The practice, proceedings, and lawes of armes described out of the doings of most valiant and expert captaines, and confirmed both by ancient, and moderne examples, and præcedents, by Matthevv Sutcliffe.
Sutcliffe, Matthew, 1550?-1629.

CHAP. XXI. Wherein is declared that to encourage forward men to doe valiantly, nothing is more effectuall, then reward, nor for maintenance of mili∣tarie discipline, any thing more requisit, then seuere punishment.

THe course of warres, if nothing els did perswade vs, yet sheweth vs, that after victorie obteined, or troubles ended, such as haue done valiant seruice, are to be rewarded. Wherefore albeit warres in our times admit no such order, which being ended, are the beginning of beggarie and calamitie to Page  299many poore souldiers: yet may I not omit the ordinarie course though interrupted, and broken by men ignorant of warres, and all good order. There is nothing more effectuall to moue men to aduen∣ture their liues in the seruice of their countrey, then reward. Lawe doth much, and necessitie more, yet neither of them in this behalfe are so effectuall as reward. Byagreat honors, men are encouraged to make great aduentures. Men dobwillingly hazard, and bestow la∣bour, where there is profite, and honor looked for. Neither is there any thing so difficult, which some will not attempt, if braue seruice be recompensed with honorable rewards. As it is in al arts, and pro∣fessiōs, so it is in the profession of a soldier,cthere is best seruice where there is greatest honor for wel doing, and contrariwise where there is no reward, there is no man desireth to be singular. Lysander being demanded what maner of gouernment he liked best, answered, that, where valiant men had reward, and cowards punishment, that com∣mon wealth pleased him best. Socrates praysed that state aboue all, where most honors were giuen according to vertue and merit, and none for meede nor money. Of all lawes, saithdDemosthenes, those deserue best to be continued, which concerne the reward of good men, and the punishment of lewd lozels. And if reason cannot excite the cold affection of couetous wretches to consider the merits of va∣liant men: yet in the ende necessitie will worke it. For neitherecom∣mon wealth nor priuate house can stand, where there is neither re∣ward for wel doing, nor punishment for the contrary. The common wealth of the Romanes had neuer growen to that greatnesse, if a∣mong other their vertues their thankefulnesse to valiant men had not bene singular. Horatius Cocles that repelled the force of the He∣truscians, himselfe alone standing vpon the bridge of wood ouer Ty∣ber, had afstatue of marble erected in the place of common mee∣tings for continuance of his memoriall, and so much ground giuen him as he could compasse with his plough in one day. At the same time they gaue lāds also togMutius Scaeuola for his singular valiant∣nesse. Cornelius the Consul, for a singular piece of seruice, gaue vnto Decius ahcrown of gold, and an hūdred oxen, to euery of the soldi∣ers that went with him double allowance of victuals, an oxe & two sutes of apparell. In the warres against the Samnites, Sp. Nautius, Sp. Papyrius, 4icenturions, & one whole squadrō of targetters (the Romans call them hastatos) were rewarded with brace lets & coro∣nets Page  300of gold by their General, Caesarafor his valiant seruice advan∣ced Scaeua to the highest place in his regiment, and gaue him two thousand pieces of mony, the whole company he rewarded with double pay and allowance, and other militarie presentes. After the winning of new Carthage in Spaine,bScipio gaue coronets of gold to those that first mounted the walles, and rewarded others euery man according to his desert. Likewise did he reward such as shew∣ed themselues valiant men in ye warresc against Syphax & the Car∣thaginians. And after the warres were ended not only did he giue his souldiers money, but the state gaue them lands also. after the ende of warres, thedRomans diuided ordinarily to some money, to someelands. AlexanderfSeuerus diuided the contrie that was vpon the frontiers among the souldiers that serued there. At that time honors and the highest places were rewards of valiant men. Valer.gCorui∣nus doubteth not to say that with his hands he had wonne to him∣selfe great praise & three Consulships, which was the highest dig∣nitie in that state. And Decius affirmeth thathrewards were due to vertue rather then nobilitie. When by reason of their great losses the Senat of Rome was much diminished, & must be supplied, those were chosen which had theispoiles of the enemie in their house, or had for the sauing of the life of a citizen bene rewarded with a crowne. The spoyle was not then, as now it is, giuen to those, that forsaking their coulours runne after spoyle,kleauing the labour & danger to others; nor was it lawfull for any to goe before commandement gi∣uen. The Consuls did sell and diuide the spoyle, saythlLiuy, and re∣warded those especially by whose forwardnesse the enemies campe was taken, & before others, two captaines whose valiantnesse was singular. And in another placem he testifieth, yt the soldiers had euery man a sute of apparell and 82. pieces of money giuen him. Neither were valiant soldiers forgotten no not in ye most corrupt times for ob∣seruance of military orders, nor when the Roman empire began now to decline. Tacitusnmentioneth those rewards that were giuen to Rufus Heluius at diuers times for his seruiceoConstantine was most bountifull to his souldiers, and gaue the rewardes due to the father to his children also. neither were they bountiful to their owne men, but also such as serued with them. Marcellus presentedpBan∣tius of Nola with a horse and furniture for his good seruice.Page  301They of Preneste for rewarde of a noble fact done by them, hadadouble pay, and fiue yeeres vacation from seruice. ThebSpa∣niards had possessions giuen them in Spayne, the Numidians in A∣frike for their faithfull seruice against Annibal. By Solons law the sonnes of those that died in seruice of their countrey, were maintained vpon the publike charge. But what maruell is it if the Romanes who are precedents of militarie orders, & the Greekes from whence learning and ciuilitie issued, rewarded their souldiers, when the most barbarous Turkes doe it, and at this day no man more then they? The most valiant men are made chiefe commanders, and of his coun∣sell. Hee that first mounted the walles of Constantinople, of a com∣mon souldier was after made Bassa. What should I speake of the great aduancement of Ariadine Barbarossa, and Dragut Reis. Ochi∣ali Bassa of a poore Mariner, is now (if he be not lately dead) one of the greatest men of that state. There is none that doeth seruice, but he is assured to haue lands & possessiōs giuen him. The Spaniards al∣so yeeld their souldiers great recompense. The common souldier is made Caporall, he is for his seruice made Serieant, the Serieant is made Ensigne, the Ensigne Captaine, who if he deserue well, is af∣terward preferred to bee Colonel, and then master of the campe. Iulian Romero, & Montdragon, & diuers of them, of common souldi∣ers, haue risen to great dignities. Beside ye due of their place, for eue∣rie valiant act they haue their paie increased, which they cal Vētaias.

Yet this holdeth not euery where: for in some states there is nei∣ther reward, nor scarce prayse for seruice. Honour is giuen for wealth, kinred, fauour, and if any be rewarded, it is such as deserue none. By which abuses (as saiethcHirtius) the discipline of warre was cor∣rupted by Cassius in Spayne, which afterward was much increased in the times of the Emperours, who for friendship gaue great titles to men of no desert, and to valiant men were very sparing and restrain∣tiue. Euen so now in some countre is, rewards are giuen to great beg∣gers; and valiant men, if they escape hunger, and the sword of the e∣nemie abroad, yet come backe to liue in base sort at home. And so it commeth to passe as one complaineth indEuripides, That the valiant hath no more reward then the trecherous coward, and that iniuries are sure remembred, whereas good deeds are scarce thought vpon, (aseTacitus saieth.)

As valiant deeds are to be rewarded, so trecherie, cowardise, and Page  302disobedience are seuerely to be punished. These two, antiquitie sup∣posed to be of equal force. The Gentiles, yt for the profite they reaped of diuers things, did ascribe vnto thē diuine names, did this also in re∣ward & punishmēt.aDemocrit{us} honored thē, as two diuine things. And if in any part of the gouernment of the common wealth, punish∣ment be necessarie, sure most necessarie it is in managing of armes, & maintenāce of militarie discipline, whichbrequireth peremptorie & sharpe punishment. For if the princes commandement may without danger be neglected; & ambition & couetousnesse of particulars, cause publike matters to be neglected, delaied, and dalied with; if publike treasure may be abused to priuate vses, and that which should be em∣ploied in paiment of souldiers & other necessary vses of the common wealth, may be lent to vsurie, or spent in purchases; if such officers as are to prouide victuals, armes and munition, or els to keepe thē, may make their gaine, and accomptants giue in false reckonings, and cap∣tains and officers bring in false numbers in mosters, and neither co∣lonels obey the general commanders, nor captains their colonels and other superiors, nor inferior officers & souldiers their captains; who seeth not, that not onely the sinewes of militarie gouernment, but of state also will easilie be dissolued? The Romanes therefore as in all feates of armes and gouernement, so in this also deserued speciall commendation.

Diuers sortes of punishment did they vse, ascModestinus testifi∣eth; as for example, Reproofe, forfaitures, impositions of charge, change of degree, losse of place, dismissing with shame, yea some∣time banishment, somtime death. Therefore were those that offen∣ded punished, (as saithdMarcellus) that there might appeare a dif∣ference betwixt valiantnesse and cowardise. At theeend of warres, as they rewarded valiant men, so they forgot not to punish offen∣ders. Neither did they onely punish the common sort, but their Gene∣rals also where they deserued it; yea the Generals spared not their owne sonnes, friends, & kinsfolke. Fuluius for that by his negligence his armie was discomfited by Annibal at Herdonea, himself flying among ye foremost, as we said, was driuē into banishment. M.fPost∣humius was fined 10000 pieces of money, for yt by his fault, & lea∣ding the Romanes were ouerthrowen at Veij. Manlius executed his owne sonne for transgressing militarie orders. Caesar dismissed diuers colonels & chiefe commanders in Afrike, for outrages by them com∣mitted. Page  303The more dangerous the warres were, the greater seueritie they vsed. Euen barbarous nations perceiued, that without seueritie the warres could not be administred, as Caesar maketh euident vnto vs by the example ofaVercingetorix. By the lawes of Sparta they that ran out of the field, might not returne into their country. The A∣thenians did punish a negligence in their captains that did not take vp their men that were slaine & wracked atbArginusa, but too se∣uerely. Neither was it the vse onely of two or three nations, but of all those, who by practise of armes haue won to themselues any name, or reputation. The particular penalties due to euerie militarie offence, I haue set down in ye chapter folowing, if not to imitate in all points, yet to come as neere as we can in most. The Romanes without any table or writing set before thē, did by their continual practise of armes, know not onely all militarie lawes, but also the punishments yt were inflicted on the transgressers of thē, as well as we know any custome of England not written: which were also to be wished in our souldi∣ers. But because by long disuse of armes, & many abuses crept in a∣mong vs, few know the lawes of warre, least any man might pretend ignorance, or thinke themselues punished otherwise then they ought; I haue for instruction of yong souldiers comprised in writing such matters as for the good gouernment of the campe and armie, & those that conuerse in the armie, I thought most necessary to be knowē and published in the campe, garrison, & other places of seruice. Neither is the course new or strange. The prince of Orenge for the good gouern∣ment of his campe before Florence in the dayes of Charles the 5, by sound of trumpetcpublished such orders as he would haue obser∣ued. The duke of Alua though otherwise cruel, yet a man skilfull in matters of warre, for reformatiō of diuers disorders crept in among thedSpanish souldiers, gaue order to Sācho de Londonno, to frame certaine statutes in writing, which being published, might giue thē particular notice of their duties. Thee Protestants an. 1568. hauing made certaine militarie lawes & orders for the gouernement of their army, did publish the same, & cause both the nobilitie & other sol∣diers to sweare, that they would obserue thē inuiolably. In imitatiō of others, I haue thought good likewise to set down a forme of mili∣tarie lawes, not that all of them are necessary for all times & places, nor yt I could set down so many as are necessarie, but wise gouerners hauing this draught before their eyes, may chuse such as are fittest, Page  304and apply them to their companie and other circumstances.

Howsoeuer it is, whether it be bya lawes, or without lawes: let those that haue the gouernement of souldiers, haue care of the obser∣uance of militarie discipline, without which an armie is like a bodie discrazed and disioyned, and by which, armies beforetime out of order haue bene made victorious. Before Scipioes comming into Spayne, the Romanes through their disorders had receiued many foiles of their enemies. But after that he hadbremooued those disorders, of a cowardly and disorderly multitude, hee made a most victorious armie. Like commendation did Metellus deserue in Afrike, who re∣moouing all instruments and occasions of pleasureeand slouthful∣nesse, and restoring the strict orders of the Romanes in their mar∣ching, encamping, labours and watches, brought Iugurtha to great extremitie, which before that time ouercame, and contemned the Romane forces. Corbulo by likedseueritie causing the Romane souldiers to returne to the obseruance of militarie lawes, and to en∣dure labour, and to keepe araie, and to refraine their outcourses for spoyles, obtained diuers great victories against the Parthians and others. Neither doe I doubt if the ancient orders of warres might be obserued of our English souldiers, but that they should be likewise victorious ouer all their enemies.

To doe them honour and my countrey good, I haue as neere as I could endeuoured to set them downe in termes, beginning first with matters concerning religion, which howsoeuer it is now neglected and scorned of prophane men; yet ought it both in this, and other things to haue the first place.