The practice, proceedings, and lawes of armes described out of the doings of most valiant and expert captaines, and confirmed both by ancient, and moderne examples, and præcedents, by Matthevv Sutcliffe.
Sutcliffe, Matthew, 1550?-1629.

Wherein is discoursed what aray, and course is best in charging the enemie.

THe aray of an army placed, and prepared to fight, is diuers, according to the number and qualities both of the enemies, and our owne forces; likewise ac∣cording to our strength in horsemen, or footemen, in shot or armed men; and last of all, according to the difference of groundes, and places. To part a small number into so many partes, as we doe a full armie, were rather to breake it, then orderly to part it; and a matter in shewe ridiculous. If the enemies force be greater on the corners then in the midst, we must haue consideration of that in framing and ranging our army. Horse∣men Page  161in rough ground, in woods, straits, and hilles are vnprofitable. If the enemy be stronger then wee in horse, wee are to change the place of our horsemen, & to auance our footmen. Where the wayes are strait, we cannot spread our army, as in open field. This and o∣ther circumstances being referred to the iudgement of the Generall; let vs now consider what aray is best in open field, our army being full, and hauing all the partes thereto required. This I haue tou∣ched already where I shewed before how an army marching is sud∣denly to be drawen into order; by what rules the same may be exact∣ly performed, remaineth now to be declared.

The whole army considered without horsemen, or shot, consisteth of three partes in the front: I call them thea right corner, the mid∣dle battell, and the left corner: (the Romanes called them Dextrum cornu, mediam aciem, & sinistrum cornu) and of two or three partes from front to the backe. The first I call the front, the second the supply: the third, if there be a third, the last hope. The Romanes diuided their aray, as it was considered in depth, or from front to backe in hastatos, principes, & triarios. The shot I would haue placed both before, and on the sides, and behinde euery of these partes diui∣ded into seuerall troupes, and guided by seuerall leaders. Without the shot, the horsemen would be placed on the winges, vnlesse some speciall cause mooue vs to the contrary.

The three partes of the front may either stand ioyned together, or with some distance separated: and either may they be framed, as one body with rankes continued, or els euery of these partes may con∣sist of diuers battaillions or squares of armed men; very commodi∣ous for the seuerall vse of them, and also for the retrait of shot within the distances. The breadth and depth may be greater, or lesser ac∣cording to our number, and the ground where they stand. As the front is diuided: so likewise is the supply, and last hope in like sort. The supply would be neere so many, as the front. but it is suffici∣ent, if the last hope be halfe so many. The distances of the supply would be greater, then of the battaillions in front, which charging the enemy, are to ioyne close together, and being wearied may re∣tire within the distances of the supply. which two partes ioyned to∣gether, do then make one front. if both be foiled, then are they to be receiued within the distances of the last hope, which are largest, and all the partes to vnite their whole forces together. If any doubt of Page  162the confusion that may arise in the retiring of the first and second bat∣tell backe to the third, then may the supply, and last hope be drawen vp vpon the sides: which will worke the very same effects.

In the midst of euery battaillion or square, somewhat toward the first rankes, would the ensignes be placed with their garders well ar∣med, and furnished with short weapons.

Euery battaillion would haue his seuerall leader, which would be the first man of the right hand in the first ranke of the square. for that the inferior leaders in a maine battell should stand out of ranke, is contrary to practise of warres. If in euery battaillion there were some part targetters contrary to the moderne vse, there might be good vse made of them, when the armies come to ioyne, both against shot and pikes.

aBefore the front of the battell are certeine troupes of shot to take their standing, which may not onely defend the head of our army: but also anoy whosoeuer offereth himselfe to the charge. If they be pres∣sed with horsemen or targetters, their retreit is within the distances of the battaillions, if the ground affoord them no other defence. From thence they are to be drawen eftsoone againe, and employed where theyr leaders shall perceiue they may doe most seruice. A ranke of mosquetiers vnder the first ranke of pikes may doe good seruice, if they be drawen into the distances when the enemy commeth to the charge.

The horsemen, if they be not strong enough to encounter the ene∣mies horse, would be seconded with certeine troupes of shot and halfe pikes. but diligently are they to take heed, that they goe not directly before the front of their owne footmen, lest retiring thence, they fall vpon their owne pikes. The great ordonance, if there be any hill in the place, either on the right hand or left hand of the army, is there best placed, both for seeing of the enemy, and for feare of disordering our men, either going to the charge, or retiring backe. If the ground be euen, it is placed in the head of our army a little before our troupes of shot. which after the same is discharged, auance themselues, while that is drawen within the distances either of the battaillions, or of the midbattell and corners. For defence of the artillery there are good gardes to be appointed, wheresoeuer it standeth.

If this order cannot be obserued: yet this rule is generally to be respected, that euery weapon, and souldier is there to be placed, where Page  163he may most anoy the enemy, and best defend himselfe. The partes are so to be placed, that one may succour another, and one retire to an∣other. Horsemen may not come within the ground of the footmen, nor shot within the rankes of pikes, but both either on the sides, or be∣hinde the battaillions. He is most iudicious, that can bring most men to fight, and stop the way to the enemy, that he can not extend his men to hurt him. There is no company to be sent forth to ioyne with the enemy, but with some to relieue them againe, and againe, and to re∣ceiue them retiring, and stop the enemies pursute. Horsemen may not charge pikes, nor come in ground where they cannot fetch their carriere. Other rules in their speciall places shall be prescribed.

Shot in marching and standing obserue order. The distances be∣fore I haue shewed. In fighting they obserue no order, but euery man marking his enemy right before him, and shooting at him ta∣keth his best aduantage. yet if they obserue not a certeine course where the shot are many, they soone fall in disorder. Archers for that they shoot and fight standing in ranke, obserue better aray. their di∣stance from shoulder to shoulder is one foot, from ranke to ranke foure foot. Some now a dayes doe little esteeme this weapon: yet if our archers were armed with plated iackes as in time past, neither shotte could abide them in euen ground, nor pikes without shotte. Against horsemen, where they may finde defence of hedges, or ditches, or stakes, or rough ground they do very good seruice.

Pikemen against a charge of horsemen ought to stand close with the blunt end of the pike in the ground, the poynt bent vpon the horse brest. Ranke from ranke standeth not more then three foot asunder, that many endes of pikes may garde the first ranke. That the pikes may be commodiously bent and crossed, the first rankes are to bow theyr bodies. that they may the better breake the charge of the ene∣mies horse: before them they are to haue a ranke of mosquetiers, as hath bene said already.

Where the pikemen go to charge other pikes, betweene shoulder and shoulder, there would be a foot distance; betwixt ranke and ranke so much, as charging with the pikes aboue hand, and breaking the same they may vse theyr swordes, and daggers, and either in stri∣king auance forward theyr right legges, or els receiuing the enemies blowes draw backe the same. Sixe foot I thinke for that purpose to be sufficient.

Page  164

The halberdieres, bilmen, and targetters would haue likewise betwixt shoulder and shoulder one foot, betwixt ranke and ranke fiue foot. In pikes and short weapons this is generally to be obserued, that they stand as close together as may be, so they may haue roome to manage themselues, and their weapons. the lesse roome may serue, considering that I would haue all souldiers to strike with the point of their weapon: and euery man to succour his fellowes before him, and on the sides.

The horsemen go to the shocke with equall front so neere as they can, and runne so close side by side as they may without hurt ech to o∣ther. If horse be distant from horse two foot, and ranke from ranke seuen foot, when horsemen goe trotting to the charge, the proportion is good. The aray of the Frenchmen that charge with single rankes is of no strength: neither the orders of the Reiters that goe to the charge in a ring. for so soone as they are inuested with lances, they are broken. and therefore I thinke the former aray better, as vsed both by antiquity, and the Italian and English caualery, which gi∣ueth ground at this day to no other.

The ancient leaders of time past, which for their skill in armes are famous to posterity, howsoeuer in some circumstances they de∣parted from these rules; yet neuer did they neglect the Generall rea∣sons of them. neither ought they to be neglected of any, as I will make manifest by particulars.

Scipio in the encounter betwixt him and Annibal in Afrike accor∣ding to the Romane guise diuided his army from front to backe into three parts placing first those which they called hastatos, next princi∣pes, last triarios. All these albeit at the first their armes were diffe∣rent, yet when the Romane empire was come to the height, were armed much after one sort with plated iackes, which they called Lo∣ricas, morions on their heads, a shield on their left arme, a sword well poynted, and sharpe by their side, and a iaueline which they cal∣led pilum in their right hand which they threw at the enemy when they ioyned battell, and then fought with their sword and target. Some had also defences for theyr thighes, and legges, and shooes plated in the soles, that they might not be pearced with nayles. The light armed by them called Velites which stood not among the armed men had onely a head piece and a target, and sword, or els if they were slingers onely a head piece, a sting, and a sword. The TriarijPage  165that stoode last were the oldest, and most tried, and best armed soul∣diers, and next them Principes that stood before them, the hastati were yongest and of least experience, first in place, but last in accompt. The front where the hastati were placed, Scipio made not of Regiments ioyned together and placed before the ensignes, but of companies of two hundred made into litle battaillions or squares distant one from another some space, that the Elephants of the enemie receiued with∣in these distances might not disorder the aray. He placed Laelius with the Italian horsemen without on the left corner, Masinissa and the Nu∣midian horsemen on the right corner. The distances betweene the battaillions, he filled with the first troupes of the light armed which were arches and slingers, commanding them, when the Elephants came forwarde on them, either to retire behinde the first battaillions, or standing fast to the sides of them, to giue the Elephants way, and to throw their iauelins at them as they passed. Liuyes words I haue set downe for the satisfaction of those that vnderstande the tongue: which course I haue also in other examples out of him, and other au∣thors obserued. If my translation answere not worde for worde, yet doeth it answere the Romane vse of warre. The wordes I could not translate precisely, if I meant that any should vnderstand mee. the termes of warre then, and now being so different.

aInstruit deinde primos hastatos, post cos principes, triarijs postremam aciem clausit. Non confertas autem cohortes ante sua quámque signa in∣struebat, sed manipulos aliquantum inter se distantes, vt esset spatium, quò Elephanti hostium accepti nihil ordines turbarent: Laelium cum equi∣tatu Italico ab sinistro cornu, Masinissam, Numidásque ab dextro oppo∣suit. Ʋias patentes inter manipulos antesignanorum velitibus comple∣uit, dato praecepto vt ad impetum Elephantorum, aut post rectos refuge∣rent ordines, aut in dextram laeuámque discursu applicantes se antesig∣nanis, viam qua irruerent in ancipitia tela belluis darent.

Annibal placed first his Elephants: then the Ligurians, & Gaules hired to ayde the Carthaginians. Among their troupes and before them he placed slingers, and archers which were Mores, and of the Ilands of Maiorca, and Minorca. In the second battel he set the Car∣thaginians, and Africans, and Macedonian Regiment ioyned in one aray. and after them a litle way distant, he placed his last hope, or third battell consisting of Italians. The Carthaginian horsemen were placed on the right wing, the Numidians on the left. His error Page  166(if any error may be thought to haue bene in such an expert Cap∣taine, and not rather in the execution of his directions) was this, that not making any distances in his second battell, for the first to retrayte into, the first battell being repulsed was for the most part slaine, and returning backe vpon the Carthaginians standing in the second bat∣tell, had almost disordered them. Percase he thought that seeing no place of retraite, they would haue fought more desperatly. But what can wearied, and hurt men doe? or who can animate men altogether discouraged? Scipio contrarywise drawing backe the hurt, and wea∣ried men of his first battaillions, auanced the second battel where those stoode which the Romanes called Principes on the one hande, and the thirde battell, which they termed Triarios on the other hande, and so ioyntly charging the enemie on front with his footemen, and on the backe with his horsemen, he foyled Annibal and his army, which be∣fore that had alwayes bene victorious.

aAnnibal primum Elephantos instruxit: deinde auxilia Ligurum, Gallorum{que}, Balearibus, Mauris{que} adiunctis: in 2 acie Carthaginenses, Afrósque, & Macedonum legionem: modico interuallo relecto sub∣sidiariam aciem Italicorum militum instruxit: equitatum circumdedit cornibus, dextrum Carthaginenses, sinistrum Numidae tenuerunt.

At Trebia Annibal brought into the field first his archery, and slin∣gers of the Ilands of Maiorca, and Minorca, about 8000. men: then his armed men: ten thousand horsemen hee disposed by the right, and left corners of the first battell, and without them his Elephants diui∣ded equally into two partes. When the Romane legions vrged the light armed, he drew them backe lightly into the spaces, betwixt the midbattell, and the right and left corner. Afterwards, hauing foyled and put to flight the Romane horsemen, the archers & slingers came forward, & charged the Romanes vpon the flanks of the armed men.

bAnnibal Baleares leuem armaturam, 8 ferme millia hominum erant, locat ante signa, deinde grauiorem armis peditem: in cornibus circumfundit decem millia equitum: ab cornibus in vtrámque partem diuisos Elephantos statuit: Balearibus cum maiore robore resisterent le∣giones, diductae properè in cornua leues armaturae sunt: Baleares pulso equite iaculabantur in latera.

The army of the Romanes and Carthaginians at the famous en∣coūter of Cannae by Liuie is thus described. On the right corner stood the Romane horsemen, and within them footemen: the horsemen of Page  167their associats were ranged on the left corner, & within them foote∣men: in the midst were placed the Romane legiōs diuided after their vsual maner into three parts: hard before them & ioyning with them were archers and slingers placed, and before them other archers, and slingers and other light armed souldiers, of which consisted the first range of the battel. Annibal set his slingers, archers, and light armed foremost on the front of the battell, the Spanish, and French horse he placed on the left wing against the Romane horsemen, the Numidi∣an horsemen on the right. The midbattel he strengthened with foote∣men, placing the Africans equally diuided in the right, and left cor∣ner, the Gaules and Spaniards with their aray in forme of a wedge auanced somewhat forward being in the midst. The charge was be∣gunne by the archery and light armed, afterward did the left wing of the Gaules and Spanish horsemen meete with the right wing of the Romanes: then followed the encountre of the armed men.

aIn dextro cornu Romanos equites locauit, deinde pedites: laeuum cor∣nu extremi equites sociorum, intra pedites; ad medium iuncti legionibus Romanis tenuerunt iaculatores. Ex caeteris leuium armorum auxilijs prima acies facta. Annibal Balearibus aliáque leui armatura praemissa, Gallos, Hispanos{que} equites laeua in cornu aduersus Romanum equitatum, dextrum cornu Numidis equitibus datum media acie peditibus firmata, ita vt Afrorum, vtra{que} cornua essent, interponerentur his cuneo aliquan∣tum prominente medij Galli, at{que} Hispani. Pugna leuibus primum armis commissa: deinde equitum Gallorum, Hispanorum{que} laeuum cornu cum dextro Romano concurrit, deinde peditum coorta pugna.

Scipio fighting against Asdrubal in Spaine, did thus dispose his army: he strengthened both the corners of his battell (diuided from front to backe after the vsual maner) with Romane souldiers, his associats he bestowed in the midst, his horsemen and light armed hee sent out against the corps de garde of the Carthaginians placed in the gates of their campe, and in conuenient places neere. When the Carthaginians came foorth against them, hee receiued his horse∣men and light armed within his battaillions, and diuiding them in∣to two partes, placed them behinde the corners of the battell. Per∣ceiuing where the enemie was weakest, hee there beganne the charge, with that part of his army that was strongest. The first bat∣tell of the enemies being discomfited, he chargeth the midbattell with his Regiments of Romanes on the sides, with his associats that were Page  168Spaniards in front, and on the backes with his horsmen, and so put the same to flight.

Scipio cornua firmataRomano milite, socijs in mediam aciem acceptis: equites & leuem armaturam in stationes Punicas immisit: egredientibus Poenis equitatum, & leuem armaturam in medium acceptam, diuisam{que} in partes duas in subsidijs post cornua locat. Cum cornibus vbi firma eius erat acies, Poenorum infirma pugnam incipit, ea acie fugata mediam Poenorum aciem ipse a latere, equites à tergo, Hispani à fronte adorti fuderunt.

Scipioes father encountring the same man, their armies were then thus ordered: the front of the Romane army stoode vpon three parts: the footemen after the maner of the Romanes, were part before the ensignes and part behinde: the horsemen stoode beyond both the cor∣ners of the Auantgard or first battell: Asdrubal placed the Spaniards in the midst, in the right corner hee ordered the Carthaginians, the Africans and other mercenary souldiers in the left, his Numidian horsemen hee placed fast by the Carthaginians on that wing where they stoode, the rest of his horsemen in the other corner.

Triplex stetitbRomana acies, peditum pars ante signa locata, pars post signa accepta, equites cornua cinxere. Asdrubal mediam aciem Hispanis firmat, in cornibus dextro Poenos locat, laeuo Afros mercena∣riorúmque auxilia: equitum Numidas Poenorum peditibus, caeteros A∣fros pro cornibus opponit.

Scipio, he that subdued Annibal encountring with Syphax, vsed the vsual aray of the Romanes making his army triple in breadth, and in length; the Italian horsemen he placed by the right corner of the first squadrons, the Numidians ledde by Masinissa by the left. Syphax and Asdrubal opposed the Numidian or Barbary horse a∣gainst the Italian horse, the Carthaginians against Masinissa. The Celtiberian footemen they placed in the midst opposite against the squadrons of the Romane Regiments.

cRomanus hast atorum prima signa, post principes, in subsidijs tria∣rios constituit. Equitatum. Italicum ab dextro cornu, ab laeuo Numidas, Masinissam{que} opposuit. Syphax Asdrubal{que} Numidis, aduersus Italicum equitatum, Carthaginensibus contra Masinissam locatis, Celtiberos in mediam aciem in aduersa signa legionum accepere.

In a certaine encounter in Spaine thedRomans perceiuing that the enemy had left spaces betweene the midbattel, & those squadrons that Page  169made the corners, purposing to send out his horsemen by those spa∣ces, preuenting him, filled those spaces first with their horsmen, which both made the enemies horse vnseruiceable, and holpe to disorder his footemen. Their other aray was ordinary, saue that the horsemen made not the outmost wings, but the footemen: as appeareth by these wordes of Liuy following.

Cornua, dextrum Ilergetes, laeuum alij Hispani, mediam aciem Au∣setani tenuere. Inter cornua, & mediam aciem interualla patentia fece∣runt satis lata, qua equitatum vbi tempus esset, emitterent. Romani cùm inter cornua loca etiam patentia fecissent, hoc vicerunt, quod primi equi∣tes inter interualla miserint, quod hostium equites inutiles fecit, & tur∣bauit hostium pedites.

Yet was not the aray of the Romanes alwaies the same, as appea∣reth by that encounter which ye Romane Proconsul & Pretor had with Mago in Liguria. The Pretors legions made the front of the armie & first squadrons, the Proconsul placed his legions behind for supply. The twelfth legion being almost cut all in peeces, the thirteenth was auanced forward to relieue it. Mago against this legion opposed fresh men, reserued behinde for supply: the Elephants comming ouer∣thwart, the first rankes of the eleuenth legion being drawen foorth, fought with them with their iauelins.

aPraetoris legiones in prima acie fuerunt: procos. suas in subsidij te∣nuit. Duodecima legione magna ex parte caesa, decimatertia legio in pri∣mam aciem inducta, Mago ex subsidijs Gallos integros legioni opposuit. hastati legionis vndecimae pila in Elephantos conijciunt.

Furius fighting with the Gaules in Liguria, placed his army in this sort. The souldiers of his associats, he diuided intob wings, and of them made the front of the battell. Two regiments he placed be∣hinde for a supply. When the right wing was almost oppressed, brin∣ging vp the two regiments on either side of it, he garded the same, and with his horsemen he charged the enemy vpon the side of his battell.

cIn alas Furius diuidens socialem exercitum eum in prima acie loca∣uit, in subsidijs duas legiones, oppressae dextrae posteà alae duas illas legio∣nes circumduxit, equites in latus hostium emisit.

When afterward the Romane Empire was enlarged, & that the Romanes began to haue diuers nations in their armies, although the generall order was still obserued, yet there happened in their armies by reason of this mixture more varietie. In the battel betwixt L. Sci∣pio,Page  170and Antiochus in Asia, there were two legions of Romanes, two other of Latines their associats. The Romanes were ordered in the midst, the Latines in the corners of the battell. Those partes of the le∣gions which they called hastatos, Principes, & Triarios, made the front, the supply, and last hope. On the right side of this armie, the Consul ranged in squadrons 3000 footemen of other nations, that came to the aide of the Romanes, and without them somewhat lesse then 3000 horsemen. Vpon the left side which was garded with a ri∣uer running along, he placed onely foure troupes of horsemen. Two thousand Macedonians & Thracians were left behinde in the campe to garde the baggage. Antiochus his army stoode in this order: first, 16000 of the kings ordinarie souldiers, calledaPhalangitae, diuided into x squadrons, tooke their place: betweene euery squadron two E∣lephants were placed. From the front backeward, the battell contei∣ned 32 rankes of armed men. By the right side of these were placed first 1500 Gallograecians: next to them 3000 men completely ar∣med, they call them 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉: thirdly, a wing of a thousand horse∣men, and certeine Elephants behinde to second them. In the fourth place, the kings Garde, and by the same 1200 archers on horsebacke Dahians: And fiftly, 3000 light armed men: in the vttermost corner were 4000 slingers, and archers placed. By the left side of the kings ordinarie souldiers, were likewise 1500 Gallograecian footemen ranged, and 2000 Cappadocians, hauing like armes, and beyond them 2700 others, all sent in aide of the king. After them 3000 hors∣men all armed, and one thousand other horsemen were ranged. Be∣fore these horsemen were placed charets with hookes, and Arabians vpon Camels. And lastly, like number of horsemen, targetters, ar∣chers, and Elephants, as was on the right corner.

bRomanorum duae legiones, duae sociûm & Latini nominis erant. Ro∣mani mediam aciem, cornua Latini tenuêre. hastatorum prima signa, deinde Principum erant, triarij postremos claudebant. extra hanc iustam aciem à parte dextra auxiliarium tria millia peditum Consul instruxit. vlira eos equitum minùs 3000 opposuit: à laeua qua flumen claudebat, quatuor tantùm turmae oppositae: 2000 Macedonum & Thracum praesi∣dio castris relinquebantur. regia acies erat primò 16000 phalangitae in partes decem diuisa, inter singulas partes bini erant elephanti, à fronte introrsus in 32 ordines armatorum acies patebat. ad latus dextrum phalangitarum 1500 pedites Gallograecos posuit, his 3000 peditum lori∣catorum Page  171(cataphractos appelant) adiunxit: addita his ala mille equitū: continens his grex elephantorum positus est in subsidijs. ab eadem parte paulùm producto cornu regia cohors erat: Dahae deinde equites sagitta∣rij 1200: tum leuis armatura 3000: extremum cornu claudebant 4000 funditores, & sagittarij. ab laeuo cornu phalangitis adiuncti erant Gal∣lograeci pedites 1500, & similiter his armati 2000 Cappadocum, inde auxiliares 2700, & 3000 cataphractorum equitum, & mille alij equi∣tes: ante hunc equitatum falcatae quadrigae, & cameli quibus Arabes insidebant sagittarij. inde alia multitudo par ei quae in dextro cornu erat equites, cetrati, sagittarij, elephanti.

Cerealis in his araie did somewhat digresse from the ancient or∣ders of the Romanes. The squadrons which were sent from the as∣sociates in his aide, were placed in front, and by them on each side his horsmen: in the second battell hee placed the legions: and last of all kept by himselfe certaine choise men to supply where sudden need re∣quired.

aCerealis equite & auxiliarijs cohortibus frontem explet: in secunda acie legiones locatae, dux sibi delectos retinuerat ad improuisa.

The armie of Caesar ranged readie to fight with Afranius, was di∣uided into three battaillions. The first consisted of 4 squadrons of the 5 legion, which was seconded by the other squadrons of the same le∣gion, the three squadrons remaining were placed for the last hope in the third battaillion. Other legions were ranged in like sort. The ar∣chers and slingers were placed before the front in the midst, the hors∣men were placed in wings on the sides.

bCaesaris acies triplex, primo 4 cohortes ex 5 legione, has subsidiariae ternae, & rursus aliae totidem, suae cuius{que} legionis sequebantur. sagittarij & funditores media continebantur acie, equitatus latera cingebat.

I may not forget the order of Caesar, and Pompeies armies in that famous encounter in the Pharsalian fields. In the left corner of Pompeies armie were two legions placed: Scipio had the middest with his regiments that hee brought out of Syria: the regiment of Cilicia and squadrons made of the reliques of Afranius his armie in Spayne, were ranged together in the right corner: certaine other squadrons hee placed in the distances betwixt the corners and mid∣battell. All his horsemen, archers, and slingers hee placed side by the left corner of his armie. Seuenc companies hee left to garde his campe. Caesar ordered his armie in three battels, Page  172and according to the custome of the Romanes; strengthened euery battell with three supplies (the front accounted for one which is not properly a supplie, but the front or first araie.) He made a fourth bat∣tell of Iustie yong men well armed and furnished with halfe pikes a∣gainst Pompeies horsmen. Finally, two companies he left behind for gard of the campe.

aErant in sinistro cornu (Pompeij) legiones duae, mediam aciem Sci∣pio tenebat cum legionibus Syriacis, Ciliciensis legio & cohortes Afra∣nianae in dextro cornu erant. reliquas cohortes inter aciem mediam, & cornua interiecerat: cunctum equitatum, sagittarios, & funditores in si∣nistro cornu obiecerat, 7 cohortes castris praesidio reliquit. Caesar tripli∣cem aciem instruit, & tribus promore Romano firmatam subsidijs: quar∣tam aciem instituit contra equites Pompeij: duas cohortes castris praesidio reliquit.

Neither is the victorie of Caesar against Scipio in Afrike, lesse famous, or the araie of their armies lesse remarkable. Scipio in the front of his armie, placed his legions, the Numidians he ranged be∣hind them for supplies. On the right and left corner in equal distances be ordered his elephants, after which he marrialled the light armed, and aide sent him out of Numidia: all his horsemen he placed on the right corner of the battell, and beside them an infinite number of soul∣diers light armed (as archers, slingers, targetters without corslets) all this in the space of a mile: the left side of his armie was close ioy∣ned to the towne of Vzita. Caesar in the left side of his armie, set the 9 and 7 regiment: the 30, 29, 13, 14, 28, and 26. in the midbattell: cer∣taine companies of those legions togither with certaine regiments of yong souldiers in the right corner: certaine other regiments new∣ly leuied, he placed in squadrons behind for a supplie. The last hope or third supplie or battell, he translated into the left corner of his bat∣tell, where also he placed his horsemen, and the fift legion which se∣conded his horsemen. His light armed disposed in squadrons, hee ran∣ged among the troupes of his horsemen.

bScipio collocabat in fronte legiones. Numidas in subsidiaria acie, elephantos dextro, sinistró{que} cornu aequalibus interuallis: post illos arma∣turas leues, & Numidas auxiliares substituerat, equitatū vniuersum in dextro cornu disposuit, & iuxta leuis armaturae infinitam multitudinem mille passuum spatio, sinistrum cornu oppido Vzita claudebatur. Caesar ha∣buit legionem 9 & 7 in sinistro cornu, tricesimam, vicesimam nonam, Page  173decimam tertiam, 14, 28, 26, in media acie, aliquot cohortes earum le∣gionum, & vnà tyronum legiones in dextro cornu, tyronum legiones in subsidijs, tertiam aciem in sinistrum suum cornu transtulit, ibi equitatum collocauer at, & quintam legionem quae equitatui subsidio esset, leuem ar∣maturam inter equites interposuit.

And thus inough of the Romanes and perchance (as some will say) too much, seeing the orders of warres are now so diuers (as they thinke) from antiquitie. But these men must consider, that the rea∣sons remaine alwayes the same, and that the vse of horsemen, and footemen is now the same that was in times past, and that our shot answere to their light armed, and that alwayes one part is to succour another, and that the army must take heede, that it be not compassed round. The Greekes, yea and barbarous nations mooued with the same reasons haue in effect kept the same aray. WhenaClearchus was to fight with Artaxerxes, he placed his owne souldiers in the right corner, and those of Meno in the left, the rest were ranged in the midst. Without the corners stood the light armed, and then the horsemen equally diuided vtmost.

In the encounter of the Greekesb and Persians at Arbela, Darius on the wings placed his horsemen of diuers nations, and some pretie distance before them his charets with hookes: within them his ar∣chers and light armed: and in the midst the Greekes and Persians, which were the strength of the army. The same aray did Alexander also obserue in the front of his army: but fearing least hee should be compassed about by Darius his horsemen, he also prouided another battaillion, which if neede be might make head that way also. I need not bring many examples, seeing in all these matters there is one ge∣nerall course. Let vs therefore now compare the arayes of late time, and you shall then perceiue, that either they are like to former procee∣dings in former time, or els farre worse.

Thec blacke Prince in the fight with Henry the vsurper of Castil, diuided his army into three partes, himselfe ledde the battell, the duke of Lancaster the Vantgarde, and the king of Maiorca the rest, the horsemen were sorted on the sides: the same aray was obserued by the enemie.

When the duke of Burgundie was to fight with Lewis the 11, at Montlehery, hee placed his archers first: but because his caualery was not placed on the sides, but behinde: the same, going to the Page  174charge, ouerranne his owne men, and killed diuers of them, and fewe or none of the enemies. In which disorder if Lewis had charged him, he could not haue failed of the victorie.

The Prince of Condè Anno 1567 remayning at S. Denys, and vnderstanding the Kings determination to driue him thence: re∣solued in the fieldes betwene Paris and S. Denys to receiue the charge in this order: he diuided his horsemen into three partes, and did se∣cond euery part with shot: with the rest of the shot Ienlis beganne the charge. Footemen armed which are the strength of the army he had none. The partes were so farre sundred, that one part could not succour another. So that if the armed men of the aduerse party had come on: both the horsemen, and footemen of the Prince had bene driuen to a poore retraite. The Constable hauing 16000 foote∣men, brought fewe or none to the encountre. Of this number 6000 Suitzers were there planted in the fielde, like so many stakes, without giuing any one blow that day.

At Moncontour the Admiral placed first hisaReyters, and side by them certaine lances: both these hee fensed on the sides with shot: behinde these he placed a squadron of Lansquenets flanked likewise with shot, and seconded with some fewe horsemen, all which made the Auantgard. The battell consisted of shot which was likewise flanked, and seconded with shot. In the head both of the battell, and Auantgard were certaine shot placed, as enfans perdus (wee call them the forlorne hope) in which aray there was neither order, beau∣tie, nor strength. There wanted armed men in the battell. Horsemen coulde not, being so placed come to the charge, but they should runne ouer their owne men. In some they were so placed, that not the hun∣dred person could come to fight. But percase the Admirall either coulde not doe as hee would, or else carried away with the errour of the French, that put all in shot, had more of that weapon, then coulde doe seruice.

The enemies Auantgard at the same time stood vpon 4000 Suit∣zers, flanked with certaine Regiments of shot: before the Suitzers were 8 fielde pieces placed, and before the pieces the forlorne hope: beyonde the shot were ranged certaine lances. The battell being drawne vp, and ranged in equal front with the Auantgard, in fashion differed little, or nothing from the same. Much like course, sure no better hath bene vsed in all the battels that haue bene fought since Page  175the inuention of artillery. So that we see how all wise captaines, do goe about in their arayes to resemble the proceeding of ancient time, but there is not now the like vnion of the parts, nor the like strength of the whole body, nor that orderly proceeding, that euery weapon may doe his office, nor that proportion of the front, nor order of sup∣plies, that were among ancient warriers. And by reason of vnifor∣mity in proceeding now wanting, hard it is to set men in order: hard to bring many to fight, and hardest of all to restore an array once bro∣ken. this is the cause of the weaknesse of the armies of ourtime: in disorder no army can fight, nor resist.

Wherefore of two things in this point considerable, let vs doubt neither. If the enemy be in disorder, neither let vs doubt to charge him; nor if our army be in order, let vs feare to susteine his charge.aIubaes men being without order, were no sooner charged, but they fled. Cato in his expedition intobSpaine taking the enemy at like aduantage, and charging him as he ranne vp and downe to set his forces in array, did easily driue him out of the field. If thecRomanes as they passed the riuer before the battell of Trebia, had not bene charged by Annibal, they could not so easily haue receiued so great an ouerthrow. Annibal himselfe albeit a most expert leader, and of an army most expert in warre, yet receiued losse being char∣ged by Marcellus, in that instant when he drew his men out of the campe, to set them in order. and if by long practise his men could not haue taken their standings themselues, they had that day quite bene ouerthrowen by theirddisorder. The like had also happened vnto Caesars army charged by theeNeruians, when it was dispersed, and disordered about the fortification of the campe, but that the skill of the souldiers, that could euery man fall in array of himselfe, reme∣died the disorder. The Germanes a long time vsing to charge their enemies with morefviolence then order, & assailing them by squa∣drons seuerally, rather then with an ordered army; were ouerthro∣wen by the Romanes oft times: but when by long vse they had learned the Romane array, and obserued it, they preuailed against them. Those that come rather furiously then orderly to the charge, as did the French at Cressy, and Poitiers, and both French and Spani∣ards at Aliubarota in the confines of Portogall, where our ancesters of the English natiō obteined great victories, are easily ouerthrowen. Susteine the first brunt, and presently they are cooled.

Page  176

Those therefore that goe to charge the enemy, let them obserue thisa course: first let them set their men in order, that euery man may know his place: secondly, let them giue certeine direction, that euery commander may know both what to doe, and in case he cannot performe so much, where to retire. Annibal not thinking of this, when he fought with Scipio in Afrike, occasionned his owne ouer∣throw. for when his first battell being wearied, would haue retired to the succor, there was no place left to retrait into: so that the same not being receiued into the second battell, began to fight with their owne fellowes, and what by the enemy and by friends was most part slaine. The French horse at the battell of Poitiers, not knowing where to retire, fell among their footmen, and holpe to set them in disorder.

Thirdly in giuing directions, let the Generall take heed, that he employ all sorts of weapons, where they may doe most seruice (this I meane particularly to declare in the chapter following.) if he send horse against pikes standing fast, or against shot being fenced with a trench; he ruinateth his horse. if he send shot against horse in open field, or pikes against shot, he vseth the matter with no iudgement.

Fourthly, let him neuer order either his whole army, or part of it without supply. Many casualties may at the first discourage our men; which being opportunely succored, may take courage againe, and begin a fresh charge vpon the enemy.bCato in his warres against the Spaniards, relieuing his wearied men with a few fresh com∣panies encouraged them, and ouerthrew the enemies. When Cae∣sars men began to giue groūd in their battell against the Germanes,cCrassus by supplying them with a fresh company, not onely re∣stored the battell, but made all the enemies to runne. Where all the force of the army is employed at the first brunt, and no order is taken for supplies, as in a certeine battell betwixt the Romaines and Volscians: the successedseldome is good. Among other mat∣ters obiected against Fuluius accused as principall causer of the ouer∣throw of the Romaine army by Annibal at Herdonea; this was chiefe, that he did not well order his army, nor strengthen the same with supplies, nor succours.

Fiftly, looke with what part of the army himselfe is strongest, let him there begin to charge the enemy, where either by good intelli∣gence, or view of the aray, or disaduantage of the ground, or quality Page  177of the weapons, he shall perceiue that the enemie is weakest. Caesar in theaencounter he had with the Germanes, beganne to charge them with that part of his armie, that was ordered in the right cor∣ner, for that hee sawe, that the enemies were there weakest. The same as Liuy testifieth, was obserued in a certaine battell, which the Romanes had with the Carthaginians in Spaine. He is not wise, that when he may charge the enemie on the side, will goe directly to the front, where his greatest force consisteth.

Sixtly, after that hee hath set his men in order, let him not stand long in armes, before he goeth to the charge, if he meane at all to fight. By long standing, the souldiers waxe wearie, faint, hun∣grie, and a great part of their courage is thereby abated.bAsdru∣bal coulde not haue done his men greater wrong, then to make them stand so long in armes before the battell begunne at Me∣taurus. Thereof proceeded their faintnesse, and contrariwise the courage, and strenth of the Romanes: for those being faint, these came fresh to the battell.cAnnibal at the battell of Trebia would not bring foorth his men to fight, before hee perceiued the Ro∣manes to be hungrie, and almost tyred with long standing. Which encreased his owne force, and abated much of the courage, and force of the enemie.

Further, by no meanes let him suffer the enemie to preuent him in giuing the first charge. As in the beginning of warres, so in thedbeginning of the battell there is great aduantage. And as Pinarius saide to his men lying in garrison in Aenna a Citie ofeSicile, so it falleth out very often, that hee that draweth the sworde soonest, first obteineth the victorie. They that first be∣ginne, seeme to haue greater courage then those that stand still, as it were to warde their blowes. There is many aduantages in beginning the battell. They may more easely take the aduan∣tage of the winde, and Sunne, of the grounde, and of the sort of weapons wherewith they fight, then those that stand still, which are forced to turne, which way soeuer the enemie commeth. They may there beginne where the enemie is weakest, and themselues strongest, and therefore the vse of the Romanes was first to begin the charge, as appeareth both in the warres of Scipio in Spaine, and Caesar in France. A certainefFrenchman, albeit he vnderstood not the reason, yet by obseruation vnderstoode this poynt. For Page  178sayth he, in the warres of France, it hath beene noted, that the Protestants did alwayes preuaile more charging the enemies first, then attending the enemies demarche and charge. It appeareth both in the braule at Moncontour, anno 1569. and diuers other skirmishes which they call battels. Those that charge first, take the aduantage of any disorder committed by the enemie, which others let slippe.

Whatsoeuer can be deuised to encourage our owne souldiers, or to discourage the enemie, as at all times: so especially in the hazard of battell, is to be practised by cryes, reportes, shewes, wordes spo∣ken in the hearing of the enemie, and whatsoeuer else can be ima∣gined. If there lye any wood, or hollowe grounde neere the enemie, the same is to be seased, that in the heate of the fight our men sud∣denly arising thence, may more amaze, and hurt the enemie. But of this point we shall haue better occasion to speake at large in the trea∣tise of stratagemes, and ambushes.

Least by flying of some cowardly companions, the rest might be discouraged, order is to be taken, that whosoeuer in the fight begin∣neth to turne his backe, bee presently slaine. TheaRomane Ge∣nerall by this strict commaundement and execution, appointing certaine troupes to execute it, made his armie stand resolutely. Of Attilius it is reported, that when his army beganne to giue ground bybkilling the first with his owne hands, he made the rest to make head against the enemie: which Annibal likewise practised in his battel with Scipio in Afrike, albeit he had not like successe. This is the case, wherein Clearchus the Lacedemonianc saide, that soul∣diers ought more to feare their owne Generall, then the enemie.

Finally, when by his good direction, and the valiantnesse of his souldiers, the Generall shall perceiue the enemie to beginne to shrinke, and giue ground, then must he be most carefull first, that he giue him no time to recouer himselfe, or to supplie that which is broken: secondly, that hee keepe his souldirs from spoyle, vntill such time as he hath assured himselfe of the victorie. When the ene∣mie beginneth to shrinke, and to be dismaide, any little force more maketh him to runne: in a small time he recouereth himselfe againe. Thereforedthen is he to bee vrged with the rest of our strength that remaineth entire, and not to be suffered to escape. Scipio in the battell with Asdrubal in Spaine, when theeCarthaginians disli∣king Page  179the party would haue retyred wholly together, did so presse them on all sides, that before they could recouer any place of safe∣tie, they were forced to change their pace, and euery man to flye for his life.

In theabattell betwixt Caesar and Pompey, when Pompeyes horsemen were driuen out of the fielde, by those halfe pikes that hee had ordeined for succour of his owne horse, with the same men he cut in pieces Pompeyes archers, and light armed men. That done, with the same troupes he charged Pompeies battell, that yet stoode firme, vpon the backe. And after he had driuen the enemie out of the fielde, yet rested he not, vntill such time as hee had taken his campe, and dispersed the reliques of his armie. Yet may some say, it is not good to presse the enemie too farre, and that a bridge of golde is to bee made to those that flie away. Gaston de fois was ouerthro∣wen and slaine pursuing the Spaniards, that retired after the bat∣tell of Rauenna. And diuers others driuing the enemie to dispaire, that otherwise would haue fledde, haue hurt themselues. But this is to be vnderstoode of an enemie that would so flye, as he would al∣so yeelde the victorie and contende no more, in which case Themi∣stocles perswaded the Greekes that meant to dissolue Xerxes his bridge, to suffer the same to continue, that thereby he might runne away. Others that meane to fight againe, are to be pursued dili∣gently with all our forces. Gaston de fois had not beene slaine, but that hee was badly followed, and too farre auaunced. Neither coulde the Spaniards haue escaped, if they had beene charged with shotte, or taken at aduantage, and kept from victuals. The Ro∣manes had so certaine an order in this point, that they doubt not to accuse theirb General of trecherie, for that when the enemie stagge∣red, hee gaue not the worde to the horsemen to charge, nor aduaun∣ced his footemen in time to supplie those yt were wearie.cPerseus, for that hauing foyled the Romanes with his horse, and hauing the victorie in his hand, he did not pursue the rest of their troupes, and breake them, but suffered them to passe a Riuer quietly; is condemned for a man of no iudgement in warres.

The same errour was committed by the Carthaginians in Spaine, who hauing slain the two Scipioes & foyled their armie gaue them selues to rest, while the Romanes gathering head againe, were able afterwarde to matche them, and foyle them. Those that Page  180cannot thrust the enemie downe that is already falling, will be lesse able to doe it, when he standeth vpright. And therefore let wise cap∣taines pursue their enemie to the vtmost, and not suffer him when hee once beginneth to looke backe, to turne head againe, and take breath. And in any case let him take heede, that his souldiers runne not to spoyle, before the victorie be assured, and the enemie wholly vanquished.

aAnnibal pursuing the Romanes after his victorie at Trebia, had sure ouertaken them, and disordered their rierward, had not the Numidian horsemen turned aside to spoyle the campe of the Romanes. And in the time of the Emperours of Rome, the Ger∣manes had giuen thebRomanes a mightie ouerthrowe, if leauing them, they had not contended among themselues who shoulde first goe to spoyle. But howe so euer it was in auncient time, the disorder of souldiers in this point is such, that with no lawes, nor penalties they canne bee kept from following the spoyle, which oftentimes maketh them a spoyle to their enemies.

The French at Guingast had put the Dutch to flight, and were almost in possession of the victorie: but while they ranne after the spoyle, the enemie rallied himselfe, and charging them afresh, did extorce the victorie out of their handes, and put them to flight. AtcTaro the Italians had foyled the French, returning out of the kingdome of Naples, but that in the beginning of the vi∣ctorie they fell to spoyle the baggage, which was the cause of their owne spoyle and ruine. The same was the cause of the escape of thedFrench, and losse of the Venetians at Treui. Gaston de fois at the taking of Brescia made proclamation, that vpon paine of death, no man shoulde fall to spoyle before li∣cence giuen: yet coulde hee not keepe his souldiers fingers in temper. The more dangerous effectes doe ensue of this disorder, the greater care ought the Generall to haue, to preuent it.