The practice, proceedings, and lawes of armes described out of the doings of most valiant and expert captaines, and confirmed both by ancient, and moderne examples, and præcedents, by Matthevv Sutcliffe.
Sutcliffe, Matthew, 1550?-1629.
Annotations for the better vnderstanding of the former lawes.

1 [Whosoeuer shal deale &c.] Many are the commodities that proceede of camarades:a Souldiers do liue better, and cheaper in camarada then otherwise: they are linked in more strait bonds of friendship one with another: if any be sicke or hurt, his camarada taketh care of him. When they are ranged together, one doth more willingly succor another. For which cause it were to be wished, that as it is among the Spaniards, very commonly, so among vs our companies were diuided into camaradaes, and that such as violate the lawes of societi should be sharpely punished.

2 [All maner of persons &c.] The cries and disorders of some lewd persons that take no delight but in their owne lewdnesse, and disorder giueth occasion of this law sufficient. And all litle enough to stop their mouths, and procure others rest. In the Romane army there was in time past great quietnesse in the night: and now the Turkes after the watch set vse great silence. The wandring vp and down of souldiers, and others after that time doth couer spies: which if euery man resort to his quarter, cannot long lie hidden.

Page  3283 & 4 [No man in camp &c.] While men lodge out of order, it is hard to bring them ina the night into any order. Besides this inconuenience, while souldiers lodge out of their quarter, the same falleth out to be vnfurnished oftentimes, if the enemy should then chance to assault it, and espials cannot be discouered, nor the dangers of secret meetings auoyded. For which cause order is to be giuen, that all do lodge in their owne quarter, and giue notice to their su∣periors, if any stranger, or suspected person lodge there.

5 [No maner of person &c.] While this is neglected, the way is made easie vp to the rampire, gardes and sentinels are abused, and espials passe in and out, and are not espied. For this cause the Ro∣mans didb punish this disorder with death.

6 [Women, and boyes &c.] Infinite abuses come into the campe by these meanes. Victuals are consumed, disorder increased. And therefore as Scipio purged his campe at Numantia of all super∣fluous persons, so allowing boyes to captaines and certaine officers, the rest are to be banished as much as may be.

7 [No captaine or souldier &c.] The stubburnnesse of some, and daintinesse of others, that either refuse to worke, or thinke it not belonging to the profession of a souldier to worke, hath giuen but too iust cause of this law; which is therfore set downe, that euery man not hindred with hurts, & sicknes may know ye it is the duty of a souldier no lesse to worke with a spade in trenches, thē to fight with the sword in the open field. The Romans, as before I haue shewed, generally set hand to the worke: which made them victorious oftentimes with∣out setting hand to the sword.c Cyrus and al his nobilitie set hands to worke, and holpe forward the cariages that were often myred, as his army marched ouer certain moores, notwithstanding the Per∣sian pride and brauery. But since our souldiers beganne to put such brauery in their silkes, it is no maruel if they haue made difficulty to mire themselues. For nothing is more contrary to silkes then mire. Yet do not the Spaniards that thinke themselues as braue as the best, thinke themselues by these labours any whit disgraced.

8 [No souldier appointed &c.] The safette of the campe, and garrison is oft reposed in the diligence of the sentinell, by whose watchfulnes others rest assured. The more seuerely therefore ought his negligence to be punished. The Romanes in time past, as before I haue shewed, and now thed Spaniards doe punish this fault with Page  329death. Paulus Aemilius to auoyd the sleeping of sentinels, ordered, yt they should stand, or walke, which others likewise do now practise.

9 [For keeping the camp &c.] There cannot be too much dili∣gence vsed in this behalf. The incōmodities that come of infection of the aire, occasioned by ye filthines of the place, are so many: & the thing so loathsome. Thea Spaniards therfore in effect decree as much as we, but they obserue it far better. The Romans without law procee∣ded herein very carefully, by reason of their continuall experience.

10 11 & 12 [No man shal spoile or hurt &c.] The ancient orders of the Romanes, that carried victuals with them sufficient for their company, being out of practise, and the prouision of the armie being made now from day to day by victuallers, that for gaine folow the campe: it standeth the Generall vpon to see that they may safely come and go: and that victualles may be prouided and saued. The army of the Prince ofb Orenge that besieged Florence, had like to haue bin famished by the disorder of three or foure lewd persons, that spoiled the marchants, & victuallers that came, and went from the campe; no sooner were they hanged, but the army had al things for their mony plentifully. By the lawes of thec Spanish gouerne∣ment, such spoilers are seuerely punished, and victuals both well sa∣ued, and reasonably rated. Neither are victuals onely to be looked vnto, but also corne-mils, and houses, and granges, that may serue for the vse of the army: streames of water are to be kept cleane, not onely for the vse of men, but of cattell also.

These lawes being wel obserued, and prouision made not only of victuals, & things necessary for the whole, but also of phisick & places of ease for the sick, & hurt, I would wel hope, that matters would pro∣ceed in better order among souldiers, thē they haue done heretofore.