The sergeant maior. A dialogue of the office of a sergeant maior. VVritten in Spanishe by the Maister of the Campe Francisco de Valdes. And translated into Englishe, by Iohn Thorius.
Valdés, Francisco de, militar., Thorie, John, b. 1568,
Page  [unnumbered]

A Militarie Dialogue of the Office of the Seargeant Maior. INTER LOCVTORS.

Londonno. Vargas.

I Haue had better lucke then my selfe could wish (Master Londonno) séeing that at this time you cannot iustly bee excused from telling mée that which I haue so often requested you, and which besides (if I be well remembred) you haue pro∣mised. But your many affaires (as I take it) haue hetherto hindered, that I haue not obtained my desire, and your selfe as yet not satisfied my request. But now séeing my good fortune was such, that we should méete together by our selues onely, separated from all other con∣uersation, among the riuers of this most pleasant Rhene, I hear∣tely beséeth you, that it be not troublesome to you, to declare that vnto me, which I so gréedily wish to knowe: séeing that not onely the lawe of friendshippe doeth binde you thereto, but also Christian charitie inioyneth, that the talent receiued from heauen shall not be buried, but rather multiplied, that all such may bee taught and instructed, as by reason of their ignorance, want the light of knowledge.

Londonno.

Certes, good Sir, I conceiued great pleasure in fin∣ding you in so pleasant a place by your selfe, accompanied onelie with your manifolde vertues, which neuer suffer you to be alone: and I take not this your most vertuous curiositie to bee the least of them, in that (now that your fortune hath brought you to this Militarie profession) you be so diligent in learning all such things as a good and valiant souldier ought to know. And I woulde to God that I were so sufficient, that I might be able to satisfie this Page  [unnumbered] your most honest desire. But as much as I can, and as farre as my small wit can reach vnto, I will not refuse to stand you in sted: And if vntill this time I haue not yet done in this particular, as you so greatly haue requested me, persuade your selfe, that (as you haue verie well sayd) my ouer many businesses, and certaine per∣turbations of the minde withall, (which neuer forsake vs that trauaile as strangers in this waie of humane miserie) haue caused the same. But now forasmuch as we haue some leasure, and the pleasantnes, ioyntly with the solitarines of this place, and especial∣ly your companie (which were inough to amend anie vicous man) inticeth and allureth vs to all vertuous conuersation. Aske what you will, for I am readie to obey.

Vargas.

I looked for no lesse curteous answere to procéed from your discretion and vertues. And I am fully perswaded, that if a∣nie one in this our age can fully satisfie my minde concerning this point, you are the man, for the excellent iudgement, continuall rea∣ding, and great experience of many yeres, which I know to be in you, doe assure me of it. You alreadie knowe that many dayes since, I haue greatly desired to heare you discourse of the offices of Captaines, Ensignes, Seargeants, and Corporals, what prehe∣minences they haue, and what and how manifolde their duetie is, vnto which euerie one is bound according to the Office which hee doth heare. And I do thinke that you in like manner remember, that I haue requested you at sometimes of leasure to talke with me concerning the Office of the Seargeant Maior, of which if it would please you now to intreate, I should thinke my selfe behol∣ding vnto you, and we will leaue the first particulars to some o∣ther time, seeing that (as I haue heard men of greate iudgement, and such as could discourse of matters concerning this profession, saie) they which are perfectly acquainted with this charge and of∣fice, can easily learne all such things as are required in the foresayd offices and other besides, whereof I haue not made mention. In∣somuch that I cannot inough meruaile what the cause should be, why many Captaines generall doe often times make choice of persons, that not only want discretion, but are also welnigh with∣out wit and experience to beare this office, it being of so great mo∣ment, and which requireth so much abilitie.

Londonno.

You haue great reason surely. For in such like e∣lections many abuses haue béene and are dayly séene, and (I meane Page  2 not here to preiudice any particular man, but to tell in truth what what I haue seene) I say the number of them is but small which I haue knowne to be fit and sufficeint Sergeants Maior. And hence doth it come that many errours haue and daily are commit∣ted by those that exercise this office, seeing that it hath beene and ordinarily is seene, that in time and place of necessity, the squadron cannot be fourmed, by reason of the fault and inhabilitie of the Sergeants Maior. And the same which I speake of the incon∣venience (which is the chiefest) might I also say of some others of unportance, and which are dayly committed in armies, as well in appointing and disposing the watch and Sentinels in the camp, as in many other particulars, which you shall more manifestly perceiue heareafter in the discourse following. Which least the time escape vs in preambles, I incōtinently begin, & say, that wher as this name of Sergeant hath it originall beginning from the French tong (in which it betokeneth and signyfieth as much as in the Latyn tong, minister, one that hath the charge or office to doo a thing, a minister or sergeant that miuistreth &c. The French∣men first applyee it to the vse and customes of their chaunceries, courts, and iudgement seales, vsing certaine ministers or vnder officers, caling them sergeants, which stoode them in steede to pro∣clame, declare and execute their statutes, will and ordinaunces, appertayning to law: and afterwards taking it hence, I meane, out of these gouned and ciuill exercises, they also applyed it to the military vse of armes, and in each company of men, they placed and appointed an officer, calling him a sergeant, imitating the cu∣stome vsed in Courts, and Tribunall seates, to the end that the Captains by meanes of such a minister or officer, might kéepe due order in placing of theyr men, both marching, lodging and figh∣ting. And thus much as touching the imposing of the name which in England, Fraunce and Spayn is receyued in all our warfarre as a naturall word. And the Sergeant Maior is so called, because in euery regiment (which is as much as a Ro∣mane legion) there is a sergeant who is superintendent and heade ouer all the other Sergeants that are in his regiment: and as eue∣ry Sergeant in ech company taketh the manner of gouernment or order of his Captaine or his lieftenant, so the Sergeant Maior receaueth it of the Captaine Generall, or Coronell, or maister of the camp, and afterwards from him it passeth to the other Serge∣ants Page  [unnumbered] of the same regiment, from hand to hand according to the custome. In so much that the Sergeant Maior is an officer or generall minister of one whole regiment superintendent, and chief of all the Sergeants of the same regiment, by the means of whose industry and helpe, the Captayn, General, or Coronell may giue conuenient order for due gouernment in ordering his men both in marching, lodging and fighting, and other more things also vnto this appertayning, these thrée things in which the Sergeant Ma∣ior is imployed, are such, that if hey be wel executed. Wished victory and glory is with great reason hoped for. Whereas if con∣trarily they be not well executed, much harme ensueth thereby, and the field is lost and there with goods, life, honour and al. Ther∣fore no insufficient persons, but such as are able to discharge so great an office, and of so much waight, ought to be elected and chosen to be Sergeants Maior, and not vnfit men: as some thing before we complayned of the carelesnes of some Generalls of our times in such like elections.

Vargas.

What qualityes be those by which those may bée knowne, that are apt and fit, and those also that are vnapte and not sufficient?

Londonno.

Yt is manifest and knowen vnto all men that martiall election comprehendeth two sortes of men, some to com∣maund and gouerne, and others to obay and to be ruled: and of this latter sorte are the common souldiers, called Gregarii, in which both the Gréekes & the Romans required four qualityes. Viz. that they should be strōg and hardy, that they should be trai∣ned vp in armes and warlike exercises: that they should be obedi∣ent and that they should be good swimmers. And in those soul∣diers that beare rule and gouerne as Generall, Coronell, Maister of the campe, the Sergeant Maior, and the captayns they also re∣quyred foure qualyties, and these be they. That they should bee very. skilfull in the arte of warre and military science, that they should be vertuous, that they should be men of authority, and that they should be very fortunate. These foure qualityes were vsed by the Greekes and Romanes as an infallible rule, (as in truth it is) to know the sufficiency or insufficiency of officers in war∣fare. In so much that he is sufficient that it is indowed with the foresayd foure qualities, and he in whom they be not, is not suffi∣cyent. The Sergeant Maior being one of the pryncipall officers Page  3 in warre, ought to haue the foresayd qualityes.

Vargas,

To tell you the truth I doe not well vnderstand what you meane by those foure qualityes.

Loudonno.

I will declare them vnto you in few wordes. Warfare beyng so noble a matter as it is, ought to haue it rule and precepts: whence commeth the arte of warre. And as no man is allowed or suffered publikely to practise physicke, or to professe diuinity or any other scyence, vnlesse he haue studyed the sayd fa∣cultyes and be well seene in them, so were it not good that any one should gouerne and beare office in warfarre, that were not well séene in the arte of warre. Which arte standeth a man in stéede of a loyall counsayler, of light, in the myddest of darknesse, and of a guyde in a difficult and doubtfull waye, especyally if hee haue the generall grounds of prudence and chiefe principles of the libeall sciences.

Vargas.

For as much as the greater parte of souldyers lose theyr time in games, loue idlenes, and haue not from theyr youth eyther will or power to apply themselues to any vertuous exer∣cise, wanting the due grounds of speculation, they dispayr that e∣uer they shall be able to study any such arte, and so to couer theyr exceeding fault, they scoffe at the arte of war, which men attayne vnto by study.

Londonno.

There is no reason why we should aunswere them that are voyde of all reason, and of the infinite reasons that may be alledged to confound theyr dull ignorance, this onely shall suffyce at this time that all artes haue both speculation and action or practise, and so hath warfarre also: And they that with a va∣liant courage followe armes and prudently vse them in war, in tyme attayne to practise: but he that ioyntly with this mingleth speculatyon, shall attayn both to speculation and practise, which are two, and therefore is the speculatiue arte the better and nobler of the two.

Vargas.

I now vnderstand the first qualitie, but knowe not yet what you meane by the second, of being vertuous.

Londonno.

This vertue which is required in Militarie offi∣cers is (as Tullie declareth it) toylsome labour in affaires, industry in doing them, speedinesse in dispatching them, constance and forti∣tude of the minde in dangers, not suffering theyr vnruly affections to beare rule ouer them and ouercome them. The other two qua∣lities, Page  [unnumbered] which are Authoritie and Fortune, doe necessarily followe the two former, as the shadow followeth the bodie: for, the vertue whereof I spake, doth put the Militarie precepts in practise, and bringeth them to effect, making a disposition or qualitie of them in the Souldier, whence necessarily proceedeth the fame and glory of his valour and deedes, which increaseth his credit, and bringeth him in authoritie. As for felicitie and good successe that springeth from all three, skil, vertue and authoritie, for he that by knowledge and experience knoweth what he ought to doe, and is endued with vertue to attempt anie thing, and put it in execution with aduice and authoritie, to the end his Souldiers may beleeue him and fol∣lowe him, this man shall obtaine good successe, which is to be for∣tunate and happie. Therefore the Greekes and Romanes did with good cause require, that these foresayd qualities should bee in all and euerie Officer and chiefe Captain of warre, and I for this cause will also haue them to be in the Seargeant Maior, and yet one more besides, with which there will be fiue in all.

Vargas.

Yet another saie you, which I pray you?

Londonno.

That he be some thing cunning in Arithmetike: for that science is verie necessarie for the forming and making of the Squadrons, which cannot bee made without the science of numbering.

Vargas.

You demand and require so many things in a Sear∣geant Maior, that I doubt none such are to be found answerable to your description.

Londonno.

Yes marie Sir be there, though they be but few, and there would be many more to be found, if it were not for the fauours, sutes, and bribes, which as in other things, so in the choo∣sing of a Seargeant Maior, disturbe and impeach the right course of election. Furthermore, whereas I am to forme a Seargeant Maior, it is not for our purpose to séeke out and inquire what kind of men our Scargeantes Maior be, but rather to shew and declare what men they and all others should be, and how they ought to be qualified We must follow that which is perfest, for that which is not perfect may be found at euerie place.

Vargas.

You haue shewed mee the spring, beginning and sig∣nification of the name of Seargeant Maior and Seargeant, and what the Seargeant Maior is, and the qualities in him required: Now I desire to know of you what Office the same of the Sear∣geant Page  4 Maior is, and in what manner he ought to execute it. But first I beseech you to resolue me of one doubt, which is, that I knowe not whether they that liued in ancient times past, had this Office of the Seargeant Maior.

Londonno.

I haue not read that the Lacedemonians, Gréeks and Romanes (among which Nations did warfare flourish most) haue had it: but we may reade that they had and vsed diuers man∣ners of Battailes and Squadrons, and I beleeue this to bee the cause (if I be not deceiued) that they had no Seargeant Maior, be∣cause this Office was discharged by certaine other Officers, as we may gather out of those that haue written De e Militari, viz. that the Captaine Generall and chiefe head of the Armies, vnder∣standing and perceiuing of howe greate moment and importance the good order and perfection of the Squadron or Battaile is, in which consisteth all the force of the whole Armie, they would trust no particular man with this Office, but themselues disposed theyr Armies, and made the Squadrons, of which they vsed sundrie and different kindes and manners, according to the diuersitie of wea∣pons with which in those times they accustomed to encounter with theyr enemies, and also their souldiers were so well instructed and so skilfull, that in a verie great and huge Armie there was not one souldier but knew his place in the Squadron: for the easier obtaining of which knowledge, there were many Schooles in Rome, as Titus Liuie writeth, where those yong souldiers which they called Tyrones, among vs, fresh water souldiers, were not onely taught and shewed howe to bee apt and quicke in vsing a∣nie kinde of weapon, but they were also instructed howe they should keepe theyr place, that euerie man might haue and knowe his owne seuerall place, in which thing they were so well instruc∣ted, that it was a verie easie matter, and little or no labour, trouble or difficultie at all, to frame and make the Squadrons, and they became dayly the more fit and apt as long as they were not with∣out an hnge & perpetual Armie. And the same Liuie saith, that the young souldiers exercised themselues twice a daie, and the old bea∣ten souldiers but once a daie. And this most excellent order which the Romanes obserued aboue all other Nations, caused them so to enlarge theyr Empyre, and to become almost inuincible through∣out the worlde: whereas notwithstanding (as Vegetius ve∣rie well saith) they were neither so great as the Germanes, nor Page  [unnumbered] more in number then the French men, nor so subtill as the Affri∣cans, nor so many or of such force as the Spaniards, nor so wise as Gréekes, but the Souldiers exercised and instructed in Warfare, did conquer and ouercome all these difficulties. It were a very ea∣sie matter in proofe of this truth, here to alleadge many examples both olde and new of many excellent Captaines, who with lyttle Armies well instructed and set in good order, haue obtayned victo∣rie of innumerable armies and bandes of men naughtily ranked and confused. But I will onely rehearse some of them, séeing it is not strange to the matter of which we now intreate, neither wyll it be out of the purpose to make a short digression to proue this ve∣ritie. And let the first example be taken from the great King A∣lexander, when he set vpon all Asia, and the innumerable bandes of Darius, yet with a verie small armie, but wonderfull well in∣structed. Lucullus a famous Captaine did get a most happie vic∣torie ouer all the greate powers of Tigranes with so small a num∣ber of good Souldiers well trained and set in good araie, that Ty∣granes seeing them comming towarde his forces, making little account of them, and to mocke with them sayde, that if they come as Embassadours, they were inowe of them, but if to fight, they were verie few. Iulius Caesar being Proconsull, subdued vnto the Empire of Rome many and rude barbarous Nations, euen from the riuer Rhene and sea Ocean, vntill the sea Mediterranean. And I praie what made him so victorious, but the good order and disci∣pline he vsed? And in our daies Hernando Cortes, (most worthy to be placed among the nine celebrated Captains,) with lesse then a thousand and foure score horse, tooke the great king Montecuma within his owne Citie. And at the length onely by the good order he vsed, he did subdue the whole kingdome of Mexico. And Her∣nando Aluarez Duke of Alua, onely with one thousand of small shot, and fiue hundreth Muskets in Frisland, ouerthrew an armie of twelue thousand men, with which Lodowicke of Nassau had entered in that Prouince. To conclude, as touching this point, I saie, that seeing a Squadron is a companie of souldiers placed in order, in which euerie man hath his place appointed him, in such order that-he may fight without hindering others, or being hinde∣red of his fellowes, and in which all their forces may bee so vnited and ioyned together, that they may obtaine theyr-principall intent and end (which is, to become inuincible, and for which end the first Page  5 warriers that were, did inuent so many kindes and manners of Squadrons) we must néeds beléeue that that Armie which is best ordered, though it be least in number of men, shall alwaies (accor∣ding to reason) become victorious.

Vargas.

You haue resolued me of the thing whereof I doub∣ted, and now I expect what you will saie of that which euen nowe I asked of you touching the office of the Sergeat Maior.

Londonno.

Out of the definition which I before set downe, may be gathered, that the Office of the Seargeant Maior consist∣eth in three things, viz. in the safe order of marching, in the good manner of lodging, and in pitching the field to buckle with the ene∣mie. All other matters that the Sergeants Maior hath to do with∣all, must of necessitie be reduced vnto these thrée things onely. For Warfare (as they saie who haue written of this subiect) hath thrée parts: the one being the preparation for Warre, vnto which part appertayneth the leuying and pressing, or taking vp of Souldiers, the arming of them, the paying of them, and victualling of them: for all which there are particular Officers appointed, the Searge∣ant Maior hauing nothing to doe therewith. The second parte of Warfare concerneth the Hoast: vnto which part appertay∣neth the marching of the camp, and the lodging of the same, and so out of this second part of warfare, two of the thrée points in which the Office of the Sergeant Maior consisteth do proceed. The third parte of Warfare is, concerning the fighting and ioyning in bat∣tayle with the enemie, whether it be by sea or by land, whether in plaine ground or hillie, whether besieging or béeing besieged: out of which part of Warfare proceedeth the third parte of the Office of the Seargeant Maior, which consisteth principally in ranking his souldiers orderly and strongly, when hee formeth and maketh his Squadrons: from which Squadrons as from the chiefe part, I will begin to shew you how the Seargeant Maior exerciseth his Office: and afterwards I will in order procéed successiuely to shew the same in the other two parts of his Office.

Vargas.

It is not long since you tolde me what a Squadron is, and therefore now I praie you beginne to make the Squadron, and set the Battaile: for this is it wée intend.

Londonno.

The Squadrons are made of a great number of Souldiers, more or lesse, according to the bignesse of the Armie or Hoast. And it is necessarie that he who taketh his charge in hand, Page  [unnumbered] knowe what people euerie companie that is in Regiment hath, how many pike men, and how many harquebusiers, and that be∣fore the time of néede, he continually haue in his head and memory a plat and forme, thereby to set a Battle when occasion is offered, in conceit alwayes forming such Squadrons, as for the present time are most vsed. As those that are square of grounde, square of number of people, broade in the front, and those that are drawen out in length Hearse-wise. This ought he not onely to doe of the number of those men that are in the Bands or Companies of his Regiment, but of all numbers. For oftentimes it commeth to passe that the Seargeants Maior are willed by the Captaines ge∣nerall to set a Battaile of thrée or foure Regiments together, and then if they bee not exercised, they shall bee so vnreadie, and fal in∣to so many absurdities, and shame themselues in presence of theyr Princes, and in the generall iudgement of the whole Hoast, and for this cause did a friend of ours saie verie well, that a Seargeant Maior could not commit a small fault, séeing that the Iudges and arbiters thereof were so many.

Vargas.

Before you aduantage your discourse, I pray you sir dayn to tel, me whether there be any more kindes of battayles or squadrons then those foure which you haue before named.

Londonno.

Yes mary be there many others, wherof some be in vse among the Italians and Switzers, as those that are horned like a halfe moon, and those also that are made like a crosse, which are approued and thought to be good by many excellente wits, there be also other manner of battayls, as those that are made wedgewise in forme of a wedge, and those that are made in forme of an egge, and those also that are made tryangular wise, with many others besides which are now quite out of vse, yet I thinke it not amisse, nay rather I would iudge it very necessary, that the Sergeant Maior should be acquainted with them all, and be exercised in setting all kindes of battails: seeing that occasson and place might be offered, where they might be needefull, and it is not good that a man should be ignorant of any thing concer∣nyng his office, which might chaunce to be necessary to aduan∣tage himselfe thereby. But of all battayls those foure which I sette downe first, are moste in vse now a dayes, in those places where warfarre flourisheth most, and they bee taken to be the strongest battayls, and most necessary, considering the weapons Page  6 that are vsed in this our age.

Vargas.

And which thinke you to be the strongest of these foure.

Londonno.

They be all of like force and strong inough ac∣cording as occasion and place requireth, for in some places the square battayls of ground, or of number of people is best, for wee should not doe well to make a square battayle, drawne out in length herswise in some places, as in Barbery or some other place where the enemy hath a great troupe of horsemen to set vpon vs, & we none, but in such a case we ought to vse the square battayle of ground or of number of people, that it beyng set vpon by the ene∣myes, they may finde equall resistance at all the foure sides of the battayle: in other places it were moste conuenient to vse those battailes that haue a large front, which I would ordinarily vse a∣mong our countreymen, if we were to fighte with our enemy, considering that in these squadrons, by how much the more greate the front is, by so much the more men fight in the vantgard, and besides this, this kinde of battaile aboue all other squadrons can∣not without great difficulty be enuironed about by the enemy. The Germans and Switzers doe greatly vse square battails dra∣wen out in length, taking that squadrō to be of wōderful strength that hath a great courtain: but I would commonly vse the square battayl of ground, vnlesse the situation of the place compelled mee to doe otherwise, iudging this battayl to be most proportionable, and of equall force in the vantguard and rereward, and it taketh vp lesse roome.

Vargas.

Tell me I pray you, what order might be obser∣ued to forme these squadrons with facillity and quicknesse?

Londonno.

To make a square battayl of number of people it will be sufficient to take the square roote of that number where∣of * the squadron is to bee made, and euery one of the our sides of * the squadron or battayl, shall containe as many souldiers as the * number of the roote is of, as for example, if you wil make a square * battayle of one thousand and sixe hundreth pikes, the square roote of this number is forty, and of so many is euery rancke, and if you make it of two thousand fiue hundreth pikes, the square roote is fifty, that is fifty to euery ranke, which number being multiplied in it selfe, fifty times fifty, it maketh the foresayd number. We wil call the square roote (according to the Arithmeticians) the grea∣test Page  [unnumbered] number which being multiplied in it selfe, endeth in the quan∣tity or number which you will make the squadron of, as you may perceiue in the two foresayd examples, for in a thousand and sixe hundreth there can be no greater number taken out, then that which is multiplyed in it selfe, which is forty, and in two thousand fiue hundreth, there can be no greater then fifty, as by multiplica∣tion you may learne, multipliyng each one of these two numbers in it selfe, and presupposing (as I mentioned before) that the Ser∣geant Maior ought to be ready in counting, & skilful in cyphering, I shall not need to stand vpon it any longer, teaching how a man may counte. As for the square battayl of ground, the famous Ma∣themacitian Tartalla, setteth down a rule, how it may be perfect∣ly made and framed. And this is it, if you take this number * forty nine, and multiply it in it selfe, it maketh two thousand four hundreth and one, this number must be multiplyed by the num∣ber of those souldiers, of which you will make the squadron or bat∣tayl, and that which remaineth of this multiplcation you must de∣uide * it by a thousand, and out of the product you must take the square roote, and that shalbe the number of the souldiers that ought to be in euery rank, and diuiding the sayd quantity of which the squadron is to be made, by this square roote, that which re∣mayneth shalbe the number of the ranks. Example, if we would make a square battaile of the same number of souldiers as we did * before, viz. one thousand and sixe hundreth, we must multiply this number by the two thousand foure hundreth and one, which re∣mained of the multiplication, of the number forty nine, and it wil * make three millions eight hundreth one and forty thousand and six * hundreth, which being deuided by one thousand, there remaine * thrée thousand eight hundreth forty and one, and the square roote * of this number is thrée score and one, and if the saide quantity of * which the squadron is to be made, which is one thousand and sixe * hundreth be deuided, by this square roote of thrée score and one, * there remayne twenty and sixe, and of so many ranks shall the * squadron be, and then fourtéene remaine ouer plus, which may be * placed according as the Sergeant Maior thinketh best. Ther is a∣nother * way shorter then this, to make this kinde of squadron, but * the squadron falleth out nothing so perfectly, by reason of the mul∣titude of people that remaine ouer plus, and this is it: you must deuide the number of souldiers of which you will make your bat∣tayle, Page  7 by one and twenty, and taking the square roote out of the product, set that which remaineth ouer plus a side, and multiply∣ing the square roote by seuen, you shall haue the number of the souldiers that must be in euery ranke, and multiplying the sayde square roote by thrée, that which remaineth of the multiplication shalbe the number of the rancks, and this being done, multiply∣ing * those that remaine ouer plus by twenty and one, the product * maketh the number of the souldiers that remaine ouer plus, as * may bee seene by the foresayd example of one thousand and sixe * hundreth men, which being deuided by one and twenty, the pro∣duct * is thréescore and sixtéene, and foure remaine ouer plus, and * the square roote of this number is eight, which being multiplyed * by seauen, maketh sixe and fifty, and of so many souldiers shall * euery rancke be, & if the said roote which is eight be multiplyed by * thrée, it maketh twenty foure, and so many ranks shall there be in * the squadron, then multiplying the twelue that remaine by one & * twenty, they make two hundreth fifty and two, which are they * that were lefte, and foure which remained ouer plus in the deuisi∣on: * so that all the ouerplus maketh sixe and fifty, of which (the * Sergeant Maior adding thrée rancks) the squadron is made of * seauen and twenty ranks, nine and fifty souldiers to a ranke, and * seuen only remaine ouer plus, but I like the first manner better then this (as I told you before) yet it is good to knowe the one as wel as the other The other two manners of squadrons, viz. that which is drawen out in length hersewise; and that which hath a large front, are framed and made very easely, especially if one know how to make the two former kinds of squadrons, and ther∣fore I wil onely tel you that eyther of thē is both, for if of the flāke of a square battayl made hersewise, you make the front, then will it be a broad squadrō with a large front, euen so contrarily if of the front of a broad squadron you make the flancke, then is the same squadron made a long squadron drawen out in length hersewise. Example, if you make a large square of one thousand two hun∣dreth souldiers, each ranks will be of thrée score pikes, and the courtin will bee of twenty pikes, but if of this courtin of twentye pikes you make the front, the flanke wilbe of thrée score pikes, and so it wilbe a perfect long battaile hersewise, obseruing due pro∣portiō, which is, that the front of the one be neuer more then thrée times as much as the courtin of the other, as may be vnderstood Page  [unnumbered] by the example aboue sayd, for the front being of thrée score soul∣diers, the flanke is no more then twenty, all these manners and fashions of squadrons before specified, may easily be made by the Sergeant Maior, if he be skilfull in the science of Arithmeticke, as I saide aboue: for otherwise it wilbe very hard and troublesom for him to doe it.

Vargas.

I haue noted in the examples which you haue set downe of squadrons and battayls, that the most of them were in number euen, whereas notwithstanding I haue hard many say, yea and stand vpon it, that squadrons and ranks ought to be in number odde, and that in auncient times past, it was alwaies v∣sed, but especially in those nations where warfarre did florishe moste. Wherefore I pray you to satisfie mee concerning this pointe before we goe any further.

Londonno.

Opinions there be many that battayls and squadrons ought to be odde in number of souldiers, and I going a∣bout diuers times to inquire and search out of what importance it is that the squadron should be in number odde or euen, and whi∣ther this can make it more or lesse strong, and hauing read verye curiously the authors both auncient and moderne, that entreate of this arte or science martiall, and hauing also noted the manner and number which they obserued in making their battailes and spuadrons, I finde as wel by that which I haue said as by the rea∣sons which I will here shewe, that it concerneth not the strentgh or weakenesse of the battaile, whither it be made in number euen or odde, for I wil shew vnto you that obseruing the true and per∣fect rule to make a squadron or battayle, there are certaine num∣bers of which if you will make squadrons odde in number, you should finde a wonderfull great imperfection therein, and so con∣trarily there be other numbers, of which a man cānot conuenient∣ly make squadrons of euen number. Example, If you woulde make a square battaile of number of people of two thousand and fiue hundreth pikes, the square roote of this number is iust fifty, and it would be a gret fault to make it of more or lesse, séeing that (as I haue said) a square battayle of number of people can haue no greater perfectiō, then to be made of the nūber that the square root of it is of, and if you will make one, of thrée thousand and sixe hun∣dreth pikes, the square roote of this number is thrée score, and of so many souldiers will the front of the Squadron be, and this Page  8 is the perfection of it. And as I haue sette downe two exam∣ples heereof, so coulde I set downe many more, and I saie the same of the Squadron, that is made of an odde number. For if you will forme a Squadron or Battayle square in number of people, of two thousand sixe hundreth souldiers and one, the number of it will be one and fiftie pikes, for that is the square roote of it: and to make it of a greater or lesser number, it would bée a∣misse. And if you wil make such a Squadron of one thousand foure score and nine, the fronts of it will be of thrée and thirtie pikes, for this is the square roote of the Squadron. And if you adde anie thing vnto this number, or diminish it, the Squadron wil remaine vnperfect. Insomuch that by that which I finde vsed, and by mine owne opinion, I gather, that Squadrons or Battailes ought to be made according to the number of people of which they be made, and manner how they be made, and as the place where they bée made permitteth. As for the reasons which some alleadge, that in the odde number there is a middle, and in the euen number there is none, as is séene by example, that in thrée, fiue, seuen and nine there is a middle, wheras in two, foure, sixe and eight, there is none, and so they saie, that the same middle which is the vnitie (which vnitie is the beginning of all numbers) should be the foundation and basis of the Squadron, and therefore they holde opinion that it is the stronger. They alleadge furthermore, that Martiall men in anci∣ent times past, did not without mysterie vse the odde number in theyr Squadrons and Battayles, more then the euen number, all which cannot suffice to proue that theyr Battailes were therefore the stronger, for as you might haue marked, I haue sufficiently argued and proued wherein the strength and force of a square bat∣taile doth principally consist. For if this onely that the Squadron is made of the odde number maketh it the stronger, it is conse∣quent, that anie Squadron whatsoeuer in number odde, though it be but of a small number of men, yet it shall bee of more force and strength then anie other Squadron made of a far greater number of souldiers, which is in number euen, which is most vnlikely and fals. For who knoweth not that a Squadron in the front, where∣of there be fiftie, sixtie, or eightie, or one hundreth souldiers, is stronger, then one yt hath but fiftie or twentie, seuen or thrée & thir∣tie in euery ranke, and so likewise doth it followe that those Squa∣drons shall be strong that haue seuen and twentie, three and thir∣ty, Page  [unnumbered] one and fifty or thrée and sixty, then those that haue but twelue, sixtéene, four and twenty, or sixe and thirty: in so much that the number odde or euen, maketh not the squadron strong, but due proportion according to the quantity of the people of which it is made, together with the place, and aboue all things the valour of the souldiers is the right and true strength of battayls, and for as much as they saye, that the auncientes did more vse the odde number then euen (which they cannot easely proue) but though it were so; yet it is moste manifest, that they did not so because they beléeued that the squadron was the stronger by reason that it was odde in number, but they did it being moued with a certaine deuotion and religion, taking this number odde to be consecrated to theyr Gods, as Virgill some where mentioneth. Numero Deusimpari gaudet, and so they being so religious in all their actions (but specially the Romanes) they gaue them selues more to the obseruation of this number odde, in framing and making their squadrons and battails, then of the number euen. As, for the same reason and with greater cause wee ought to reuerence this number, for that which was vncertaine and unknowne to the heathens and gentils in this particular, being ignorant of the excellency and diety of this number odde, the light of our faith ma∣keth manifest and knowne vnto vs, beléeuing as we do, that God is trinus & vns. But what maketh this deuotion or religious conceipte, for the strength of the squadron? and as for the seconds reason, yt ought lesse to be admitted, for where they say that the od number hath a middle, and the euen number hath none, how can this make the squadron strong? for it is manifest that in this num∣ber fifty, there is no middle, and yet if the battayle be square in nū∣ber of people, and so the squadron be made of two thousand and fiue hundreth pikes (as before was saide) it cannot bee more stronger or perfect: for it is square euerie way hauing fifty ranks, fifty to a ranke, which is the square roote, and if of the same nū∣ber two thousand and fiue hundreth pikes, you would make a bat∣taile of the odde number as of fiue and forty, seuen and forty, or nine and forty pikes to a ranke, which are all thrée odde, and haue a middle, the squadron would be nothing so perfect, for that is not the square root of it. And if chaunce we woulde make at the squadron of one and fifty or thrée and fifty, it would not fall out in the foresaide number of two thousand and fiue hundreth, and so we Page  9 should finde an imperfection, because the square roote exceedeth. But if it were not for this inconuenience of imperfection, that Sergeant Maior that were curious in making his rankes and squadrons of the number oddde, though it be for nothing els but onely to satisfie the generall opinion of the most that make pro∣fession of warfarre, who séeme continually to looke that the squa∣drons should be made of the number odde, I am perswaded should not do amisse, especially when the companies enter or goe from the watch hill, for then the ranks are but small, and it séemeth better that they should then be thrée, fiue, or seauen to a rank, then foure, sixe, or eight, and I thinke the reason be, because the mid∣dle is discerned in such small numbers, which cannot so easely bée seene in greater numbers, and it ought especially to bee done by reason of the custome which is ordinarily vsed in making rancks odde: and all that which is by custome and vse receiued, seemeth to be best and most allowed. Neuerthelesse this ought not to be so greatly respected, that (as I mentioned before) when the nūber of the people, and forme or fashion of the Squadron be such, that it requireth to be made of the number euen, it should in anie case bee made of the number odde, for they that should so do, should commit a foule errour. For so in these wars of Flanders, when the Prince of Orange passed the Mose with his armie, and entered into Bra∣band, the two armies marching so néere the one by the other, that they euery daie looked that they should buckle together, the Duke of Alua ordained that the masters of the Campe and Seargeant Maior of theyr thrée Regiments of Spanish foot-bands, with the other personages that were of his counsell in warre shoulde make an assemblie: and that the number of the pikes they had in theyr Ensignes being knowen, they should each of them giue theyr voy∣ces concerning the fashion and forme of which the Squadron should be made. Which was so done, and they founde that there were no more pikes in all the thrée Regiments then one thousand and two hundreth, and they all agréed that they shoulde make a broade Battayle with a large front. Which Squadron conforma∣ble to the number of the piks, and obseruing proportion, could haue no more then thrée score souldiers in the front of it, and twentie in the courtin, which iustly make vp the full number of one thousand and two hundreth: and so it was done. and because they marching through some straight and narowe grounds, the Squadron coulde Page  [unnumbered] not march with so many in the front, it was diuided into three partes, in such manner, that the Regiment of Naples, which had sixe hundred pikes should march with thirtie pikes in the front, and the Regiment of Lombardie which had thrée hundreth and twen∣tie pikes, should march with sixtéene pikes in each ranke, and the Regiment of Sicil which had two hundreth and foure score pikes should haue fouretéene in the front. And now you may see, that all these thrée Battailes were of the number euen, and being ioyned all thrée in one, they made a large fronted Squadron of the num∣ber euen. For the quantitie of pikes which were in each regiment and the forme of the Battayle did so require it. And it is to bee be∣léeued, that if there had bene anie imperfection in these Squadrons and Battayles, so great a Captaine of Warre, and so worthie a, souldier as the Duke was, would not haue permitted it to be done in such order.

Vargas.

I remaine satisfied as touching this particular, and in truth before your discourse, I was fully persuaded that all squa∣drens should necessarily be made of the number odde. But now I doubt not of it: and therefore I praie you continue on your dis∣course, and tell me what you thinke of certaine rules set downe by one Cataneus Nouares, and of some others, which (if I bee well remembred) I haue seene, thereby to forme all kindes and man∣ners of Battailes, doe you account them necessarie?

Londonno.

They helpe much, but those men chiefly that can not cypher, but I would not haue anie one bound vnto them one∣ly. For so, if a man should take them out of their A B C booke (as men saie) they would incontinently be vnoone. I saie, if occasion were offred them to make a squadron or battaile of a number, dif∣fering from the number which they finde set downe, they shoulde verie quickly spie theyr vnreadinesse, and acknowlege their igno∣rance. And heereupon I rehearse the same which I haue spoken before, that nothing is better for the Seargeant Maior to shunne wearisomnesse and difficultie in making and framing all kindes of Battailes and Squadrons, then dexteritie & readines in counting, ioyntly with a continuall habite or disposition of forming and fra∣ming diverse kinds of squadrens in his head, by the helpe of his me∣morie. And this ought he likewise to put in practise before necessity constraineth him to doe it. And so hee may when his Regiment marcheth either to the lodging or from the lodging, exercise his Page  10 people, and by experience & practise sée that which he is taught by theorie and contemplation. And forasmuch as in that which you asked of me first, of the manner how to make Squadrons with fa∣cilitie and speed, is not onely contained and comprehended to giue rules how to forme them spéedily and readily, but also to shew how that confusion may be shunned which often is caused (but especially among the Spaniards) by those that contend and striue to bee pla∣ced in the first ranke of the vauntgard, insomuch that it falleth out verie often, that much time passeth before the Seargeant Maior with all the Captaines together, can make vp the Squadron. I saie, that séeing the chiefe care and charge to auoide this inconue∣nience, concerneth the Seargeant Maior. Hee ought to take such order with the Ensignes and companies before they come to this point, that the sayde confusion and disobedience may bee excused. And it shal be auoyded if such order be taken, that all the Ensignes knowe before, that the first rankes shall bee made of the Compa∣nie or Companies that be of the watch that daie, and they shall be seconded by them that were of the watch before, and next to them shal they follow that first come to the squadron, continually aduer∣tising the Officers, not to suffer anie Souldiers of their Ensignes or Companies come, anie peece of their armour wanting. For in this case, though it be theyr turne to fight in the vauntgarde, yet they shall be turned to the rereward, and loose theyr precheminence because they come not well and orderly armed, and others may be iustly placed in theyr roomes: and because sometimes arme be∣ing called, and the companies running altogether to the place of armes, this order cannot be obserued, séeing that in time of necessi∣tie, aboue al things this must be attended, that the Squadron may be formed with all celeritie and quicknesse. It is conuenient that the Seargeant Maior, (if so be the foresaid inconuenience hap∣pen) dispose the confused & disorded multitude of people, setting the Captaines before, and then take the Squadron out of the flanke or rereward, if he thinke it most commodious. Which he may doe with great facilitie: for so he leaueth them which were the cause of that confusion deceyed of their intent, and so hee shall performe two things, the one is, that he spéedilie doth make vp his squadron, the other that he correcteth and punisheth the disobedient with this disgrace, leauing them all in the rereward, and thence forward sée∣ing that the Sergeant Maior vseth riddance and dispatch. Leauing Page  [unnumbered] them with the mocke, they will be glad to obey, and presently get in order. I haue my selfe vsed this remedie, and euerie time that I so did, I had done, and almost wholy made the Squadron of my Regiment, before the Sergeant Maior could in other Regiments frame the formost rankes.

Vargas.

I was verie glad to vnderstande how this confusion may be expelled, which is so vsuall in the making and framing of squadrons, and most of all among the Spaniardes, for I can∣not beléeue that in anie other nation men bee so disobedient, and make such a doe to be placed in the first ranke, but that euerie one doth obey and content himselfe with the place which is appointed him, or by lot falleth vnto him.

Londonno.

So they ought to doe all of them, for vnto him that will fight valiantly and doe his dutie, occasion will neuer bée failing to shew his good minde in Warre, and knowe surely that many that make so much a doe to provide a place for themselues in the first ranke of the Squadron, the desire they haue to fight, doth not drawe them vnto it, but they bée onely vaine shewes, by which they pretend to recouer credit, and gaine the name and title of valiantnesse, though wée cannot denie neuerthelesse but that some are moued to procure them that place by theyr valour and good zeale, Yet cannot a good and valyant Soul∣dier in anie thing so néere hit the marke, as in obeying: and this is the principall vertue which a souldier ought to haue set be∣fore his eyes as an obiecte at the daie that hée taketh the Pike in Warres. If this bée wanting in him, hee hath none of anie value or estimation: for obedience is the grounde, basis, and foundation of all good discipline.

Vargas.

Let vs passe on if you please, for I feare me the time will be scant for the number of doubts which I pretend to aske of you. And tell me now séeing you haue made vp the squadron with pikes, how they ought to be lined, how many and how bigge the sléeues ought to be, & how far distant from the squadron, for in good sooth, I haue heard diuers opinions concerning this particular.

Londonno.

Truely no man that is a souldier is ignorant that the battaile of pikes ought ot be garded about with Gunnes, putting a rowe of Harquebuziers close to the other rowe of Pikes, so that there bee as many rowes of Harquebuziers at eache side as there bee of Pikes, and to obserue the true man∣ner Page  11 of liuing of the squadron, there ought to be no more rows of hargubuzers, then could be garded by the pikes, especially where the enemy hath gretest store of horsemen, and so, seeing that ther cannot be aboue fiue hargubuzers vnder the fauor of the pikes, with so many rows (to my mynd) ought the squadron to be or∣dered, but in case that this inconuenience be not, that the bat∣tayl is not like to be set vpon with troupes of horses, then may the Sergeant Maior line the battayle with a greater number of hargubuzers, as hee thinketh best according to the quantity of gunne-men hee hath in his ensignes, hauing a regard and consi∣deration that hee want no hargubuzers to make the sléeues, which ought not to be aboue foure, and lesse, according as neces∣sity requireth and the place permitteth. These ought to haue their due proportion, and I would not haue them to bee made of more then thrée hundreth shotte, nor of lesse then two hundreth, and in case that many hargubuzers remaine after the battaile is furnished and closed vp, I would rather make foure sleeues of the foresayd number then two of a greater quantity. For ordinarily, when the sléeues be very great and improportionable, it is a hard matter to rule and gouerne them in good order without confusion, and two sléeues of three hundreth souldiers a piece, can be ordered and gouerned far better, and easier then one sleeue of six hundreth souldiers. And he that will try this, shall finde it so manifest and deare by experience, that I will not here labor to proue it to be so with more reasons or argumēts. The place of these sleeues ought to be at the corners of the squadrons, after such order that they be not very far aparted from the squadron. For euen as the horse∣men make a crosse defence to the courtins of a castle, so the sleeues vnto the battayl, and they be the stronger being vnder the fauor of the pikes: and as a castle hath it whole perfection ioyned toge∣gether in one. The courtins, horsemen, and ditches. After the same manner is a squadron perfit, when the pikes being placed in con∣uenient order, are lined with gnus, and fortified with the sléeues of hargubuzers.

Vargas.

I pray you sir, let it not grieue you to stay here a while, for I desire greedily that you should resolue me of a certayn doubt, which I haue seene some make vppon this which I nowe shall say. You well know that ordinarily in the Spanish foot∣bands, there be many more hargubuzers then pykes, for we shal Page  [unnumbered] see nine thousand footmen together, among which there be scare one thousand and fiue hundreth pikemen, all the rest being gun∣men in so much that the squadron being lined, and four sleeues be∣ing made vnto it (& that is the most that you say it ought to haue) yet ther remayneth a great quantity ouer plus, but I pray you where thinke you that these hargubuzers may bee set to bee safe from the troups of the enemyes horsemen, for it falleth out diuers times that we wage wars in Barbery, where the enemy haue so many horse, and we but few or none, and as in Barbery, so might this inconuenience chance in other places.

Londonno.

Very well haue you asked, and I haue diuers times hard this matter disputed vppon, and I haue more times thē once thought of this, nether is it long since I spake of it before the Captayn generall, and that which I sayd there will I here re∣peate. Viz. that I am of opinion, that those hargubuzers can∣not be any where placed in safety, but in the middest of the squa∣dron or battails of pikes, where though we could haue no other fruite or seruice of them, then to haue them sure and kept safe ther vntill such time that we should haue neede of them, I thinke that this were very much, and yet do I not knowe why, but that they may greatly fauour the squadron and doe it much good, with great dammage to the enemies, if they did but regard when the pikes are couched on that side of the squadron which is set vpon by the ennemyes, that then the pikemen should some thing bend theyr bodies nclining downewards: for so might the hargubuzers that are in the centre of the squadron haue cōmodity fréely to discharge theyr péeces on their ennemy without any hurt or preiudice to the pikemen, and though this séeme to be something hard and trouble∣some vnto them that haue not vsed it, and put it in practise, yet so they would exercise themselues in trying and doing it sometimes, they would finde it to be most easy. For farre more difficult and troublesome was that which the Romans did, who making thrée squadrons of theyr foot bands, when the first was defeated, at the last driuen to great extremity, and grieuously oppressed by the ennemy, it was receiued within the second, without disorde∣ring either of them, and euen so was both the first and second re∣celued within the third, without confusion of any of them all, ne∣cessity vrging them thereto, which no doubt by reason of continu∣all vse was easy vnto them to doe: for what thing is there so hard Page  12 and difficult, which cannot be made easy by vse and exercise.

Vargas.

Why, but how doe you vnderstand that the shot should be within the pikes? you by hap, meane that one hargubu∣zer should be set betweene two pikes.

Londonno.

No, not so, for it is likely tha so the order would bee broken and marred, but I intend that withint the midst of the squadron and centre of it there should be a place, wher the hargu∣buzers shold be placed in their order, & may be without any offence or hinderance to the pikes: and so the Sergeant Maior should not doe amisse to cast what shot he hath, and hauing considered how many argubuzers are necessary to line the squadron and to make the sleeues, aboue al thing to set them that remaine ouerplus in order squarewise, and compas them about with the pikemē. This is to be done (as you very well noted aboue) wher the enemy hath great company of horsemen and we lacke them: For it is moste manifest that shot only cannot resist the strength of horesemen: though neuerthelesse it hath more then once or twise bin seen that hargubuzers haue bin charged by a troup of hors, and yet haue not bin defeated: but for all this no man can deny that the valour of the hargubuzers was not so much the cause of it, as the pusillani∣mity and cowardise of the horsemen: for the vttermost of theyr powers is to discharge their pieces vpon the squadron and battayl of the horsemen which sett vpon them, and being compassed and enuironed about by them, hauing no defence by their swords, are not able to withstand the vehement charge of the horsemen, which is onely graunted vnto the pike, and so of force, if they want this fauour, they must alwayes be ouerthrowne, if the horsemen quit them selues accordingly. But in other places where the said incon∣uenience is not offered, but the battail is to be fought only against foot bands, there shot doth great seruice, and victory hath very of∣ten beene obtayned by hargubuzers onely. But for al this, I am not of opinion that among our Spanish nation nor the Itali∣ans, there should be a greater number of hargubuzers then pike∣men in the companies: as for the Switzers and Germans, their pikes are much worth, but their gunnes are very lightly estee∣med.

Vargas.

I haue taken great pleasure in the discourse which you haue made vpon the doubt I moued, & now seing you haue made the Squadron and Battayle. Tell me I praie you how the Ser∣geant Page  [unnumbered] Maior ought to behaue himselfe when hee marcheth with it.

Londonno.

This which you now aske, is not the least care which the Sergeant Maior ought to haue in his office, séeing it is a matter of so great moment and importaunce, to leade the peo∣ple marching in good order, which is so much the more harde and troublesome to bée done, by howe much the more you sée all men generallie abhorre to be tyed to order, and especiallie our Spanish foote men, who beeing (by reason of the climate more cholerike then of anie other complection) take it something impatientlie to goe in order. For you cannot so soone sette them in order, but straight vppon the least occasion in the worlde, they will bee disordered again. As when they meet with some place by the way that is something narrowe, or when they become wearie and hotte, going to seeke water, and so separate themselues from the companies to goe and drinke, yea, and for other causes, nothing so reasonable as this: but al this proceedeth partly of the ill discipline that is nowe a dayes vsed in Warres: and partly of the fault and carelesnesse of the Officers. For there is no doubt but that if the Souldier did knowe that if he did goe out of order, he should bée punished so seuerely as they were punished in auncient times past that serued among the Romanes, none of them durst goe a whit out of the waie, or doe otherwise then he is commaunded to doe: but because men see howe slacklie such offences are punished, they doe not regard whether they goe in order or not: but now seeing that in this age the disobedience of Souldiers is not so ri∣gorouslie punished, as it was in that auncient Martiall discipline. If the Officers both vpper and vnder were so diligent and care∣full as is required, and as they are bound to bee, these inconueni∣ences might easilie bee remedied. For to bring which thing to passe, I will shew you what order I thinke may be taken. But aboue all other things, I will not passe those things with silence which the Seargeant Maior ought to doe before hee marcheth with his people, being in the field. I saie then that the Searge∣ant Maior ought first of all to goe to the Captaine Generall to to take directions, and knowe whether his Regiment bee to marche in the vauntgarde, battayle, or rerewarde, which is ordinarilie done the night before the Armie marcheth (though notwithstanding sometimes the Generall will not giue the or∣ders Page  13 for worthy respects, til the very houre that they are to march and hee ought to bee verie well informed of the waie, especially when it is his Regimentes turne to marche in the vauntgarde, though it bée verie necessarie at all times to knowe the wayes of the Countrie verie well and perfectlie, through which hee may most fitly marche with his people out of the Campe: and by faulte héereof it doeth not verie seldome come to passe, that many Seargeant Maiors haue béene confounded and shamed in pre∣sence of theyr Generalles, guiding theyr Regimentes by wayes that are stopte and cumbered with Cartes, and other baggages of the Campe, sometimes bringing theyr souldiers through such narrowe wayes and straightes, that they cannot passe, vn∣lesse they breake theyr order: for at the raising and departing of the Campe (as you haue seene) the horse-men doe so crosse vp and downe in all partes, and the Trumpettes and Drummes make such a noise, that vnlesse hée bée verie well foreséene, and knowe perfectlie the waie which hée is to take, and through which waie he is to bring forth his Companies, commonly hee shall fal into these inconueniences, principally when the Camp de∣parteth by night, or in such dayes as are cloudie. Wherefore it is necessarie that the Seargeant Maior, if it bee possible, should bee singularly well informed of ths scituation of the Countrie, through which he is to passe, and of the distaunce betweene cue∣rie place, the quantitie of the wayes, with theyr abridge∣mentes, hilles, valleyes, fountaynes, riuers. And to be the more sure, hee ought to haue skilfull Warfarers and faythfull guides. Then the order being knowen and the waie also, and the houre come of departure, hee ought to giue order that the Drum Maior gather the Companyes together, and that the Captaine of the fielde cause the baggage to bee loden, and then hee ought speedily to bring his Ensignes from theyr quarters to the place of Armes, and there to forme his Squadron, and se∣parate the Captaynes, eache one in theyr orders, they ought to marche in that daie, and to dispose the Seargeantes in such manner, that euerie one of them doe knowe what people they must gouerne and keepe in order: and because it is verie seldome seene that the wayes are large inoughe for the Squa∣dron to marche with the whole front, hee shall make his ranke no greater, then that the people may marche commody∣ously, Page  [unnumbered] alwaies hauing consideration that the ranke be neuer les∣ser (if the waie suffer it) then the thirde parte of the front of this Squadron or Battaile. As for example. If the fronte of this Battaile bée of one and twentie men, seauen men shall marche in a ranke: and so likewise of other Battailes. For hee ought alwayes to bee very carefull in procuring his foote∣bandes to bee lead in suche order, that occasion of necessitie bee∣ing offered, hee may with all spéede and celeritie make vp his Squadron. Nowe the Captaines and Officers beeing seue∣red, as I haue sayde, and the Regiment marching, the Searge∣ant Maior his right place is in the vauntgarde of the Regiment, where it most commonly concerneth the maister of the Campe or Colonnell to go. And I saie most commonly, because if chance we should leaue the enemie behinde vs. The rereward is a more con∣uenient place for the Colonnell to march in. And forasmuch as the Sergeant Maior is his instrument, by meanes of whome hee sen∣deth the order vnto the Captaynes and Companies. He ought to stand néere to his person, but he ought in such maner to be there, ye he neglect not sometimes to make a stand and staie himselfe, and sée the whole Regiment passe: and if he finde anie retchlesnesse or negligence in the Sergeants, not discharging their duetie, in cau∣sing the people committed to theyr gouernment, to goe in good or∣der: he ought to blame and rebuke them seuerely, insomuch that none of the Sergeantes ought to forbeare anie fault or negligence whereby the order may be marred: but diligently to take héede, that ye order neuer be broken, if it be possible. And if it chance to be broken (as it happeneth sometimes by reason of the streightnes of the waies) they ought to be verie carefull in making it vp againe. For which if it be néedful that the vantgard make a stand, one of y Officers shall incontinently goe to informe the Sergeant Maior of it. And I am of opinion, that no Sergeant, Ensigne or Cap∣tayne shoulde passe the worde through the Squadron, saying, Stand, or March from hand to hand (as it is many times done ve∣rie vnaduisedly) vnlesse the necessitie bée such, that they cannot haue time to signifie it vnto the Colonnell or Seargeant Maior. For by reason of this abuse, that euerie Officer, and vppon euerie occasion that is offered, doth passe the worde, many inconuenien∣ces may doe spring, and the Officers will take vppon them to doe those things that appertayne vnto the superiours, vsurping that Page  14 preheminence which is onely graunted vnto the Colonnel as head of the Regiment, and vnto the Seargeant Maior, as the generall guide of the Squadron. And now this is become so common, that not onely the Officers, but also the common souldiers, without re∣spect or discretion, for the least cause in the world, do vse to passe the word. Whence it commeth to passe, that sometimes when for matters of importance, the superiour passe the worde, it doth not passe so speedily as it should, by reason that it is neglected & naught set by, & so for the most part it remaineth in the middle of the squa∣dron sans passing to the vantgard, the souldiers thinking & persua∣ding themselues, that it commeth not by commandement of the superiours. But if they were sure that none had authoritie to com∣mand it to be passed but the superiors, they would incontinently o∣bey, and doe as they are commanded. And therefore to shunne and anoide this inconuenience in a matter so important, as to kéep the squadron in good order, it is very necessarie that this preheminence should be onely rescrued for the two vpper officers. And it is most iust that such Officers or souldiers that dareth first passe the word should not remaine vnpunished. I will aduertise you howe that it is necessarie that the people shoulde sometimes make a stande, as wel that the souldiers may rest themselues a while, and eat of that which they vse to carrie in theyr scrippes or bagges, as also that they may the better kéepe themselues in good order, hauing breathed a little after theyr wearinesse. And the Seargeant Ma∣ior ought to procure suche standes to bee made néere some water, where the Souldiers may drinke and refreshe them∣selues, and the Officers ought to bee verie diligent in looking to the Souldyers, that none of them at such standes get out of the Squadron, and make anie misrule in the neighbour pla∣ces, and much lesse that anie of them enter into Orchardes to endomage the Husbandmen. For all those things are alienate and estraunged from good discipline. And if the Souldier should bee permitted to bée licentious in these trifles and small things, they woulde not afterwardes bee able to refraine from the same in greater matters. Howbeit I cannot count it a small thing that the Souldier shoulde leaue his place and disranke him∣selfe, ranging in the possessions and groundes of the poore people, and so I cannot patiently thinke vppon the greate negligence and in consideration of certaine Officers, that doe Page  [unnumbered] not only not represse such disorders among the souldiers, but them∣selues also oftentimes are the first that shewe them the waie and helpe to doe it. Who ought not onely to be depriued of theyr Offi∣ces, as vnworthie to haue them, but also to bee punished with greater and more grieuous punishment, as transgressors of Mar∣tiall discipline.

Vargas.

By that which you haue verie well spoken, we may easily gather that the retchlesnesse and negligence of Officers is the chiefe cause of disorder: and no doubt, if that care were both in the souldiers & officers which is required in them, they should al∣waies march in good order. And I take it to be a matter verie im∣portant, that the word should not be passed in the squadrō, but with great regard & consideration, and I suppose it verie necessarie that such stands should be made, that the souldiers may rest a litle. In déed the Gunners can better abide the troublesomnes of the waie without resting, as men that go loose, & not passed with the heaui∣nes and waight of armors: but corsiets cannot anie waie hold out, but must néeds make staies, especially in daies that are extreamly hot. And I haue often séene some neglect their offices, & stay when they haue bin commanded to march: and many souldiers being he∣uy armed haue bin choked, striuing to do more then they could do, marching in their armor. And certes it is a shame for some Sear∣geants Maior to sée how vntowardly they leade theyr squadrons, and how vnaduisedly they march, obseruing no order, onely for not considering when it is necessarie for them to make stands: whence it commeth to passe, that they leade a squadron orderly, but drawe as it were a long rope after them three or foure miles, oftentimes being betweene the vantgard and the rereward: in such manner, that the enemie with a far lesser number then those Seargeants Maior haue in their Regiments, might verie easily do them much harme, and so they march in greate daunger in one houre through their negligence, to loose al the credit, honor and reputation, which they haue gotten in many yeres. And although the Maister of the Camp or Colonnel be the chiefe of the Regiment, and therfore (as vnto such a one) the honor or shame of the good or ill successe of the companies, appertaineth principally vnto him, yet neuertheles the Seargant Maior hath a good share therein: for as much as I can gather by your discourse, and (if my memorie deceiue me not) euer since I haue giuen my selfe to this profession, I haue alwaies séene Page  15 that not only the common iudgement of all men, but also the Cap∣taines and Generals do vse to praise or blame the Seargeantes Maior, because they leade their Regiments in good or ill order, be∣fore anie other whatsoeuer, as such officers whom the ordering of the squadron chiefly concerneth.

Lond.

So it is in truth, for all this care & charge doth properly and wholy appertayn vnto the Sergeant Maior, and he ought not to excuse himselfe of his negligence or vnability, blaming the ser∣geants or officers of his regiment, for they do all of them obay his orders and doe according to his directions, and also they he more or lesse, diligent or slow, according to the watchfulnes or slownesse of the Sergeant Maior who commandeth them.

Vargas.

Now I pray you tell me how the people of the re∣giment ought to be deuided when it marcheth, who ought to go in the vantguard, who in battayl, and who in rereward, and what place the standards or ensignes ought to haue.

Londonno.

I haue already told you aboue (if my remembrāce kéepe touch with me) that the Sergeant Maior ought to procure his people to march in such manner and so well ordered, that occa∣sion of necessity enforcing him, he may alwayes with great easi∣nesse and facillity forme and make his squadron. And to attayn vnto this, I thinke this to be the order he ought to obserue. First in the vantguard marcheth the sléeue of hargubuzers of the right hand of the squadron (which sléeue as we haue before sayd, ought to be made before the cōpany be brought forth of the camp) which ordinarily is one company of gun-men, of the two that are in one regiment, next after followeth the lining of the same right hand, being of hargubuzers, and after that follow the pikes according to the manner before shewed. And because among other things that happen to be done vnaduisedly in a squadron, it is a very vn∣séemly thing to se the ensigns born so out of order & ouerthwartly, somtimes at one side and sometimes at another. The Sergeant Maior ought to cause them to be placed so, that the squadron being made, they be alwaies in their proper places, which is in ye middest and centre of the battayl, next ensueth the lining of hargubuzers, of the left hand, and last of al in the rereward marcheth the sleeue of hargubuzers, being one of the two companies of gun-men that are alwaies in one regiment. And thus you see that after this ma∣ner the people marcheth being parted and deuided, & yet the squa∣dron Page  [unnumbered] is incontinently formed.

Vargas.

I pray you why say you that the sleeue and lining of the right hand should goe before the sleeue and lining of the left hand? it may be there is some mistery in it.

Londonno.

I know not of any other mistery, but this that in all our actions, wee ought to apply our selues to perfection as neare as wee possibly can, and for as much as the right hand is the noblest and most perfect, it is better we should beginne thence, then from the lefte hand to forme the squadron, and also to vndo it or breake it.

Vargas.

Now seeing that you haue told me how the peo∣ple ought to march, I desire you to know where the baggage of these companies may be carried, that it may both be safe, and yet not hinder the people of the regiment.

Londonno.

When an army marcheth, this consideration ought to be had, that if the enemy be before in the vant guard of the way, the baggage ought to be in the rereward, and contrari∣ly, if the enemy be behind the army our baggage shall be caried in the vantguard, and if the enemies camp be at the right hand of the way, our baggage shalbe put at the left hand of our campe, and if the enemy be on the other side we ought to follow the same order, carrying our baggage at the right hand of our army. And so shall the battail continually be a wal and defence to our baggage, and if occasion be offered that the two armies should ioyne in fight, as they march, it cannot hinder them, and besides this certain troups of horse do ordinarily go to guard the baggage frō the suddayn in∣cursions and assaults of horsemen sent out by the enemy, and this very same order ought also to be obserued, marching with one re∣giment by it selfe only. But in case we were far from the enemy, I would haue the baggage for a good consideration march in the vantguard with a troupe of hargubuzers to guide it, for it is a great commodity for the souldiers, when they come to their quar∣ters weary with going, to finde their tents planted, and their fo∣rage ready without staiyng for it, after they be come to the place where they are to be lodged, comming many times wette and al∣most dead for hunger. And besides this if any thing should chaunce to fal by the way, the owner may saue it, séeing it in danger to fal, or be lost, and so euery one may looke vnto his things that nothing Page  16 be lost, which they could not do, if their baggage were carried in the rereward behinde the battayle.

Vargas.

Certes it is most true, that all these commodityes be had by carriyng the baggage in the vantguard, whereas no∣thing is gotten by carriyng of it in the rereward, but losse and dis∣commodity, for daily wee sée that some one or other playneth that he hath lost one thing or other, and it chanceth euery day that many things are loste or taken through the negligence of naughty seruants and boies, their masters not being there to sée their bag∣gage, or to look vnto it, which if it were carried in the vantguard vndoubtedly should not be lost.

Londonno.

I wil haue you to vnderstand, (before we leaue this particular, which we now speake off, that occasion might be offered, where the baggage could be safely carried in neither of the foresaid places, and then it would be necessary that it shoulde bee carried in the midst of the squadron after the same manner as I sayd aboue of the shotte that remained ouer plus, for if we shoulde march with our army in Barbery or any other place, where the enemy hath great store of horse, and we none, it were necessarye that our baggage should be in the midst and centre of our sqnadrō, if we would not lose it, for séeing that that litle which the souldiers haue, is there, it is great reason it should be carefully looked vnto, and safely garded, and this ought the rather bee procured, for that the reputation is great which we lose, if the enemy spoile vs of it, gloriosly bragging and vanting that they tooke some prise from vs against our wills in despighte of vs. Whereof among other vali∣aunt Captaynes, Iulius Caesar, lefte vs a worthy example, when hee (according to Suetonius) being forced by the vehe∣mency and ciuill sury of them of Alexandria, to retire, did cast him selfe vnto the Riuer Nilus, and carried in one hande his booke of commentaries holding it on hie, that it might take no wette, and swimmed with the other, holding his vesture in his mouth, that his enemy should not glory of any spoile of his. But in case that without manifest daunger that the people bee defeated and spoiled this cannot be done, the goods ought to be abandoned, and forsaken to conserue the principall, which hath not onely ben done by many noble and excellent Captains, but also some haue of purpose lefte their carriage in the enemies power, offering Page  [unnumbered] the occasion in robbing of it, and gathering the spoile to disorder themselues, to the end that by meanes of this pollicy they might with lesse trouble and great facillity obtaine the victory of them.

Vargas.

I had forgotten to aske you where you think that the horses of the footemen as wel corslets as Hargubuzers should goe, and like wise where the seruants and lackeis shall cary their maisters pikes when they ride? for I haue seene this vsed diuersly.

Londonno.

You know that by al good discipline it is for∣bidden that any footeman shall goe forth of the lodging, or muche lesse entre in it on horse backe: but alwaies in going forth he ought to accompany his band or ensigne, at the least a mile, or an halfe, and euen so in comming to the lodging within a mile or halfe a mile of it hee ought to light, seeing that their horses that vse to ride may easily goe at the flanke of the battayle if the wayes be broad inough, and if not, at the tayle, till they may ride. And it ought not to bee suffered in any case, that the souldiers should get vppon their horses, before their Captaines that marche on foote, take horse: and then riding and setting them selues in order by the Cap∣tayne and officer that leadeth them (who ought before by the Seargeant Maior to bee named and appointed) they shall place them selues if they bee hargubuzers of the vantguard, straight be∣hinde the same: and if they be pykemen, they shall ride behinde their pikes, the same shall the hargubuzers doe that march in the rerewarde, placing them selues in the taile of the squadron, and the seruaunts of such pikemen as ride, shall goe with their pikes in the same place where their maister vse to marche in the squa∣dron, that occasion being offered, that the people should alight and march on foote. Each souldier that is on horse backe may speedily returne to his place, and the squadron neede not to bee broken or confused. The very same ought to be obserued by those soul∣diers, who though they march on foote, yet haue their men to carry their pikes: who ought to beare them hard by their Masters in the same ranke or in the other ranke behinde them: wher when necessity is offered, the souldiers may take there pikes, and their men or boyes ought incontinently get themselues out of the squa∣dron or battayl. And to tel you the truth, I like not the manner & order which I haue herein don and obserued by diuers Sergeants Maior, who placed al the seruants, lackeis, and boyes, together in order nere the bands either before them or behynd them. For it is Page  17 most manifest that in so doing the squadron cannot scape confusi∣on and disorder, and none of them that ride know their place cer∣tainely. Wheras it is most necessarie that the Sergeant Maior should in nothing so much trouble and wast himselfe as in procu∣ring his people to be so lead, that all and each of them know his owne place. For herein consisteth the conseruation of all good or∣der: when they come neare the place where they are to lodge, the Captaynes (as I haue alreadie tolde you) ought to light with in one halfe a myle at the least of it, and so following them, the other souldiers that ryde, ought likewise to light on foote, and it is conuenient that the Sergeant Maior, eyther himselfe, or by his assistant, should be acquainted with the scitua∣tion of the place a while before the companyes reach thyther. And comming vnto the place of armes or watch-hill of the sayde lodging, he ought to forme a Squadron, and make his Battaile, not permitting any Souldiers to goe to his quarter, or to dis∣ranke himselfe vntill such time that the whole regiment being ar∣riued the Sergeant Maior himselfe, or his assistaunte, commeth to the Ensignes and licence them to go to theyr lodgings. Who (as you haue séene) are lodged in the front of the quarters of each companyes, all of them in one ranke, and beneath them are the souldiers lodged. The Sergeant Maior ought not to suf∣fer in any case, that any cart or other baggage be put before the standards or Ensignes, and much lesse ought he to permitte any fire to be made there, nor any let or hinderaunce: for all a long from that place is the watch-hill, or place of armes, which ought to be kept vncombred and frée for the Squadron only. When the regiment is lodged, the Sergeant Maior ought incontinent∣ly to cause a Courte-gard of fiue and twenty men to be set about seuentie or eightie paces from the front of the lodging. And these souldiers ought to be taken out of one of those companyes that watched the night before: séeing that it appertayneth vnto them to be of the watch vntill the new watch entereth, and foure and twenty howers be expyred: saue only when one whole com∣pany is appointed to watch by day, and in this case hee ought to appoint some of the companyes of Arcabuzers to watch, and this Courte-garde which I sayde to bée set in the daye time, ought to be in the same place, where at night the companye that doo enter to watch shall be placed. After this the first thing that Page  [unnumbered] he ought to doo, is to make himselfe well acquainted with his quarter, and to sée whether it be necessary there shoulde be any pathes or wayes made, that the souldiers may commodiously get out to fight: and if néede be they should be made with all spéede, (for it oftentimes chaunceth that the companyes be lodged in Or∣chards, woods, and vines, where a man cannot without much a doo get out, vnlesse there be wayes made) it appertayneth vnto the Sergeant Maior in all hast to cause wayes to be made, and passage to be made easie, and all thinges to be taken away that may any wayes hinder or let, that the squadron can not be made with all spéede and facility. And as well for this, as for the forti∣fying of the lodgings, and making passages and wayes for the ar∣tillerie to passe: there be in all armies certaine companies of pi∣anors, ouer which the Generall of the artilery or his Liefetenant hath iurisdiction. And the Sergeant Maior making recourse vn∣to any of these, ought to prouide all thinges necessary to the pur∣pose. After this, if there be an whole armie, hee is to goe to the Maister of the Campe generall, and learne how many of the com∣panies of his regiments he shall bring to watch, & in what quar∣ter they shall be appointed. But if he be there alone with his re∣giment onely, hee ought to espie and view the place diligently, and to dispose the Sentonels in such maner that no man may pos∣sibly enter or go foorth of the lodging or quarter, vnlesse he be séene by them: and if so be that his regiment be with other regiments whether they be of ye same nation or of an other, he ought to ioyne with the Sergeant Maior of the sayd regimentes and agrée with them of the manner and order to be vsed by them in appointing the watch, and sending out the Sentonels, in so much that there be nothing neglected or left vnperfit: for all this office consisteth in warinesse and diligence: and it is very watchfulnes it selfe. Then it appertayneth vnto the Sergeant M. to go for the watch worde vnto the generall, and to take directions for the next day, and in∣continently to beare it vnto the Colonell, & to make him acquain∣ted with the directions which he bringeth: notwithstanding that sometimes the Colonell himselfe taketh the watchword and dire∣ctions of the generall, and giueth it to the S. Maior, but properly it concerneth the S. Maior to doo this. Furthermore the houre being come to set the watch (which ought not to be before the night approcheth, especially if the enemy be not farre off for the Page  18 Sergeant Maior ought as far as possible they can, to vse the mat∣ter so, that the enemy do not spy, whence they picke out those that are to watch and to stand Sentonels) he ought to gather together the company or companies that be of the watch (which ordinarily should be caused in the morning by the head drommer of the regi∣ment, to be ready) and place thē in those parts & quarters which (as I sayde aboue) hee ought to haue espyed before: and he ought straight to informe the Sergeants of those companies where they shall send out the Sentonels, and what order they shall vse in ma∣king the rownds: and he ought to haue an especiall regarde, af∣terwardes to visite all thinges and to ouer-sée them, noting and marking whether they be so doone and executed as he prescribed & ordained: and if he find any thing neglected, as well in this as all other orders and directions which he giueth the officers, he ought not to let it passe vnrebuked more or lesse seuerally, according as the case requireth. For because the Sergeants Maior are slow in rebuking and punishing the faultes and negligences which the of∣ficers and souldiers oftentimes do commit, thence it commeth to passe that they are themselues not set by, and theyr directions and orders nothing regarded.

Vargas.

You haue tolde me more then I asked of you, and I am very glad that your discretion forgetteth not to teach mée that which by reason of my ignorance I know not to aske. But now I desire you to tell me what distance you thinke there ought to be betwéene the watch, and the quarters or lodgings: and how far the Sentonels ought to be separated from the Courte-gardes, and how far distance they ought to stand the one from the other: and lastly whether they ought to stand double or single. For of all these things, I haue heard diuerse opinions, and I haue séene those things diuersely vsed.

Londonno.

In incamping, they vse oftentimes to intrench the armie, and reare a ramper round about the quarters, for the greater safetie and strength of the lodgings: and then, the com∣panyes that are of the watch ought alwayes to go out to warde, and kéepe the trench, which is the wall of the lodging or campe. But in case there be no trench, as I tolde you aboue, I would not haue, that the Courte-guard should be at the most, no further from the front of the lodgings then seuenty or eyghtye paces, in the place of armes or watch hill: how be it sometimes they Page  [unnumbered] shall finde certaine motes, ditches, or gappes so strong, that it would not be amisse for them to set the watch there, though it be something sarther from the lodging then the sayde distaunce. For such like defenses serue in stéede of trenches: but in case there be none such, then the watch ought to be sette according to the manner aboue sayde. Séeing that as well for the safety of the quarters, as to ayde and succour them if necessity should so re∣quire, it is better that the watch should be some thing neare the companyes then farre from them. The in-most Sentonelles ought to stande no farther from the courte gards then thirtie pa∣ces, and there ought not to be more distance from the one to the other, then that they may be suffered by the darkenesse of the night to sée one another. For the sentonels being as it were the wall of the Campe, and standing there to the end that no bodie may passe in or out vnlesse he be seene, if they did stande farther one from the other, they should bee deceiued of that which they entende, and fall into great inconueniences, and faultes in their watch. These Sentonels as the principall and chiefest ought to be double. Seeing that, as it is commonly sayde, more see foure eyes then two: and also if there bee a fresh and colde ayre, one of them may walke vp and downe, whilest the other watcheth: and if they see any thing whereof they ought to aduise their Cor∣porals, one of them may go and the other stande still, in so much that for all these causes it is necessary and more safe for the whole Campe, that these Sentonels should stande double. But thirtie paces beyond these Sentonels, other Sentonels stand sin∣gle, which are by some called (though not properly) forlorne Sen∣tonels, which ought to stand no farther one from another then the other first & in-most Sentonels: and if so be they sée any thing they ought to retyre to the nearer sentonels and aduising them of that which they sawe. They ought to returne to theyr places againe without calling arme at all: but if case they see any notorious quantitie of people, eyther on horse or on foote, then ought they to retyre to the double Sentonelles, and if they all three doo affirme that they are sure they see such troupes of peo∣ple comming: then ought they to call arme, but not other∣wise, for oftentimes eyther feare or a mans owne imagination maketh a small number to séeme a great many vnto one man a∣lone: and in a Camy, no man ought to call arme, but vpon great Page  19 occasion. And to this intent the carefulnesse and watchfulnesse of the Officers of the companies that watch is very important, for they ought to visit and ouersée the watch very ordinarily and dili∣gently, which likewise ought to be done by the Sergeant Maior euery night at sundry houres, as well to visit and sée whether eue∣rie thing be done according as it was ordeined, as also because this may be a chiefe cause to moue the Officers and Souldiers to looke to their charge, knowing that they shall be visited and ouerséene by the Sergeant Maior at diuers times, and rebuked and puni∣shed for theyr negligence and faults if so be they commit any. Si∣lence in Court-gards especially in the night-time is verie necessa∣rie, I meane, that all noise, stirre, cries, and hollowings, ought to be quite expelled from the watch, and if they talke one with the o∣ther, they ought to speake low & softly, with modesty. but the Sen∣tonels ought not to speake at any time, but alwaies to be not on∣lie verie watchfull in séeing and looking, but also verie attentiue in harkening: for verie many times they may chaunce to heare that which by reason of the darkenesse of night, they cannot by sight perceiue.

Vargas.

Tell me, why you said that some men improperly call the outtermost Sentinelles that stand single, forlorne Senti∣nels.

Londonno.

Because (properly he is called a forlorne Senti∣nell, that necessitie so requiring) is set either on foote or horsebacke neare to the enemies Camp, to giue aduisement whether any peo∣ple gone forth of the Camp, or whether the Camp depart secret∣ly, and this Sentinell ought to bee so neare the Camp of the ene∣my, that if hee be cfpied, hee may harlie escape, and returne with great difficultie: and ought not to bee sent, but when they haue great necessitie of such aduisements, and so this Sentinell ought not to haue the watchword of our Camp, for the inconuenience which might come, if he should be taken by the enemy, and being bribed, should let them know our watchword: but hee ought to haue a different and particuler counter-token for himselfe onely, by which he may be knowne and receiued at his returne. As for the vtmost Sentinels, that stand single by themselues before the double Sentinels, I know not vpon what reason some call them forlorne Sentinels: séeing that they standing but thirtie paces from the double Sentinels, may (sufficient cause why they should Page  [unnumbered] doo it being offered) commodiously retire backe to the double Sen∣tinels, and so as well the one as the other (if they bee forced by necessitie) may spéedely repayre to the Courte-gard.

Vargas.

Thinke you that the Sentinels when there is an al∣larme in the Camp, ought all of them to returne to their Courte∣gard.

Londonno.

In no case, if their Corporall cause them not to retire: séeing that they may not stirre from the place appointed them, without the leaue of their Corporall: those Sentinels ex∣cepted that call arme, and spie the sury of their enemy rushing vp∣on them, and be not able to resist it: these may and ought to retire to their Courte-gard, but all the rest ought to stand firmely, and kéepe their places. And séeing that I haue resolued you of the doubt you were in, and what I thinke the Sentinels ought to do, I will also tell you what I remember of those companies that watch. For oftentimes (as you haue séene) thrée or foure compa∣nies of one regiment are appointed to watch in one night. Now, if it should chance that there should be an allarme in the Camp, it were not conuenient that each company should make a squadron apart, but that they should méet * altogither by the maine Cour∣tegard, which place beeing the place of Armes is more commodious, and they ought to be appointed before, by the ser∣geant Maior there to make their Squa∣dron: whether also all the rest that are in their quarters shall assemble and ga∣ther togither: but marke, that those companies which watch either by the Captaine Generall, or by the Municion house, or out of the place of Armes, or out of their quarters, ought * not to send out theyr Sentinels: and when it happeneth so that there be an allarme in the Camp, the Sergeant Maior, (whose Squadron being made before all things, all the time the allarme continueth, doth kéepe his ward) ought to know and vnderstand the cause of the allarme very well and surely: and it being knowne vnto him, he ought to aduise his neighbour regiments of it, and especially his Captaine Generall, and the Maister of the field, without whose comman∣dement (I meane the Captaine Generall) the companies that are set in Battaile, ought not to returne to their wardes or quarters: Page  21 but after the Sergeant Maior is sure that they may safely doo it, and haue license of the Captaine Generall, hée may send out the Sentinels againe, and appoint them their places as before: and if so be that he thinke it necessary, to encrease the force of the watch, he may do it with more Souldiers or lesse, according as the neces∣sitie of the time requireth. Furthermore, seeing that we now speak of the watch and Sentinels, or shield watch, I will aduertise you of an ordinary and great negligence, which is committed as well by the vnshilfull and vnapt Officers, as common Souldiers in the maner of asking and demanding the watchword one of the other, and also in giuing it one to the other: which being one of the chie∣fest things in warfare that ought to be done, with due regard and consideration, is now least regarded, and therefore I could wish, that euerie one should be carefull of this, béeing a matter of such waight and moment: and that the Round, when he visiteth the Sentinell, if he finde him watchfull according to his dutie, he née∣deth not at * euery time to come neare him, but passe to the o∣ther Sentinels: and if hee finde them all awake and doing theyr dutie, he ought to returne to the courte∣gard. And in such a case I thinke it not necessary, that the watchword should be giuen from one side to the other, séeing that the Round commeth not neare the Sentinels. And when vpon some neces∣sary occasion, the Round commeth neare to the Sentinels, then ought the Sentinell or shield-watch (if hee be an Hargabuzer put∣ting his match into the cocke of his péece, and if he be a pikeman trailing his Pike) demand the watchword: and that no further of, that it may be heard with a low voice, and after the same ma∣ner ought the Round to giue the watch word vnto the Sentinell, who in no case ought to suffer any man to come néere him, vnlesse he giue him the watchword, although he know him to be his cap∣taine or Sergeant Maior, or maister of the camp: for the Soul∣dier being appointed Sentinell, is not * bound to know any man, Page  [unnumbered] or to let him come neare him, except he giue him the watchword. For we sée daily, that men bee easily deceiued in these two senses of hearing and séeing. And for this cause is it nowe vsed in warfare, that all the wardes receiue a countertoken or signe of the Captaine generall (which the Italians called Moto, and the Spaniards Nombre, but in England it is called the watch∣word) to exclude all suspicion and deceit, and that wee may know assuredly, that hee who giueth vs such a token or signe, is one of our Camp, and that we may safely let him come neare vs as our friend.

Vargas.

Yet I doubt of one thing by reason of that which you said but a while since. For I haue euer heard that the Senti∣nell ought not to let any man passe vnles he giue the watchword: how say you then that the Round, if he finde the Sentinell wat∣ching according to their duetie, after he hath séene them, may re∣turne to the Courtegard without giuing the watchword.

Londonno.

Know that the Sentinell ought not to let any of the Camp to go in or out vnlesse he giue the watchword, much lesse ought hee to let him come neare the place where hee himselfe standeth: but if the Round or Captaine of the watch passe eight or tenne paces from him, it is sufficient that they speake, neither is it necessary that they should be bound to giue the watchword, and this is to be vnderstood, if the Round or Captaine of the watch passe within the watch hill: for if hee passe two or fro without the Camp, then ought not the Sentinell, to suffer him come neare for to know him, though he be no farther of then the said distance, vn∣lesse he giue the watchword, and if chance he giue it not, he may slea him as an enemy, besides, note that though he that commeth from abroad out of the Camp giue the watchword, yet ought not the Sentinell fréely to let him enter in the Lodge, but he ought to accompany him vnto the double Sentinels, and charge them with him, that one of them in like maner, may go with him to the main Courte-gard, and deliuer him to the Sergeant, Ensigne, or Cap∣taine of the company, who are bound incontinently to aduise the Sergeant Maior of it, and it appertaineth vnto him to bring him to the maister of the Camp, or Captaine Generall if néed be.

Vargas.

What say you of the litle Courte-gards, which I haue séen some Sergeants Maiors take out of the maine Courte∣guards, where those Sentinels and companies be in, that watch in Page  21 the outward parts of the Camp: what thinke you of them? are you of opinion that they be necessarie?

Londonno.

Certes, I thinke that who so doth, cannot doo amisse, and I haue seene it vsed very much, and the true cause why this is vsed, is this, such courtegards are taken onely of those Souldiers, that are appointed for Sentinels and Roundes that night: to the end that the Officer or Corporall at the time when he is to change them, may finde them more readily: these courte∣gards serue also, that the Sentinels, (occasion being offered) might haue helpe and aide with more spéed, and they furthermore, cause the watch to be more vigilant and watchfull. And all whatsoeuer serueth to make a Souldier, more viligent and ready for the seruice of their companies and to discharge their dutie ought to be allow∣ed and approued as good and profitable.

Vargas.

I pray you sir, ought the watch to retire from theyr ward in the morning, without expecting or looking for any other order.

Londonno.

No: but euen as they were appointed to watch by the Sergeant Maior, so may they not return without his com∣mand, for he is bound him selfe or his assistant to come and release them, and set the others whose turne it is to watch by day. And séeing it commeth to the purpose, you shall vnderstand, that the companies being set in the watch or in battaile, or lodged in theyr quarters, or embarked in ships, when they are in seruice, then may none of them stir or passe out of the place appointed them (obser∣uing such discipline as ought to be vsed in warfare) vnlesse the Ser∣geant Maior giue order for it. Neither ought the Maister or chiefe heads of the Campe, giue any such order vnto the companies, or commaund them any thing, but by the meanes of the Sergeant Maior, who is the guide, key & instrument of all such commands, iniunctions, and proclamations, which the Captains General and maisters of the Camp cause to be made vnto their companies, and so likewise without his license ought no Generall or particular E∣dict, command, or proclamation, to be made in his Regiment. And if there be any Municion of Powder, Match, Leade, Victuals r weapons, prouided for the Regiment, (all which ought to be ca∣sed to be brought by the chiefe Furrire or Commissary, if there be one) it apperteineth vnto the Sergeant to part & diuide it among the companies. And also the Sergeant Maior is the Generall and Page  [unnumbered] onely procurer of the welfare of all the Souldiers, for it appertei∣neth vnto him to solicitate that they be prouided of all things ne∣cessary, as when they are without weapons, or want Municion, or victuals, to make sute vnto the Generall and chiefe of the camp, that they may haue it: and if they be not well paid and want mo∣ney hauing great néed of it, he is to speake vnto the maister of the Camp and to the Generall, to prouide their pay, and if there be a∣ny sicke or hurt, or sorely wounded in the Camp, he ought to cause them to be carried very carefully to the Hospitals and places ap∣pointed for that intent, prouiding them of Cartes, baggages and Waggons (if it bee necessarie) and to doo all this, hee is to haue the helpe of all the Officers in his Regiment, who ought to ayde and obey him. For hee vseth the Captaine of the fielde to sée the Cartes and baggages that are necessarie for the Regiments, and also guides for the wayes. When they are to march some iour∣ney, the chiefe Furrire standeth the Sergeant Maior in stead, to bring Municion and victuals: and the Sergeants to lead the soul∣diers in good order, & in those things that apperteine to the watch, he vseth the Ensigne: and sheweth him what order he will haue obserued for the seruice of the companies: and the Drumme Ma∣ior serues to proclaime the generall commandes and Edicts, and aduises the Captaines that are to watch. But aboue all things it is necessarie that the Sergeant Maior should haue an assistant to helpe him, with whom he should (with the will of the counsell and chiefe of the camp) communiate his power and authoritie: of whom the Captaines and Officers of the Regiment ought to re∣ceiue the order to be obserued, & obey him as the Sergeant Maior himselfe. And therefore it is requisite, that he should be a very suffi∣cient man, welbeloued & well known, left he lose the credit & coun∣tenance, which hée ought to haue in respect of the Office which he beareth, for want of those parts and qualities that are required in such like persons.

Vargas.

You haue satisfied me of many things that I had in my minde ready to aske of you: but besides the rest, I would now request you to tell me, of whom the Sergeant Maior, is to take the watch-word.

Londonno.

Of the Captaine Generall, Coronell, or Maister of the camp onely.

Vargas.

And put the case, that some Captaine remaine Go∣uernor Page  22 ouer the companies of his Regiments, as it daily falleth out, ought the Sergeant Maior to take the watch-word of him?

Londonno.

I thinke not.

Vargas.

Ought then the Sergeant Maior to giue it himself?

London.

No: for it apperteineth to the gouernor to giue it.

Vargas.

Why then vnto whom doth it appertain to aske it?

Londonno.

The Serg. Maior his assistant ought to go to the gouernor to fetch it, & incontinently to bring it to the Ser. Maior.

Vargas.

And if it chance hee hath not any assistant (as most times they haue none,) who shall take it?

Londonno.

Then it apperteineth vnto the Sergeant of the company that is to watch, to go & take it, & bring it to the S. Ma∣ior himselfe onely for to obserue. The honor and preheminence due to an Office of so great authoritie, as the Office which the Ser∣geant Maior beareth, of whō (as in our former discourse) you haue béen certified the Captains receiue the orders by them to be obser∣ued, it is not decent, much lesse cōuenient, that the sergeant Maior should go to take the watchword of any one but his superior.

Vargas.

But I pray you sir, is it not more estéemed & of more credit, for one to be Captaine, then a Serg Maior: séeing that to reward him, they vse to giue him a band company of men.

Londonno.

Of this the Emperor Charles the fift, of happy memory, marueiled, and not without great reason: for one Villan∣drando a Serg. Maior, in the seruice done at Dura, comming vn∣to him to aske a certaine company of him, that had béen vacant: making more account to be captaine of the same, then of the Of∣fice he did beare, the Emperor answered, y the office of a S. Maior was far more preeminent, then ye order prescribed vnto them by the S. Maior, & taketh directions by the Generall, or of the King or Em∣peror himself: & in war the S. Maior is barred from no place, but he may fréely enter into the Pauilion, or chamber of the king, or Generall. Villandrando, answered his Maiestie, yt he had reason, but that it was of old vsed among y Spanish footemen, that the S. Maior should in reward, be made captaine of some company, by reason yt the wages or stipend giuen to the S. Maior was so small and miserable. And for this cause, verie well doe the Germans, Italians, and Frenchmen, alwaies choose one of the best and most sufficient Captains, to bear this Office: and so they are both Page  [unnumbered] Captaines and Sergeant Maior together: and in the absence of their Coronell or Maister of the Camp (by the law of war) it ap∣perteineth vnto them in their stead to gouern the bands or compa∣nies of their regiments: and surely they doo very wisely: and the Spaniards onely cannot yet consider it, whence grow many in∣conueniences, for we sée that verie many are chosen to exercise the Office of a Sergeant Maior, that are very vnapt, insufficient, and vnskilfull (as we haue noted in the beginning of this discourse:) and because they haue not that authoritie and power which is re∣quired in such a charge, it falleth out oftentimes that the Captains set nought by them, whereas if they were Captaines of a compa∣ny besides as well as they, they would not contemne them: and also, Captaines doo more willingly obey and receiue the order pre∣scribed by another Captaine as they bee, then of him that is but Sergeant Maior, and who (as they know) aspireth to bee made Captaine of a bande of men, in reward of his seruice. And be∣cause I thinke it be something late, and I beléeue we haue runne through all the chiefest points concerning this Office, that are ne∣cessary well to discharge it, let vs turne ouer the land, that séeing we haue walked something farre by reason of this delectable and pleasant Riuer, before wée returne I may tell you, what I thinke the Sergeant Maior ought to doo, when he with his Regi∣ment entereth into some place or Fortresse to lie in Garrison, and herewith wée will close vp our discourse to day, But first I will tell you, that séeing the Sergeant Maior is to take order and di∣spose of so many and waightie matters, and that hée is to make prouision of so many thinges: and séeing that hée ought to be so vigilant and quicke in ouerséeing and discharging the one, and in prouiding for the other: hée ought when hée goeth to the field to be well prouided of good Nagges. And know, that he onely is allowed at all times and in all partes, and vpon what occasion soe∣uer, to crosse vp and downe the Squadrons and Battailes of the Army on Horse backe: yea althogh hée goe to the Captaine Generall to fetch the watchword: and if it chaunce he bee séene on Horsebacke, it ought not to be imputed to ill or vntowardly bringing vp, neither is he bounde to go on foote, as some vnfit and sottishe Seargeant Mayor doe, for the carefulnesse and spéedinesse, necessarie in his charge requireth such prehemi∣nence. And in the daye, that is appointed for the battayle, Page  23 ought he much lesse to be on foote, and place himselfe in the ranke among the other Captaynes, as some be perswaded hee ought to doo: séeing that he fighting there can stande in stead but of one: whereas if he be on horsebacke he may serue for many, ouersée∣ing and prouiding for many things that at such times chance to be necessary and which often are cause of the victorie: and because no particular thing appertayning vnto this office that I remember, shall escape vnspoken of, I will not passe with silence (because I haue séene many ignorant fellowes take it in digeon) how that the Sergeants Maior ordinarily beare a short sticke something thicke in their hand, which serueth them for very many vses: as well to separate horses one from an other, and cause other bagga∣ges to be remooued & set a side, which oftentimes do much harme to the rankes and squadrons, causing confusion, as to shew and point certaine things which they commaund, vsing it as wee vse our foorefinger Index, when we showe or point at any thing: and they vse also at the instant and present time to correct and punish the disobedience of some souldiers with this cudgell: which no man ought to be ashamed of, or thinke himselfe iniured or abused, and he is a very ignorant fellowe that will take it in dugeon, for euen so both the Maister of the campe, the Captaynes and the Ser∣geants Maior with such a sticke or leading staffe vse to correct the souldiers, and oftentimes breake it on his head that is stubborne and will not obay, going out of order contrary to the captayne or Sergeant Maior his direction, and it is very well done, séeing it is done to punish them for their vnrulinesse. Furthermore this leading staffe is ordinarily the Sergeant Maior his wepon, wher∣with he iustly punisheth the faults of his souldiers, and would to God all those vnreasonable and brutish corrections were banished out of the warres, which many Officers doo with their swordes and holberds, wounding their men & breaking their limmes, yea and also killing many of them for very small faults, and vpon lit∣tle occasion, which ought not to be doone, but in cases of notori∣ous disobedience, and vnlesse it were necessarily required for di∣uerse worthy respects that they should be punished in fraganti. We haue made an end of all things that séeme vnto me to be ne∣cessary for a Sergeant Maior to exercise his office in the field, now will we passe on forwards and entreate of those things which hée ought to doo, when he entereth into some fortresse or campe with Page  [unnumbered] his companies to lodge there, and to appoint the watch for the safe defence of the same, and therfore I say, that when a regiment lyeth in garrison in some place, and is to remaine there some daies for to kéepe the same, the first thing that the Sergeant Maior ought to doo, is to make himselfe acquainted with the place both within and without, vewing each part and parcell thereof, and considering which partes are most necessary and commodious for to place the Courte-gardes and Sentonelles or shield-watch, and also wherethe rowndes may be appointed to goe in the night time to ouersée the Sentonelles: hee ought likewise to marke what place may bee most fitte for the place of armes or watch-hill, where if chance there should be an allarum, the soul∣diers might assemble and gather together: and this being done, he ought to diuide & quarter out his companies according as he shall thinke it néedefull or requisite for the safe defence of that place and of this partition which he maketh (first of all communicating it vnto the Maister of the Camp) he shall giue his ensigne an instru∣ction, signed with his name in writing, to the end that none of the Officers may with reason excuse himselfe, if any negligence or carelesnesse be committed by them touching the watch, other∣wise then was ordayned or appointed them, séeing they had it set downe in writing. The Seargeant Maior must bee aduised that he ought to be very circumspect and warie in parting his companyes, and setting the watch in a Fortresse or Campe, especially if it happen so that the enemie haue his Campe not farre off (how so euer warinesse, watchfulnesse, and diligence is very necessarie at all times in this profession) and so he must take héede that hee commit not that errour and ouersight that manie Seargeantes Maior doo in deuiding the watch of the place by quarters, appointing each companie theyr quarter, my meaning is that hee should not appoint each companye a part of the wall or rampier, ordinarily to keepe and defende the same: séeing that for the most part that anie Fortresse, Citie, Towne, Castle or Campe, hath béene taken or assaulted by charge, the cause thereof hath béene, that the Corporall or Sen∣tonell being bribed, did knowe the place or quarter in which it appertayned vnto him ordinarily to watch. And I could make a true rehearsall in testimonie héereof, of those thinges which I haue my selfe séene passed in the warre of Sena, I beeing my Page  24 selfe in proper person called as a witnesse to the selfe same matter which I meane here to declare, which was thus: Don Garcia de Toledo, who (was Generall of the armie by reason of the death of his father Don Pedio de Toledo Uiceroy) beseiging Montalehin, a certayne Sergeant of the Duke of Soma, and a Corporall a very friende of his, both of them banished out of the kindgome of Naples, being appointed and charged alwayes to watch one selfe same place & quarter of the wall, occasion seruing them, they offered Don Garcia de Toledo, that they would let him with all the forces that he would bring thether, enter into the place, by that quarter & part of the wall which was cōmitted vnto theyr ward: and as this treason was euen concluded, it fell out that at the same instant one Iordanus Vrfenus, (who was at the defence of Montalehin) ordayned as a vigilant and carefull man (how be it the rumour runned that it was doone by the coun∣sell of Captaine Moretus, who was also at the same time within that place with his companye) that the watch shoulde no more bee sette by appointing each companie their quarter in which they ordinarily shoulde watch, during the time of theyr beeing there, as they had doone thether to, but that all the companyes that were appointed to watch gathering toge∣ther in the place of armes, should cast lots for the places and quarters in which each one shoulde watch, so that afterwarde the foresayde Seargeant and Corporall béeing vnsure of the place where they shoulde watch, could not bring their treason to effect, which in a very fewe dayes after chaunced to bee dis∣couered by fault of one of their seruauntes, so that they were therefore executed, and hanged by the féete on the tappe of the wall, as all they that were in that seruice and place salue, and as I beléeue will remember it. Therefore the Seargeant Maior ought not onely to ordayne that the companyes that are appoynted to watch shoulde cast lottes euerie night, to see whose lott it chaunceth to bee to watch in this or that quarter or part of the wall, but following the right order, it is conue∣nient and necessarie that the Squadron and Sentonelles shoulde doo the same, so that neyther the Squadrons knowe their quar∣ter, nor the companyes what part of the wall they shall kéepe, nor the Sentonelles much lesse what place they shall stande in before the very houre that the watch is set. Neyther is there Page  [unnumbered] any cause why any Officer or souldier shoulde take this in duge∣on, imagining that they be but little trusted, and that their fide∣litie and faithfulnesse is had in question: for wee knowe that in all congregations and companyes that were most faithfull and true to theyr Princes and common-weales, there haue neuer béene base mindes wanting, who being eyther enduced by luker, or ouercome with some humaine passion, haue made sale of coun∣tries, Prouinces, and Kingdomes. Besides this, no Nation that maintaineth warre ought in this age to be more carefull and wa∣ry then the Spanish, séeing we knowe how odious it is general∣ly vnto all other countryes, because they haue euer since foure∣score yeares hitherward, maintayned warres ordinarily for the seruice of their king in most partes of Europe: and séeing that it is most certayne, that among the bandes and companyes of Spa∣nish souldiers, there be many straungers that serue among them, as Italians, Germans, Frenchmen, Fleminges, Englishmen, and Burgunnians, who seruing and being brought vp among the Spaniards from their youth, learne to speake the spanish tongue so perfectly, that it is impossible to discerne many of them from naturall Spaniards: and of these, many (as by experience wee haue béene taught) haue often attempted foule and filthy practi∣ses, in so much that all the care which in this case is taken, is most iustlye taken and with great reason, and wee ought to bee verie scrupulous and curious herein, which our curio∣sitie and warinesse ought to be allowed, and approoued of vs all to be most profitable, good, and necessarie, for no mans credite is thereby diminished or any whitt empayred, but the oppor∣tunitie and occasion of treason is taken from them that beare disloyall and trayterous mindes, and herewithall, all they that lye in garrison, are most safe from daunger, and sure of their liues, and the kinges seruice is accordingly looked vnto. But to returne to our purpose: the Sergeant Maior hauing diuided his men according to the manner aforesayde, hee is to regarde, whether the Courte-gardes into which the companie or com∣panyes are to enter, or they that watch at the gates, or the horsemen: whether the sayde Courte-gardes be commodi∣ous or fitte for the turne, or lacke reparation, and like∣wise, whether the Sentinell house where the Sentinels must stande, bee well placed and can resist against the stormes of Page  25 raine and winde, and if chaunce they be ruinous and weather bea∣ten, the Sergeant Maior ought to cause them to be repaired with all speede at the coste of the countrey as by custome is vsed, hee ought also to consider whether the rounds may easely passe round about the walls, and if there be any difficulty, he ought inconti∣nently to cause the passage to be made easey. Furthermore pro∣uision is to be made of lampes and lanternes as wel for the court∣garde, as for the rownds and countre roundes. As for the com∣panies that are of the watch, the Sergeants Maior vse to set them at different houres, the one party in the morning, the other at night, and sometims later then at other times, as they think good, but according to my minde (if necessity constrayned me not to doe otherwise) I would alwayes set the watch an hower before Sun∣sette: that the souldier may come to the watch after supper, and so shal he haue no occasion to goe frō the watch, after he is come thi∣ther, and before the gates be shut vp, no man ought to be vnar∣med, for leauing aside how necessary carefulnes and watchfulnes is in such cases, it it likewise needefull that the souldiers should bée taught and made to vnderstand how filthy and alienate it is from their profession to doe as they doe. Viz. that as soone as they are entered in to the court guarde, incontinently they hang vp theyr weapons on the walles, vnarming themselues presently, and this licentiousnes is so farre come, that not onely in places where they lie in garrison, but in the field also, and when they haue an opposite army iust ouer against them, they doe the very same, which ought in no case to be permitted. For no souldier ought to be suffered to vnarme himselfe before he seeth his ansigne to dosse his armour, on whome they ought to cast their eies to imitate him, as they doe on the standard which he beareth to follow him, in so much that the ansignes ought to be very circumspect in their seruice, that the souldier may not take example by them of negli∣gence and carelessenes, but rather may by imitating them becom painfull and diligent. For this profession is chiefely maintayned by continuall exercise. To conclude, great care ought to be had at the opening and shutting vppe of the gates, séeing that at such times great occasion of daunger may easely bee offered. For which the Sergeant Maior ought to appoint the sergeant or ser∣geants that watch to bee present, at the opening and shutting of the gates, with their men well armed, and none of them ought to Page  [unnumbered] be suffered to haue his cloake about him, or any other thing that may hinder him, or be troublesome vnto him. And first let foure or sixe souldiers of the company goe forth through the wickets of the gates of the cities, and looke whether al be well, walking thrée or fourescore paces from the gates, and if all be frée from daunger and in safety, then let the gates be opened, and first let them of the citty passe out, not in clusters, but by little and little, one by one, but especially if there be cartes or baggage to goe forth, and til all they be past, that goe out of the cittie, none ought to be suffered to passe in, no, not so much as to come neare the gates, when they be all forth that are to goe out of the gates, then after the same manner may they enter, that will goe into the cittye, and it is ve∣ry necessary that at euery gate there be one with a long pike of y∣ron, that if any carte passe by with hay or strawe he may passe it through with his iron pike, to know whether there be no fraude or trechery, séeing that Caesar of Naples in those cartes which he would haue to goe to Turin, aduised vs that a fortresse, castle, or citty, might easily be gotten by such •••ights. In all court guards the Sergeant Maior ought to command two Sentinels to be ap∣pointed both day and night, one for the weapones, the other for the fielde. Furthermore prouision of wood ought to bee made at at times, for though in sommer time it be not necessary againste cold, yet there ought to be fier to kindle the matches, greate care ought to be had that ther be some commodious place in the court∣guards to hang vppe the corslets, and where all the gunnes maye lie in good order, for this is not onely necessary that if chaunce there be an alarme on the suddayne, each souldier may with more snéede finde his weapon, but also to shunne confusion, and to ob∣serue due order in the courte-guard, which is an ornament vnto it. The Sergeant Maior shoulde not suffer any one in the court∣gard to play at tables or dice, when the companies of the watch enter in, for that séemeth to be very vncomely and vndecent, and it is a token of contempte and disdaine, as little respecting those that come in, and setting nought by them, for seeyng the compa∣nies represent the authority of the King, the souldiers are bounde to receiue them in all places, all armour and noise ought to be en∣stranged, yea quite banished out of the courte-guard, rounde and counter round, if any one of them that watch picke a quarell or make any braulle in the court-guard, either in word or deede, hee Page  26 ought to be seuerely punished, because such a company being toge∣ther, there might that soone be set on fire, which would not in hast be extinguished. The round and countre rounds may be of more or lesse people, and continue more long or shortly, according as ne∣cessity requireth, but they may neuer returne to the company af∣ter they be gone forth, til their turn be ended, which they ought to spend in going vp and downe about the wall, visiting and ouersée∣ing the watchfulnesse of those that stand Sentinell. The very same ought they to doe that are rounds in the fielde, and because sometimes it is thought to be doubtfull, in case the rounde meete with the vpper round, either in the fielde or where they lie in gar∣rison, whither of the two ought first to giue the watchword, and vppon this pointe there be diuers opinions, and many moue this doubt, making an Elephant of a Flie, framing a question De La∣nacaprina, (as Horace sayeth) I say that the vpper rounds most commonly be of officers, and so according to reason, and due obe∣dience, it is more iust that the round should geue place, and giue the name first vnto the vpper rounde, but because Captaynes doe also vse to rounde in the ordinary turnes, to the end that no man may iustly take any thing in dugeon or be grieued, and to take al occasion of doubt, and inconuenience, the Sergeant Maior (vnto whose charge it is committed to dispose and appointe the watch rounds, and vpper rounds) ought to leaue order with the compa∣nies how they ought to doe as concerning this point, which ought to be such, that the round shall alwayes giue place vnto the vpper round, and geue the watchword first, and for this cause the offi∣cers of the companies should be alwaies appointed to be of the vp∣per round as by custome it is vsed. And if chaunce that there bee officers in both the rounds, or none in either of them, but they be all souldiers, yet howsoeuer, it is greate reason that the rounde should geue place and giue the watchword first. Seeing that the vpper rounds are of more preheminence, for they are not onely appointed to doe the same which the rounds doe, to wit, to regard whether the court-gard and they that stand Sentinel do their duty or not, but also to see whether the rounds them selues faile not of their duty. But you must know that this which we haue said is to be vnderstood, in case that the vpper rounds be ordinary, as ye roūds are, for when the Master of the cāp or gouernor of the place wher they lie in garrison, or the Sergeant Maior round extraordinarily Page  [unnumbered] (as they sometimes doe) then it appertayneth vnto them to giue the watchword. First: for the round not knowing that there is any vpper round, is not bound to giue the watchword vnto anye one, but to the Sentonel, and he is to knowe and aske the watch∣word of all them that he méeteth, and examine them what they are, and what they doe there, taking them that he findeth guilty, or going about any harme, and all other suspicious persons that he chaunceth to méete withall. Furthermore before we passe from this pointe, I would you should be aduertised of an error (which is not very small) and it is committed ordinarily, by reasonof the ne∣gligence and carelessnes of the officers, and I lay this fault of this abuse onely vpon the officers, for it is most manifest that the soul∣diers do as they are taught to doe by the officers, and the abuse is, that when one standeth Sentonell, if another souldier come to him to haue him away, he doth not onely leaue his place, but also if chaunce that the other souldier haue not the watchword the Sen∣tonell him selfe giueth it vnto him, and so doing, hee committeth all these faults following. First he doth il because as we haue said, that no souldier standing Sentonel, ought to suffer any one to com neare him without giuing the watchword. Secondly hee is too blame, in that he himself giueth the watchword vnto him that com∣meth, whereas the Sentonell ought not to giue the watchworde vnto any one whatsoeuer. Thirdly he doth contrary to his duety in leauing his place and ceasing to stand Sentonell, before the of∣ficer vnto whom it appertayneth to take him thence, commeth in proper person to renue him. But the negligence and small regard of the officers, who loth to take the paines to rise them selues to remoue the Sentinels (as they are bound to do it) are cause of these abuses, and haue brought in this naughty custome, that the Ser∣geant or Corporall towards night, name foure souldiers to stand Sentinel in one place, leauing order that when one hath stood out his turn, should cal the other, and that they should communicate ye watchword, and giue it one to another among themselues, which ought not in any case to be don, for it is most iust that the officers should perform that which apertaineth vnto them to do according as they are bound by their offices, and he that doth not so, is vn∣worthy of his office which hee beareth, and ought to bee put be∣sides his office, and besides this, the watchword being the safety and trust of the watch of the campe of garrison, it ought with great Page  27 regarde and discretion bee giuen by the Seargeant Maior to the Seargeant, and of them to the Corporall and Sentinels, and so (due order obserued) the Seargeant Maior ought not to giue the watchword in the field, before the Sentinels be sent out: and when he lieth in garison in anie place, he ought not to giue it before the gate be shut vp. Neither ought the Sergeants nor Corporals giue it to the Sentinels before the verie instant that they bee sent out. And note that if chance anie one be sent forth by night (as ordina∣rily it happeneth to be necessarie) the Seargeant Maior ought to cause the watchword which was appointed for the watche to bee chaunged for diuerse inconueniences that might fall out by not so doing. Now after all these things are orderly appointed, the Ser∣geant Maior ought at sundrie times and diuerse houres to visite them, and sée how they be looked vnto, finding falt with them that are blame worthie, and punishing them that deserue correction. The Sergeant Maior ought alwayes to be personally present in the watch, hauing great regard what number of men serue in eue∣rie Companie, according to the mustre which they make. Wher∣of the Muster master or Tresurer ought to make faith vnto the Seargeant Maior. Who (if so be that he can find or perceiue that the Companies receiue paie for more men then they watch with) ought to make the Officers of the companies to giue him account of it: for oftentimes many souldiers by reason of theyr Officers negligence become carelesse, and so they regarde not theyr duetie. They ought not to permit at the entering or departing of the watch, that the Corslets should want anie péece of their armour, or the Harguebuzer come without his head péece, and much lesse, that they should serue with rustie weapons, or notoriously ill gra∣uen, nor the pikes without arminges, seeing that it is not onely a great ornament vnto a Squadron to haue all the pikes with ar∣mings, but it maketh the squadron to séeme greater, which is a ve∣rie important circumstance. For al shewes that are likely to cause a terror or feare to the enemies, ought to be esteemed and greatlie accounted of. When the Companies of the watch enter into the place of Armes, it is ordinarily vsed, that the Gunne-men beeing come to the place (who vse to march in the vantgard towarde the Court-gard) should parte and open, making a lane for the Pike∣men to enter, vauncing theyr Pikes as soone as they come neere Page  [unnumbered] the Harguebuzerie. But I do not like this manner, for the watch to enter, for to march vauncing theyr pikes, is no time necessary in warres, and in so doing the souldiers exercise themselues in things not necessarie. Therefore they ought to shunne the absurdities which you sée the Corslets ordinarily commit in stepping backe, when they vaunce theyr Pikes, and so they march without anie firmnesse, which is a verie ill thing. And to shunne it, it is better that the Corslets should enter by the harguebuzerie marching the pikes, and when they come to the end of the lane where the Cap∣tayne standeth, without parting or opening, they shoulde vaunce them, staying in theyr araie, and so from hand to hande make the ranks following, and that the harguebuziers, as soone as the ranke of Pikes being vaunced come néere them, should close to it, and fill vp the said ranke, following this order till the end, so that the squa∣dron may be framed: and as well the Harguebuzes as Corslettes ought to be so vsed in doing this, that it bee not necessarie that the Officer put them in order: and if two Companies enter to watch at one time, as it often chanceth, then they shoulde ioyne together into one squadron, taking the harguebuzerie at each flanke, and the Corslets without marring the raies should enter in the midst, noting by the waie that the Standarde remaine alwayes in the centre of the people. And I haue proued this maner of ioining two Companies (being in hearses) into one squadron, and diuers times caused it to be done at the entering of the watch, and it hath béene verie well thought of, and approued by Captaines of greate pru∣dence and experience. And though there were no other reason for it then this, that they which followe Warres, in all places and at all times, when and where they be together with theyr weapons in theyr handes, ought to frame themselues in a squadron, without which they cannot haue such perfection and strength as is requs∣red, yet is it a most sufficient cause. And besides this, the profite which ensueth, by reason that the souldiers by these meanes and continuall practise, become ready and well instructed in matters of so great importance, is excéeding great. The Companies that watch when others enter, may not departe from the watch hill or place of Armes, vntill such time as they that enter to watch, haue framed theyr squadron. But hauing theyr weapons in their hands and standing at the sides of the Court-gard, they must stay til they Page  28 are all entered, and then they may depart orderly eache one to his lodging. The Seargeant Maior ought to be verie carefull in the daie time to visite the Court-gardes, and so dooing he shall force both the officers and souldiers to looke to their wards, which they ought not in anie case to leaue, saue onely when they go to dinner, and that by order, each one in his turne with his tabling mate, or Tamarda. And when some forcible necessitie is offered, no souldi∣er ought to depart from his warde without leaue from his Offi∣cers, séeing that the souldiers are no lesse bound from that day that they entered into this profession of warfare, to bee obedient vnto the Captaines and Officers, doing nothing without theyr leaue: then those Friers that are tied to many strait orders, are to theyr Priors or Wardens. For when they be entered into the Bookes of his Maiesties paie at the first daie of their souldiership, to serue rather in this Companie then in that, betokeneth and signifieth no other thing but this onely, that they promise and sweare secret∣ly and inwardly in heart, to serue theyr King or Prince, obeying all and euerie thing that the Officers of their Companies shall or doe command them touching his Maiesties seruice. But I meane not that they shal not be bound to obey the Officers of other com∣panies. For they owe due obeysance vnto all Officers, as well to the Officers of other companies, as to the Officers of theyr com∣panies in all things concerning the orders by them giuen and pre∣scribed, especially when they are ranked in a squadron, or march in order, or standing at the watch, briefly, in all things appertaining vnto theyr Princes seruice. Yet this ought to bee noted, that no souldier ought to bee punished for his disobedience, vnlesse it bee in such things as concerne their prince his seruice. As when they con∣temne or despise anie Officer in matters touching the order. For in other particular & priuate matters, that touch not the seruice of the King, the Officers are no lesse bound to be humble, mécke, and vse good behauiour toward the souldiers. Seruatis, seruandis, then the souldiers are to be towards them, and those Officers that a∣midst theyr games and priuate conuersation, for theyr owne com∣moditie passe the limites of ciuilitie, often abusing certaine souldy∣ers both in words many times and also in déedes, should be seuere∣ly punished. For thence it procéedeth that the souldiers afterwards set naught by them in matters of order and gouernment, beeing Page  [unnumbered] prouoked and stirred vp against them by their hard vsage, where∣as neuerthelesse all Officers ought contrarily to loue and vse all souldiers that are vnder theyr protection and gouernment, as their owne naturall sonnes. And aboue all other the Seargeant Maior ought so to do, séeing that it may verie truly be sayd, that he is the generall Father of all the souldiers that serue in his Regiment. Now Sir, séeing that the people are lodged, and I (to confesse the truth) weary of this our long discourse, I wil conclude with telling you that it doth not onely appertaine vnto the Seargeant Maior to be the generall maister of all good discipline in Warres, and to be the onely and vniuersall procurer of all bodily and corporall ne∣cessities for the souldiers, but he ought also to haue no lesse regard and care of theyr soules: persecuting and banishing all publique sinne out of the Armie, as leude liuers, théeues, and all such as liue dissolutely and shamefully, and aboue all things he ought to be ve∣rie watchfull and diligent, in not permitting anie one in the campe to blaspheme the name of God, no not so much, if possible be, as to sweare by his name, séeing that his diuine Maiestie is so greatly of∣fended with both of those horrible sinnes. For in the Armie where there is no feare of God, and the foundation and principall intent be not to séeke his glorie and honour, there can nothing bee sure, nothing good or certaine. Certes it is a griefe to beholde, that a∣mong a people which ought to bee most zealous in the seruice of theyr Creator (séeing that the obtaining of the victorie doth not consist in the vertue of the multitude of armes, nor in the force of wepons, but in the intercession of his grace, without whose proui∣dence not so much as the leafe of a trée can be moued) are so many vices and abhominations. And verily we should most iustly wéepe and deplore the weake remembraunce of men, when wee sce that those men are so forgetfull of Gods iust indgements, who aboue all other kindes of people haue death euerie moment more nighest and surest before their eyes, and by all our ill kinde of liuing, it see∣meth that when anie one taketh the Pike in hande to become a souldier, euen that daie he renounceth to bee a Christian any lon∣ger, and maketh profession euer after to be a Gentil, and (which is worst of all) that our ignorance is so great, that many vnskilfull fellowes, and men without conscience, thinke and holde opinion, that it is contrarie to a good and valiant souldier, to bee a good Page  29 Christian and to feare God, but let all such knowe, that contrarily it is impossible for anie man to be a right good and valyant souldi∣er, if he lacke the foundation of the feare of God, for though wee see many dissolute and ill liuing souldiers verie resolute to die, and being so determined fight couragiouslie, daring both to buckle with theyr enemies, and to die, if occasion be offered, yet wee may most truly turne this theyr boltnes to a beastly brutish minde, sée∣ing that it doth not procéede from true fortitude, which euer is ac∣companied with the feare of God, and it is rather a right temeri∣tie of bruite beasts, and not of men indued with reason, for they consider not, nor vnderstand not how great a thing that is which they put in aduenture, and so for the most parte we sée that such men, vpon the least occasion in the world, though it bee most vyle and of no value, as some smal commoditie or vanitie: hazard their liues, which they ought to make so great account of, which they ought then to put in daunger with all theyr heartes, and making no account of it, when iustice and counsell requireth. God graunt it may please his mercie to take awaie the darknesse of this most cleere and apparant ignorance from our vnderstanding, that wée may so knowe and serue him in this our temporall warfare, vnder the standard and fayth of our soueraigne Lorde and inuincible Captaine Iesus Christ, that we may deserue by him to be made partaker of that celestiall and glorious warrefare in triumphant Hierusalem. Maister Vargas. we haue made an end at one time both of our discourse and our iourney also. And I beséech you to pardon me if I haue not bin able to satisfie your request according to your desire, for my simple talent is no farther extended: and be fully persuaded that I haue not taken this paines so much for my pleasure, as to accomplish your desire, which paines I shall thinke ill bestowed if you take it in part of my seruice toward you: and now good Sir, let vs fall to such meate as we haue here, for it may be your chamber-fellow hath alreadie dined.

Vargas.

I am beholding vnto you for your curtesie, and you well knowe that it is not new or strange to me to take part with you at dinner, but as for this daie I meane not any more to weary you, for if I went to dine with you, I am certaine that séeing you haue now so fully satisfied me, in that I desired so gréedilie to know Page  [unnumbered] concerning the Office of the Seargeant Maior, (which amongst many other good turnes and déedes of true friendshippe which I haue receiued of you I account not the least) I should not leaue to speak of the other points which I mentioned yesterdaie vnto you: but I am contented for this time, so you will some other daie (if occasion bée offered) with some shorte discourse daine to sa∣tisfie my desire.

Londonno.

I will refuse no paines to do you seruice, and so God be your guide.

Vargas.

Hee bée with you also and all others.

FINIS.
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