Military instructions for the cavallrie, or, Rules and directions for the service of horse collected out of divers forrein authours, ancient and modern, and rectified and supplied according to the present practice of the Low-Countrey warres.
Cruso, John, d. 1681.

The third Part. Of Encamping.

THE ARGUMENT.

THe next part to be handled (according to our former distribution) is Encamping. In the skilfull performance whereof, the military prudence and good judgement of the Commander of an army chiefly appeareth. And herein three things are principally considerable.

1. In what place, and by whom the quarter is to be made, and how distri∣buted.

2. The manner of securing the quarter, by guards, sentinels, discoverers, spies, &c.

3. Of dislodging, and the way how to perform it.

CHAP. I. Of making the quarters.

INa the choise of a fitting place for encamping or quartering, regard must be had, First, to the commoditie of the souldiers; Secondly, to the situation; to be able to resist the enemie: For experience teacheth what benefit or losse an army may receive by a good or bad quartering, and hereof histories yield a world of examples.

To lodge or encamp the Cavallrie, a speciall care must be had of the commodity of water, and where they may be under shelter: for one cold or rainy night might ruine the Cavallrie, nothing hurting a horse sooner then cold or wet. By this means the souldier shall find forrage at hand, and needeth not to go seek it abroad with his horse of service, all not having nags. When the horse be lodged in severall quarters, two souldiers of every quarter attend the person of the Generall, or the chief Commander, to carry any sudden orders to their severall quarters. But of such compa∣nies as are quartered near him,b one is sufficient. When all the Cavallry is lodged together, the Lieutenant Generall, Commissary Generall, and Quartermaster Generall are usually lodged near the Generall, for the better distributing of the Generalls orders.

The appointing of the quarters belongeth to the Commissary Generall and the Marshall, by whose directions the Quartermaster Generall proceedeth. It is fit for them to have some demon∣stration on paper, of the place beforehand; and to know the commodities and discommodities, also advenues of the enemy; wherein the guides can better direct them then the usuall maps, which (if not false) are too generall. When the Quartermaster Generallc goeth before to make the quarters, not onely the particular Quartermasters, but also two souldiers of every company are to go with him; which then go back again to conduct their respective companies to their assigned quarters; Page  30 especially in the night. The Provost (or rather the Waggon-master) sendeth one of his men to take notice of the place for the lodging of the baggage, who afterward conducteth him thither; where he then assigneth the Sutlers (or victuallers) their quarter, and causeth all carts or waggons to be removed out of the streets, left an alarm be given.

CHAP. II. Of distributing the quarters.

GReat discretion must be used in appointing to every one such quarter as isa fitting and con∣formable to the quality of his person, and convenience of the place. The best way to avoid suspicion of partialitie is, that such as be ill lodged now, be better accommodated the next time. The market-place (for the conveniency of all, and for safetie) is to be in the middle; but so as no streets run through it leading to the Rendezvous or place of arms.

When the quarter is to be in some suspected place, it should (if possibly it could) be made in the day time, before the approch of the night, that so the fittest place for the alarm place might be made choise of, and also for the corps-du-guard; also the better to discover and observe the ap∣proches of the enemy, and to appoint the stands of the Sentinells; that so the souldiers finding all things ready, be not put to find out their lodgings in the dark with lighted straw, in danger to fire the houses: besides, a Lieutenant with 25 Harquebusiers useth to be sent out before, and to place themselves beyond the further side of the village where the quarter shall be, placing Sentinells a good distance before them, to prevent the enemies sudden approch on that part. The best house must be appointed for the Generall, as near the Corps-du-guard as may be; the rest of the officers are to be accommodated in their order. Every Captain must lodge among his souldiers. The troops, being come near to the quarter, make Alto; and receiving information by the Quarter∣master Generall, or one of the particular Quartermasters, that the quarters are ready, the Chief giveth license to the Captains to enter their quarters. They which have the guard are to be con∣ducted to the place by the Quartermaster Generall. But if the army be encamped in the field, the Cavallrie is to be quartered, according to theb manner of quartering of a regiment,c repre∣sented in figure 4. part 3. chap. 2. And of the whole army in Figure 5.

CHAP. III. Of the necessitie of securing the quarters.

NOthing sooner deceiveth an unexperienced Captain, then to perswade himself that he is su∣periour in forces, and in advantage of place, and so farre distant from his enemie as he cannot, or dare not assail him. Upon which supposition thea surprisings of quarters are often grounded, it being no marvell that secure and disordered men should be assaulted by well ordered men and re∣solute; among the Cavallrie especially, where the souldier cannot arm himself without help: his horse-boy nor himself being scarce themselves, (as but newly rouzed out of their sleep by the al∣arm) can hardly tell where to find bridle or saddle, or light: so as the enemy is upon their jacks before they can mount, or at least unite themselves together.

These things oftentimes happen, but are justly derided by good souldiers,b and therefore all di∣ligence must be used at all times as if the enemy were at hand, ready to set upon the quarters every moment.

CHAP. IIII. Of the manner of securing the quarters.

ALl the diligences used about securing of the quarters, seem onely to serve for the gaining of time,a and that the enemy may not charge you on the sudden, so as the souldiers have not convenient time to arm themselves, mount their horses, and assemble at the place of arms. To effect this, there is no better way then tob make sure the enemies approches. If the quarter be in a suspected place, the companies of Harquebusiers are to be quartered in the advenues of the village, the Lances (if any be) and Cuirassiers in the middle.

At the entrances of all the streets, either trees orc waggons are to be placed acrosse, giving order to the Harquebusiers to guard those passages, and that none of them mount on horseback without speciall order: that so, the rest may have time to assemble at the place of arms, if the enemy come Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered]

[illustration] [figure depicting encampment layout]
THis Regiment consisteth of foure troops of horse, viz. two of Cuirassiers, and two of Harquebusiers: which Regiment containeth in breadth (or front) from A. to B. 700. foot, and in depth (or length) from B. to C. 300. foot: from A. to D. is 205 foot in breadth for one company of Cuirassiers, which consisteth of 80 horse, together with 80 nags, which have five files of huts, and five files of horse, which Curassiers are quartered (or lodged) on the right hand of the Regiment.
From E to Z is 115 foot in breadth for a company of Harquebusiers, which consisteth of 100 horse, and it hath three files of huts and horses.
From A to G is the space of ground where the Collonell of the Regiment is lodged, on the right hand of these foure companies, and the said enclosure for the Collonel is 70 foot broad, from A to G.
From G to H is 40 foot in depth (or length) for the said enclosure for the Collonell; and so are all the other enclosures of the Officers.
From H to I is 20 foot in breadth, for the street between the Collonells Enclosure, and the Enclosure for the Lieutenant and Cornet of the said Collonells company (which are both lodged in one Enclosure, marked I K) which hath also 70 foot in breadth, as that of the Collonel; which Enclosure is divided into two parts: The Lieu∣tenant being lodged on the right hand, and hath 40 foot in breadth for his Enclosure: And the Cornet on the left hand (with one of the Trumpeters) having the other 30 foot in breadth of the said Enclosure; which ma∣keth 70 foot for them both.
From K to L is another street of twenty foot broad, to the enclosure marked L M. L M is the enclosure where the Quartermaster is lodged, with two other horsemen which he pleaseth to admit of, which is 25 foot broad, and 40 foot long, as the rest. Their hut (within the said Enclosure) being 12 foot square for them three, and their stable is 25 foot broad for their six horses.
From M to N is 30 foot for the street between the Quartermasters enclosure, and the first hutts for the horse∣men, marked N.
From N to O is 180 foot for the quartering of the files of huts for the horsmen, viz. for 16 huts, and their 32 horses in a file, agreeable to the Regiments of Infantery: That so, where the Regiments of Cavallry are to be lodged in the champaine ground among the Infanterie, they might all make one and the same line before and behind the Regiments. And through the said two Troops of Cuirassiers there be two streets marked P. which streets are of 13 foot broad and the huts of the horsemen are ten fort broad, and 8 foot long for one horseman and his boy. And between two huts there is two foot of space for the drain of rain water, dropping from the thatch or covers of the huts. These huts have their chief doores or passages towards the heads of their horses, and a small one opening into the street, where they lay their hay and straw every one behind his own hut.Page  [unnumbered]
Q are two streets of twelve foot broad, which passe through the troops of Harquebusiers.
R is a street of five foot broad, between the horsmens huts, and the mangers for their horses.
S is ten foot for the Stables for their horses, which horses are placed with their heads toward their huts, and every horse hath 4 foot in breadth for his litter, and 8 foot for the two horses; according to the length of their huts. And more ground then eight foot they must not take; for otherwise it would cause a great disorder and confusion, not observing the said precise measures.
T is a street of 20 foot broad between the heels of their horses: in which street they mount and alight off their horses; which street they are bound to keep clean, and to carry away the dung every two or three dayes.
V is 30 foot in breadth for the street called the Victuallers (or Sutlers) street.
W are the Sutlers huts being ten foot square, and more room they must not take, unlesse (when they have many Pensioners) the Quartermaster give them a foot or two more in breadth, but not in depth, to observe the measure of 300 foot in the depth of the Regiment, as the Infantery.
X is ten foot of ground behind the Sutlers huts, for a place for the Sutlers, the horsmen and their wives to dresse their victuals. And in no other place of the Quarter must any fire be made. Neither are they to cast any filth, &c. within the Quarter, but to carry it to the place appointed thereunto, upon pain of a fine, which the Pro∣vost taketh.
E F is the enclosure of the Captain of a troop of Harquebusiers, being of the same breadth and depth as those of the Capt. of Cuirassiers, viz. 70. foot broad, and 40 foot deep. And the ancientest Captain of Harquebusi∣ers, or Cuirassiers closeth the battalion of the Regiment on the left hand, at the corner marked B.
F Y is a street of twenty foot broad, to the Lieutenant of the troop of Harquebusiers his enclosure Y.
Y Z is 25 foot in breadth for the enclosure of the said Lieutenant, where also are placed his foure horses; ha∣ving in depth 40 foot. And the Cornets of the troops of Harquebusiers are lodged on the right hand in the two first huts of the horsmen, and that to place his three horses, and the fourth horse is the Trumpeters, who alwayes lodgeth with the Cornet. These companies of Harquebusiers have also 180 foot depth for the quartering of their three files of huts marked (in the Cuirassiers) N O. but these have but 15 huts in every file for 30 horse: ha∣ving also two streets (as the Cuirassiers) through them marked Q. being 12 foot broad (as abovesaid) leaving three foot of space between their huts for the drain (whereas the Cuirassiers have but two foot) their huts are also often foot broad and 8 foot deep for two Harquebusiers, and 8 foot for the litter of their two horses, and ten foot for their stable. And five foot for a street between their huts, and the mangers of their horses: their Su∣tlers streets, and Sutlers huts, &c. are as the Cuirassiers.

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[illustration]
Te maner of Quartering the Pr. of Orange his Army both horsse and foote.
[figure depicting encampment layout]

Page  32 upon them; unto which a new passage must be cut, for the more privacie and security. If there be Dragons, then they are to guard the said approches: If Infantery, then it is their task to do it.

If the situation of the place be such as that the enemy may environ it round, the usuall entran∣ces or approches to the village are to be stopped up, and new ones cut in some secret places, as gardens or the like, distant from the usuall wayes, that so the enemy may be afraid to charge home a Centinell or Corps-du-guard, thereby to enter with them as they retreat. The quarters are to be well barricadoed about, except the new cut passages leading to the Rendezvous.

CHAP. V. Of the Rendez-vous or alarm place.

THe alarm place is that place without the village, where the souldiers are to assemble to with∣stand an assailing enemy, being a place of great consequence.

In the election of this place, consideration must be had of the situation of the villages and coun∣trey, whether it be large or strait; also of the time, whether it be by day or night: again, whether the Cavallrie be lodged together, or in severall villages. If together in one village, and in the night, (when the enemy may come upon them the more at unaware, as not being discoverable very farre) then this place must not be in the front of the village, as being too near the enemies ap∣proch, whereby it might be seised on by him, and so your men cut off one after another as they come thither to assemble themselves: but it must be on the sides or flanks of the village, though the baggage be hazarded; whicha inviting the enemy to pillaging, often giveth him occasion of disorder. But in the day time it were best to be in front, shewing the more courage.

If the Cavallrie be quartered in diverse villages (which often happeneth, especially in places little suspected) the quality of the countrey must be considered. Some villages may be backed with rivers, and so give but one entrance to the enemie: then the generall place of arms or rendez-vous shall be in the center. And those villages which are exposed to the first brunt, shall be as Corps-du-guards to assure the rest. These (upon alarm given) must assemble in their particular alarm places, from thence they shall advance, united to receive the charge, though the enemy farre exceed them in number: and must sustain him so long, till they may be assured that the rest are all met at the generall Rendez-vous, whether (being forced by the enemy) they shall retreat by little and little, the other advancing to relieve them. If the countrey be open, so as the enemy may assail which he please, then they must use those diligences as when the Cavallrie is lodged altogether in one village. They which are first assaulted must make resistance, untill the other be met at the ge∣nerall Rendez-vous.

Touching the order of their assembling together in the alarm place, the Commissary Generall, or Quartermaster Generall, overnight appointeth a certain place for every troop, where they shall stand, which way faced, &c.

CHAP. VI. Of the Guards.

THe Commissary Generall is to keep account of thea Guards, and to give orders requisite to those that are to have the guard: wherein he may employ one or more companies, according to occasions. The Corps-du-guard must be in the middle of the village. The guards, being di∣sposed in their places, must be every night visited by the Commissary Generall (which often the Lieutenant Generall, and sometime the Generall himself ought to do) to keep the souldiers in the greater aw. The Generalls company is exempt from the ordinary guards and convoyes, because they must be a guard to the Generall, (unlesse the Generall go in person) and so is the Lieutenant Generalls company.

The companies entring the guard, must be compleatly armed, and sound their trumpets; their Lieutenant taking information of all things from the Lieutenant which goeth from the guard, and then certifying his Captain; who is to acquaint his superiour officers with all occurrences, and with the reports of such as went to discover and scowre the high-wayes, also of the convoyes and other duties.

If the Cavallrie lodge in severall villages (which ever must not be farre distant from each other) in every village a company must have the guard and Sentinells.

bThe Captains, officers, and souldiers which have the guard must be armed all night, and have their horses at hand, ready bridled, observing all possible silence.

In the day time, if there be any open champain within half a league (or thereabout) of the quarter, the company which hath the guard shall send out a Corporall with twelve or fifteen horse, which shall hide himself in some covert place near the entrance of the said champain. There he shall place double Sentinells in some eminent place, who seeing some Cavallry, one shall go to de∣scry them, the other shall go and tell the Corporall; who sending word to the Corps-du-guard, shall advance at large, sending out two horses to take knowledge of the said Cavallry. If there be Page  33 some high tree near the place where the said Corporall stood, he may thereon place a Sentinell, and save the sending out of the said two Sentinels. These horse shall be changed (or relieved) twice a day, by those which have the guard. If the enemy charge them, they are to retreat to the said en∣trance, and there to entertain the enemy till they of the guard can be ready (upon the former no∣tice given them) and come to second them.

If all the Cavallry go to oppose the enemy, the Captain of the guard shall have the vanguard. If more companies then one be employed for guard, that company shall have it, near which the alarm was given.

Sometime it so happeneth as that the troops come to their quarter in the night and in ill wea∣ther, so as the advenues cannot be observed, nor fitting places for the guards nor Sentinels: Then the Commissary Generall (or the Generall himself) is to go and appoint them as he shall judge most convenient: appointing to every company ten souldiers of guard, (more or lesse as need shall require) and commanding all to be in readinesse, giving order to the Corps-du-guard (as the onely remedy) that if the enemy assail the quarter, they go resolutely and charge him: which (besides the honour and reputation so gotten) oftentimes provethc fortunate. Some use (to keep their souldiers awake) to sound the boute-selle at midnight, as if the enemy were at hand; but that might prove more dangerous then profitable: for after the first time, it maketh the souldiers se∣cure and carelesse. Better it is that (after two or three houres refreshing) in such cases, the com∣panies be caused to go out into the champain, everyd souldier taking with him some oats and other refreshments; placing the Corps-du-guards as shall be thought fit, and not giving eare to the mur∣muring of the souldiers. But if the weather be rainy and tempestuous, such as that they must be under shelter, every officer (by certain houres) shall divide the night, and go from house to house, knocking and calling to the souldiers, causing them to saddle their horses. A while after him, ano∣ther is to enter the houses, and see every souldier armed and ready to mount, punishing those that are sluggish.

The Quartermasters shall also (by turns) visit the quarters and guards. The Chief himself is also to visit the souldiers, calling to one and to another with a loud voice, to make them the more attentive.

CHAP. VII. Of the Sentinels.

SEeinga that they of the guard cannot be alwayes on horse-back, nor discover the enemy afarre off, to prevent a sudden surprise, Sentinels have been invented; which every Corps-du-guard setteth out of those souldiers which have the guard. These are usually placedb double, that while one goeth to certifie the Chief of the Corps-du-guard what he hath heard or seen, the other stay∣eth to observe new accidents which might happen.

They are placed where most high-wayes joyn, to possesse all the advenues, if they exceed not three hundred paces distance.

Nearer to the Corps du-guard there useth to be placed a single Sentinell, to observe the moti∣ons of the other double.

Between these, another single Sentinell sometime is placed (when the double are somewhat fur∣ther off to possesse some crosse way, or when for some other hinderance they are not in view of him) which may have both them and the nearest single Sentinell in view. So that every Senti∣nell must know that he is onely placed there to certifie the Corps-du-guard of all occurrences; so as (though he were provoked by any advantageous occasion) he must not stirre a foot; or else he committeth ac capitall crime. While the one is gone to relate his observation to the Corps-du-guard, if the second be forced by the enemie, he shall by little and little retreat to the said Corps-du-guard.

No Sentinell must alight from his horse, unlesse for naturall necessitie; and then but one at once.

In the day time, the Sentinells are to be placed on high places to discover the further, but not on the high-wayes, lest they be surprised by forragers or others of the enemie, pretending to be friends: he shall therefore keep a stones cast out of the high-way, suffering none to accost him.

In the night (if it may be) they shall be placed in valleys, because from thence one seeth best what cometh from the higher ground. They shall suffer no person (whosoever he be) to enter or go out of the quarter; but causing him to stand at 30 or 40 paces distance from them, the one shall go and certifie his officer; who (d having the watch-word) shall go and take notice of him, and know his businesse in that place, and at that time.

The Sentinells are to be changed (or relieved) after this manner; Thee houre being come, the Page  34 Lieutenant parteth from the Corps-du-guard with that number of horse which are to stand Senti∣nell, the one half of these he committeth to a Corporall, or old expert souldier, which goeth with him (for the Cornet must not forsake his standard) the other moitie he retaineth to himself. This division made, the Lieutenant with his troop goeth one way, the Corporall with his, the other; encompassing the whole quarter, each of them having a trumpet with them. Thus they (riding one towards another) change the Sentinells from place to place, conducting the discharged Senti∣nells with them, till they meet each other.

The Captain having gone the first round,f the rounders are to be sent out, to see whether these Sentinels be vigilant. And sometimes foure other rounders are sent out, twice as farre be∣yond the Sentinells, as they are from the quarter, (twice at least in a night) to discover round about the quarter, and to observe whether the dogs bark more then usually, &c.

If they observe any thing, one comes back to bring the news, the other three go on. In the day time, a Sentinell shall be placed on the top of the steeple of the village, where the quarter is, and a boore with him, as best knowing the passages and approches. If the Sentinell which al∣wayes walks before the Corps-du-guard cannot heare him, another Sentinell shall be placed at the foot of the steeple, so that these three may understand each other, and (without losse of time) give notice to the Corps-du-guard. Besides, there ought to be doubleg Sentinells on hors-back pla∣ced on high places without the quarter, to be able to discover the further.

The Generall hath alwayes a Sentinell at his tent, so hath the Lieutenant Generall, (taken out of their own guards) and so the Commissarie Generall. No Captain may have a Sentinell (not to overburden the souldiers) unlesse he command the quarter, or have the Cornet lodging with him: except the Captains of Harquebusiers which lodge in the advenues, that so they may the sooner have notice of an alarm.

The Commissarie Generall must shew the Captain that hath the guard, where the Sentinells for the quarter shall be placed. The one Sentinell (when they see men approching) shall with∣draw himself somewhat from the other, towards the quarter; that so (if any violence be offered to the other) he may run to the Corps-du-guard.

They are not onely to certifie of the approch of the enemie or any other; but also are to ob∣serve the fires which they see, or the barking of dogs which they heare more then usuall, or shoot∣ing with canon or small shot afarre off, and of all to inform the Corps-du-guard.

If an alarm be given whilest the Lieutenant and Corporall aforesaid are about to change the Sentinels, they must presently send word to the quarter, and instantly hasten towards the place where the alarm is, leaving the Sentinells to stand somewhat the longer.

hTo assure the quarter in an open and champain countrey and much suspected, it is good to place Sentinells 200 or 300 paces from the quarter, answering one upon another (as upon all oc∣casions they must be) as in a circle round about it. And these not to stand near the wayes or principall approches, (as the manner is) but alwayes passing to and fro, one towards another, as if they would change places: By which continuall motions none may passe undiscovered. As farre beyond these, they which went to discover have their courses, sometimes riding up even to the adverse garrisons (if they be not too farre distant) which shall be shewed at large in the next chapter.

CHAP. VIII. Of Scouts to discover the high-wayes.

THe quarters being thus accommodated, the Commissarie Generall shall depute a Corporall with 12 or 15 horse, and a trumpet to discover or scoure the high-wayes towards the enemies abode; without which diligence the enemie might charge the Sentinells so suddenly, and enter with them, as there would be no time for the Corps-du-guard and others to prepare themselves for defence. These do consist partly of Cuirassiers, and partly of Harquebusiers, to give the alarm. They are to advance towards the enemie some three or foure houres march, by the severall high∣wayes, foure or five to a way, as occasion shall require. They must not set foot on ground, but must silently go, listning if they heare any rumour, which in thea night is easie to be heard. If they heare any thing without being discovered, the Corporall shall secretly send word to the quarter by a souldier of the approch of the enemie. And when he judgeth the first is arrived, he may send a second to assure the former advice; retreating by little and little, and observing the enemie and the number of his horse: which he may easilier guesse by their footing, then by view. But if the enemie perceived him, he shall cause a carabine or two to be discharged, and shall spee∣dily dispatch away a souldier to certifie the quarter. Or if the enemies number be great, he shall set on fire some house thereabout, they of the quarter knowing beforehand wherefore it is done. And sending two souldiers with more certain news, they shall give fire to their carabines when they be so near the quarter as that they may be heard, thereby to give them the more time to get ready. If the quarter be in a very suspicious place, more companies of discoverers must be sent out, and they are to have a countersigne given them (as the name of some town, &c.) to know each other by in the night.

Page  35

Alarms (though false) cannot be prevented, it being in the enemies choice to shew himself as often as he please, happily for no other intent but to wearie your souldiers; or by that stratagem to make them secure and carelesse. To remedie this, the Captains use to give the alarm secretly (without sound or noise) by silent advices; that so the enemie vaunt not of putting you to trouble, but wearie himself. And thus the horrour of the sounds of trumpets and noise of warlike cries is avoided, which hinder the hearing of the Commanders directions. But if the enemie charge the said Discoverers or Sentinells so hard, as that they have no opportunitie to send word, but the enemie puts on to enter the quarter with them (which is the best way for him to compasse his pur∣pose) then they shall (flying to the quarter) give the alarm with firings of the Harquebusiers and calling out aloud, entering not at the usuall wayes, but at the private ones; to give the enemie oc∣casion of suspence, not knowing whither they might draw him on. Moreover, when the alarm is thus secretly given (as before shewed) and having some notice of the enemies forces how strong they are in number, you may cause your souldiers to mount with all possible secrecie, and order them for fight, on the flank of the enemies advenue, leaving the Sentinels (with some trumpets) there standing, with command that, when the enemie approcheth them, they shallb bravely sound an alarm. Whereupon the enemie (if he be a souldier) will charge them in full career with one squadron to enter with them, and then second those with the rest of his troops: whereupon it will be hard (especially in the night) to keep the souldiers from pillaging. The first (entring without resistance) will be scattered about the houses; the rest will hasten to get their shares: and what∣soever the Captains do, they shall not be able to keep them in such order as they ought. Then shall your troops resolutely charge them, not doubting of a good issue, they being now surprised which thought to find you asleep. Or if it be not thought fit to fight, yet may you by this means make a safe retreat, so as you be not troubled with too much baggage.

If there be no bridges or strait passages between the quarter and the enemie, by which he must necessarily passe, the further the discoverers ride towards the enemie, the better; if he lay in garri∣son (so as the distance be not too great) they may ride to the very gates. But if there be such strait passages or bridges by which the enemie must of necessitie passe if he will assail the quarter, there must be guards of Harquebusiers placed, which by their giving fire, or otherwise, shall give no∣tice if the enemie shall approch. Sometime a whole companie is to be sent out upon this service, being a guard for the whole armie.

CHAP. IX. Of forraging.

FOrraging is an action of great importance and danger. 1. Of importance, because thereon de∣pendeth the sustenance of the horses. 2. Of danger, by reason ofa the enemies endeavours to set upon the guards and convoyes of forragers, which must be sent out at least twice a week. There∣fore, that these forragers may the better be secured, there must alwayes be a good grosse of In∣fanterie and Cavallrie sent with them, under the command of a chief officer, or at least a well ex∣perienced Captain. The Provost or one of his assistants is to go with them, to punish such as are exorbitant or straggle. If the forrage be for the whole armie, the Lieutenant Generall is to leade the convoy.b The baggage nor horse-boyes must be mingled among the troops.

It is not fit to go twice together to one place to forrage, lest the enemie knowing it, watch an opportunitie. At first it is good to forrage in the most remote places, and where the enemie is like to come to encamp: but if the enemie be settled, it is not good to forrage so near him as that he might set upon the convoy with Infanterie and Cavallrie; but rather in such places, where he can hardly (without great danger to himself) endammage the forragers.c If there be one or more streets by which the enemie might come, between the quarter and the place of forrage, some con∣venient number of foot, and ten or twelve horse must be left at the advenues of each of the said streets. The horse are to place a Sentinell, and to send out two to discover the wayes a good di∣stance before them. By this means the forragers having finished their forraging, make their retreat safely; to which purpose also one or two troops of twentie five horse apiece use to march upon the flanks of the forragers. When all the forragers are marching back again towards the quarter, all the convoy marcheth in the rear; it being unlikely that the enemie will set upon them with any great forces between their convoy and their quarter.

At the place ofd forrage, the Chief shall cause a troop of Harquebusiers to advance somewhat before the rest, there to stand and to suffer none to passe beyond: he is also to send out some souldi∣ers on every side, and to visit woods and valleys, &c.

For the better securing of the said forragers, or the quarter, there use to be fiftie or more of the Infanterie (which may be fitly performed by Dragoneers) with a competent number of horse, pla∣ced in some castle or strong Church within two or three houres riding of the quarter. But to se∣cure Page  36 the quarter, there ought to be two places equidistant so guarded, which might cut off those small troops which run near the armie on either side. And if the troops be of number, these may (by their discoverers or spies) receive notice thereof, and so suddenly inform the quarter.

CHAP. X. Of Garrisons.

BY reason of the affinitie between a camp and a garrison, it will not be amisse (though some∣what by way of digression) to say something of them. The fittest places for the Cavallrie to be laid in garrison are those which are frontiers towards the enemie: thereby the enemies excur∣sions are hindred, and their own friends secured. Whereas otherwise (though they be never so strong of Infanterie,) they are like to have some of the enemies horse alwayes at their gates. Be∣sides, it gives morea courage to the Cavallrie to have their garrison thus on the frontiers, against the time of their going out upon service, then if they had spent all the winterb lazily in some gar∣rison more within the countrey. It is good to appoint them their ordinary settled garrisons, that so they may there leave their baggage, and go into the field with the lesse incumbrance; which will also make them the better skilled in the knowledge of the countrey and wayes. If there be one troop or more of horse laid in garrison in some walled citie where the horse make no guard, the Captain of each troop must alwayes keep one of his souldiers in the Corps-du-guard of the go∣vernour, to give him notice of all occurrences, of the enemies approches, alarms, &c.

Besides, it is fit that a troop of horse having a frontier citie for their garrison, should keep fif∣teen horse upon the guard; if there be more companie, then twentie five at least, to be presently readie upon all occasions, while the rest can prepare themselves. And alwayes at thec opening of the gates, every morning, two or more horses are to be sent out to discover about whether there be any embuscadoes. For the securing of your discoverers some ordinance is alwayes kept ready, and untill they return none are to be suffered to go out of the gate.

If the countrey about the garrison be champain, happily the enemie lying near may have an em∣buscadoe two or three leagues off. And the better to draw you into it, he may send out some horse (the day before) within sight of your garrison; which returning the same wayd (some driving cattel, others carrying sacks, &c.) may draw out some of your horse to regain their bootie, where∣by you might fall into their embuscadoe. In such cases you must observe such cautelous diligences as shall be shewed in thee chapter of embuscadoes.

If those which you shall send out to discover meet with no boores, or that they come not to the garrison as they were wont, it is a signe they are stayed by the enemies embuscadoe.

If an alarm be given in the night, those souldiers which have the guard must presently mount; their Chief must instantly send two one way, and two another way to run about the ramparts of the place, to take notice and to report wherefore the alarm was given: if the rumour continue, the rest are to run thither with all expedition. But this diligence of keeping the horse at the Corps-du-guard is not of necessitie in such garrisons which lie within the countrey, where there is no fear of surprises, or scaladoes.

CHAP. XI. Of Spies.

THe best and principall means for a Commander to avoid divers inconveniences, and to effect many worthy designes, are, First,a to be sure to keep his own deliberations and resolutions secret.b Secondly, to penetrate the designes and intentions of the enemy. For which purpose it behoveth him to have good spies, which must be exceeding well rewarded, that so they may be the readier to expose themselves to all dangers. The best and most assured spies are ones own souldi∣ers, which (feigning some discontent for want of pay, or otherwise) enter into the enemies service, and get themselves into the Cavallry, as having best opportunity (whether in the field or in gar∣rison) to give information. Of these it is good to have many, and in severall places, the one knowing nothing of the other. You are to agree with them of the place where they shall con∣vey their letters, as some tree, gallows, or other place easie to find, where they also shall find yours giving them order to come in person when their advice is of great importance: as, if the enemy would fall upon a quarter, surprise some place, or attempt some other great enterprise. There Page  37 might also divers souldiers be daily sent disguised, under severall pretences, to observe what is done in the enemies leaguer, when it is near. The boors use also to serve for spies, aswell women as men, which, being not much regarded nor suspected, may have the freer accesse: but these are not alwayes to be trusted, neither are they so well able to judge of or to pierce into businesse, and the lesse assurance and information is to be had by their relations.

There are also spies which are called double, which must be men of great fidelity. These (to get credit with the enemy) must sometimes give him true information of what passeth on the other side; but of such things, and at such times, as they may do no hurt. But these kind of spies cannot continue long without being discovered.

If it be possible, such spies must be had, as are entertained into domesticall service of the chief of∣ficers of the enemy, the better to know their intentions and designes.

On the other side, there must be exceeding great care taken to beware of the enemies spies, which otherwise may do you as much mischief as you reap benefit by your own. To remedy this inconvenience,

1. Those which shall be discovered must be punished with extreme rigour, which will be a means to deterre others which are or might be so imployed.

2. Rogues, vagabonds, and idle persons must be chased out of the leaguer.

3. No officer is to enterain any unknown person into his service. For oftentimes at table and otherwise things happen to be spoken, which were more fit to have been kept secret.

4. No stranger is to be lodged within the quarters by any officer or souldier without speciall license. To this purpose a suddenc command useth to be published, for every man to repair to his tent or cabin, whereby the Provost takes such as are remaining in the streets; which are made to give account of their businesse there.

5. A means may be used to deceive the enemy by his own spies, giving it out that you intend one thing, and do a contrary: also by seeming no way mistrustfull of the enemies drummes and trumpets (which are often sent with some pretended message, to heare and observe) and letting fall some words (which carry with them some probability) in their hearing, which they may take for truth.

6.d Sometimes it is wisdome, having discovered a spie, in stead of punishing of him, to tell him that (out of a good Inclination to him) in stead of severe punishment, you desire to do him good, &c. by such baits they may become double spies. And if you suspect any of your own soul∣diers, it is best to dissemble it, and to make much of them, the better to discover them.

eLastly, no drumme nor trumpet of the enemies is to be admitted into the leaguer, but first to be stayed by the Sentinells of the Cavallry, untill notice be given to the Lord Marshall, and he give leave for their admission: then they are to be committed to the provost Marshall, which suf∣fereth no man to speak with them. The Lord Marshall having understood their message, acquaint∣eth the Lord Generall therewith, that so a course may be taken for their dispatch. Other wayes and means may be used for discovering and preventing of spies, wherewith the readyf invention of a quick-spirited Commander will abundantly furnish him upon every occasion.

CHAP. XII. Of dislodging.

FOr the manner of dislodging or removing of the Cavallry out of the quarter, there are also ne∣cessary advertisements to be given.

All the Cavallry lodging together, and order being given for their remove, the Commissary Generall is to take notice of the precise houre: and at the distributing of the word to the Quarter-masters, he is to warn them to give notice thereof to their Captains; which must be carefull to cause theaboutez-selle to be sounded when they heare the Generalls trumpets do it. This useth to be sounded two houres before the time of departing, and the A chevall when it is time to march. Upon sudden occasions or for privacy, no other warning is given but onely theb Generalls trum∣pets sound, and the rest take it from them.

If the Cavallry be quartered in severall places, the Quartermasters (coming for the wordc the evening before) carry the orders to the Captains, acquainting them with the just houre for their assembling at the generall Rendez-vous. If the remove be sudden, word is carried by one of the two souldiers which attend the Generall; as is before shewed. In suspected places they are to re∣move with all possible silence.

The Rendez-vous where the troops must assemble, to be ready to march, must be out of the village, and free from hedges, &c. (though it be somewhat the further off) towards the place to which they are to march. The company which hath the vanguard is to be first on their march towards the Rendez-vous; the souldiers of every company assemble at their Cornets lodging, who is to be first on horse-back; and thed Captain by his readinesse is to give a good example to his souldiers. The greater part of the company being met, the Captain is to advance towards the Rendez-vous.

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The company which that day hath the guard, must not stirre untill all be gone, their Lieute∣nant going to the contrary side of the village (remotest from the Rendez-vous) to draw in his Sentinells. All the troops and baggage being marched away, the said company shall also march. But if the said company be to march in the van or battaillon (to save the travell of the horses to hasten to their place of march, and the trouble of passing before the other troops) it is best to com∣mit that duty to the company of Harquebusiers which is to march in the rear of all.

Every Lieutenant (when his company marcheth) is to stay to reprehend ord severely punish such as stay behind, especially doing it to pillage, or for the like bad intent. The Provost or his assistants are also to stay to see the fires put out, and good order kept.

As the troops enter the Rendez-vous, the Quartermaster Generall, or some of the particular Quartermasters are to place them one after another in their due places, according to the written orders; leaving spaces for every company that is to come, which after two or three dayes they can observe of themselves.

The companies entring the Rendez-vous must fit themselves as for fight. The Captains must put on their casques, so must the Cornets, &c. The Harquebusiers must place their Carabines on their thighs. The Cuirassiers must hold their pistols in their hands, the trumpets sounding, untill all be come to their places. If they be there to make some stay, they may put off their casques and a light a while, (with leave) but must not omit to place Sentinells on some high places.