Page 254〈1 page duplicate〉Page 255them. And God himselfe in the 55 of Isay•h, inviteth the thirsty to drink of the waters. And that it may bee understood he speakes of a spirituall drink, he addes, Encline your care, and your soule shall live. According to this kind of speech S. Peter in his 1 Epistle, chap. 2, exhorts us to desire the milk of intelligence, to wit the Word of God. And S. Paul in the first to the Corinthians, chap. 3. saith he hath given them milk, and not solid meat. Christ our Lord is he that hath used very often such metaphors, taken from corporall meats and drinks. He saith in the 4. chap. of S. John, that his meat is to do his Fathers will. And in the same chap. he promiseth to give water, whereof whosoever shall drink, shall never thirst. And in the chap. 7.37. If any man thirst, let him come un∣to me, and drink. And in the 5. chapter of S. Matthew, Blessed are they which doe hunger and thirst after righteousnesse.
With such manner of figurative spee∣ches is woven and interlaced a great part of the 6 chap. of S. John, where the Lord speaking to the Capernaites, promiseth to give them the bread of Heaven, and saith that his flesh is meat indeed, and his blood is drink indeed. Two occasions mooved him to speak so. For the Jews Page 256of Capernaum making him inferior to Moses, and objecting unto him, as by reproach of impotency, that Moses had given unto the Iews the Manna which they call the bread of Heaven: the Lord from thence takes occasion to tell them he would give them another bread descended from Heaven, farre better than the Manna, to wit himselfe, come downe from Heaven for to bee the food of soules, and for to vivifie them. The other cause that mooved him to speak in figured tearmes, is that he was speaking unto ungratefull and rebellious Iews, •o whom S. Ma•th•w saith, he spake not wi•h •t a par•ble, Matth. 13.34
Here our Adversaries acknowledge with us, that there is a manner of eating the body of Christ which is spirituall, and which is done not by the corporall mo•th, but by the Faith in Christ Iesus, in whom we find our life and spirituall food. The Councell of Trente in the XIII Session, chap. 8. teaches the same, saying: Some eate this bread, only spiritually and by a lively Faith.
But besides this spirituall manducati∣on, the Church of Rome forgeth to her selfe a corporall manducation, whereby the Faithfull in the Eucharist do chew Page 257and eate with their very teeth the body of our Saviour Christ, and take it with the corporall mouth, and make him to enter into their stomacks, and do call this a reall and true manducation, for to op∣pose it to the spirituall manducation, whereof they speake very often with contempt, as of a picture and of a thing which consists only in imagination. The Councell of Trente intimates so much tacitely, saying, there be some that eate this bread only spiritually, as if it were a small thing in comparison of the reall eating of it by the mouth of the body.
Yet neverthelesse when wee presse them a little, they are forced to avow that the spirituall manducation is a great deale better: and that the corporall man∣ducation, which they maintaine and de∣fend so stiflly and with so much ardour, is a small thing in regard of the spirituall. For they confesse that many are saved without partaking of the Eucharist, but that none are saved without beleeving in Christ. And that many eate the Sacra∣ment, which neverthelesse do perish e∣ternally: but that whosoever eateth Christs flesh spiritually and with true Faith, shall have eternall salvation, ac∣cording to the Lords saying in the third Page 258chap. of S. John, that whosoever beleeveth on him, shall not perish, but have eternall life. Which is more, our Adversaries do acknowledge with us, that the manduca∣tion of the Sacrament, without the spiri∣tuall manducation by Faith, is not only unprofitable, but even turnes into con∣demnation: and that it is profitable and usefull, but for, and because of the spiri∣tuall manducation. But the spirituall manducation, by it selfe alone, and with∣out the corporall manducation, leaves not to be profitable, and alwayes neces∣sary to salvation. The manducation of the Sacrament, by the mouth of the body, is common both to good and bad, and hypocrites partake thereof as well as the true Faithfull: yea our Adversa∣ries hold, that beasts may eate Christs body, and that Mice do carry away some∣times the body of the Lord: But the spi∣rituall manducation, is proper and pecu∣liar to Gods Children, and none but the true Faithfull can be partakers thereof. Christ in the 15 of S. Matthew, saith: that which goeth into the mouth, defileth not a man: whence follows that neither can it sanctifie a man.
In this, S. Austin is far from that lan∣guage which the Roman Church holdeth Page 259now a dayes, who acknowledgeth no o∣ther true and reall manducation of Christs body, than that which is made by the bodily mouth in the Eucharist. For this holy man on the contrary, hol∣deth that there is no other true and reall manducation of Christs body, but the spirituall: and that that which is done in the Sacrament by the mouth of the body, is not a true manducation. He tea∣cheth it in his 21 book of the City of God, chap. 25.aThe Lord (saith he) sheweth what it is to eate the body of Christ, not in Sacrament only, but in truth. And in the same place,bThey have eaten the body of Christ, not only in Sacrament, but also true∣ly and indeed. To this holy Doctor, Tho∣mas joynes himselfe in this point, in his 7 lesson upon the 6 of S. John, where speaking of him that eateth spiritually the body of Christ, he saith,cIt is that man that eateth the body of Christ, not only Sa∣cramentally, but also in truth.
CHAP. II. That in the 6 Chapter of S. Iohn the Lord speakes not of the Sacra∣ment of the Eucharist, nor of the manducation of his flesh by the mouth of the body.
BY the corporall manducation, wee understand the manducation of the bread and wine, which Christ hath hono∣red with the title of his body and blood, because they are the Sacrament and re∣membrance of the same. But our Adver∣saries pretend to eate really the body of Christ with their mouth, and to make him passe into their stomach: and for to prop this so grosse and Capernaitish manducation, they alleadge the sixth of Saint Iohn, where Christ saith that he is the bread come downe from Heaven, and promiseth to give his flesh to eate.
1. For to beleeve that, a man must of purpose put out his own eyes, and give Page 261the Son of God the lye: For all this d•s∣course is addressed and spoken to the Jewes of Capernaum, to whom hee promiseth to give his flesh to eate. If by these words hee had promised to give them the Eucharist, hee would have deceived them: for he never admi∣nistred nor presented the holy Supper unto them.
2. That appeareth by the time wherein the Lord held this discourse. It was when the holy Supper was not as yet instituted: no, nor till about two yeares after. How could the Lords Dis∣ciples have understood that hee spake of the Eucharist unto them, which was not, and whereof he had never spoken before?
3. Where is there in all this dis∣course of the Lord the least mention of a Table, or of a Chalice; or of a Supper, or of a Fraction of Bread, or of a distribution of the Sacrament a∣mong many? In summe, of any of the actions wherein the administra∣tion of this Sacrament doth con∣sist?
4. It is to be noted that Christ speak∣eth often in the present tense.* He doth not say, I shall be the bread come downe Page 262from heaven: and I shall be the bread of life. But, I am the bread came downe from heaven: and, I am the bread of life. And, He that eateth my flesh, hath ete na•l life. He was then the bread of life before the holy Supper was instituted, and might have beene eaten then, and was the sood of the Soule, when the holy Supper had as yet no being.
5. Now that by eating and drinking the Lord meaneth to beleeve and to trust in him, and thereby to be nourished and vivified: he shewes it himselfe, saying in the 35 Verse, I am the bread of life; be that commeth to me, shall never hunger; and hee that beleeveth on mee, shall never thirst. Who sees not that in this place, beleeving is put for drinking, since by be∣leeving the thirst is quenched? And as by that word of comming hee speaketh of a spirituall comming: so by that word, drinking, hee meaneth and un∣derstandeth a kinde of spirituall drink∣ing.
6. And when the Lord saith in the 47. and 48 Verse, Hee that beleeveth in mee, hath eternall life: I am the bread of life: who sees not that this bread is taken in and by beleeving? For Christ sheweth how he is the bread of life, to Page 263wit because he that beleeves on him, hath eternall life.
7. The very words whereupon our Adversaries ground themselves most, are those which make most against them. In the 53 Verse the Lord saith, Except yee eate the flesh of the Sonne of man, and drinke his blood, yee have no life in you. There it is evident he speakes of a man∣ducation necessary unto salvation, and without which none can be saved. Hee speakes not therefore of the manduca∣tion of the Sacrament by the mouth of the body, seeing that without it so many are saved. Now to say that this corporall manducation is necessary, not indeed, but in vow and desire, is to come neare our beleefe, and reduce that necessity to the spirituall manducation. Moreover, to say that none are saved without desiring to be partakers of the holy Communion, is to exclude from salvation, John the Baptist, and the good Theife crucified with the Lord, who ne∣ver participated thereof, neither in deed nor in vow. And we might bring many examples of Pagans and Idolaters,* who by hearing of the wordes of the Martyrs, were converted at the same in∣stant, and put to death at that very Page 264houre, without any body ever having told them of this Sacrament, and conse∣quently without having made any vow at all to bee made partakers thereof. Yea many have suffered martyrdome without being Baptized, and by conse∣quent verie farre from disposing them∣selves to receive the Eucharist.
8. The same appeareth by that which Christ addeth in the 54 Verse. Hee that eateth my flesh, hath eternall life. He speak∣eth not of the manducation of the Sa∣crament: For many that eate it, have not eternall life. Their ordinary evasi∣on is, that Christ speaketh of him that eateth his flesh worthily. Wherein ap∣peareth how strong the truth is on our side. For according to our beleefe, the Lords words are true without any ad∣dition. But our Adversaries doe adde some glosses for to escape and save them∣selves. Which addition they make of their owne head, without the Word of God. One may well eate the bread un∣worthily, as Saint Paul saith, 1. Cor. 11. Whosoever eateth this bread unworthily. But it is impossible to eate the Lords flesh unworthily, since to eate is to beleeve, as we have shewed. A man cannot beleeve in Christ unworthily, no more than to Page 265love God unworthily: since that in be∣leeving in Christ, and in loving of God, consisteth all our dignity. Cardinall Cajetan observeth the same, upon the sixt of Saint John, saying, Christ doth not say, He that eateth my flesh and drink∣eth my blood worthily, but hee that eateth and drinketh: to the end wee may under∣stand that he speaketh of a meate and of a drinke that hath no need of modifieation, &c. It appeareth then plainely that this speech is not to be understood literally, and that the Lord speaketh not of eating and drinking the Sacrament, but of be∣leeving, and of feeding spiritually by faith in his death.
9. The Lord addeth in the 56 Verse, He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me and I in him. Words that decide this question: For they would be false if they should be taken and understood of the manducation of the Sacrament: it being a thing most cer∣taine that profane men and hypocrites which receive the Sacrament, dwell not in Christ, nor Christ in them. Now to dwell in Christ, is to be conjoyned to him with an union constant and con∣tinuall and mutuall betweene Christ and the beleever. As Cornelius Jansenius,Page 266Bishop of Gant,* teacheth very well. He (saith hee) that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me, and I in him: that is to say, he is conjoyned unto me inseparably and intimately, and I to him: and proves it by other places of Saint John in his first Epistle, 4.16. Hee that dwelleth in love, dwelleth in God, and God in him. And in the same place, Hereby we know that we dwell in him, and he in us, because he hath given us of his Spirit. And in the third Chapter, 24. Verse, he saith, that hee that keepeth his Commandements, dwelleth in him, and bee in him. From whence he inserreth that also in this 6 Chapter of Saint John, the Lord speaks of a kinde of eating, which is proper unto those that have a faith working through charity, and not of a corporall manducation, whereof wicked men are partakers.
10. That if for to make Christ to dwell in us, hee must be eaten by the mouth of the bodie: Christ by the same reason must eate us, that we may dwell in him.
11. Christ, for to divert and turne away our mindes from carnall thoughts, addeth in the 63 Verse, The f•est profiteth nothing, It is the Spirit that quickneth.Page 267Since that by the spirit hee meaneth his Spirit whereby he regenerateth us, by the flesh also he understandeth his human bo∣dy: Whereof he saith that it profiteth no∣thing, to wit, being taken after that manner as the Capernaites did imagine themselves. What would it profit a man to have in his stomach the head and feet of Christ Jesus, whether hee doe swallow him by peeces and parcels, or doe swallow him whole? For the ab∣surditie is a like.
12. Christ addeth, The words that I have spoken unto you, are spirit and life, that is to say, are spirituall and quicken∣ing. They are not quickning but to them that understand them spiritually, and that imagine not a carnall and corpo∣rall manducation. So teacheth Saint Austin in his 27 Treatise upon Saint John. Hee demandeth,*What meaneth, these words are spirit and life? His answer is, That they must be under stood spiritually. Hast thou understood them spiritually? They are spirit and life unto thee. Hast thou un∣derstood them carnally? In this manner they bee also spirit and life, but not unto thee.
13. And upon that the Capernaites and some of the Lords Disciples were Page 268scandelized, and said that these words were an hard saying, he saith unto them,*What and if ye shall see then the Sonne of man ascend where he was before? Which words Saint Austin in the same Treatise explaineth thus, What meaneth that? Thereby he resolveth that which had moved them. They thought he would give them his body, but he saith unto them that he would ascend up to heaven, to wit, whole and en∣tire. When ye have seene the sonne of man ascending where he was before, certainely then at le•st shall ye see that he giveth not his body as ye thinke. Then at the least shall ye understand that his grace is not consumed with biting.
CHAP. III. That the Romane Church, by this doctrine, depriveth the People of Salvation.
THat which grieves our Adversaries most, in all this discourse of the •ord, is this clause of the 53 Verse, Ve∣•ily I say unto you, Except ye eate the flesh •f the sonne of man, and drinke his blood, •e have no life in you. For if by these words Christ doe speake of the parti∣•ipation of the Sacrament, it followes that the People of the Roman Church, whom they have deprived of the cup, •hall have no life, and are lost eternally: •or they drinke not Christs blood. To say, as Bellarmin doth, that the People •akes the blood in the Hoste, is to say •ust nothing. For Christ commandeth •ot onely to take his blood, but also commandeth to drinke it. If he speak∣eth of the Sacrament, hee commandeth men not onely to be partakers of his blood, but also declareth the kind and Page 270manner how he will have them to par∣ticipate thereof; for, to drinke, is th• kinde and manner of participating there∣of. Briefly, he commandeth to drinke But to eate a dry Hoste or wafer, is no• to drinke. That if to eate, is to drinke the Priest drinketh twice in the Masse once in taking the Hoste, and anothe• time in taking the Cup. Vnto which th• common sense contradicteth: and Pop••Innocent the third too, in his fourt Booke of the Mysteries of the Masse Chapter. 21. Neither is the blood drun• (saith he) under the species of the bread nor the body eaten under the species of t•• wine. Here then our Adversaries do forge an absurd figure, whereby to drin• signifieth to eate. Everywhere else the doe distinguish eating from drinking but here they confound them as if th• were all one. Indeede to eate and 〈◊〉 drinke, taken in a spirituall sense, sig∣nifieth one and the same thing. B•• when the question is of the Sacram•• of the Eucharist, and of eating th• bread, and drinking the Chalice, t• eate and to drinke are different thing▪ That if to eate the Hoste, be to drink so to drinke the Cup, shall be to ea•• the Cup. And if drinking bee take Page 271figuratively, why not also the word eating?
Here the truth is so strong, that Vas∣quez the Jesuite sticks not to dispute with might and maine against Bellar∣min, who saith that the Lord comman∣deth only the perception of his blood, but not the manner of participating ther∣unto.*I do not approve (saith he) of this answer, because the words of the Lord have not only reference unto the thing that is taken, but to the manner of taking it. For to eate, and to drink, if the words be taken properly, cannot agree with any species what∣soever. For the blood is not said to be drunk under the species of the bread, no more than the body is eaten under the species of the wino, as Innocent the third observeth very well in his 4 Book chap. 21.
And he addeth a thing very conside∣rable, to wit, that from this answer of Bellarmin, who will have this word, drinking, to bee taken improperly, it Page 272will follow that in the whole chapter there shall not be a word spoken of the Cup.
Salmeron another Iesuite, is of the same opinion, saying,* that he that drin∣keth not, drinketh not the blood, though he do take the flesh and blood.
But the same Jesuites that contest a∣gainst their own fellows, bring no better things themselves. They say that when Christ said, Except ye drink my blood, yee have no life in you, he bindeth the people to drink the Cup, and that they drink it indeed, in as much as the Priest drinketh for the people, and representeth the whole Church when he drinketh. By this reason, the People might as wel for∣beare eating, and be contented that the Priest should eate for them. For the com∣mandement for eating, in this place, is not more expresse than that of drinking. By the same meanes▪ when Christ com∣mands the People to beleeve in him, the people may dispense themselves from beleeving in Christ, saying, it sufficeth that the Priest beleeve for others, for he representeth the whole Church: In a word, it is an impious temerity and pre∣sumption to adde out of ones owne au∣thority unto the words of the Lord, Page 273whole clauses, yea absurd clauses, as if Christ had said, Except ye drink my blood your own selves, or by another, ye shall have no life in you.
With the like licence they say that when Christ said, Except ye eate my flesh AND drinke my blood, this AND must be turned into OR, and that Christs meaning was to have said, Except ye eat my flesh, or drink my blood. If it may bee lawfull to change thus the words of the Lord, there is no law in the Scripture from which a man may not dispence himselfe. When the Law of God com∣mands one to love God and his Neigh∣bour, one may by the same reason say, that the Law meaneth that one must love God or his Neighbour: And when the Law saith Honor thy Father and thy Mo∣ther, it meaneth that one must honor his Father or his Mother, and that it is enough to honor either of them. Adde withall that by this depravation of the Lords Words, it followes that the peo∣ple may drink the Cup without eating the Hoste, since it sufficeth to do ei∣ther of them.Page 272 〈1 page duplicate〉 Page 273 〈1 page duplicate〉
CHAP. IV. That the principall Doctors of the Roman Church, yea the Popes themselves do agree with us in this point: and hold that in the 6. of S. Iohn nothing is spoken but of the spirituall Manducation, and that those that contradict them, do speake with incertitude.
IN this controversie we have the Popes for us, and a great multitude of the Romish Doctors, who hold with us that in the 6 of S. John, it is not spoken of the Eucharist nor of eating our Saviour Christ by the mouth of the body, but that Christ speaketh of the spirituall manducation by Faith in Christs death. Such is the opinion of Pope Innocent the III, and of Pius II, called Aeneas Syl∣vius afore he came to the Papacy. Item* of Bonaventure, C•jetan, Cusanus, De Page 275Alliaco, Cardinals, Item of Durandus Episcopus Mimatensis, Gabriel Biel, Hessel one of the Doctors of the Coun∣cell of Trente, Lindanus, Ruardus Tap∣peru•, Iansenius Bishop of Gand, Ferus a Divine of Maguntia, Valdensis, and many others. Among others, Gabriel Biel in his 36 Lesson upon the Canon of the Masse, saith, that the Doctors hold with a common consent that in the 6 of S••ohn no mention is made but of the spiri∣tuall manducation. But for brevity sake it shall suffice to produce the places of the two forenamed Popes.
Pope Innocent 3. in the 14. chap▪ of his fourth Book of the Mysteries of the Masse hath these words:*The Lord speaketh of the spirituall manducation, say∣ing, Except ye eate the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood, ye have no life in you. In this manner, the good only do eate the body of Christ.
A learned Pope is a very rare thing. Yet of Pius II. one may say that he was one of the learndest of his age. The same Pius in his 130 Epistle to Cardinall Car∣viall, disputing against the Bohemians, speaketh thus:aThe sense of the Gospell of Page 276Iohn is not such as you ascribe unto it. For there it is not commanded to drink at the Sacrament: But a manner of spirituall drinking is taught. And a little after, The Lord by these words declareth in that place the secret mysteries of the spirituall drinke, and not of the carnall, when hee saith, It is the Spirit that quickneth, the flesh profiteth nothing: and again, The words that I speak unto you, they are spirit and they are life. Wilt thou know openly that the Evangelist speaketh of the spirituall manducation which is made by Faith? Consider that what the Lord saith in the words HEE THAT EATETH AND DRINKETH, are words of the present tense and not of the future. At that very instant therefore that the Lord was speaking, there were some that did eate him, and drink him. And yet the Lord had not suffered as yet, neither was the Sa∣crament instituted.
Thomas Aquinas, tearmed the Angeli∣call Doctor, was a great worshipper of Popes;* so far as to accuse Christ of importunity, for asking his Vicar PeterPage 277thrice, Lovest thou mee? For which likewise the Pope canonized him and made him a Saint after his death. This man, though a great defender of Tran∣substantiation, yet neverthelesse upon this point of the manducation whereof Christ speaketh in the 6 of S. John, spea∣keth thus in his 7 Lesson upon these words, Except ye eate my flesh, ye have no life in you.*If this (saith he) be refer∣red to the spirituall manducation, this sen∣tence is without all doubt. For that man eateth spiritually the flesh of Christ and drinketh his blood, that is partaker of the u∣nity of the Church, which is effected through love, &c. But if that hath reference to the Sacramentall manducation, there is some doubt in that which is said; Except yee eate my flesh, ye have no life in you.
But in this latter age the greatest part of the Romish Doctors, especially the Jesuites, have forsaken this opinion, generally received in the Church of Rome in former Ages, and have con∣temned the authority of the fore-allead∣ged Popes. Their opinion is, that in the 51 verse of the 6 chap. of S. Iohn, Christ beginneth to speake of the Sacra∣mentall manducation which is made by the corporall mouth: but that whatsoe∣ver Page 278is said before, is to be understood of the spirituall manducation. As when Christ saith in the 33, 35, & 50 verses that he is the bread come down from hea∣ven. And that hee is the bread of Life. And that whosoever beleeveth on him, shall never thirst. And that he is the bread come down from heaven, whereof who∣soever eateth, hee shall not die. In all these places they grant that it is spoken of a manner of eating and drinking that is spirituall, and will have nothing there to be spoken of the bread of the Encha∣rist, but do take all these words figura∣tively. A doctrine truly full of absurdity, and which destroyes and overthroweth it selfe. For what boldnesse is it to forge in the sequell or prosecution of one and the same discourse, two kinds of mandu∣cation, and by a Master-like authority, to will that one part of the chapter be un∣derstood figuratively, and the other sim∣ply, since they all be the same kind of speeches, and that the same exposition may bee brought both to the one and to the other?
The Councell of Trente was mightily pestered about that; for after this matter had been tossed a long time and disputed upon at the Councell, the Prelats seeing Page 279the new Doctors were contrary unto the old, yea even to the Popes, and that the new ones besides did not agree among themselves, would determine nothing therein, and lest the thing undecided, as Salmeron the Jesuite, who was present at that Councell, doth testifie. The Synode* (saith he) would not then determine na∣mely which is the properest and naturall sense of these words of Christ in S. Iohn. because of the variety of Interpretations of the holy Fathers and Doctors that were brought on both sides. Yet it was there principally, that the infallible per∣fection of the Pope and of the Councell should have been displayed, being a mat∣ter of so great importance. And yet to this very day the Popes have determi∣ned nothing upon that, nor condemned those that are of a contrary mind to the Jesuits.
CHAP. V. Reasons of our Adversaries for to prove that in the sixth chap. of Saint Iohn it is spoken of the man∣ducation by the mouth of the Body.
BUt let us see how the Doctors of this Age dispute against their Popes, Cardinals and Prelates, and goe about to prove that in the 6 of S. Iohn is spoken of the manducation by the mouth of the body in the Eucharist.
1. They say that Christ sp aketh in the future, saying, The bread that I will give, as speaking of a manducation that was not yet. I answer that he speaketh also in the present, saying, I am the bread come down from Heaven. And hee that eateth thereof, shall not die. They them∣selves would laugh, if from that the Lord saith in the future, Whosoever shall beleeve and shall be Baptised, shall be saved, I should inferre that before Christ spake these words, none beleeved, none were Baptised, none were saved. Moreover, Page 281when Christ speaketh in the future, say∣ing, The bread that I will give, he hath re∣gard to his future death, which is the true food of our Soules.
2. They say also that if this sixth chapter of S. John were not taken and un∣derstood of the manducation by the mouth of the body: it would follow that S. Iohn did not speake at all of the Eucharist. Stapleton, one of the most fu∣rious Adversaries, answers for us: S. Iohn (saith he)*writes nothing of the Euchari∣sticall Supper, because the other three Evangelists had fully written of it before. S. John wrote long after the other Evan∣gelists, and did only insist upō such things as the others had omitted. He did not put in his Gospel the history of the Lords Conception and Birth, nor of his Temptation in the Wildernesse, nor of his Baptisme, nor of his Transfiguration in the Mount
3. They adde that Christ doth distin∣guish the eating from drinking, for to de∣signe the two species of the Eucharist. To that I answer, that Christ speakes of eating and drinking, for to give us to understand that wee have in him and in his death a full and entire spirituall nou∣rishment. In the 55 chap. of Isaiah, 1. v. Page 282God inviteth the hungry and the thirsty to cate and to drink. And in the 22 of S. Luke, 30 ver. Christ saith: I appoint unto you a Kingdome, as my Father hath appointed unto me, that yee may eate and drink at my table in my Kingdom. In these places, our Adversaries do acknowledge that to eate and to drink, signifies one and the same thing, and that they are taken in a spirituall sense.
4. But (say they) it is neither fitting nor convenient that Christ should have used so many figures, and spoken in such dark tearmes, when he might have spo∣ken plainely. Wee have already shewed that Christs ordinary use was to speake unto the Jews by figures and similitudes, and that the Capernaites, objecting unto him the bread of Heaven given by Mo∣ses, gave him occasion to speak so. That if our adversaries do so much dislike figures Why do they say that from the 27 verse this chap. to the 51. the Lord speaks of the spirituall manducation, and useth figurative words? Why will they have that when Christ said, Except ye drink my blood: by drinking, he understādeth eating? That if the question be touching the dif∣ficulty, is there any thing in the World harder to conceive and to beleeve, than Page 283this doctrine, whereby they will have Christ to have eaten his own flesh, and that an human body be whole and entire in every crum of the host, and be remote and divided from it selfe, and that a Priest should make a God with a few words, and that this god must run the risque and be subject to be eaten by Rats and Mice, and carried away by the wind?
5. Yet (say they) Christ said, My flesh is me at indeed. Now, this word truly or in∣deed, excludes all figure: For they esteem that figurative words are not true. If it be so, why do they themselves put in so many figures? Why will they have this word, bread, to be taken figuratively, and the word drinking, to signifie eating? They must then say that when Christ in the 15 of S. Iohn, 1 ver. said, I am the true Vine, he spake falsly: or else they must needs grant that this word, true, excluds not the figure. So in the 8 to the Heb. 2. v. the Apostle calleth Paradise the true Ta∣bernacle. It is a common thing to say that God is the true Sun of the Soule, and that evill examples are truly the plague and contagion of the mind. All that in figura∣tive tearmes, and yet true, and wherein the word true excludes not the figure.
6. What they do adde, is not a whit Page 284better. Christ (say they) used an oath, saying, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except ye eate the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, ye have no life in you. But it is not convenient (say they) to use figures in an oath. What will they say then to these places, Verily verily, I say unto you, that he that entreth not by the doore into the sheep∣fold, the same is a theife and a robber, Iohn 10.1. And a little after, Verily, verily, I say unto you, that I am the doore of the sheep. And in S. Matth. 18.18. Verily I say unto you, that whatsoever ye shal binde on earth, shall be bound in Heaven. And Iohn 3.5. Verily verily, I say unto you, Except a man be borne of the water and of the spirit, &c. Where we have the same oath with fi∣gurative words. What more? the same verse which they alleadge, Verily verily, I say unto you, Except ye ea•e my flesh and drink my blood, ye have no life in you, is the same verse in which they will have drin∣king to signifie eating. And in the same chap. ver. 32. Christ calleth himselfe the true bread: wherein our Adversa•ies do acknowledge a figure. To let passe that the word Amen is not an oath, but a simple and strong assirmation.
CHAP. VI. Testimonies of the Fathers.
IT is good upon this point to heare the ancient Fathers. S. Austin shal march in the fore front. In his Book of Christian Doctrine, chap. 16.*When the Lord saith, Except ye eate the flesh of the Sonne of man, and drinke his blood, yee have no life in your selves, it seemes that he com∣mands some great crime or haynous offence. It is then, a figure, that commandes to communicate unto the Lords P•ssion, and sweetly and profitably to put in remem∣brance that Christs flesh was crucified and wounded for us. Our Adversaries, to cleare themselves and avoyd the force of this place, do make long discourses, and sinde there are figures in these words, Except yee eate, &c. To wit that in the Eucharist, Christs body is not eaten by peece-meales as the flesh of the Shambles. But they come not neare the point. Page 286For Saint Austin saith not onely that it is a figure, but he declares also how that figure is to be taken and expoun∣ded; to wit, that to eate Christs flesh, is to meditare and call to remembrance with delight, that Christ his flesh was crucified for us. Which is an exposition our Adversaries doe not al∣low.
The same Father upon the 98 Psalme. Ʋnder stand spiritually wh•t I have said unto you, Yee shall not eate this body that ye see, and shall not drinke that blood that shall be shed by those that shall crucifie m• I have commended unto you a sacred figne which being under slood spiritually, shall quic∣ken and vivisie you.
We have in this Father a long ex∣position of the sixth Chapter of Saint John in the 25.26. & 27 Treatise upon Saint John: In the 25 Tracta• he saith,aThis (viz. to beleeve) is to eate the meate that perisheth not. Why doest that make ready thy teeth and thy belly? Be∣leeve, and thou hast eaten. And in the 26 Treatise,bTo beleeve in him, is to eate the living bread. He that beleeves in him, ea∣teth him; he is fed invisibly, because he is regenerated invisibly. And in the same place,cBy this meate and drinke Christ Page 287will have to be understood the society of his body and members, which is the Church of the Predestinate. This Father was so far from beleeving that Christ was eaten even by the mouth of the body, that by this meate he will have the Church to be understood. Whence also he ad∣deth,dThis meate and drinke which makes such as doe take it, immortall and incor∣ruptible, is the fellowshippe of Saints where there shall bee peace and perfect uni∣tie.
And in the same place,eThat, there∣fore, is to eate this meate and to drinke this drinke, to dwell in Christ and to have him dwelling in us. And therefore he that dwelleth not in Christ, and in whom Christ dwelleth not, doublesse he eates not spiri∣tually his flesh and drinkes not his blood, how be it that carnally and visibly he pres∣feth with his teeth the sacred signe of Christs body and blood. In summe, in three long Treatises containing many pages, where∣in this good Doctor expoundeth the sixth Chapter of Saint John, there is Page 288not one word of eating by the mouth of the body the Lords flesh crucified for us. Which exposition was so disli∣ked by Cardinall du Perron, that he spea∣keth contemptibly of these Tractates of Saint Austin upon Saint John,f saying that they be popular Sermons made be∣fore all kindes of persons, to whom he would not declare openly the Churches beleife.
Tertullian in the 37 Chapter of his Booke of the Resurrection, expounding these words, The flesh profiteth nothing: The sense (saith hee) must bee addressed according to the subject whereof he speaketh.gFor because they esteemed his words to be harsh and intolerable, as though he had de∣termined to give them truely his flesh to eate that he might render spirituall the state of salvation, he said before, It is the spirit that quickneth: Then he addeth, The flesh pro∣fiteth nothing, to wit for to vivifie.
And there againe,hThe word was made flesh, and by consequent, for to have life, it must be desired, and devoured by the eare, and ruminated by the understanding, and dis∣gested by faith.Page 289
And a little after, The Lord had a lit∣tle afore declared that his flesh is the hea∣venly bread,iurging altogether by allegory taken from necessary meates the remembrance of the Fathers.
Clemens Alexandrinus in his second Booke De Pedagogo, Chapter 6. k Hee said, eate my flesh and drinke my blood, propoundiog by an allegoric the evidence of the faith, and the drinke of the pro∣mise.
And a little after,lHee calleth the holy Spirit flesh by a••egory. For the flesh was created by him, and the blood signifies the Word.
Origene upon the Leviticus, in the se∣venth Booke:nKnow that these things writen in the divine volumes, are figures, and understand them as spirituall, and not as carnall. For if you receive them as car∣nall, they hurt you in stead of nourrishing you. For in the Gospells there is a letter which killeth him that observes not the things that are spoken spiritually.mFor if thou Page 290takest according to the letter that which is said, Except ye eate my flesh and drinke my blood, that letter killeth.
The Commentary upon the Psalmes, attributed to Saint Hierome, upon the 44 Psalme.nWhen the Lord saith, He that eateth not my flesh, &c. though that may be understood in mysterie, yet to speake more truely, the body and blood of Christ is the word of the Scriptures, and the heaven∣ly doctrine. And a little after,oThe flesh and blood of Christ is powred into our eares.
It is true that some places may bee found in ancient Fathers that apply and fit the words of the sixth Chapter of Saint John to the Eucharist, because the manducation of the Sacrament serves to helpe the spirituall manducation, and there is some analogie betweene these two. Adde moreover that we have proved already by a multitude of places of Ancient Fathers, that when they say that in the Eucharist wee eate the flesh or the body of Christ, they meane to speake of another flesh and another bo∣die than that which was crucified for us, which is called Christs bodie be∣cause of the mysticall union of the bread with Christ, and because the Page 291signes take the name of the things sig∣nified.
Vpon this, the words of Pope Pius the second, are notable in his 130 Epistle.pYee must not wonder (saith he) if some Doctors speaking of the Sacramentall com∣munion, and counselling it unto the People, doe imploy Saint John his words. For it doth not follow from thence that it bee the true and proper sense of that place, but by some resemblance and agreeable rea∣son, this sense is rather drawne than led. And it is lawfull for the Doctors, speaking after the manner of Orators, to use sometimes fi∣gures and translations, so that often times, speaking of the signe, they passe vnto the thing signified.
CHAP. VII. Impiety of Salmeron the Jesuite, and of Peter Charron. And of Bellarmins foure men inclosed in one sute of clothes. That by this doctrine, Christ hath not a true bo∣dy in the Sacrament.
Superstition and Atheisme are verie neere neighbours, and the one lea∣deth unto the other. For frantick super∣stition intangles the minde with extra∣vagant conceits, that expose Religion to laughter, and make men to thinke that Religion is a shop of fables, and a meere imagination. Whence it comes to passe that those that take upon them to defend Superstition, let goe very often certaine words of impietie, where∣by they profane the mysteries, and scoffe at their owne Religion under colour of defending it.
Salmeron the Jesuite, and Doctor Char∣ron gives us an example thereof. This Page 292Jesuite in the IX Tome and 26 Trea∣tise, for to represent the manner and the end for which Christ gives us his flesh to eate,* saith that Christ hath done as men doe, who for to kindle and in∣flame a woman with love, doe give her an amorous potion or morsell, and that just so Christ in the Eucharist gives to his Church Panis bucellam sanctè bene∣dictam & incantatam, a morsell of bread holily blessed and INCHANTED for to transport her with his love.
Charron hath followed him, but with an addition that declares what are the ingredients of those philters or amo∣rous potions, to wit that there enters in them something of the substance of the Lover, which substance is a thing not fit to be named. In his eighth Dis∣course of the Eucharist, after hee hath said that God comes downe in the forme of bread and wine: and that to dance for to serue God, is lesse strange then what is done in the Masse: a little after, he declares how Christ communitates himselfe unto men in the Eucharist, to wit, that he allures and intices them with a dainty and delicious bit. Love (saith he) is so ingenious and inventive, that for to win and allure the heart and will of o∣thers Page 294it hath found out a device to imploy inchanted morsels, philters and amorous po∣tious, and to make them to be taken and drunke by those of whom one desires to bee loved, in which morsells or potions enters some thing of the Lover or Suitor. Thus it seemes that God for to draw and allure un∣to himselfe the heart and love of the Church, would present a bit or potion made of his substance in this Sacrament, the philter and amorous drinke of all Christians, the dainty and delicious bit for to draw and allure them unto himselfe. Doubtlesse this man jeasted and intended to make the world laugh, for he could not expect that men should beleeve him.
I know not whither Bellarmin did mock or jeast,* when for to prove that a body may be in severall places at once, hee saith that it is possible that foure men hold no more place than one of the foure alone, and that all foure fill up but one place. Take me a man clothed with a sute of clothes that sits close and is made just to his body, Bellarmin saith it is possible for these foure men to be con∣tained in the same sute of clothes, with∣out being made larger, and the men never a whit the lesse. If that be pos∣sible for foure, it is also possible for ten, Page 295yea for a hundred, yea for a thousand: so that all the men of the World shall be contained in a single doublet. But if of these foure men in this little doublet, one be sitting, the other lying, and the other standing: If one of-them em∣brace the other, and by consequent is out of the other, they shall not be in one and the same place. If they speake together and looke one upon another, the one shall be the object of the others eyes, and therefore shall not bee in one and the selfe same place. Truly I thinke this Jesuite, propounding such things, and shutting up a whole Common-wealth in a doublet, had a minde to deride his owne Religion. For by the same reason a man may have both his eyes in one place, and not different of sitnation.* By this meanes a man shall have two eyes, and shall have but one. And the parts of an humane body shall not be distinct, and the one shall not be out of the other. This our Adversaries doe by their Transubstantiation: as Bellarmin acknow∣ledgeth, saying that in the Eucharist Christ doth not exist after the manner of bodies: but rather after the manner of Spirits, since hee is whole in everie part.Page 295
It is false likewise, that according to the doctrine of the Church of Rome, Christs body be in the Eucharist after the manner of Spirits. For when an Angell is present in any place, he is not pre∣sent in a thousand others severall places and is not far from himselfe and divi∣ded from himselfe, a• they will have Christs body to bee in a million of severall places at one and the same time.
The same Jesuite in the third Booke and fifth chapter saith,*that a Sub∣stance without qantity cannot bee tearmed flesh. Whereupon it followes that Christs body under the Host is not flesh, for there is no quantity, since it is whole under every point that hath no quanti∣ty. Besides that the quantity of a body is a continued quantity. But Christs body in the Host is not one in continui∣ty with that which is in Heaven sit∣ting at the right hand of God the Fa∣ther, since hee is farre and remote from it.
Againe, he saith in the same place,*That a body is nothing else but an ex∣tension in length, breath, and depth. There∣fore Page 296in the Sacrament there is no true body of Christ, since it hath no ex∣tension, no length, breadth and depth: As he saith himselfe in the second chap∣ter of his first Book, Christs body in the Eucharist hath no extension.
I have wondred many times, seeing that our Adversaries hold that Christ municants untill the species be destroyed and consumed by the disgestion, why they do not give them hard bread and not of easie disgestion, that they might have Christ in them a longer time, ra∣ther then to give them such light Hosts or wafers, which are presently tur∣ned into a Chylus and disgested in an in∣stant.
CHAP. VIII. Of the progresse of this abuse, and by what meanes Satan hath establi∣shed the Transubstantiation.
UPon this matter, the opinions of men began to varie in the eight Age, wherein the controversie touching the adoration of Images was in its hight and force. For Satan at the same time did labour and busie himselfe to introduce and bring into the Church these two sorts of Idolatry.
In the yeere of our Lord 754, the Emperor Constantin, son to Lisaurus, called a Councell of his whole Empire at Constantinople, where 330 Bishops were present, that condemned the ado∣ration of Images. Among other reasons that they bring, they exhort the people to be contented with those Images that Christ had instituted, having given in the holy Supper the bread and wine for Images and Figures of his body and Page 299blood. And speaking of the Eucharisticall bread, they say,*Behold the image of this quickning body that is honorably presented. And a little after, The Lord commanded to set [upon the table] that image altoge∣ther chosen, to wit the substance of the bread, least Idolatry should creep in if it were represented in an humane forme.
But few yeares after, the Empire be∣ing fallen into the hands of Irenea, an I∣dolatrous woman, and who did put out the eyes of her own son, and ravished the Empire from him: this monster cal∣led another Councell at Nice, in the year 787. where she caused Images to be re-established, and the worshipping of them to be commanded under paine of a curse. There likewise were condemned as ab∣hominable, these foresaid clauses of the former Councell, whereby the bread and wine are called Images of the Lords body and blood. And it is the same Councell that declares, that Images are equivalent and of as much worth as the Gospell: and that an Image is bet∣ter than Prayer: And that Angels are corporall: And that he that hath the least doubt whither Images must bee worshipped, is accursed. For certain∣ly the spirit of Satan reigned in that Page 299pernicious Councell. Wherefore also Charles the Great, who lived then, cal∣led another Councell at Fran•kford, an∣no Domini 794, in which that Councell of Nice was condemned as erroneous, by a generall consent: notwithstanding that Pope Adrian had approved that Councell, and made a Treatise in defense of it.
Whilest Satan bestirred himselfe thus in the East parts: the Roman Bishops on their side did labour in the West parts. For they did well perceive that these two things, to wit the adoration of the Sacrament, and the adoration of Images, would be of great use, and would serve much for the strengthning of their Empire, and encreasing of the dignity of the Romish Clergy. For the Pope taking out of the way the holy Scriptures from the eyes of the People, hat••given them Images, which they call Ignorant mens Books, busying the eyes of the people, whilest he conveyed away the Word of God from them. And the opiniō of the real presence of Christs body in the Eucharist, exalts the dignity and power of Priests, so far as to be able to make God with words, and to have Christ in their own power.Page 300
This abuse, beginning to creepe in France, King Charles the Bald, about the yeere 870, made a commandement unto one Bertram a Priest, and as learned a man as these times did affoord, to com∣pose and write a Book of this matter: which Book we have yet whole and •x∣tant at this day, wherein hee maintaines the true doctrine, and withstands stoutly and vigourously that opinion of the reall presence of the body of Christ under the species of the bread. For of Transub∣stantiation there was yet no speech of it. For which cause also Bellarmin in his first Book of tee Sacrament of the Eu∣charist, first chap. puts this Bertram a∣mongst the Hereticks. Who not with∣standing, in his time, lived with honor, and was neither troubled, nor received any rebuke or reprehension upon this subject. Of the same opinion were Iohn Scotus and Drutmarus, and others of the same time. And I make no doubt but many others with them have defended the same cause in writing: But the fol∣lowing ages, in which error prevailed, have abolished their writings, and it is marvel how this Book of Bertram could escape thus.
The tenth and eleventh Ages, are the Page 302Ages wherein this error did strengthen it selfe most, in which neverthelesse God left not himselfe without testimony. For Bruno Bishop of Angiers, and after him (but more vigorously) Berengarius, his Arch-Deacon, taught and maintained openly that the bread and wine of the Eucharist were not the body of Christ, but the figure and remembrance of it:* This Berangarius began to shew himselfe a∣bout the yeare of our Lord 1050. Against whom Pope Victorius 2. caused a Councel to be gathered at Tours about the yeare 1055 and foure yeeres after, Nicholas II. cited him to Rome to the Councel assem∣bled for that effect, where Berengarius was forced to condemn his own doctrine, & submit himself to the Popes wil. By the reading of that Councel, it appeares that •here were in it many others of the same opinion of Berengarius. And Leo*Hostien∣sis recordeth that none of those that were there present, could resist Berengarius. The forme of the abjuration prescribed unto him, is to be found in the Collecti∣ons of the Decrees made by Ivo Carnu∣tensis, and by Gratian, which forme is set down in absurde tearmes, and which the Church of Rome her selfe beleeves not. For they make him say,a that the Page 303bread is the true body of Christ, and that Christs body is truely and sensibly hand∣led and bruised by the teeth of the Faith∣full. But Berengarius being rid out of the hands of that Councell and returned back into France, protested against the violence offered unto him, and continued to teach the same doctrine till the yeere 1088. in which he died. Upon his tombe, Hildebertus,* who after was Bishop of Mans, made an honorable Epitaphe, wherein he tearmes him the Prop and Support of the Church, the hope and the glory of the Clergy. And France, Ger∣many, Italy and England, were full of people that embraced his doctrine, as William Malmesbury testifies in the 3. Book of his English Historie. All France (saith hee) was full of his doctrine. And Matthew of Westminst•r in the year 1087*Berengarius of Tours being fallen into he∣resie, had corrupted by his depravations al∣most all the French, Italians, and English.
Platina in the life of John XV. speaks thus of Berengarius, It is certain that O∣dius Bishop of Clugni and Berengarius of Tours, men famous and renowned for do∣ctrine Page 303and holinesse, were in great esteeme in that time. Adde to this, that Berenga∣rius distributed all his meanes to the poore, and betooke himselfe to get his living with the labour of his hands.*Antoninus Arch-Bishop of Florence, whom the Pope hath canonized and made a Saint, gives him this testimony in the 2 Tome of his Chronicles, Tit. 16 §. 20. This Berengarius was otherwise a good man, full of Almes deeds, and hu∣mility, and having great, possessions and riches, which hee distributed to the poore, and would have no woman to come before his eyes.
About the latter end of Berengarius his life, lived Gregory the seventh, who entred into the Papacy in the yeare of our Lord 1073. called Hildebrand before he was Pope. This Gregory was suspe∣cted to incline to Berengarius his opini∣on. Sigonius in his 9 Book of the reigne of Italy, in the yeare 1080, recordeth that the Bishops of Germany assembled at Brixina in Bavaria, did call this Gre∣gory V•terem haeretici Berengari• discipu∣lum, an old disciple of Berengarius the he∣retick, accusing him of calling into que∣stion the Apostolicall Faith, touching the body and blood of the Lord. And this a∣grees Page 305with Cardinall Benno, Arch-Priest of the Cardinals who was very inward and familiar with the said Gregory, and who wrote his life: wherein hee saith that Gregory appointed a fast to three Cardinals, to the end God might shew whither of the two, to wit Berengarius of the Church of Rome had the rightest opinion. And there he relates that John Bishop of Port in a Sermon at S. Peters Church, did declare in presence both of Clergy and People, that Gregory, for to obtaine some divine answer, had in the presence of the Cardinals cast the holy Sacrament into the fire.
Berengarius being dead▪ he had many successors that maintained the same do∣ctrine even to the time of Petru• de Val∣do, of the City of Lions, whose disciples were named by their enemies, Valdenses and Albigenses: Of whose Religion and Confession of Faith, conformable to ours,* hath been spoken before in the 21 chapter of the first Book, and shewed that their Churches remaine, even unto our times.
Furthermore, John Wickl•f in England, in the yeere 1390. taught the same. Of whose doctrine contained in eighteen Articles, here is the first, That the sub∣stance Page 306of the bread remaines after the Consecration, and ceases not to bee bread.
Against the Faithfull that professed this doctrine, the Pope stirred up Kings and Princes, and caused an in∣credible butchery to bee made of them, preaching the Croisadoe against them, whereby hee gave the same spirituall graces unto those that should massacre them, as to those that went into Sy∣ria against the Sarasens, for to recon∣quer Christs Sepulcher, to whom he gave the remission of all their sins, and a degree of glory above the ordinary, as may bee seene in the Bull of In∣nocent the third, placed at the end of the Councell of Lateran. The Earle of Montfort, having with him one Dominicke, author of the Or∣der of the Jacobins, with an army of these crossed ones, did massacre in a few moneths above two hundred thousand of them.
And for to strengthen and fortifie this abuse, there was no speeche in those times but of miracles, coyned of pur∣pose, tending to the worshipping of I∣mages, and establishing of the reall presence of Christs body in the Eucha∣rist. Page 307They gave out to the people that such an Image had sweated blood, that another had nodded his head. That a woodden Crucifix prickt in the side, had cast blood.* That to an Image of the Virgin Maries, brought from Damas∣cus, breasts of flesh were grown upon the wood. That in such a place the Host had appeared in the forme of a child, and an Angell by it, that did hacke him to peeces. That an Hoste, pricked by a Jew, had gushed out blood: and being cast into a great cauldron or kittle, was turned into a man, as is to be seene yet at this day in Paris represented upon the forefront or porche of the Church of the Billetes. The life of Saint An∣thonie of Padoua saith, that he presented the consecrated Hoste to an Asse, which presently left eating of his Oates and worshipped the Hoste.aWedekindus a Saxon Prince saw a child thrust into the mouth of the Communicants.b An Angell did present Christ in the Masse unto a Priest called Pleg•ls, in the shape or forme of a childe, which he kissed and imbraced with great courage. 〈◊〉 A little Jewish boy comming by chance into the Church as he was playing, saw upon the Altar a little boy that was Page 308minced and cut into small peeces, and thrust by small lumps into the mouths of the Communicants. Thomas Canti∣pratensis in his second Booke of Mira∣cles, Chapter 40, saith that at Doway, in the yeare 1260. the consecrated host being fallen to the ground, rised up a∣gaine of it selfe, and pearched it selfe upon the cloth wherewith the Priest did wipe his hands, in the shape or forme of a fine little boy, who instantly be∣came a tall man, having a crowne of thornes upon his head, and two drops of blood running downe from his fore∣head on both sides of his nose. Jodoeus Coccius collected about one hundred of such miracles.* For in Berengarius his time such miracles were very rise and frequent. Matthew Paris an English Historian, in the yeare of the Lord, 1247 relates that the Templers of the holy land sent to Henry the third King of England, a little Christall bottle full of the true blood of our Saviour Christ that he shed upon the Crosse, which Cristall bottle that silly King carried upon his nose to Westminster Church in Proces∣sion a foot, clothed with an old sle•ve∣lesse gowne. Salmeron the Jesuite in the XI Tome and fifth Treatise, page 35. Page 309saith that at Rome in the Church of La∣teran there is some of Christs blood kept. Item in the Church of Saint Maximin at Rome, which Marie Magdalen ga∣thered up at the foote of the Crosse. There was also at Rochelle some kept, as the same Jesuite saith in the same place.
Sigonius in his fourth Booke of the reigne of Italy,* saith that in the yeare 804. was brought out of Syria to Man∣tua, a portion of the blood that ran out of the Image of a Crucifix, which did many miracles. And that the fame of it being come to Charles the Great, he in∣treated by letters Pope Leo, to enquire of the truth of the matter: And that the said Pope having knowne and per∣ceived the truth of the thing, wrote to Charle-maine touching the same. And in the eighth Booke, in the yeare 1048. he saith that the inhabitants of Man∣tua having forgotten this blood, and knowing no more what it was, this blood beganne againe to doe miracles. Vasquez the Jesuite upon the 76 questi∣on of the third Part of Th•mas,* saith that yet at this day there is in Spaine some of Christs blood kept in Reliques.Page 310
Thus the darknesse grew thicke, and the mysterie of iniquity strengthened it selfe dayly more and more, the kings having no knowledge at all of the ho∣ly Scripture, and trembling under the Popes thunderbolts and excommunica∣tions, and powring abundance of wealth and riches into the bosome of the Cler∣gie for the easing of their soules after death.
And for a full measure of mischiefe, new Orders of Mendicant Friers did spring up, namely the Franciscans and Dominicans, whereof Francis Assisias in Italy, and Dominick Calarogensis in Spaine were the first Founders, in the yeare of our Lord 1216. and 1223. An incredible multitude of these Monks were dilated and sp•ead over all the regions of the Popes Empire, who made use of them as of so many torches and trumpets for to provoke and en∣courage Princes to the persecution of the faithfull. And it was the said Monks that h•ve coyned and forged the Schoole Divinity, all bristled with pricks, and twisted about with subtilties, much like unto the Cray-fish in which there is much picking, but little to eate. It is from this Divinity that suttle distincti∣ons Page 311are drawne, wherewith they cover themselves against the truth. A•isto∣tle is alleadged there a great deale oftner than the Apostle Saint Paul. Thus it be∣hooved the mysterie of iniquitie should advance it selfe.
At the birth of these begging Friers, Innocent the third, in the yeare 1215. called a Councell at Rome in the La∣teran Church, in which the word of Transubstantiation, not as yet recei∣ved by any definition in the Roman Church, was established by an ex∣presse Canon, and authority of Coun∣cell.
CHAP. IX. Of the Judgement which the Doctors of the Romane Church doe make touching the apparitions, whereby a little Child, or a morsell of flesh hath appeared at the Masse in the hands of the Priest, and touching Christs blood that is kept in Re∣liques.
A Long time hath beene that if one had doubted that a childe, or a p••ce of fl•sh that had appeared in a Pri•st• hand, were not truely Christ, and that Christs blood that was kept in re∣liques, was not truely his blood, it would have beene an heresie deserving the fire, and a manifest impiety. The People did flock together for to wor∣ship this blood. Therefore Guitmondus in his third booke of the Sacrament, and Paschasius in his Booke of the body and blood of the Lord; Chapter 14. and I•docus C•c•ius in his Collection of the places of the Fathers, and many others, Page 313doe make use of these miraculous ap∣paritions, for to prove Christs reall pre∣sence in the Eucharist.
Thomas Aquinasa in the third part of his Summe, question. 76. Art. 8. findes himselfe mightily pestred upon this point: For though hee teacheth that that which appeareth thus miraculous∣ly, ought to bee worshipped with the adoration of Latria, as Christ, and that Christ is there present: yet withall hee esteemes that sometimes these appari∣tions are not true, but onely in appea∣rance, especially when the same thing appeares but to some and not to all. For which cause, C jetan in his Annotations upon this place of A•uinas, departes from his opinion touching the Adora∣tion,b and will have this blood or flesh that appeares sometimes in the Mass•, to be worshi•ped, not as Christ: but as Christs garment, which is an inferiour adoration.
But the Jesuite Vasquez, goes more plainely to worke, in his 193 Disput. Page 314here bee his words.cI answer that that which appeares, is not the flesh of Christ, nor of any other that bee truely flesh, but that it is onely an effigies or appearance of flesh, as Saint Thomas saith. And as touching the simple that are deceived, and beleeve that Christs flesh is there in a man∣ner di•isible and bloody, it matters not much. For that deception ought to bee cor∣rected by the true instruction of the Doctors.
Gabriel Biel, a famous Doctor, in his 51 Lesson upon the Canon of thed Masse, goes further, and saith that such appari∣ritions of flesh and blood may bee done by illusion of the divell for to deceive the sim∣ple, God permitting it thus. And he brings an example of it: To wit that in the Countrey of Thuringe in the City of Ysennae in a Convent of Minorite Friers,e a certaine man in the likenesse of an Angel appeared to a Lay Brother pre∣paring himselfe to the communion, who Page 315chopt into his mouth peece of flesh, which so soone 〈◊〉 hee had swallowed, he was posse•••• and grievously tormented by the devill.
And truely, those that esteeme that Christ appeareth truely upon the Altar in the forme of a childe or of a peece of flesh, and worship it, are very much puzled. For the Roman Church doth acknowledge but two sorts of Christs reall presence, the one naturall and vi∣sible after which he conversed with his Disciples here on earth: the other Sa∣cramentall under the accidents of bread. But when these things doe appeare (yea if ever they doe appeare) Christ is nei∣ther present in the one, nor in the other manner. For he appeares neither under his owne proper accidents, nor under the accidents of the bread. And it shall behoove one to beleeve that Christ is a child upon the Altar: Or that a perfect man is under the accidents of a child. That if it be onely a peece of flesh, we aske whether this peece of flesh be whole Christ: Or if it be but a part of his bo∣dy, whether this portion or peece of fl sh was taken out of the Arme or out of the Legge.
These things serve to make us to know Page 316how powerfull •e seduction of Sathan hath beene, and with •ow much horrible darknesse he did envelope 〈◊〉 in the A∣ges wherin this monster of Transubstan∣tiation was formed. This latter age hath beene ashamed of it: for now we see no more the People run to Mantua, or to the Billettes Church at Paris for to wor∣ship the flesh and the blood of Christ that are there kept in reliques. The French Pilgrim• passing by Mantua for to goe to Rome, stay there no more. They passe the Pyrenean Mountaines for to visit the supposed reliques of Saint James: but doe not goe into those places of Spaine where Christs blood is kept. That blood of Christ sent from Syria to King Henry the third of England, whereof I have spoken in the former Chapter, that pu∣trified in a few dayes, lost instantly its credit, and there was no more speech of it.
CHAP. X. OF the corruption of the Papall Sea in the Ages wherein this errour was most advanced.
IN the Eighth and Ninth Ages, were cast the first foundations of Transub∣stantiation; neverthelesse it was not yet then establish d by Lawes: and I can∣not finde that ever any man was mo∣lested for that subj ct. But in the Tenth and Eleventh Ages, the Popes laboured to hatch that monster, and to establish it with authoritie. But God branded these two ages with infamous blemishes and disgraces. For as vices agree well with errors, the Popes of those times led such an infamous life, that hardly the like is to be found in all Pagan hist∣ories, and that Chaire was filled with horrible confusions.
Since Pope Formosus who in the yeare 890. attained to the Popedome by vio∣lating the oath hee had taken never to accept of it, and whose dead body was Page 318dragged ignominiously up and downe the City of Rome and cast into the Ti∣ber by his Successors: For the space of a hundred and fifty yeares, yea of two hundred yeares, we see nothing in hist∣ories but of Popes murtherers, Popes Adulterers, necromanticall Popes, per∣jured Popes, Popes intruded by force or by money, creatures of the Earles of Toscane, that werer then powerfull in Italie, and of the harlot Theodora and of her daughters Marozia and Theodora, that reigned a long time in Rome, and made and unmade Popes at their plea∣sure.
Of which time the Carmelite Frier, Author of Fasciulus Temporum, makes this lamentation:fAlas, Alas, Alas, Lord God, how is the gold obscured and its good colour changed? O most wicked time in which the holy one is fallen away, and truth dimi∣nished among the sonnes of men. And Car∣dinall Baronius after a long recitall of the vilanios of the Papall Sea in those times, he poures out these complaints,gWhat was then the face of the Romane Page 319Church and how foule, when most powerfull and most filthie whores ruled and governed in Rome, by whose will the Seas were changed, and Bishopricks given away! And that which is horrible and not to be related, their Lovers, false Popes, were thrust in violently in Peters Chaire. And Genebrard, a great worshipper of Popes, speakes of the same time, in the yeare 901. of his Chronicle, in these tearmes: In that alone this age was unfortunate, that for the space almost of one hundred and fifty yeares, about fifty Popes have wholly fallen away from the vertue of their predecessors, being rather Apotacticall or Apostaticall, than Apostolicall. Sigonius puts two hundred yeares in.
In the yeare of our Lord 931. John the eleventh, came to the Popedome. He was Bastard to Pope Sergius begotten on the body of the whore Marozia. Where∣upon Baronius saith, The Roman Church suffered her selfe to be so vilanously oppressed by such a monster.
After him, there was many Popes that were creatures of the fornamed whores, even to John the XII. who in the yeare of our Lord 955. attained to the Papa∣cie at eighteene yeares old, whom Ba∣ronius abhorres as an execrable monster. Page 320Luirprandus and Fascicu us Temporum, say,* that this John being in bed with some bodies wife, was so beaten by the De∣vill that he died of it. This Pope made Children Bishops, dranke to the Devill, when he played at dice hee invocated Jupiter and Venus, and conferred the sacred Orders in a stable.
Then, many Popes did play at thrust out, and cruelly persecuted one another, the Papacy was exposed to sale, and vices were there up to the roofe. France, though in an age full of darknesse, was mooved with it, and called a Councell at Rheims under the raigne of Hugh Ca∣pet, whose Acts we have extant. In that Councell, Arnulphus Bishop of Orleans, who presided there, speakes thus:hO lamentable Rome, which in the time of our Ancestors hast brought forth bright shining lights, but now h•st powred out such mon∣strous darknesses, that shall be infamous to future ages! And a little after, What thinke yee, Reverend Fathers, that the Pape is sitting upon a high throne, glistering in a robe of searlet and gold? If hee hath no Page 321charity, if he doe exalt himselfe being puffed up with science alone, hee is the Auti∣christ sitting on Gods throne. Then hee addes, that the Citle of Rome is exposed to sale, and that Antichrist is neare, and that the mysterie of iniquitie goes for∣ward.
In the yeare 984.* as Sigonius re∣lates in the beginning of his seventh Booke of the Reigne of Italy, Bonifa∣cius, who made himselfe to bee called John the fifteenth, having put to death two Popes, usurped the Papacie by vi∣olence and by money. Baronius calls him a Theefe and a Robber, and that had not one haire of a true Bishop. Genebrard, in the yeare 1007, speakes thus of all the Popes of that time. The Popes (saith hee) of this time being in∣truded by the Emperours rather than elect∣ed, were monsters. Thus the lawfull suc∣cession hath beene troubled, as of old un∣der the Synagogue in the time of the Kings Antiochi.
In the yeare 1033. Benedict the ninth being but tenne yeares old, was created Pope by the faction of his Father the Counte of Tuscula. Petrus Damianus in his Epistle to Nicolas the second, and Platina, and Fasciculus Temporum, and Page 322Baronius, describe this Pope like a mon∣ster. Then three Popes held the Papacy, of whō Platina speaks thus,*Henry the se∣cond being entred into Italie with a mightie Armie, and having called a Councell, con∣strained Benedict the ninth, Sylvester the third, and Gregory the sixth, as three hor∣rible monsters, to forsake the magistrature. That was done in the yeare of our Lord 1044. when the contention touching the conversion of the bread into the body of the Lord was in its strength, and Bere•∣garius in great credit in France and in the neighbouring countries for his learning and good life.
The discreet Reader and lover of the truth, shal weigh & ponder these things in his minde, and say in himselfe, Is it credible that God would have used such wicked instruments for to defend his heavenly truth? Could any good thing spring from such wicked Popes? Are not those such Ages as Sathan desireth for to bring forth monsters in, & in the mids of so thicke a darknes to bring in Idolatry?
CHAP. XI. Of the oppression of England. How Religion passed out of England into Bohemia. Of Wicklef. John Huz, and Hierome of Prague. Of the Councell of Constance. Of Zisca and Procopius, and of their Victories.
I Hope the Reader shall not dislike to take here a short view of the Histo∣ry of the troubles which hapned in Bo∣hemia about Religion, a little before God made the light of his Gospell to shine againe in France, England, Germanie, Switserland and the Low-Countries. For in it may be seene a lively Image of Sa∣tan, and of the power of God.
Of all Countries subject to the Pa∣pall Empire,*England suffered the har∣dest and most shamefull servitude. That slavery increased especially under the reigne of Henry the second, and of John and Henry the third. In the yeare 1171. Page 324King Henry the second for to expiate the crime whereof hee was accused, namely to have caused the murther of Thomas Arch-Bishop of Canterburie, was whipt upon his naked flesh by a multi∣tude of Monkes, some giving him three stripes and some five. With the like effeminatnesse that King yeelded up to the Pope the Investures of Benefices, which the Kings his predecessors had possessed till that time.
That King being dead in the yeare 1189. had for Successor Richard his son, and after him John, a King brutish and furious, who made some attempts to recover the Investures which his Fa∣ther had yeelded up to the Pope. But being hated and contemned of his sub∣jects, Pope Innocent the third had a faire way to handle him ill. He did declare him to have lost the right of his King∣dome, dispensed his subjects from their Oath of allegiance, a thing never seene nor heard of before in England, caused Divine Service to cease throughout all the Kingdom, and Churches and Church yards to be shut up: Which continued by the space of six yeares and a halfe. He also excommunicated the King, and gave the Kingdome of England to Philip Page 325Augustus King of France, upon condition to Conquer the same at his owne perill and fortune: and that for the remission of his owne sinnes.
That constrained King John to yeeld up his Kingdome to the Pope, and to binde himselfe to doe homage unto him for his crowne. So hee made himselfe the Popes vassall, and England became Saint Peters patrimonie. And a Patent with a golden seale was made and fra∣med, by which the King did oblige him∣selfe and his successors for ever, to pay yearely unto the Pope a thousand marks in gold, in signe of subjection, besides Saint Peters moneys that were paid by polle. Unto which that poore King was forced to adde an Oath, whereby hee swore that hee was induced so to doe without constraint and of his owne ac∣cord, and by the motion of the holy Spirit: and that for the remission of his sinnes.
Vnder this slaverie died this King in the yeare of our Lord 1216. to whom succeeded Henrie the third, who did put his Crowne at the Le∣gats feete, one knee upon the ground, doing homage unto him for his King∣dome.Page 326
Then did the Pope beginne to send his Legats, who skimmed England of money by a thousand kindes of devices. The Orders of the Franciscans and Ja∣cobins were newly instituted. The same Friers preached the Croisado, where∣by the Pope promised the remission of all sinnes, and a degree of glorie in hea∣ven above the common sort, to all those which being arm'd, would make the v•w to goe to the holy I and f•r the recover∣ing of Christs Sepulcher, possessed by the Sarras•ons. At these Predications every one c•ossed himselfe with a crosse upon the shoulder, and a great multitude of Gentry and people sold and mo•gaged their Lands and estates for the charges of that Journey. But as they were ar∣med and furnished for the journey, an∣other Legate would come that dispen∣sed the English from their vow, and gave them the same graces and Indul∣gences without b•dgeing from their owne houses, provided they would give to the Pope as much money as was necessary to have beene spent in their journey. By these meanes this Legate gathered huge summes of money. And that money was employed by the Pope for to conquer the Cities and Provinces Page 327which the Emperour had in Italy. Thus did the Pope inlarge his limits.
Never a yeare came over head but hungry Italians came over into England with new Commissions to raise mo∣neyes, with power to excommunicate all such as would refuse, and put the Churches into interdict. What good horses soever there were, or curious houshold stuffe, or fine wares in shops, were conveyed away without paying for, and carried into Italy. The Ex∣actors tooke up the tithes of the corne yet unsowen. The Italians possessed in England the best Benefices. The Pope called England his garden of pleasure and his bottomlesse treasure. Where∣upon great clamours arose among the People. The Nobles said:*These are the successors of Constantine, and not of Peter. O shamefull thing! rascally ruf∣fians that know not what armes and ho∣nour is, will domineere over all the World by their excommunications.* The Monkes in the Countrey did say, The Daughter of Sion is become a brasen faced Whore, and without shame at all, through the just judgement of him, who because of the sins of the People makes an Hypocrite to raigne, and a Tyrant to governe and rule. But Page 328all these clamours were unprofitable and without effect, because the holie Scripture was a Booke then altoge∣ther unknowne amongst the English people. They spake of nothing but of Miracles, and of Images, and of Pilgrimages, and of Reliques: Vntill such time as an English Doctor and Preacher named John Wicklef, fell to preaching and writing openly against the Pope, and against the Masse, about the yeare of our Lord 1370. Hee was listened unto with great applause, and was able to have caused a great alte∣ration in England, if the King would have given way to it. Of this oppres∣sion in England, Matthew Paris and Westmonasteriensis, English Monks that lived in those dayes, wrote strange and prodigious things.
Now as John Wicklef was a teach∣ing,* it fell out that a Bohemian Gen∣tleman, who was a student of Oxford, did taste and rellish wicklefs Doctrine, and coppied out his Bookes, which he carryed over into his owne Countrey, and imparted them to John Huz, a fa∣mous Preacher, to whom Wenceslans King of Bohemia, brother to Sigismond Emperour, had committed the govern∣ment Page 329of the Schoole of Prague, renown∣ed at that time.
This John Huz, overcome by the e∣vidence of Wickless reasons, fell a preach∣ing his doctrine, and being a vehement and perswasive man, he drew after him a great number of People. To whom Hie∣rome of Prague did adjoyne himselfe, who surpassed John Huz in eloquence and learning. There came also out of Ger∣manie one Petrus Dresdensis, and one Ja∣cobellus that spake with vehemencie a∣gainst Transubstantiation, and against the Communion under the onely species of the bread.
For to appease these stirres and com∣motions, the Arch-Bishop of Prague, called Subinco Cepus, caused Wicklefs Bookes publickly to bee burned, and drove out John Huz from Prague: But seeing the number of those that he cal∣led hereticks did encrease dayly, he him∣selfe fled into Hongaria towards Sigis∣mond: and John Huz returned back to Prague.
Then Benedict the thirteenth, & Gregory the twelfth, excommunicated one ano∣ther, the one having his seat at Auignon, & the other at Rome. A Councell was kept at Pisa in the yeare 1409. in which they Page 330created a third Pope, to wit, Alexander the fifth, who dying shortly after John XXIII. succeeded him. So there was then three Popes all at once, and there was no body in all the Church of Rome but was excommunicated by some one of these Popes.
This John had warre against Ladis∣laus King of Naples: and for to streng∣then and fortifie himselfe against him, he sent Preachers abroad over all the Countries of his obedience to preach the Croisadoe, whereby hee promised the forgivenesse of all sinnes to all those that would take up Armes against La∣dislaus for the defense of the Church.
This Indulgence being published at Prague, many of the people beganne to say aloud and openly, that it was in∣deed the language of Antichrist, that promised salvation to those that should spill the Christian blood. At which the Magistrate of Prague being angry, hee layd hands on some of them and clap∣ped them up into prison. But the people gathered themselves together and de∣manded of the Magistrate the release of these prisoners: who fearing an uproare, appeased the people with milde words, promising that no harme or wrong Page 331should be done unto them: But so soon as this multitude was separated, the Magistrate caused these prisoners to be stabbed with a dagger or pomard in the prison: So that the blood ran out in such abundance that it streamed in∣to the very street. At the sight of that blood the people being provoked to wrath and fury, they caused the Prison doores to be opened unto them, and conveyed away the dead corpses, and carried them from Church to Church, crying aloude, These are the faithfull ones that have exposed their bodies f•r the Covenant of God. The King did con∣sider these things without being much moved at it.
But the Emperour Sigismond desi∣ring to remedy the disorders of the Pa∣pacie, and by the same meanes to paci∣fie the troubles of Bohemia, did in such sort by his going and comming and be∣stirring himselfe too and fro, that a Councell was called and kept at Con∣stance, a City of Suaube in Germanie, in the yeare 1414. wherein the three forenamed Popes were degraded; of especi∣ally John XXIII. for having (among o∣ther things laid to his charge)* main∣tained openly and obstinately that the Page 332soules of men die as the soules of beasts; and that there is neither Heaven nor Hell.
In these three Popes roome was cho∣sen in the Councell Martin the fifth, to whom the Emperour Sigismund knee∣led downe before the whole Councell, kissed his feet, and worshipped him. This Martin sent some Embassadors to Constantinople, to whom hee gave in∣structions that begin thus:*The most ho∣ly and most blessed, who hath the heavenly Empire, who is Lord on Earth, successor of S. Peter, the Christ of the Lord, the Master of the Ʋniversall World, the Father of Kings, the Light of the World, the most high and Soveraigne Bishop, Martin by the di∣vine providence, commandeth unto Master Anthonie Masson, &c. These instructions are inserted in the Councell of Siena, held a little after, Printed at Paris in the yeare 1612.
At the same Councell of Constance John Huz and Hierome of Prague were called for to conferre of their doctrine: they shewed some unwillingnesse to meet thither, fearing some ill usage. But the Emperour assured them, and gave them, by the advice of the Coun∣cell, a large safe conduct, whereby he Page 333did promise they should receive no harme there, but might with all liber∣ty and freedome propound their rea∣sons, and after that returne home in all safety.
Grounded upon the Emperours faith and promise, they resorted to the Councel and propounded their reasons. They spake chiefly of the Communion under both kinds. But the Fathers of the Coun∣cell, perceiving they would not yeeld to that which was enjoyned unto them, concluded that they should be burned alive. The Emperour made some dif∣ficulty in it, saying he had obliged his faith unto them, and that they came under his promise. Thereupon, that the Emperours conscience might be at qui∣et,* the Councell framed a Canon, wherein is declared and defined, that faith must not be kept unto hereticks, after men have done what they can for to convert them; and that a Prince is not bound to keepe what hee hath pro∣mised them. This Sentence being pro∣nounced to John Huz, he appealed to Christ Jesus.
They were then executed publickly. And Aeneas Sylvius, who afterward was Pope, and made himselfe to bee Page 334called Pius the second, speakes thus of them in the 36 chapter of his Historie of Bohemia;*Both of them suffered death with a constant courage, and made haste to goe to the fire, as if they had been invi∣ted to a feast, without he•ring any word come from them that shewed or testified a∣ny sorrowfulnesse of minde. When they be∣ganne to burne, they fell a singing of an Hymne, which could hardly be hindred by the violence and noyse of the flames. No Philosopher ever suffered death with such magnanimitie as these indured burning. Then he alleadgeth an Epistle of Poggius, a Florentine, that describeth the death of Hierome of Prague, who was put to death some dayes after John Huz. In that Epistle Poggius speakes as one that was present at the examination and death of the sayd Hierome. I confesse (saith he) I never saw any body, who in a cause altogether criminall, came neerer the eloquence of the Ancients. It was an ad∣mirable thing to sie with what words, what eloquence, what arguments, what counte∣nance, what confidence, hee answered his Adversaries, and that too, after he had beene three hundred and forty dayes in a deepe and stinking dungeon. Then he relates afterwards how a list of he∣resies Page 335that were laid to his charge, was read unto him, and that upon everie head or point he answered in such sort, as hee did shew they were calumnies laid upon him, saying he beleeved no∣thing of all that. And being brought to the place of punishment, and com∣passed round about with faggots and straw, hee fell a singing of an Hymne or Psalme. The Executioner drawing neare for to kindle the fire hehind him, he said unto him, Friend, come neere, put the fire here before mee, for if I did feare the fire, I would not bee here. The ashes of these Martyrs were cast into the Lake of Constance, for to abolish the memory of them.
In this Councell was framed a Ca∣non,* whereby those are declared here∣ticks, and punishable by the secular pow∣er, who for conforming themselves un∣to Christ and unto the Ancient Church, will have the people to receive the Sa∣crament under both kindes.
There also was condemned Wicklefs doctrine, to whom in that Councell are falsly attributed impious doctrines, and which never came into his minde. For example, That God ought to obey the De∣vill. That a Prince is no lawfull master, Page 336while he is in a mortall sinne. And that it belongs to the people to chastise their Lords.
In the like manner was handled John Huz, whose doctrine was condemned by the Councell of Constance,* in the fifteenth Session. To whom also they did impute things farre from his beleefe. Some witnesses presented themselves that te∣stified they had heard him say, That the Pardons of the Pope, and of the Bishop, are nothing worth, unlesse God doe forgive: That was one of the crimes for which he was burned. For that venerable Councell hath judged that the Pope may forgive sinnes whether God will or no, and that Gods consent is not ne∣cessarily required for to make that the Popes and Bishops Indulgences be of force and validity.
This newes of John Huz his death, and of Hierome of Prague, brought into Bohemia, did pierce the heart of the Bo∣hemians that were called Hussites, with exceeding griefe.* The King seeing their number encrease dayly more and more, granted them Churches in Prague for their meetings. Aeneas Sylvius saith, that the people mooved with anger, pulled downe some Monasteries and Churches Page 337both within and without the City. Name∣ly, neere Tabor, where thirty thousand persons did celebrate in the middest of a field the holy Communion under both kindes.
The King Wencestaus being dead, the Kingdome of Bohemia fell to Sigismund his brother, Emperor and King of Hun∣garia. Whereupon great feare did seise the people of Bohemia, because of his great power, and that against his oath, and violating the safe conduct he had gi∣ven to John Hux and to Hierome of Prague, he caused them to be burned at Constance.
But a Bohemian Gentleman called Zis∣ca, that had lost an eye in the warres, a man incomparable for vigour of body and minde, exhorted them not to be dis∣scouraged. And it fell out at the same time, that Sigismund under tooke warre against the Turke in Hungaria, with an indifferent bad successe.
That gave leasure to the people or∣der their businesses. The Queene, wid∣dow to Wenceslaus, levied some troopes for to fall upon this people, and hinder their encreasing. Sigismund sent Lievte∣nants to governe the Country, and set things into good order againe, in whose Page 338hands Zisca did surrender and remit Pel∣zina and Plesta,* and other places whereof he had gotten possession. For his desire was to obey the Emperour, and he sought all meanes to give him content. But there came Letters from the Emperour, whereby he did declare that his will and pleasure was that the Churches granted to the Bohemians called Hussites, should bee taken from them, and their Re∣ligion interdicted. And they had good advice that Sigismonds intention was to destroy them. Whereat the Peo∣ple being afraid, looked for nothing but for a totall ruine: and their ene∣mies being become more vigorous, be∣ganne to oppresse them. Which things moved Zisca to take Armes, and thinke upon his defence. With a few forces bee obtained many victo∣ries against the Queene, having none but foote forces of small ex∣perience, and little exercised in warre.
Then came Sigismond into Bohemia with a mighty Armie, resolved to de∣stroy this people: Besieged Prague, wherein Zisea was, who in many sal∣lies defeated the most part of Sigis∣monds armie: made him raise the Siege, Page 339and tooke many townes by the verie terrour of his name. As hee was be∣sieging Vissegrad, the Emperour came at unawares for to make him raise the siege, having with him thirtie thousand Horse, and all the Nobility of Mordvia. But Zisea defeated him, and obtained upon him a great victo∣rie. And a little after, Sigismond having for the third time prepared a mightie Armie, lost a third Battell, by which he was constrained to leave Bohemia, full of shame and confusi∣on.
A little after Zisea besieging a towne,* received a shot of an arrow in the eye, so that of blinde of an eye as hee was, hee became blinde of both. But that hindred him not from leading and conducting his troopes, and giving many combates, being victorious every where.
But the Emperour being irritated and angrie, came backe againe into Bohemia, bringing along with him two powerfull Armies, the one out of Germanie, and the other out of Hun∣garia, which like an overflowing tor∣rent, overwhelmed all Bohemia: Tooke some townes, and made great Page 340ravage. But Zisea, though blinde and having but a few men, drew directly towards the Emperours Armie, and defeated him with a great defeat, tooke Bag and Baggage and all things be∣longing to the Armie, and pursued him a whole dayes Journey. Pio a Florentine had brought out of Hunga∣ria fifteene thousand horse, who pas∣sing upon a frozen River for to save themselves, the Ice breaking under them, were all drowned in the Ri∣ver
Furthermore, Zisca with his victo∣rious Armie went out of Bohemia, and entred into Moravia, and passed in∣to Austria, and came to succour the faithfull that were oppressed there. To him did adjoyne himselfe a Mora∣vian gentleman named Procopius, ex∣ceeding valiant, and an imitator of the vertue of Zisea, who caused the Emperour Sigismund to raise the siege before Ju•emberg in Moravia, which he had besieged. A great Battell was gi∣ven betweene Zisea and the Emperours troupes neare Ausck, upon the River of Elbe, where a great quantity of the Germane Centry were killed on the Emperours side. Who, pulled downe Page [unnumbered]and confounded with so many losses, resolved at last to seeke after Zisca his love and friendship, promising him the Generall Lievetenancy of the whole Kingdome, and all kinde of Advanta∣ges. Zisea gave eare thereunto, and took his journey for to goe meet the Em∣perour; but hee fell sicke by the way and dyed, being very old, and blinde. Aeneas Sylvius saith, that when hee was a dying, he gave counsell to his people to make a Drumme of his skinne after his death,* assuring them that at the sound of that Drumme, his enemies would flie away.
Zisea being dead, Procopius succee∣ded him in the conduct of a part of the troopes, against whom Pope Mar∣tin the fifth set all Germanic in Armes, and sent into Bohemia three mighty Ar∣mies, commanded by the Dukes of Saxe, the Marquesse of Brandenbourg, and the Arch-Bishop of Trivers. These three Armies joyned themselves together. But so soone as the Bohemians did appeare, such terrour and feare seised upon the Imperiall Armies, that they presently fled without staying for the enemie: forsaking all their baggage and muni∣tions of warre. But the Cardinal Julian,Page 342sent by the Pope, stirred up the Empe∣rour Sigismond to make a greater effort than any of the former. Aeneas Sylvius saith there was in his Armie forty thou∣sand Horse besides the Foot. This Car∣dinall entred into Bohemia, where hee committed many unheard off cruelties, killing both women and children▪ But at the very first noyse and rumour that came of the Bohemians approach, such a terrible feare tooke this huge Armie, that every one threw his armes downe for to fly away more nimbly, and left their carriage and munitions of warre to the enemy.
The Cardinall having escaped this danger, came to Basile for to preside at the Councell that the Pope Eugenius the fourth had assembled there, in the yeare of our Lord, 1431.
Now we have made this recitall, not for to approve Zisea his actions, nor the commotions of peoples taking armes against their Sovaraigne for to avoide persecution and Martyrdom; For the truth of the Gospell is not established by these meanes; Christ Jesus calleth us to beare the crosse after him; The blood of Martyrs hath more efficacy for to en∣crease the Church and spread the doctrin Page 343of the Gospell, than Battels; But I have represented this history, for to be an ex∣ample of Gods justice, punishing the dis∣loyalty of Sigismond, who against his faith and promise burned alive two faith∣full Martyrs, God having made use of weake and contemptible persons for to make him lose above two hundred thousand men, and cover him with shame and confusion.
CHAP. XII. The Confession of Cyril Patriarch of Constantinople, now living, touching the Sacrament of the Eucharist.
THis Prelate, in the seventeenth Ar∣ticle of his Confession, altogether conformable to the Doctrine of our Churches, after he hath recited the In∣stitution of the holy Supper as it is found in the Gospell, addeth: That is the simple, true, and lawfull Institution of this admirable Sacrament, in the admi∣nistration whereof wee doe confesse and be∣leeve the true and firme presence of the Lord Christ Jesus: Yet that presence which faith offereth and makes present unto us: but not that which Transubstantiation vainely invented, doth teach: For wee be∣leeve that the faithfull, in the holy Supper, doe eate the body of Christ Jesus our Lord, not incrushing and breaking it sensibly, and destroying it with our teeth, in the partici∣pation: But in partaking thereof by the sense Page 345of the soule. For the body of Christ is not that which is taken and seene in the Sacra∣ment with the eyes, but that which Faith having taken spiritually makes it present and communicates it unto us. Therefore it is 〈◊〉 that we eate it, and are made partakers of it, if we doe beleeve: But if we beleeve not, we fall away from all the benefit of the Sa∣crament. By the same reason we beleeve that to drinke the Cup in the Sacrament, is to drinke indeed the blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, after the same manner as hath been said concerning the body. For the Law-gi∣ver made the same commandement touching his blood, as he did touching his body. Which precept must not be mutilated, according to every ones fancie and humour: But the tra∣dition that hath beene prescribed unto us, must be kept sound and entire. When there∣fore in the Sacrament wee have partaked worthily, and communicated intirely with the body and blood of Christ, we make this pro∣fession, that we are already reconciled and united to our head, and made one and the selfe same body, with a firme hope that wee shall be his coheires in his Kingdome.
Here is the Originall in Greek.
〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉.