The A, B, C, of armes, or, An introduction directorie whereby the order of militarie exercises may easily bee vnderstood, and readily practised, where, when, and howsoeuer occasion is offered
I. T.
Page  [unnumbered]Page  [unnumbered]

THE A, B, C, OF ARMES, OR, An Introduction Directorie; whereby the order of Militarie ex∣ercises may easily bee vnderstood, and readily practised, where, when, and howsoeuer occasion is offered.

By I. T. Gent.

Nomen & officium militiae dehonestant imperiti.

LONDON, Printed by W. Stansby, for Iohn Helmes, and are to be sold at his shop in S. Dunstane Church-yard in Fleet-street. 1616.

Page  [unnumbered]Page  [unnumbered]


IT was (nec immeritò) obiected to Machia∣nel, as a token of ex∣treme folly (how∣soeuer otherwayes he was too well ac∣quainted with Policy) that being a pen-man by profession, he aduentu∣red so farre vpon reading, and heare-say: that he prescribed rules, and da∣red to giue direction to Mars and his followers: to free my selfe from like imputation; know all such to whose knowledge, I desire to bee endeard Page  [unnumbered](that is to souldiers and their louing friends) that howsoeuer at this time (the heauenly powers so directing it) I practise in the Schole of Peace and pro feodo punish others, qui vi & rmis, &c. yet heretofore I haue had a fellow-feeling of a Souldiers la∣bour in the field: and for some yeers beene eye-witnesse of warlike de∣signes: learning the dutie of Obedi∣ence, and practising the action of Re∣solution (absit arrogantia veritatem di∣cere) aswell in Campe beleagring, as in Citie besieged. So that I need not doubt, but that I may without iust aspersion repeate the letters, though now no professed Souldier, since I presume not to ioyne the syllables of Armes. And whereas *S. Bernard de∣cyphering fiue ends of knowledge, onely approueth these two, wisely or charitably, thereby to better them∣selues or others: I haue (me iudice) squared some part of this vacation Page  [unnumbered]studie according to the leuell of this Directorie. And though in these Hal∣tion dayes, wherein Peace and Plentie lull vs asleepe in the lap of Securitie, Souldiers are out of request, and my more profitable studies, necessitatis gratia, otherwise chiefly bestowed: and no hope left for mee this way to purchase either praise or profit: yet, that I might not vtterly forget, what formerly, not without some care and cost, I learned: and that such my friends, as in this faire peacefull sun∣shine will not altogether leaue behind them, the cloke of Martiall experi∣ence, which might somewhat couer them, if a storme chance (as heauen forfend it should) to trouble them, in their iourny here: I say, that al might in somewhat partake of that poore mite of skill, which I formerly gay∣ned: which, were it lesse, might by communicating it, profit some, but preiudice none: I haue, and not with∣out Page  [unnumbered]some paines, contracted and briefly discouered, such termes of mi∣litarie discipline, and wordes of arte (whereof no one Gentle or other should be meerely ignorant) as now in our moderne warres, are for the most part vsed; being no other in truth then what Caesar, and the Ro∣mans long since taught and practised.

Aequè pauperibus prosit: locupletibus aequè:
Aequè neglectum, pueris, senibus{que}, nocebit.
And though it be to be wished, that wee, which haue so long found the fruit of Peace, should neuer feele the direfull effects of Warre: yet may it likewise be feared, that too much Se∣curitie by lulling our senses asleepe, may open a passage to danger, if not further. The consideration hereof, together with that precept of an an∣cient Father, *Si non manu, mente tamen simus bellatores, (my naturall inclina∣tion hauing euer been more prone to the Pike, then to the Pen) hath giuen Page  [unnumbered]mee occasion, to bestow some few loose houres, which some (I doubt not) will thinke, might haue beene better spent, to endeauour to rub off the rust, which ease hath bred vpon the swords of youth, and in short time, might (if it haue not alreadie) eate off the edge of true courage And by reading ouer the A, B, C, of Armes, to a Souldier, to sweep off those cob∣webs of carelesnesse, that hang in e∣uery corner of our thoughts, and haue of late so clouded the face of Resolu∣tion, that a Martialist which should be in pace decus, in bello praesidium, now walkes, tanquam piscis in arida, vnre∣guarded, and vnrewarded: whereby being forgotten (at least slighted) they grow forgetfull, and fashioning themselues to the times, they retayne for the most part not so much as the remembrance of order, or habit, be∣fitting a Souldier, but turne the Pike to the Pot, and the Speare to the Spin∣dell, Page  [unnumbered]
Consuming all the day, nay, all the yeere,
In Cypr an dlliance, and Belgck cheere.
Leauing the Drum, for a Drab; the Sword and Dagger, for Drinke and Dice; so that now (I blush to report it) a Swaggerer, a Swearer, and a Souldier, are but appellations of one signification: Heu pudet dicere, Militia, which heretofore was accounted, Rei∣publicae quies, & firmitas, & confirma∣tio militis, ad robur, & virtutem, is now in these neglectfull times by the abuse of the meaner, and disrepute cast thereon by the vulgar sort, accounted professorum onus, not onos, yea a li∣bertie of loosenesse: Venus Strumpets being more followed then Pallas Trumpets, good discipline militarie now marching vn-kist, because vn∣kent, standing like the poore mens Boxe in Churches, with a particle of Scripture, inciting to Charitie, writ∣ten ouer head, but nothing but neg∣lect and contempt, I meane, dust and Page  [unnumbered]cob-webs within: Pride, and Epicu∣risme, the lees of lazinesse, through want of imployment, so dulling the courage and resolution of a Souldier, that Actuitie and Industrie, the essen∣tiall parts of a good Martialist are weakened, and well-nigh worne out: And thereby all meanes almost taken away, whereby the knowledge of Armes, and principles of militarie discipline, might be preserued in me∣morie, and kept from obliuion. For redresse whereof, I haue, pro posse, vnder-taken to recollect such obser∣uations in that kind, as in my yonger yeeres, following the warres, I got by example; and since the dis-vse of Armes, haue gathered by precept, out of such Authors, as haue formerly treated of that subiect; Breue iter ad militiam per exempla, longum autem per praecepta. In which collection of mine, as a learned Writer of our time said, though on another subiect, I may tru∣ly Page  [unnumbered]say, Omnia nostra esse & nihil. All things are mine, in respect of the ga∣thering, or disposition: nothing, or at least very little, in regard of the inuen∣tion of the things themselues: nihil quod non prius. Yet such as it is, for that if I flatter not my selfe, it may serue for the A, B, C, Darian Tiro, for some instruction, and stand to the ve∣terane Souldier, and perfect Martialist, as a memento or remembrancer to re∣uise what might for want of vse bee forgotten: And to both in time of Musters or Traynings (the frequent vse whereof is much to bee desired) may seeme both pleasant and profi∣table I offer and present to all such as either desire to deserue the name or title of a Martialist. or delight to en∣courage others (Age or Wedlock hauing crippled or with-drawne their proper inclinations) to practise discipline, and no others:
—Non egoventose plebis suffregia voenor:
Odi profanum vulgus & arceo.—

Page  [unnumbered]

To you therefore, Heroick Brutes, and truly entitled Gentlemen, that ei∣ther haue, or hereafter intend in the Academie of valour & vertue (which Vigetius stileth the Campe) to bestow your worthy to be termed honorable indeauours: a poore, * but willing ad∣mirer of Armes, offer sand, in stead of siluer, and more acceptable and bene∣ficiall matter towards the not buil∣ding, but repaying the ruines of de∣cayed Arte militarie,

—Sit valuisse, sat voluisse.
Non quia posse fugit, me quo{que} velle sugit.
To craue pardon, or intreate fa∣uourable acceptance, were but to suspect your generous dispositions: assuming therefore the confidence, which Innocency armes resolution with all: like a Souldier, vnwilling to pro∣uoke, yet not daring to feare censure, I say, Either commend it, or, Come mend it; and so goe forward.

From the Pike, or the Pen, only pro∣ceedeth true Gentilitie: for non genus, Page  [unnumbered]sed genius; non gens, sed mens, proclay∣meth the merit of the person.

Laying hold then of the Pike, a weapon for a Prince to practise, why should not all young Gallants iumpe with the Poet,

Qui Veneri est habilis, bllo quo{que} conueni aetas.
And hauing vigour and valour, en∣able themselues so farre to bee ac∣quainted with the vse of this disci∣pline, that what winde soeuer blow, they may bee freed from that aspersi∣on, which wise Vlysses cast vpon Aiax;
Ne{que} enim clipei coelamina norit,
Or from the like taxe,
Postulat vt capiat qui non intelligat Arma.
If they should at any time, either for their own or countries good, attempt to vnder-take command, or expect preferment by the wars: if either they disdain to be taught, or shame to seem to learne, let them but remember, that qui breui tempore disciplinam nō patitur, omni tempore in pudore insipientiae per∣manebit. Let them therefore practise, Page  [unnumbered]that they may be perfect: Paucos fortes natura procreat: quamplures bona institu∣tione reddit industria. It can be no dis∣paragement to bloud, nor disgrace to birth, to manage or follow Armes: for truly it is said, Virtus militaris prae∣est caeteris omnibus: and, iter ad virtu∣tem istam per artis regulas: Which as Vigetius prescribeth, is, Militari gradu ambulare, celeriter & aequaliter: locum de∣stinatum non deserere: ordinem non tur∣bare: sed ad nutum ducis, sine tumultu respondere. All which may full well and easily be learned, by frequenting such places where mustring shall bee, and remembring such termes of di∣scipline, as are at this time chiefly in vse. For as taste cannot bee tryed by sounds: no more can direction in tray∣ning be vnderstood by any, to whom the words of cōmand are vnknowne. It is therefore greatly to bee desired, that all men would learne, how to re∣ceiue direction, by acquainting them∣selues Page  [unnumbered]with the termes. And that mu∣sters might be often vsed, that euery one might practise publikely, what they haue priuately learned: And though some more curiously capti∣ous, then considerably politike, seem to affirm, that it is dangerous as now, to disquiet the times with trayning of Souldiers, or to awaken the securitie of peace with rumours of warres: for that, as they say, it may giue occasion of suspect to our Neighbors, and may buzze conceits in greene heads (qui∣bus bellum dulce) which may draw on further attempts, then stands with the quiet of our peacefull gouernement to admit, yet since it is aliud parare, a∣liud exercere belium, if I may haue leaue to speake my opinion as a parcell-guilt Scholer, and a pen and inke-horne Souldier, I doubt not but that it may stand with the policie of the State, to admit more then yeerely shewes of Armour to be made, yea, I Page  [unnumbered]dare affirme with Lypsius, Salus rei∣publicae, plus fortitudine quàm concordia consistit: And how can there be forti∣tudo, when a Souldier is little known, lesse respected? And Martiall disci∣pline, without which a Souldier is no more valiant then bookes not vnder∣stood, is learning, neither vsed nor remembred: wisely he said, that as in warre, peace; so in peace, war, * is to be prouided for: the true knowledge of this, conseruing the quiet of that, and the due obseruance and execution of order in either, maintayning the ho∣nor and estimation of both: And wor∣thy the remembrance are those prin∣ciples of learned and iudicious master Case, where he maintayneth a necessi∣tie in the time of cessation of warre, to exercise Militarie discipline, * alleadge∣ing, Opportunius res bellicas tractari non posse, quàm tempore pacis: affirming further, Non altis moenibus Ciuitatum, sed expertis manibus militum, Imperij Page  [unnumbered]salus, & tutela continetur: their experi∣ence being wonne by exercise in the time of peace, and made perfect in the time of warre: For as the multi∣tude of Pleaders and Physicions, is an argument of a riotous and distempe∣red Citie; so nothing, saith Vigetius, Firmius aut foelicius est Reipublicae, in qua milites abundant eruditi. Ars bellandi, saith Cassio, si non pace praeluditur, quan do fuerit necessarium, non habetur: dis∣cat ergo miles otio, quod performare possit bello. Scientia rei bellicae, saith Vigetius, demicandi nutrit audaciam, nemo enim bello facile metuit, quod se pace didicisse bene confidit. The same Author goeth further, and saith, Qui desider at pacem, praeparet bellum: qui victoriam cupit, mi∣lites imbuat diligenter: qui secundos op∣tat, euentus discat pace, vt dimicet arte, non casu. And saith Seneca, Diu praepa∣randum est bellum, vt vincas caelerius. And, Sub Clipeo tutius succedit pacis ne∣gotium: ac pace de bello melius consulitur.Page  [unnumbered]If then it be not onely lawfull, but ex∣pedient, to haue in peace expert Soul∣diers, which can no waies be made so, but by those ordinarie courses which our Predecessors haue inuented: * and our bordering Neighbours doe put in practice: that is, by instruction, and cōuenient exercise, I hold it for gran∣ted, that to train & muster Souldiers, and to instruct them with the termes of motion, and militarie principles, is a thing most necessarie, and in some sort commanded: For wheras a Soul∣dier is said, to bee a Protector of his Prince, a Defender of liberall Arts, an Vp-holder of the seate of Iustice, a Resister of Forrainers, and a Repres∣ser of domestick Enemies, a Maintay∣ner of the Libertie, and quiet of his Countrie▪ It is to bee vnderstood, of an expert valiant Souldier: for valour and discretion in a Souldier are insepa∣rable adiuncts: And without dire∣ction and obedience, it is not possible Page  [unnumbered]for any militarie or worthy attempt, to be successefull: For he is no more a Souldier, * that receiueth his pay, is inrolled in a companie, and weareth the abillimēt of war, without know∣ledge of discipline, and obseruance of order: then Pilate is a Saint, though he be named in our Creede. It behoueth therefore euery person that intendeth to leade the life of a Souldier, at the entring of his name in Bellonaes Regi∣ster, to put on the first habit of a Soul∣dier, which is obedience: without which, whosoeuer endeuoureth to learne the vse of Armes, labours to make his skore the greater, by paying the reckoning with chalke: And will assoone suck milk from a flint, as true merit in martiall courses: for hee can neuer be able to command wel, which hath not first laboured to obey: Sum∣ma enim militiae laus, in obedientia consi∣stit. And this obedience, in reuerentiam exhibendo, in mandata suscipiendo, & in Page  [unnumbered]iudicium subeundo, plerun{que} sita est. The Souldier sheweth his loue, by v∣sing obedience to his Officer; perfor∣meth his dutie, in doing what hee is commanded by his Officer, and pro∣claymeth his modestie, in not expo∣stulating the reason, but willingly vn∣dergoeth the censure of his Officer or Captayne: For euery chiefe Com∣mander, as Captayne and his Liefte∣nant, Ensigne-bearer, Seriants, and Corporalls, either haue, or ought to haue in themselues, authoritie respe∣ctiuely to command, and procure re∣uerence, and obedience, from others, and experience, and gouernement to direct, and censure themselues, and o∣thers: Miles (saith a Father) manda∣tum ducis non procrastinat, parat aures auditui, pedesitineri, manusoperi, & se to∣tum intus colligit, vt mandatum peragat imperantis: he saith not linguam voci: for silence is the first lesson of obedi∣ence: and how can he be said to obey, Page  [unnumbered]that will not silently attend when, & what, he shall be commanded. Obe∣dience hauing prescribed Silence: the next lesson a Souldier is to learne, is to apt himselfe to manage and pra∣ctise such weapons, as by his Officer is appointed to him: for howsoeuer a naturall inclination is in some more then others, to vse the Peece rather then the Pike, and so, &c. And though that is soonest lerned, to which a man by nature is most inclinable, yet the weapon is appointed to, not chosen by the Souldier; howsoeuer it is to be wished, that all such to whom the ap∣pointment of weapon doth belong, would obserue in his Souldier,
Quid valcant humeri fere, & quid sere recusant.

Now hauing his Armes, which are the members of a Martialist, they must be alwaies carefully kept cleane from rust, both within and without, be it Peece or Corslet, with all the fur∣niture Page  [unnumbered]thereunto belonging, that is to say, to a Musket, a Head-peece, a Sword and Dagger, a Musket carry∣ing a Bullet, whereof ten make a pound: a Musket Rest, Bandaleros, (the flaske being more cumbersome and subiect to firing, and therefore more dangerous) Bullet-bagge with Bullets, Poulder, and Match. To a Pike-man, a Pike, a Sword and Dag∣ger, a Head-peece, a Gorget, a Brest-plate, a Back, with powldrons to the elbow. I set downe these furnitures particularly, the rather for that Count Morrice, Anno 1598. gaue expresse order that none should passe the mu∣ster, except thus furnished.

Being thus furnished, it is requisite, that he acquaint his eye, and eare with such signes and sounds, termes and wordes, as his Leader or Comman∣der shal vse in his direction, or charge. And first, he must be perfect in euery particular sound of the Drum, as Page  [unnumbered]namely: first, a Call: secondly, a March: thirdly, a Troope: fourthly, a Charge: and fifthly, Retrait: For the Battali, Reliefe, Batterie, Parlee, and such like, I betray my ignorance to the World, I take to bee no other but one of the fiue first sounds, and not by the eare easily to bee distin∣guisht, and therefore of no great im∣portance to be obserued.

The Drum (as a most iudicious and painefull Gentleman, whose industrie and experience discouereth by pra∣ctick, what I partly gleane from him in the theorick, defineth it) is an instru∣ment, designed for the exercise of foot Souldiers, resounding the command of the Generall, the which euery soul∣dier is obliged to obey, and follow, without delay, as well as the voice of his Cōmander: of the seuerall sounds whereof, what Souldier soeuer is ig∣norant, it is vnpossible hee shall per∣forme his dutie in all points, and at all Page  [unnumbered]times: for either hee must doe by the example of others, which perhaps at all times hee is not bound vnto; or else expect his Commanders directi∣on, whose voice cannot extend to the hearing of all, & so become culpable in his dutie: wherfore, as it is most ex∣pedient, that euery companie excee∣ding the number of a hundred, should bee furnished with two sufficient Drummers, such as are able to beate perfectly: So is it most necessary that euery Souldier, at the first, and for the first principle, should apply his eare, and studie to apprehend, and learne to vnderstand, those seuerall sounds: without the knowledge wherof, how doth any Souldier know of his owne meer motion, when to march, troope, charge, or retrait, &c. except only by the Drums direction, who is alwayes at his Commanders elbow, readie by the sound therof to denounce his wil?

As the eare by the Drum, so the eie Page  [unnumbered]must bee directed by the Standard or Colours: the one designing of the time, the other the place, whither to repaire, and where he is to attend the command of his Officer.

The Ensigne is an ornament of Armes, first inuented for direction, and distinction. For direction, to the Souldier, whither vpon all occasions to draw, and where to abide: for di∣stinction to bee knowne from other Companies, and other Nations: The colours whereof are at the discretion of the Captayne: either his owne Co∣lours, belonging to his house; if he be a Gentleman of Coate-Armour, or what other his inuention shal best like of. But alwayes hauing a red Crosse therin, being the badge of an English∣man: St. GEORGES Crosse being pe∣culiarly appropriated to that Nation: For as in old time: Phrysij suem, Ar∣menij arietē, Scythae fulgur, Persi Ar∣cū, Scilices caput armatū, Thrases Mar∣tem,Page  [unnumbered]Phoenices Herculem, Aegyptij Ibi∣dem, Milesij Leonem, Athemenses no∣ctuam, Corinthij Pegasum, Pelopōnesi testudinē, Itali Equum, Venetiae Leonē cum libro, diuo Marco consecratum; Ge∣noae sanctū Georgium equo insidentem, Senenses Lupam, Florentini Leonem, I∣ta Angli crucem rubram pro insigne ha∣buerunt. And as Mr. Francis saith in his Treatise, De insignibus libro primo: Insignum singularis est vtilitas; ad gra∣dus turmas{que} distinguendas. Vexilla, saith another, intuentur milites: ea sequuntur, obseruant, tuentur, & corum signibus, vt nauis gubernaculo diriguntur. Being come to the Colours▪ that he may be able to performe what he shall be ap∣pointed; he must be perfectly instru∣cted with the true knowledge of Files, and Rankes, Fronts, and Flankes, Leaders, and Followers, Middle-men, and Bringers vp, and not be ignorant of the chiefe principles of Action, (that is to say) of Posture, Distance,Page  [unnumbered]and orderly Motion, the knowledge of which warlike motions, may truly be said to be the art of Warre.

By Posture is vnderstood the ma∣nageing of Martiall weapons, either Standing, Marching, Chargeing, or Dischargeing, the easiest and readi∣est way to offend or defend: Si do∣ctrina cessat armorum, nihil Paganus di∣stat a milite.

  • Posture consisteth of
    • Standing,
    • Marching,
    • Chargeing.
  • Postures of the Pike,
    • In Standing are three,
    • In Marching are sixe,
    • In Chargeing are three.
  • Of the Mus∣ket, in
    • Standing one,
    • Marching one,
    • Chargeing eighteene,
    • Dischargeing twelue.
Page  [unnumbered]

All which in sight are reduced to three.

  • Postures of the Pike standing,
    • Lay downe your Pike.
    • Take vp your Pike.
    • Order your Pike.
  • Thereof march∣ing,
    • Aduance your Pike.
    • Shoulder your Pike.
    • Leuell your Pike.
    • Slope your Pike.
    • Cheeke your Pike.
    • Trayle your Pike.
  • Posture there∣of, chargeing,
    • Port your Pike.
    • Charge your Pike.
    • Couch at the foot, your Pike.

Of all foot weapons this is estee∣med the most honourable, for that it can bee accounted no disparagement to a Commander, to traile his Pike vnder his fellow-Captaynes Colours.

Page  [unnumbered]
  • Posture of the Musket, standing, Rest your Musket.

Your Musket shouldred,

  • Posture thereof, march∣ing,
    • Cleere your Pan,
    • Prime your Pan,
    • Close your Pan,
    • Cast off the loose poulder,
    • Blow your Pan,
    • Cast about, and traile your Rest,
    • Open your charges,
    • Charge with poulder.
  • Posture thereof, charge∣ing,
    • Draw out your skowring sticke,
    • Shorten your sticke,
    • Ram in your poulder,
    • Draw out your sticke,
    • Charge with buller,
    • Ram in your bullet,
    • Draw out your sticke,
    • Shorten your stick and put it vp,
    • Page  [unnumbered]
    • Bring your musket forward with the left hand.
    • Hold it vp with the right, and recouer your Rest.

Of which postures it is but idle to giue aduertisement, that the foure, af∣ter the chargeing with poulder, viz. to charge with bullet, is rather to bee conceited, how then practised at these times, where to doe it.

  • Postures of the Musket, dischar∣ging,
    • Carry your Rest in the left hand,
    • Rest your Musket,
    • Take your match in the right hand,
    • Hold the match & blow it,
    • Cocke it,
    • Try it,
    • Guard the Pan and blow it,
    • Open the Pan,
    • Present the Musket,
    • Giue fire,
    • Page  [unnumbered]
    • Dismount it,
    • Vncocke the match, & hold it twixt your fingers.
  • In fight onely
    • Make readie,
    • Present,
    • Giue fire.

It is generally to be obserued, that when you charge with your Pike, or discharge your Musket, you place your left leg forward; but when you martch, you begin with the right.

The next thing that is to bee obserued, * is, distince of order.

By distance is meant a certain space betweene File and File, Ranke and Ranke, in such order, & to that mea∣sure, as pleaseth the Commander to nominate. The which if Souldiers obserue not, then is that Companie or Troope so exercised out of order and discipline, more like men in rout & disorcer, then to a perfect Battalia.Page  [unnumbered]Therefore, this distance ought to bee such a competent space, as is meet and conuenient for motion For the stati∣on of Souldiers is not alwayes stea∣die and certaine, but that they all in∣terchange mutually one with ano∣ther: it consists of order in Files, and Rankes, of which distances the Ro∣manes onely obserued these three.

  • 1. Ordinatus miles.
  • 2. Densatus ordo.
  • 3. Constipatus ordo.

But at this day wee generally practise foure:

  • Open order.
  • Order.
  • Close order.
  • Closest order.

Open order, sixe foote distant from his side-man, and reare-man.

Order, distant three foote.

Close order, a foote and a halfe.

Closest powldron to powldron with his side-men, and to the Swords point of the proceeding Ranke.

There is to be kept the like distance of Files, as of Rankes.

Page  [unnumbered]

After the knowledge of your di∣stance, you must with diligent care marke the motions of Files & Rankes seuerall; & of both conioyned, which motion is the actual operation of that bodie, which is moueable, whereof in this exercise long since, and at this time there are foure remarkeable cir∣cumstances:

  • 1. Ante.
  • 2. Retro.
  • 3. Dextrorsum.
  • 4. Sinistrorsum.
Either by mouing forwards, as char∣ging to the Front, back-wards by Re∣trait, side-waies by Closing, Opening, or Doubling of Files to the right or left hand, by Wheeling or Conuersing to either hand, the which is performed as occasion presents, according to the will & direction of the Cōman∣der, obseruing it in Order, true Pace, true Distance, and perfect Posture.

For any other kinde of motion in a Battalia, or grosse body, breeds both disorder and confusion: Page  [unnumbered]

Vbinullus est ord, certus est horror.
where on the other side; Order is the Beautie of nature, Ornament of arte, and Harmony of the World.

Motion is in forme of Files and Rankes conioyned.

Motion of Files in proportion apart, are fiue.

Of Rankes apart, sie.

Of both conioyned, two.

Motion in forme of Files seuerall, may be comprehended in foure, how∣soeuer: some by shortning & length∣ning, and such like phrases of inuen∣tion doe make nine.

Motion in forme of Rankes seue∣rall, are fiue: of both Rankes and Files conioyned, are eight.

A whole companie, as one body, being perfect by instruction and vse herein, and hereof, as occasion shall require, may bee turned into diuers different formes, for the more offence, of the assayling Enemie, and defence of themselues and abettors.

Page  [unnumbered]
  • Motion in diffe∣rent distances of Files close.
    • Close your files to the left hand.
    • Close your files.
    • Close your files to the right hand.
  • Motion in distances of files open
    • Open to the right hand.
    • Open to the left hand.
  • Motion in distances of Rankes close.
    • Close Your Rankes from the Front to the Reare.
    • Close From the Reare to the Front.
  • Motion in distances of Rankes open.
    • Open Your Rankes From the Reare forward.
    • Open Your Rankes From the Front Reareward.
  • Motion in distances of ranks & files conioyned,
    • Close.
    • Open.
Page  [unnumbered]
  • Motion in forme of Files.
    • Double your Files to the right hand
    • Double your Files to the left hand
  • Aduance your Files to the
    • Left hand.
    • Right hand.
  • By diuision to the
    • Right hand.
    • Left hand.
  • Files ranke by con∣uersion to the
    • Right hand.
    • Left hand.
  • Files counter∣march to the
    • Right hand.
    • Left hand.
  • After the manner of the
    • Macedonians.
    • Lacedaemonians.
    • Persians.

These seuerall manners of coun∣ter-marching, I finde often cited by seuerall Authors by this terme, Euo∣lutio Page  [unnumbered]Macedonica, Laconica, Dorica: but confesse my ignorance, know not the difference, Ideo quaere.

  • Motion in forme of Ranks
    • double to the right hand.
    • double to the left hand.

File by conuersion, vt supra. Ranke 7. 5. 9. &c.

  • Middlemen, double your Front to the
    • right hand.
    • left hand.
To both by diuision.

Counter-march from the right to the left hand, and by conuersion, vt supra.

  • Motion in forme of cōioyned Files and Rankes, Faces to the
    • Right hand.
    • Left hand.
Page  [unnumbered]

To both by Diuision.

Faces to the Reare.

Wheele by Conuersion.

  • Charge to the
    • Right hand.
    • Left hand.

To both by Diuision.

  • Charge to the
    • Front.
    • Reare.

To both by Diuision.

A perfect File is a sequence of men standing one behinde another; backe to belly, and subsisting commonly of ten in depth, according to the mo∣derne vse of the Warres of the Ne∣therlands, it was by the Romans ter∣med Series, Ordinatio, Decurio, it consi∣steth of Leaders, & Followers, where∣in the Decurio & Tergi ductor, amongst the Latines, but in our drilling the Leader, Middle-men, and Bringer vp, are principally to be regarded.

The Middle-man is either the fifth, or sixth man, vncertaine which be∣fore Page  [unnumbered]the motion bee commanded: vt postea.

A perfect Ranke is a stand or row of men, placed powldron to powl∣dron, their faces being directed al one way, which by the Romanes was stiled Ordo.

But when it is the first ranke com∣posed of Leaders of many Files, it was by them termed Frōs & Acies, but now vsually the Front Van or Voward.

A Battalio is the connexion of ma∣ny Files together: whereof the first Ranke is termed the Front: the right side, the right hand Flanke: the left side, the left hand Flanke: the last ranke in depth, the Reare: the fifth, and sixth Rankes, Middle-men: and all the remainder, Side-men: so that where the faces are directed, one way stands the Front, the Reare is where the backs are turned: the two out∣most Files, the right and left Flankes.

In a Battalio likewise you must ob∣serue, Page  [unnumbered]that from the Leader, to the Bringer vp, the whole distance be∣tweene is called the breadth and Depth of Ranke and File.

It is requisite that in your martch and stand, you regard your Leader, and Side-men, such as in Ranke shall be placed on your right & left hands, so that alwaies in File and Ranke you may bee found in the same Distance, wherein you are commanded.

It is to be obserued, that by these wordes (as you were) it is intended to reduce the Souldier to the same place of order, wherin he stood before.

It is likewise to bee remembred, that when you double your Files to any hand, by doubling your Rankes to the contrary hand, they are as they were, and so of Rankes, vt supra.

It is further to be remembred, that in chargeing with Pikes, only the first fiue Ranks doe charge: for the length of the longest Pike being but eigh∣teene Page  [unnumbered]foot long: the Pikes of the first Ranke, can but reach ouer the shoul∣ders of the Front; so that if they should bee driuen to Retreat, all the Rankes chargeing: the Subdiuision (which are the fiue Rankes on the Reare) rather hinder, and hurt their Leaders, then doe any seruice. It is therefore conuenient that the subdi∣uision, hold their Pikes ported, or ad∣uanced, for then they are readie vpon all occasions, to charge without any difficultie, or preiudice to their fel∣lowes: for it is to be vnderstood, that the most exquisite Captains do hold in these dayes, what Caesar in his time practised, which is to martiall the Companies in square manuples of hundreds, especially Pikes, so that ne∣uer or very seldome, they file their men but ten in depth.

If any shall question why in this A, B, C, I set downe postures onely for two weapons, let him bee pleased Page  [unnumbered]to receiue this for satisfaction, all short weapons as Targateers, Bill∣men, or Holbardeers, are in these times meerely out of vse; and Arche∣rie is so much controuerted by diffe∣rent opinions, whether seruiceable or not necessarie for vse, and is so strong∣ly, and strangely opposed, and so weakely, & waueringly defended; That were it not for those two euer memo∣rable victories, next vnder God, won by them, I meane Cressy and Agincourt: It would grow questionable, whether euer it were in vse amongst English∣men; But leauing that question vnde∣cided, I onely affirme, as in all other things, so in warre there is a vicissi∣tude of weapons, whereof I may tru∣ly say, as one of words: Multa renas∣cuntur? quaeiam cecidere, cadent{que}: quae nunc sunt in honore, many weapons and instruments of war, which were heretofore much praised and practi∣sed, are by change of times, and bene∣fit of fresher inuention, either cast Page  [unnumbered]cleane out of doores, or at least per∣mitted to hang in houses, like monu∣menta adorandae rubiginis, retayning the bare name of furnitures, without praise or practice.

And for your bare Pike, and Harcu∣buz, or small shot, they are included in the tractate of Pike, and Musket, and excepting the vse or practice of the Musket rest, the Harcubuz and Musket, haue▪ one and the same Po∣stures, and frustra fit per plura quod fie∣ripossit per pauciora.

—Amphora cepi
Institui: currente rota, nunc vrceus exit.

Opus & vsus, my more then ordi∣nary visiters, knock at my study-dore and cōmand me (and the rather since in this vngratefull age, and amongst thanklesse Plebeians all paines in this kind merit but mocks) to attend pro∣fit priuate, not publike, more magistro∣rum: Therefore, what I begun with iumps and by fits, I end with, &c. &c.

Lingua in Consilio valet, in Certamine dextra.
Page  [unnumbered]

Ad Lectores prorsus indignos.

THere are some whom Nature be∣gun, but neuer finisht, whose heat∣lesse and heartlesse trunkes, like ouer-growne Thistles in a fertile soyle, heaue vp their vnprofitable heads, aboue the reach of better deseruing persons, and like Dogs in mangers, neither doe, nor suffer to be done. But squaring all other mens indeuours, by the crooked leuell of their pseudopoliticall conceits, condemne what is most commendable in others, yet neither doe nor say any thing themselues worthy cōmenditions: These Gallinaceus mushrumps, qui fungino genere se to∣tum caput tegunt: all head and no heart, lye snarling at Souldiers, and the profes∣sion militarie, and not hauing grace e∣nough to make a prologue to a reasonable breake-fast, nor heart enough to oppose a Ginny-Hen, if her feathers ruffle; doe most of all, being sensible in nothing but blowes, traduce as vnchyistiā, the practice Page  [unnumbered]of militarie discipline, and terme the Professors thereof bloudie and barbarous, such pusillanimous Plebeians, I bar by & mayne, procul hinc procul ite pro∣fani. Yet if any such meticulous Buffone chance to besmeare my well intended pre∣uention of idlenesse, with the slime of his calumny; let him be assured, that I rather pitty his want of wit, then feare his will or skill in rayling, or reasoning against the man or the matter, quod decuit tantos, cur mihi turpe putem? &c. I know the force of his circumstances can neuer infer the conclusion hee will labour for, but as he begins with A. he will get but the ad∣dition of double S. and so I leaue him, and rest

A Friend to the Friend of a Souldier. I. T.

Page  [unnumbered]