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Author: Norton, Robert, d. 1635.
Title: The gunner shevving the vvhole practise of artillerie: vvith all the appurtenances therevnto belonging. Together with the making of extra-ordinary artificiall fireworkes, as well for pleasure and triumphes, as for warre and seruice. VVritten by Robert Norton, one of his Maiesties gunners and enginiers.
Publication info: Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan, Digital Library Production Service
2012 November (TCP phase 2)

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Print source: The gunner shevving the vvhole practise of artillerie: vvith all the appurtenances therevnto belonging. Together with the making of extra-ordinary artificiall fireworkes, as well for pleasure and triumphes, as for warre and seruice. VVritten by Robert Norton, one of his Maiesties gunners and enginiers.
Norton, Robert, d. 1635., Bry, Theodor de, 1528-1598,

London: Printed by A[ugustine] M[athewes] for Humphrey Robinson, and are to be sold at the three Pidgeons in Paules-Churchyard, 1628.
Alternate titles: Practise of artillerie.
Printer's name from STC.
Title in an engraved compartment. Variant: title in a woodcut compartment, and in a different setting, with line 5 reading: of artillery.
The first leaf and the last leaf are blank.
Running title reads: The practise of artillerie.
The engraved compartment and plates are by Theodor De Bry, from the French and German translations of: Ufano, Diego. Tratado dela artilleria. Frankfurt, 1614, 1621.
Reproduction of the original in Harvard University. Library.
Subject terms:
Gunnery -- Early works to 1800.

title page
To Mr. Robert Norton, and his Practise of Artillery.
A Due to the Author, his Worke and Worth.
To his good Friend Master Robert Norton, on his Practise of Artillery.
In the due Honor of the Author Master Robert Norton, and his Worke.
A Table of the Contents.
THE PREFACE TO THE courteous Readers.
The first Definition.
Definition 2.
Definition 3.
Definition 4.
Definition 5.
Definition 6.
Definition 7.
Definition 8.
Definition 9.
Definition 10.
Difinition 11.
Demand 1.
Demand 2.
Demand 3.
Demand 4.
Demand 5.
Demand 6.
Demand 7.
Demand 8.
Maximes of Naturall Philosophy necessary to be first knowne.
THEOREM. 1. Euery Corporall thing reposeth in its naturall place.
THEOR. 2. Motion may be made in any place within the Moones Orbe.
THEOR. 3. Before any thing mooueth towards its Naturall place, from its first being, it goeth stretching vnto the naturall measure.
THEOR. 4. Nature admitteth no Emptynesse.
THEOR. 5. Euery Body hath a place.
THEOR. 6. A Body rarifying its selfe, the place thereof increaseth as the Body increaseth.
THEOR. 7. Two Bodies cannot be together in one and the same place.
THEOR. 8. A place filled cannot receiue another Body in without expelling the former one.
THEOR. 9. The Resistance of the Moued proportioned to the Mouer, fur∣thereth the Motion.
THEOR. 10. Fire taking the Powder, of necessity the Shot must be driuen forth, and the Peece discharged.
THEOR. 11. The Ballet begins to flye before the perfect firing of the Powder.
THEOR. 12. The force of the stroke dependeth on the swiftnes of the Course.
THEOR. 13. There can be no mouing in Action made more violent then with a peece of Ordnance.
THEOR. 14. The longer the Chase of the Peece the stronger the streake.
THEOR. 15. A Peece reuerseth when it dischargeth.
THEOR. 16. A Peece of Ordnance sheoteth further in a right line, from a low vpwards, then from aboue downewards, except Perpendicularly.
THEOR. 17.
THEOR. 18.
THEOR. 19.
THEOR. 20.
THEOR. 21.
THEOR. 22.
THEOR. 23.
THEOR. 24.
THEOR. 25.
THEOR. 26.
THEOR. 27.
THEOR. 28.
THEOR. 29.
THEOR. 30.
THEOR. 31.
THEOR. 32.
THEOR. 33.
THEOR. 34.
THEOR. 35.
THEOR. 36.
THEOR. 37.
THEOR. 38.
THEOR. 39.
THEOR. 40.
THEOR. 41.
THEOR. 42.
THEOR. 43.
THEOR. 44.
THEOR. 45.
THEOR. 46.
THEOR. 47.
THEOR. 48.
THEOR. 49.
THEOR. 50.
THEOR. 51.
THEOR. 52.
THEOR. 53.
THEOR. 54.
THEOR. 55.
THEOR. 56.
THEOR. 57.
THEOR. 58.
THEOR. 59.
THEOR. 60.
THEOR. 61.
THEOR. 62.
THEOR. 63.
THEOR. 64.
THEOR. 65.
THEOR. 66.
THEOR. 67.
Of Notation or Numeration.
The foure Principles of Arithmeticke in whole Numbers.
To extract the Square roote.
To extract the Cubicke roote.
By the square roote all sorts of Battalions are framed thus. viz.
To make a square Battallion of Men.
To make a Battallion square of ground.
To make a Battallion whereof the Front shall be to the Flancke in any proportion giuen.
To make a doubled Batallion.
To make a Batallion of a great Front.
To finde the Fractions Quantity, when the number giuen is not a square number.
Of Fractions.
What a Fraction is, and to reduce Fractions.
Addition of Fractions.
Substraction of Fractions.
Multiplication of Fractions.
Diuision of Fractions.
How to make an Equilaterall Triangle.
To measure inaccessible Heights, Breadths and Distances, and take a plat by my Cosmodelite with the description thereof.
To measure the breadth of a Breach.
To measure the height of any Tower, or other thing by the shadow is maketh, the Sun shining.
To measure the height of a Tower by a looking-glasse, or the shadow thereof in a puddle of water.
To finde any distance, height, or breadth by resoluing the Triangle made by Stations and Markes.
The Description of the Horse-litter, and the Cosmodelite, and to Delineate by eyther of them any Champion assigned.
To make and Deliniate in Platte any Champion, or Region assigned.
CHAP. I. Of the generall definition and distinguishing of Ordnance and Artillerie.
CHAP. II. Wherein is discoursed who were the Inuentors of Gunnes and Gunne-powder.
CHAP. III. Where Ordnance were first vsed in these parts.
CHAP. IIII. Of what formes and fashions Ordnance were first made.
CHAP. V. Of former forreigne Foundings of Ordnance.
Example 1.
Example 2.
CHAP. VI. Of later Founding for legitimate Ordnauce.
Ordinary obseruations in Venice.
CHAP. VIII. Of Foundings of Bastard Peeces, with their Names, Waights, and Measures.
CHAP. IX. Of Foundings of Extraordinary Peeces with their Names, Waights and Measures.
CHAP. X. Of our English Ordnance distinguished into 4 kindes, and those generally diuided into seuer all sorts as followeth.
CHAP. XI. Of the Canons of Batterie in particular, or of the first kinde, and their sorts.
CHAP. XII. Of Culuerings, or the second Kinde of Ordnance, with their seuerall sorts.
CHAP. XIII. Of the Cannon Periors and Perieraes, the third kind and their sorts.
CHAP. XIIII. Of the fourth Kind of Ordnance, Short Gunnes, Mortars, and Square Murtherers, Pettards and Tortles, and the sorts thereof.
CHAP. XV. Of seuerall wayes to preuent the effectuall working of Petards.
CHAP. XVI. How and with what instruments you may breake the Pyles Palesadoes, Grates, Percallises, and Chaunes, or such like iron or wood-worke to lay them open for entry.
CHAP. XVII. How to Dispart any Peece of Ordnance that is truely and equall bored in the middest of the Met∣tall thereof.
CHAP. XVIII. Of certaine faults committed in Forreigne Foundings of Ordnance.
CHAP. XIX. Concerning the League and Alligation or mixture of Mettals to Found great Ordnance.
CHAP. XX. Of the Powders or Earths to make the Moulds to cast in Brasse Ordnance.
CHAP. XX. Of making of Moulds for the Founding of Ordnance.
CHAP. XXII. Of the place, measure, and vse of the Trunnions.
CHAP. XXII. How to examine, search, and to finde whether any peece of Ordnance be well and duly made, and of what Kinde, and Sort it is.
CHAP. XXIIII. How to measure or Tertiate any Peece of Ordnance, to know how much Powder she is able to beare for her due Charge.
CHAP. XXV. To finde whether the Concaue Cillinder of any Peece of Ordnance bee in the midst of her mettall, if not where the thickest or thinnest of the Mettall is, and the difference thereof, and of the longest and shortest distances from the Axis of the mettall to the Axis of the bore, with their Lar∣ges and Disparts.
CHAP. XXII. To Dispart a Peece of Ordnance, whose Bore lyeth horizon∣tally awry, and the Axis thereof being parallell to the Axis of the Mettall.
CHAP. XXVII. To Dispart a Peece of Ordnance, whose Centre of the Bore lyeth perpendicularly awry, eyther aboue or vnder the Centre of the midst of the mettall, and yet the Bores Axis being paralell with the Axis of the Mettall.
CHAP. XXVIII. To Dispart any Peece of Ordnance, whose Axis of the Bore lyeth awry not leuelly nor vertically, the Axis of the Mettall not being paralell thereunto.
CHAP. XXIX. Of the Larges, and the Large Line in wry bored Peeces.
CHAP. XXX. To finde the waight of any Shot by the Diametre thereof, as well Arithmetically, and Geometrically, as Tabularly, and by Scale, and Compas.
The first Probleme.
The first Theoreme.
The first Example.
The second Example.
The second Probleme.
The second Theoreme.
The first Example.
The second Example.
CHAP. XXXI. The Geometricall finding the Dyametre, for the weight of any Shot assigned.
A second Geometricall way.
CHAP. XXXII. Of the rule of Callibres, and of the difference betweene the heights of the Bore and Shot for any Peece, which is called the vent or due abatement to shoote with safety, and most aduantage therewith.
CHAP. XXXIII. Of the Gunners, Quadrant, and Triangle, with their Degrees and Poynts, whereby either to Leuell, or else to Mount, or Imbase any Peece of Ordnance, to any degree or poynt assigned.
CHAP. XXXIIII. Of a new deuise by any Staffe, to leuell, mount, and imbase any Peece.
CHAP. XXXV. How to finde the right line or right range of any Shot discharged out of any Peece, for euery eleuation, by any one Right or dead Range giuen for the Peece assigned.
Example 1.
Example 2.
CHAP. XXXVI. To finde how much of the Horizontall line is contained directly vnder the right line, or right Range of any Shot, made out of any Peece at euery eleuation assigned.
CHAP. XXXVII. To finde how much of the Horizontall line lyeth vnder the crooked Range of a Shot, made out of any Peece at any Eleuation assigned.
Example 1.
CHAP. XXXVIII. Of the violent, crooked, and naturall motion, or course of a Shot discharged out of any Peece of Ordnance assigned.
The vse of these Tables.
CHAP. XXXVIII. How to loade a Peece of Ordnance Gunner-like.
CHAP. XXXIX. Whether the longer Peeces out-shoote the shorter, and why the Culuerings shoote farther then the Cannon and the Demy-Culuering then the whole Culuerings, &c.
CHAP. XL. Of shooting Mira Comune, or by the Mettalls of the Peece, and the difference betweene shooting so, and by the due dispart.
CHAP. XLI. Of shooting by the Despart or Axis of the Bore (in right hored Peeces, called by some Gunners erroniously the poynt Blanke) as farre as it curreth a Shot in a right line.
CHAP. XLII. Of shooting vpon the Aduantage or Randome at a Marke, beyond the right line of the Peeces reach, or right Range of the Shot: and of the dead Range for any Peece at euery degree.
CHAP. XLIII. How to order and direct a Peece, and amend an ill Shott that was made either by the Mettall, leuell, right line, or aduantage, or Mount.
CHAP. XLIIII. How the Gunner may be assured to make a good Shott.
CHAP. XLV. How to make Ladles and Spunges for euery sort of Ordnance.
CHAP. XLVI. How to make Bridges ouer great or small Riuers, to passe an Armie with the Ordnance, and other Cariages ouer the same.
CHAP. XLVII. How to defend a Fortresse besieged, and the order, and what prouisions of Amunition will be necessary for the defence thereof.
CHAP. XLVIII. To make a Counter-battery vpon a Bulwarke, from whence without danger of discouering or dismounting the Enemies Ordnance, abroad may be dismounted.
CHAP. XLIX. Of certaine reasons that causeth a Shott, though well directed to erre in her discharge, and be faulty at the Mark wide, short, or ouer.
CHAP. L. How to conduct a Mine vnder ground, to blow vp a place, and to prepare a Gallerie, to passe the Dyke to the foote of the Breach.
CHAP. LI. Of the Guindall, Windlas, and Ginne; or Martinet, Krow, and Handspyke, and Leuer, and the endlesse Screw.
CHAP. LII. How to draw a Peece of Ordnance vp to the top of a steepe and rough hill or mountaine.
CHAP. LIII. How the Traine of Artillery and Ordnance should be ordered with their Cariages in a iourney, or vpon a March.
CHAP. LIIII. How to draw Ordnance if Cattell be wanting, by the strength of Pyoners or Labourers.
CHAP. LV. How many Priuiledges the Trayne of Artillerie haue more then ordinary in Marching and Lodging.
CHAP. LVI. Shewing how to waigh a Peece of Ordnance, or a Ship sunke vnder water, and the proportions of all Mettalls and Ordinary stone, what, or how much they will waigh in the Ayre, and how much in the water.
CHAP. LVII. How Moulds, and Formars, and Cartredges are to be made vpon them, to Load and Charge any Peece of Ordnance, without any Ladle.
CHAP. LVIII. The names of the principall members, and parts of a peece of Ordnance, as they are to be called and knowne by.
CHAP. LIX. Of the making Proportions and Measures of euery part of a Field Cariage for any vsuall Peece of Ordnance assigned.
CHAP. LX. Of the Wheeles and Axtree for Cariages for Ordnance.
CHAP. LXI. Of the making of Candlesticks and Blinds, and of great Saussons and little Saussons, and little Saucigdes, and of the in∣uentor and seruice of them first vsed at Ostend. For biding of Ordnance and men behind them, and to fill watered Dykes to ap∣proach a Breach.
CHAP. LXII. How to plant Peeces of Ordnance in secret Batteries, and in double Batteries, so that they may not easily be dismounted by Counter Batterings.
CHAP. LXIII. How to plant Ordnance, whereas the Rampart is too shallow for their Reuerse, and where earth is wanting.
CHAP. LXIIII. How to make a Battery with Peeces enterred.
CHAP. LXV. How wanting all other meanes, to make a Batterie by Woolsackes.
CHAP. LXVI. How to place great Ordnance, both to dismount the Enemies Artillerie, as also how to make a Batterie on the Curtin of the Place, and when.
CHAP. LXVII. How and when to make a Battery vpon the poynt of a Bulwarke, and of the defences to be made therein.
CHAP. LXVIII. How the Ordnance are to be placed at the houre of ioyning of two Armies, to offend the Enemie most.
CHAP. LXIX. How to fill vp a wet Dyke, whereby to approach the Breach made.
CHAP. LXX. Of the Gunners seruice in generall.
CHAP. LXXI. Of the differences of our English measures in Feete and Inches, from the Measures of other Nations. And also of the difference of pounds and hundreds.
CHAP. LXXII. Of the making of Salpeter, whether it be Naturallor Artificiall.
CHAP. LXXIII. Of the making of ordinary and extraordinary Matches, to giue fire with vnto Ordnance, or Artificiall Fire∣workes, and such like.
Of Rockets and their structures.
CHAP. LXXIIII. The Description of certaine Wheeles of Artificiall Fire∣workes, and of their Structures and Compositions.
CHAP. LXXV. How to make a Rice, and a Castle, and a Trunke of Artificiall Fire-workes, of great delight.
CHAP. LXXVII. How to make flying Dragons and Rockets that will runne vpon a Lyne and returne againe, and of Nocturnall Combates in Fire-workes.
CHAP. LXXVIII. How Artificiall Fireballs and Granadoes are to be formed and loaded with their mixtures.
CHAP. LXXIX. How to conuoy or direct Fire into a place assigned, or vpon the Enemie in an Assault.
CHAP. LXXX. Of the Pyked Trunke Gunne, and quadruple Barrell-Peeces.
A Table of Proportions for old Receipts.
For Fire-Pikes 2 Pound weight a peece for one dozen.
For Coating and Arming.
For 2 dozen of Balles, each one lb 3 quarters Dry worke.
For Coating and Arming.
For 2 dozen of Balles wet worke of 2 lb. a peece.
For Coating and Arming.
For Arrowes 2 dozen each 1 lb.
For Coating.
For 1 Dozen of Pots, each one lb. and a quarter.
For Capping.
For Hoopes.
For Coating.
The Authors Len-voy.