The character of vvarre, or The image of martiall discipline contayning many vsefull directions for musters & armes, and the very first principles in discipline, the ground postures, all the military motions now vsed ... By Edvvard Cooke.
Cooke, Edward, fl. 1626-1631.

CHAP. XXV. This Chapter sheweth what the words of Command are, by which the length and depth of a Battell is doubled, either in place or number; and teacheth a young Soldier how to per∣forme the Motion.

IN the three and twentieth Chapter of this booke, mention was made of the doubling of the length and depth of a Battell, both in place and number, but the words of command were refer∣red vnto this Chapter.

If then you would double the length of your Battell in place, the proper words of direction for it may bee this, (viz.)

Open your Files from your close order to your open order, six foot.

The manner of the Action is thus performed: The middle Lea∣ders presse vpon their Flankers, first, taking their distance com∣manded, hauing opened both waies, the rest of the companie on both Flankes, takes their distance from them: now sixteene men are so extended, as they hold as much ground in breadth as would serue thirty two men.

It may be commanded some other way, peculiar and distinctly from the other: as,*

Files, open to the right hand to your open order, six foot.

Or,

Files open to the left hand to your open order.

Page  [unnumbered]

*The word being giuen to the right hand, the left hand File is not to mooue, but standeth fast, the next to the left hand Fyle, first taketh the distance, pressing vpon the right hand, still opening by the right hand, till they haue taken the distance of six foot.

*The word being giuen to the left hand, the right hand Fyle must stand fast, the rest must open to the left hand, still pressing vpon the left hand Files, till they are all in the distance and order com∣manded.

Thus by three distinct peculiar words of command, may the length of your Battell be doubled in place, each of which you may make choise of as occasion serues.

But if your Battell beare too great a bredth, by possessing too much ground, then you may amend it by this word of command, (viz.)

*Files, close to your order.

Or,

Files, close to the right hand, to your order.

Or,

Files, close to the left hand, to your order.

*If the words be, Piles close, without naming to any hand, then it must be performed thus;

The two middle Leaders must close, the one to the left hand, the other to the right hand, till they are in the distance com∣manded; then the rest of the companie must take their distance from them on either Flanke, closing to the middle Leaders.

*If the word be, To the right hand, the right hand File moues not, but standeth fast; all the rest close to the right hand File, ta∣king their distance one by another from the right hand.

*If the word be, To the left hand, obserue like forme; then the left hand File stands fast, the rest of the Files close, and take their distance from the left hand. Thus much of the words of command, by which the Battell is lessened or doubled in place,* thereby im∣ploying a greater or lesser bredth, as the word is giuen.

If you would double the depth of your Battell in place, the proper word of direction for it may be this, viz.

Page  [unnumbered]Open your Rankes from the Front to the Reare, to your open order, six foot.

The manner of the Action is thus to be performed; The first Ranke must stand firme: the second Ranke takes their distance first; all the rest must doe the like distinctly in order.

Now you take as much ground in depth for ten, as would serue very well for twenty men.

If you would double the length of your Battell in number,* that is, to make the front haue twice as many Files, or persons in it as it had before, then you may effect it by this word of command;

Rankes to the right hand, double.

Or thus,

Rankes to the left hand double.

It is thus performed:

Euery second Ranke cometh between the distance of the Ranke before it, and that either to the right or left hand,* as the word is giuen, so that of ten in Ranke, they become twenty in Ranke, and but fiue in depth, who before were ten in depth, because the Front is doubled.

Or if you are minded to effect it by middle men, then the last fiue Rankes must march vp through the distances betweene the Files, till they come to be euen in Front, with the File-leaders, then they stand, hauing euerie one their followers following them, as they had before, onely now they are fiue in depth, when they were before tenne.

The word of command for it is;

Middle men, to the right hand double your Front.

Or, being minded to diuide your middle men, and so to double.*

Then the last fiue rankes must turne their faces, the one halfe in their files to the right hand, and the other halfe to the left hand, and so march forth from both the Flankes, till they haue gotten such a proportion of ground, or distance, as is answerable to the order, the first fiue Rankes doe stand in: and then presently with∣out attending any further commandement, they must turne their faces againe towards the front, and march vpon both flankes till Page  [unnumbered] they come euen with the front.

The word of direction is,

Middle men double your front to the right and left hand by diuision.

Or, being minded not to diuide your middle men, but to bring them vp to the front, entire to one particular hand. Then the fiue last rankes must face, then march forth altogether beyond the skirts of the body, then face to the front, and march vp to ioyne them∣selues in euen front with the file leaders.

The word of Command to effect it maybe this,

Middle men to the right hand Intire double your front.

Or if you are minded after all this, to make vse of your bringers vp in the front of your battle, then you may performe it, by this word of Command,

Bringers vp to the right hand double your front.

The last ranke you know are the bringers vp: These being in the reare doe aduance through the distances betweene the files:* And next after them the next ranke: and so the rest successiuely till the bringers vp be in ranke with the Leaders, and their mid∣dle men with the Leaders middle men. Thus your front is dou∣bled with your best men, being now but fiue in depth, who were before tenne in depth.

*If you would double the depth of your battell in number, that is, make some files haue twice as many men in them as they had before, you may effect it by this word of Command,

*Files to the right hand double.

It is thus to be performed.

The right hand file (which is the outermost file, on the right hand moues nor, but stands fast, the next file to the right hand file, moues into the right hand file, so that of tenne in depth, it is now become twentie. Accordingly euery second File moueth into their next file on the right hand.

*The like order must be obserued, if the word be to the left hand, the left hand file must stand fast, and euery second file is to moue into the next file on their left hand. Thus the depth is doubled by number.

Page  [unnumbered]

But it may be, you would execute it by Countermarch as did the Macedonians. Then the word of Command is,

Double your files by Countermarch, to the right hand.*

This is performed when the next side files in seuerall (as in the former example the second,* and the fourth and the rest of the euen files) Countermarch to the Reare placing themselues behinde the bringers vp of the odde files, Aelian chap. 29.

It may be you would double the right flanke with the left flanke, to make the Orthiophalanx, or heirse* battell, which proceedeth by Wing, hauing the depth much exceeding the length.

The way to doe it is by this word of Command,

Halfe Rankes double to the right hand.

Or,

Rankes double the right flanke.

It is thus performed.

Halfe the Rankes (for they are diuided as it were into two parts) turnes their faces to the right hand, and marches into the spaces, be∣twixt the other Rankes, and being within, they face as the rest: Thus the battell is brought into a Wing.

It may be you would bring it into a file.

Then the word of Command may be this,

Rankes file to the right hand.

Or,

Rankes file by Conuersion to the right hand.

It may be you would bring it into two files.

Then you may giue the word of direction thus,

Rankes file to the right hand.

Or,

Rankes file by Conuersion to the right 〈◊〉 left hand.

It is thus performed.

Halfe the rankes falls backe into the spaces behinde the right hand men of the righta flanke,b and the other halfe into the spaces behinde the left hand men of the left Flanke, doing that by diui∣sion, Page  [unnumbered] which the former did intire by this word of Command, (Rankes file to the right) but you must obserue a double distance betweene Ranke and Ranke, to doe it, or it cannot be well done. We haue another way to doe the former (which is) by drawing or leading forth of Rankes, this is (as the other) new and vpstart. We haue another way (by leading forth of files) pristine or anci∣ent, commonly vsed in former times both of Grecians and Persians.

*You shall reade of Cyrus the elder, how he commanded thirtie thousand men to be drawne forth (out ofa a Phalange) into a sin∣gle file. And it was his custome when euer his souldiers went to dinner, to bring them forth file by file, and into a Phalange or bo∣dy againe at the sound of a horne or a word giuen.

You shall reade of the Grecians, that when they were to ascend the Colchian Mountaines, they put themselues into seuerall com∣panies, and euery company into a single file, euery file hauing an hundred men a peece, reducing againe into a body when they came to the top of them, where was roome enough. This the Gre∣cians at that time did doe. Which we Command thus.

Right hand file leade forth, the rest follow in sequence one behinde another.

Thus many wayes, may the Depth be doubled by Number, to alter or change the forme of a battell.

I am not ignorant that there are many more waies to doe it.

For in the Artillery garden, this word of Command is frequent. (Aduance your files to the right hand) which is the doubling of the Depth. One file aduances to stand before another, the second before the first, the fourth before the third, or the contrary as the word is giuen.

This is the way to doe it, and I will name no more.

All this variety of waies helpes such as would be exquisite in exercising. I say would; are not already. I presume not to teach any that knowes more then my selfe; Nor such as knowes lesse then my selfe, yet scornes to be taught: but such as knowes little (it may be nothing) yet haue a a desire to learne; To such, I that know some thing, (to others but little) doe impart that little which I haue. And in the next chapter will teach them how to exercise a company as I my selfe haue beene taught in the Artilery Garden, or elsewhere, for I haue attained nothing but by paines taking, much cost, and reading.

Page  [unnumbered]

But first obserue my Method in Exercising.

My Method in Exercising, is not at this time to Intermeddle with new formes of battells, various fights, sundry kindes of Indu∣ctions, and the like; But to apply my selfe somewhat to that which hath been deliuered, practized in former times, agreeing with our moderne discipline, and at this time in vse, beginning at the first principle of all, to order a company of men into a battell that are at first confused one among another, and to doe it by distinct words of Command, whereby they may order themselues into a body, without helpe of a Sergeant, taking their first distance of six foot in square both in file and ranke, in which we commonly vse at the first to exercise our Motions in. All this I meane to doe, and the Chapter following will shew it.